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C.E.P.

training blueprint

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BEN PAKULSKI PRESENTS

MI40-X
C.E.P. TRAINING
BLUEPRINT

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MI40-X-C.E.P. TRAINING
The Cell Expansion Protocol was
constructed following countless hours
analyzing and studying the results
of the majority of available research
studies done on muscle building and
exercise adaptation.
After looking at numerous wellconducted studies, we put all theories
into practice in a controlled study to
determine which aspects are most
effective when applied to building
appreciable amounts of muscle over
the long haul. We named the result,
The CELL EXPANSION PROTOCOL
(C.E.P).
C.E.P training is based on a combination
of known factors of hypertrophy. The
most recent breakthroughs in muscle
building research have demonstrated
two massively influential factors of
hypertrophy that have previously been
overlooked or seen as less relevant; we
have learned how to put them to use to
create muscle growth that most, until
now, have deemed impossible.

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THE 4 PRINCIPLES ON WHICH


C.E.P. TRAINING IS BASED:
1) Cell Swelling 3) Intra-set Stretching
2) Time Under Tension
4) BFR (Blood Flow Restriction)
As we take a closer look at C.E.P training, you will see that it will greatly maximize the
hormonal effects of high intensity exercise, as well as myosatelite cell differentiation and
new muscle growth. To fully understand the program its best to take you through the entire
process of each set and rep.

How the Magic Happens


In the original MI40 (MI40-Educate) you were introduced to the concept of NOS. A simple
technique that, when applied in the right spots, results in the build-up of extreme amounts of
lactic acid and cell swelling (PUMP!).
In MI40-X you will meet CS-6 and NOS-X, two very effective versions of NOS that incorporate
additional well-known mechanisms that stimulate growth in each muscle cell.
There have been many different training protocols that have implemented one or two of
the known mechanisms to stimulate growth: supersets, drop sets, giant sets, eccentric
overloading, concentric failure sets, the use of short rest periods, etc.
We all know them, we all have tried them, but for the most part we dont know why they work
or if theyre really working at all. We really base it on feel.
MI40-X-C.E.P is literally the first and ONLY training program ever to incorporate ALL of the
variables we currently know to effect growth at the cellular level. This should leave you with
no doubt that youre covering every angle and maximizing growth. There is even research
being conducted in science labs around the world regarding how to artificially create the exact
environment that just one C.E.P training session creates inside the muscle.
Lets now examine all the mechanisms contributing to the extreme rate of muscle building
made possible with MI40-X.
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TIME UNDER TENSION


As explained and demonstrated in the Original MI40, now labeled, MI40-Educate, time
under tension plays a massive role in forcing adaptation of the muscle tissue.
It is important to note that performing an exercise DOES NOT automatically mean that a
muscle is under tension. More often than not, the group of surrounding ancillary muscles will
do just as much work as the muscle that is intended to be working. Learning to create tension
in the working muscle is what the MI40 program is truly based on.
It doesnt matter WHAT you do, it matters HOW you do it, has become the mantra Im
known for across the fitness world. I can write the most well designed and specific program
for someone, but unless they are executing the movements with a degree of concern for
tension in the appropriate place, their results will be minimal.
Conversely, a poorly designed program with impeccable execution will garner much greater
results. Take the time to learn correct execution, even if it has you using much lower weights.
It will be well worth the time to take 2 steps backward in order to take 10 steps forward.
If youre new to the techniques in MI40, you must watch the videos; no matter how long
youve been training, your form will improve and you will learn something new. Once youve
nailed the form, added to the excellent program design, your workouts and results will be on a
whole new level.
Maximizing the amount of time that a muscle is placed under tension will give the muscle
an implicit need to grow or hypertrophy. Most people never build any appreciable amount of
muscle because they spend more time resting than they do training, both between sets and
mid-set.
If a set calls for a 4-0-1-0 tempo, that does not mean 2-0-2-2 tempo resting for 2 seconds at
top of each movement. This type of training allows the muscle to rest and for metabolites of
exercise to exit the working muscle. Remember, the goal of exercise is to accumulate these
metabolites to high enough levels to elicit growth.
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The argument many people make based around the idea of trying to keep weights heavier,
is a weak one when you actually look at the science of muscle building. Heavy weight is
relative to our bodys ability to produce power or effort. A well-rested muscle can definitely
produce more acceleration and force, but that isnt the goal of hypertrophy training. The goal
is to simply build and accumulate muscle tissue.
By resting less during hypertrophy-based workouts, your muscles may be using less weight,
but they are forced to recruit more muscle fibers to complete the work due to accumulated
fatigue of the muscle fibers. Your muscles are also stimulated to upregulate their energy
systems to sustain the demand being placed on them, making them become more effective at
using calories for fuel and therefore you are less likely to store fat.
WHATS NEXT?
Once youve mastered the movement ACCELERATE on the concentric! One of the best ways
to truly maximize muscle growth is by ensuring youre moving the muscle in an explosive
manner on the concentric portion of the repetition. This is the 1 portion of the 4-0-1-0
tempo.
**PLEASE NOTE the most important thing I said in the previous paragraph - ONCE YOUVE
MASTERED THE MOVEMENT.
Once your body is efficient at reproducing any movement with little conscious thought
involved, it is time to accelerate the concentric.
The problem most people have is that when conscious effort is made to accelerate the
concentric, the entire tempo speeds up. There must be a conscious effort made to slow
down at the extremes of the range to maintain control and keep tension on the muscle. Its
important to note that you must also slow down the eccentric to ensure the load is being
placed on the muscle.
Extremes of the range refers to the furthest endpoints of the range. Essentially where the
muscles are longest and shortest respectively and where the change of direction occurs.
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WHAT IF I CANT USE AS MUCH WEIGHT WHEN I APPLY THESE TECHNIQUES?
It has been shown that as long as the conscious effort to move the weight with maximum
acceleration is made, it will have the same effect as using a load closer to maximal.
APPICATION: Less rest and more time under tension is greater for growth, as long as the
majority of your training is performed with an explosive concentric and slow eccentric.

