BY
S.
BARNARD, M.A.
AND
J.
M. CHILD,
B.A., B.Sc.
LONDON
MACMILLAN
fcf'CO
LTD
*v
NEW YORK
ST MARTIN *S PRESS
1959
This book
New York
CONTENTS
ix
IjHAPTER
EXEKCISE
XV
(128).
Suffix,
143),
ExERtad XVI
(143)
X. SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS.
Systems (149, 150). Linear Equations in
Line at Infinity (150152). Linear Equations in
Three Unknowns, Equation to a Plane, Plane at Infinity (153157).
Definitions, Equivalent
Two Unknowns,
EXEKCISE XVII
(158).
EXERCISE XVIII
XL
(164).
XIX
(177).
y)
etc.,
EXERCISE XX (184).
The Biquadratic Equation
A=y + aS,
(roots a,
y, 8) (186).
The Functions
formation (195).
EXERCISE
XXI
(197).
OP IRRATIONALS.
Sections of the System of Rationals, Dedekind's Definition (200,
201). Equality and Inequality (202). Use of Sequences in defining
EXERCISE XXII
(214).
CONTENTS
x
CHAPTER
XIV/INEQUALITIES.
Elementary Methods (210, 217)
For n Numbers a l9 a 2
a
n
(a* !)/*
(a" I)/*,,
xa x ~ l (ab)$a x b x
(l+x)
^l+nx,
\*JACJJ
>
(219).
^ xb x
~l
(a
 6),
(219).
(220).
n
and Extension
(223, 224).
(224).
(223).
EXERCISE XXIII
LIMITS.
Monotone
Theorems,
Sequences
(228232).
E*
l\m
i\n
and
1) >(!+)
m/
n/
\
/
1 \
lim (1fnj
n_ >00 V
EXERCISE
XXIV
l\m
/
=e,
nj
(1)
if
m>n,
(232,233).
(233).
Theorems
~n
l\"w
=lim(l)
\
1 \
<(l)
nj
\
(1)
mj
\
Bounds of a Sequent
u n u n ^ l <k(u n _^\^ n _ z
(2) If
(3)
n
(4) If
lim
+u n )jn
n~>oo
lim (a n 6 1
n >ao
fe
= 6,
then
n~>oo
+ a w _ 1 6 1 + ...Ha 1 6 n )/n=o6,
(240243).
XXV
I.
n>oo
>oo
(244).
(243, 244).
CONTENTS
XVI. \CONVERGENCE OP SERIES
xi
(1).
XXVI
EXERCISE
(248254).
(254).
Series with
Series
General Condition for Convergence, Pringsheim's Theorem, Introduction and Removal of Brackets, Rearrangement of Terms, Approximate Sum, Rapidity of Convergence or Divergence (256261).
Series of Complex Terms. Condition of Convergence, Absolute Conn
n
vergence, Geometric Series, Zr cos nd, Sr sin n6.
If u n /u n+l = l+a n /n, where a n >a>0, then u n *Q.
Convergence of Binomial Series (261263).
XXVII
EXERCISE
(264).
XVII^CoNTiNuous VARIABLE.
<*>
Theorems
Meaning of Continuous Variation, Limit, Tending to
on Limits and Polynomials (266268) Continuous and Discontinuous
Functions (269, 270). Continuity of Sums, Products, etc., Function
Fundaof a Function, lirn <f>{f(x)}, Rational Functions, xn (271).
,
mental Theorems
EXERCISE XXVIII
(282).
Inverse Functions, Bounds of a Function, Rolle's Theorem, MeanValue Theorem (284288). Integration (289). Taylor's Theorem,
Lagrange's Form of Remainder (290, 291). Function of a Complex
Variable, Continuity (291, 292).
XXIX
EXEBCISE
(293).
(2),
POLYNOMIALS
RATIONAL FRAC
(2),
(1).
...
Euler's
(299302).
Theorem
for Polynomials in
for Polynomials,
J
EXERCISE
Theorem
XXX
(304).
+ ...=0,
(303).
dx
+y
x and in
+ ...~nu
dy
The Equation
CONTENTS
xii
CHAPTER
SERIES.
The Exponential
Continuity, Inequalities and Limits (306, 307).
x
Theorem, Series for a (307, 308). Meaning of an Irrational Index,
Derivatives of a x log x and x n (309). Inequalities and Limits, the
x
way in which e and log x tend to oo Euler's Constant y, Series for
2
The Exponential Function E(z), Complex Index
(310312).
log
,
(312, 313).
EXERCISE
XXXI
(315).
Logarithmic Series and their Use in Summation of Series, Calculation of Logarithms (315319). The Hyperbolic Functions (319321).
EXERCISE
XXXII
XX. CONVERGENCE
(321).
(2).
'
(325).
(326328).
De Morgan and
Dirichlct's
EXERCISE XXXIII
(338).
Vandermonde's Theorem
Binomial Theorem.
(340).
Num
";
1 + x (345348).
erically Greatest Term, Approximate Values of
EXERCISE XXXIV (349).
Use of Binomial Theorem in Summing Series, ^Multinomia^Theorem
(351355).
EXERCISE
XXXV
(355).
(2),
PR,ECURRING)SERIES
AND DIFFERENCE
EQUATIONS.
Expansion of a Rational Fraction (357359).
EXERCISE
XXXVI
(359).
EXERCISE
XXXVII
(365).
EXERCISE
XXXVIII
(370).
(367370).
CONTENTS
xiii
CHAPTER
INTERPOLATION.
A ru x u x+r
Series for
...
U1 + u2 + u3 +
...
in
and
Interpolation, Lagrange's
(373379).
d \n
(uv)
( j )
Vcte/
/
Bessel's
The Operator
Formulae (379382).
f) 9
Value of
(382, 383).
EXERCISE
XXXIX
(384).
(1).
(388391).
EXERCISE
XL
(394).
EXERCISE XLI
(411).
axby
axbycz...=k
Solutions of
the Equation
EXERCISE XLII
Simple
c (414417).
Two
Equations in
x, y, z
(417419).
(419).
(2).
'
(424427).
EXERCISE XL1II
(427).
EXERCISE
XLIV
(434).
(436, 437).
...
(mod
An Odd Prime
EXERCISE
XLV
= 1,2,...
10), (439444).
(442).
45).
CONTENTS
xiv
CHAPTER
EXERCISE XLVII
(447).
EXERCISE
Series
(471).
EXERCISE LI
XXX.
(480).
INFINITE PRODUCTS