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INTRA-SET STRETCHING
Another principle that C.E.P training takes its roots in is intra-set stretching. There is a lot of
controversial research on this topic as some say stretching is great for growth, while others say
it is not advantageous at all.
This type of stretch is very different to the static-type stretching most are accustomed to
seeing that gives the muscle and nervous system a signal to relax and effectively turn off.
Intra-set stretching is a modality of loaded stretching that takes place between bouts of
intense lifting and muscle contraction. The load has been shown to increase muscle damage
and satellite cell activity to massively stimulate new
muscle growth.
The muscle is being stretched while still under
substantial load and is forced to contract against that
resistance. Although youre consciously trying to relax
the muscle, the body will always maintain contraction
as a protective mechanism, thereby maintaining large
amounts of stress on the tissue.
Intra-set stretching creates an almost occludedlike effect similar to blood flow restriction training.
While performing the prescribed reps, youre forcing
as much blood into the muscle as possible, then
loaded stretching will promote some addition blood
flow, but mostly it will prevent metabolites from exiting the muscle because of the extreme
intramuscular tension preventing uninhibited blood flow back out.

Intra-set stretching will create nothing short of obscene amounts of lactic acid and growth
factors with each and every set giving your body no choice but to build muscle when
applied properly.
SO WHAT? More time under tension, extreme amounts of lactic acid and a BFR effect
causes greater recruitment of type II fibers (the fast-twitch fibers that GROW!), plus a
massive increase in anabolic growth factors.
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NOS-X
NOS-X sets combine a grueling combination of perfect reps, time under tension, mechanical
damage and intra-set stretching which produce pumps, hyperemia and cell swelling that
rival and surpass anything any athlete has ever done in the gym.

Maximizing the Effectiveness


Certain exercises must be used to optimize the effectiveness of NOS-X. You must ensure that
the muscle is fully lengthened AND still under tension. Many exercises simply do not meet
these criteria.
**Take the time to study the relevant videos and to read the intro manual.

Use due diligence


C.E.P training is going to become the best friend to those who take the time to learn it. Those
that dont will run into obstacles and lose the effectiveness. Care must always be taken when
partaking in MI40-X-C.E.P training, in any hard training program for that matter. Be diligent,
careful, and aware of all the potential risk factors. Stay in control and know your limits. MORE
ISNT ALWAYS BETTER - BETTER IS BETTER.

How do I eat during the workouts?


Depending on your goals and current body type, nutrition will vary greatly. To make the most
out of MI40-X C.E.P training, intra-workout nutrition is vital. Consuming Branched Chain
Amino Acids (BCAAs) and electrolytes will maximize cell swelling and hydration, as well as
ensuring proper delivery of nutrients to the cell.
Many additional things may be added to enhance the effect. See the supplement guide for
those.

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For the science guys:
How does it work? What causes GROWTH?
1. Time under tension

The concept of time under tension has been known for years to be the exercise variable
most notably correlated with hypertrophy. The longer that a muscle can be placed
under increased amounts of tension, the more growth it should experience. The
amount of tension necessary to create the growth of a muscle is correlated to the
amount it is previously accustomed to.

2. Mechanical Damage

Mechanical Damage is what is known as the tearing and breaking down of muscle
tissue by intense exercise or load. This is what is said to cause muscle soreness. Once
the muscle has been broken down, it is rebuilt to be stronger and theoretically larger if
the proper nutrient combinations are present, as well as an excess of calories available.

3. Hyperemia and Cell Swelling (the pump!)

Achieving these states via intense exercise maximizes cellular uptake of nutrients
(glycogen and amino acids), plus they are even more highly correlated with muscle
growth than muscle breakdown and soreness.
For an in-depth understanding, as well as scientific verification of the C.E.P training principles, read-on. I had a
highly skilled research assistant of mine combine the detailed complexities into one document for those of you
who are science-inclined; this stuff is pure GOLD! Really simplified for the most part. I highly suggest you take
20mins to read it.

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PROPOSED MECHANISMS
OF HYPERTROPHY
METABOLIC STRESS
It is well-known that mechanical stress alone will lead to adaptive responses in muscle
hypertrophy via its effects on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK), which have been shown to be important for muscle
anabolism (growth).
Exercise induced metabolic stress may play an important role in enhancing the post exercise
muscle hypertrophy response. Researchers have suggested that accumulation of metabolites,
such as lactic acid, may trigger a number of growth responses in the muscle. Bodybuilding
routines typically consist of 8-12 repetitions with 30-60 seconds rest between sets. The
thought is that not only are you causing a great deal of mechanical stress, but that you are
also accumulating a great amount of these metabolites thought to induce growth. There
are several theories as to why metabolic stress can lead to muscle gain, though the ones I will
touch on here are the effects on cell swelling, muscle fiber recruitment and elevated local and
systemic hormone production.

Cell Swelling
In Pumping Iron when Arnold says he trains to the pump, he actually might have been on to
something. Inducing a mind-numbing pump has been scientifically demonstrated to induce
hypertrophy of tissues. Our scientific counterparts refer to the pump as the cell swelling
response. The thought is that the build-up of metabolites from hard exercise creates an
osmotic pressure that draws fluid from the plasma into the cell causing it to swell [1]. It is
currently believed that the swelling of the muscle is sensed as a threat to the survival of
that cell. In response, the muscle activates a series of molecular switches, which turn on the
coveted hypertrophy response. The muscle literally senses that it has two options: Grow or
Die. Its important to realize that this is exactly how you will feel on a number of occasions
during MI40 eXtreme!
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Below is a picture from a study
from the University of Tampa
Human Performance Laboratory
where we caused extreme
metabolic stress in a subject using
a technique called Blood Flow
Restriction training [2] also one of
the mechanisms of C.E.P training.
Using state of the art imaging
technology we were able to clearly
show a swelling response in the
subject. The result over 4 weeks of
training was extreme growth of his
quads! (Lowery et al. in review)

Muscle Fiber Recruitment


(TAKE NOTES- THIS IS VITAL TO UNDERSTANDING
HOW TO OPTIMIZE TRAINING).
Every individuals muscles contain a percentage of smaller slow twitch fibers as well as larger
fast twitch fibers. The size principle states that muscle fibers are recruited corresponding to
the intensity of the exercise. For instance, if you perform 6 maximal repetitions, your body
would recruit predominantly fast twitch fibers, while if you were running a marathon (extreme
example), your body would mostly recruit smaller, slow twitch fibers.
One could be forgiven for incorrectly arriving at the conclusion that its more beneficial to
train at higher intensities (1-5 repetitions max) in order to recruit those big, fast twitch muscle
fibers. Research however shows that as muscular fatigue nears, a large number of fast twitch
fibers are recruited even in the 8-12 repetition range.
Brad Schoenfeld [3] has shown that hypoxia caused by blood flow restriction may in fact
activate fast twitch fibers alone in an attempt to maintain force-generating capabilities.
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Dr. Wilson [2] found that when performing blood flow restriction training, which causes
high metabolic stress, that motor unit muscle fiber recruitment significantly increased. This
therefore indicates that as the muscle is nearing fatigue, more motor units are recruited.
Fatigue induced by metabolic stress would therefore likely force the nervous system to recruit
a high number of fast twitch fibers.
Changes in skeletal muscle activation from set 1 with no wraps, to the final set of training with
wraps (wrapped around the proximal portion of the muscle in order to restrict blood flow out
of the cell) at control and moderate restrictive pressures. Highlights the significant difference
from baseline. * indicates a significant group X time effect. Adapted from Wilson et al. 2012.

Growth-Oriented Hormonal Productions


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Exercise induced acute hormonal production is something still highly debated. As it relates
to metabolic stress, it is believed that the accumulation of metabolites may increase the
hormones IGF-1 and testosterone. In turn, the suggestion is that if you have a larger amount
of circulating hormones in your system, the likelihood that they will attach to receptors and
signal hypertrophy and growth is very high. IGF-1 is known as being an anabolic hormone
and hypertrophy-type training routines that generate extensive metabolic buildup have been
found to result in significantly greater elevations of circulating IGF- 1 levels. In short, the more
lactic acid and other metabolites present, the more IGF-1, therefore the more growth!
One very cool study documenting the potential importance of exercise order, by Ronnestad
et al. [5], found that training legs before an arm curl resulted in a significantly greater
increase in the muscle hypertrophy of the biceps, thus suggesting that more highly elevated
hormones are quite possibly responsible for
hypertrophic gains.
West et al. did a similar design, however
in this study, the arm curl was done prior
to the leg training. Contradictorily, their
results showed no differences in muscle girth
between the two groups as determined by
MRI. This in turn brings us to the potential
importance of exercise order.
Squatting, or doing any compound
movement, particularly involving legs, would
appear to elicit the greatest increases in
growth-regulating hormones. Therefore,
from the aforementioned studies, it is
believed that creating high metabolic stress
may in turn signal growth factors such as
testosterone and IGF-1, ultimately resulting
in greater skeletal muscle hypertrophy of
smaller body parts trained soon afterwards.
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However, if you train a small body part first, low hormone elevations will occur and growth will
take place at a slower rate.

MECHANICAL STRESS, Eccentric contractions


and muscle damage
Research has demonstrated that eccentric contractions lead to muscle damage [6] and
that muscle damage is correlated to muscle hypertrophy [7]. Muscle damage has also
been hypothesized to induce hypertrophy via myosatellite cell activation and an increased
necessity for protein synthesis to heal and rejuvenate the muscle.

Myosatelite Cells
Inflammation caused by muscle damage is akin to the inflammatory response to infection
[3]. Part of the inflammatory response is chemotaxis (the migration of neutrophils into the
muscle). Chemotaxis may be responsible for producing reactive oxygen species [8], which
then go on to elicit muscle hypertrophy [9]. Acute elevations in inflammation may signal
the molecular pathways in turn responsible for signaling hypertrophy. Additionally, antiinflammatory medication has been shown to inhibit hypertrophy [10].
IGF-1 is an anabolic hormone which has a clear cause and effect relationship with skeletal
muscle hypertrophy, with both mitogenic and anabolic effects seen in muscle tissue [14].
Principally, IGF-1 results in mTOR activation, the key regulatory protein responsible for
regulating protein synthesis proliferation through anabolic molecular pathways [15] [16].
Additionally, studies have reported that exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) potentiates
IGF-1 production and thereby enhances the hypertrophic response to exercise [17]. However,
all studies that look at muscle damage utilize eccentric contractions, so it is unclear if muscle
damage is causing hypertrophy or another result of the eccentric contractions, ONeil et al
[18].
More recently, eccentric contractions have been shown to increase endogenous phosphatidic
acid (PA) production, whereas concentric contractions do not. It is also hypothesized that
phospholipase D (PLD) (the enzyme responsible for the increase in PA) is physically dislodged
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from the z-line of muscle tissue possibly due to muscle damage (no data exists linking PLD
content to muscle damage).
ONeil also demonstrates that eccentric contractions induce a sustained elevation in PA and
inhibiting the synthesis of PA by PLD prevents the EC-induced activation of mTOR signaling
(THE protein kinase responsible for increasing Muscle Protein Synthesis). For these reasons
it is possible, though not conclusive by any means, that muscle damage is not entirely
responsible for eccentric contraction induced hypertrophy. Research with PA as a dietary
supplement has resulted in marked increases in skeletal muscle growth (Joy et al. currently
unpublished data; Hoffman et al. [19]).
Stretching has been known to regulate metabolic pathways responsible for regulating protein
synthesis [20]. Both intermittent and chronic stretching can result in an increase in muscle
mass.
Intermittent stretching results in hypertrophy [21], while chronic stretching results in both
hyperplasia and hypertrophy [22]. However, progressive intermittent stretching (increasing
the load applied to the stretch between rest days) results in hypertrophy first, then once the
muscle fiber has reached a critically large size, it splits (hyperplasia).
One study tested stretchings effects on muscle growth, where weights ranging from 10 to
35% of the participants body weight were used for 24-hour periods with two days rest in
between. Stretching loads began at 10%, which subsequently increased 5% each stretching
day. Results: muscle fiber area peaked at day 16 then declined, yet total muscle mass
continued to increase. Coupled with an 80%+ increase in fiber number, researchers concluded
that muscle fibers must grow up to a point, then they begin to split into new fibers [21]. In
humans unfortunately, no concrete data exists; however, research on bodybuilders indicates
they have much greater lean body mass and limb circumference (obviously) than nonbodybuilders, yet bodybuilders do not always exhibit greater fiber size [23]. In this capacity, it
is plausible that increased fiber number is responsible for the difference
An increase in the number of muscle fibers via training results in an increase in the number of
satellite cells, which means more nuclei, which means more potential muscle.

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Muscle is a plastic tissue and is highly sensitive to stretch. In fact, simply taking a muscle fiber
in isolation and repeatedly stretching it leads to an increase in protein synthesis. However,
what is truly unique about stretching is that it appears to be the one stimulus shown in
research that can trigger the hyperplasia process. Hyperplasia, as referenced above, is the
creation of new muscle fibers.
Hyperplasia occurs in two ways. The first is through a drastic increase in growth factors such
as IGF-1; these growth factors trigger the satellite cells to divide and to fuse to each other
in order to create a new fiber. This process however only occurs under extreme stretching
conditions such as would occur when a muscle cell is swollen and then placed in a stretched
position.
Secondly, it is also possible under extreme
stretching conditions that the muscle fibers
themselves can actually split, forming two
new fibers in the process.
The first research conducted with regard
to stretching was carried-out in animal
models by Dr. Jose Antonio. He found that
by hanging a weight to a birds wings to
chronically stretch them it made their lats
grow drastically, as well as increasing the
number of muscle fibers in the region. In
fact, 30 days of chronic stretching protocols
implemented with animals have resulted in
witnessing 200% increases in muscle mass!
This is unheard of!
While no current human studies of this exact
type have been performed, two other available studies with particular relevance did show
that chronic stretching can increase strength by more than 20% in as little as 3-8 weeks [24]
[25]. Because individuals are not actually lifting weights, this strongly suggests that the
muscle must be enlarging to accommodate such drastic increases in strength.
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It is likely that the stretch per fiber would be optimized under conditions in which the
individual stretches after they have achieved significant cell swelling. In this case, the
endomysium, and epimysium would already be stretched due to the fluid shift. Coupled with
the direct stretch of the muscle, its likely that growth factors would be triggered.
Finally, it is beneficial to understand that stretching can be performed during each and every
rep during particular exercises, specifically those that place a muscle in the extreme range
of stretch at the end of the negative. If performed correctly, incline dumbbell bicep curls for
example increase mechanical strain [26] and muscle length by adding sarcomeres in series
[27].

Volume
Volume is typically defined as the total number of sets multiplied by the repetitions and the
weight lifted. To date, the overwhelming majority of research has demonstrated that multiple
sets are better than single sets. Unfortunately these studies typically compare 1 vs. 3 sets.
Very few studies actually look at true high volume training.
The University of Tampa however, has found that large increases in training volume during
a purposeful overreaching cycle (40,000 lbs a day most days of the week) while properly
supplementing and consuming adequate amounts of protein, resulted in robust gains in
muscle size (Wilson et al. unpublished data).
In another study, scientists compared 8 sets of exercises working all of the major body parts
to 24 sets and found a greater anabolic hormone response at all time points for the 24
set workout vs. the 8 set workout [28]. This would suggest that 24 sets provide a greater
hypertrophy response than 8, acutely. However, this was a multiple body part study, so it does
not give us a direct prescription for what each body part needs for optimal growth.
Researchers in Finland have found that very high volume workouts consisting of 10 sets of
squats with only 1 minute rest between sets have resulted in some of the greatest metabolic
and anabolic responses seen in studies to date [29].

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More recently Robinson looked at the effects of squatting 3, 8, or 24 sets per week. While
they did not look directly at hypertrophy they found drastically greater increases in strength
in the 24 set group as compared to the 3 set group [30]. Now at first the reader might think,
Who cares about strength, were interested in hypertrophy! However, what is important to
realize is that these were highly resistance-trained athletes; in this population the majority
of strength gains are explained by changes in muscle size [31], thus we can assume that they
received greater gains in muscle than the lower set groups.
Collectively, these findings suggest that training volume is another important tool to consider
for increasing metabolic stress, anabolic hormone status, and growth in trained individuals.

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OVERVIEW
TYPE OF
TRAINING

METABOLIC STRESS

MECHANICAL STRESS

CELLULAR
SWELLING

blood flow restriction

very high

low

very high

reduced rest periods

high

low

high

lengthened rest periods

low

high

Low

Eccentric Contractions
(failure)

low

Very high

low

Concentric Contractions
(failure)

moderate

low

high

Heavy load

low

high

low

super set

high

Moderately high

high

strip set

high

high

high

intent

high

moderately high - high

High

C.E.P Training

Very High

Very High

Very High

NOS-X sets combine a grueling combination of perfect reps, time under tension, mechanical
damage and intra-set stretching which produce pumps, hyperemia and cell swelling that
rival and surpass anything any athlete has ever done in the gym.

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REFERENCES
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Schoenfeld BJ: Potential mechanisms for a role of metabolic stress in hypertrophic adaptations to
resistance training. Sports Medicine 2013, 43:179-194.
Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Loenneke JP, Naimo MA: Practical Blood Flow Restriction Training
Increases Acute Determinants of Hypertrophy Without Increasing Indices of Muscle Damage. Journal of
Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 2013.
Schoenfeld BJ: The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 2010,
24:2857-2872.
Suga T, Okita K, Morita N, Yokota T, Hirabayashi K, Horiuchi M, Takada S, Takahashi T, Omokawa M,
Kinugawa S, Tsutsui H: Intramuscular metabolism during low-intensity resistance exercise with blood
flow restriction. Journal of Applied Physiology 2009, 106:1119-1124.
Ronnestad BR, Nygaard H, Raastad T: Physiological elevation of endogenous hormones results in
superior strength training adaptation. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2011, 111:2249-2259.
Clarkson PM, Hubal MJ: Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2002,
81:S52-69.
Schoenfeld BJ: Does exercise-induced muscle damage play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy?
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 2012,
26:1441-1453.
Koh TJ, Pizza FX: Do inflammatory cells influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy? Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
2009, 1:60-71.
Suzuki YJ, Ford GD: Redox regulation of signal transduction in cardiac and smooth muscle. J Mol Cell
Cardiol 1999, 31:345-353.
Soltow QA, Betters JL, Sellman JE, Lira VA, Long JH, Criswell DS: Ibuprofen inhibits skeletal muscle
hypertrophy in rats. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 2006, 38:840-846.
Rosenblatt JD, Yong D, Parry DJ: Satellite cell activity is required for hypertrophy of overloaded adult rat
muscle. Muscle & Nerve 1994, 17:608-613
Moss FP, Leblond CP: Satellite cells as the source of nuclei in muscles of growing rats. The Anatomical
Record 1971, 170:421-435.
BARTON-DAVIS, #160, R. E, SHOTURMA, I. D, SWEENEY, L. H: Contribution of satellite cells to IGF-I
induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Oxford, ROYAUME-UNI: Blackwell; 1999.
Haddad F, Adams GR: Inhibition of MAP/ERK kinase prevents IGF-I-induced hypertrophy in rat muscles.
Journal of Applied Physiology 2004, 96:203-210.

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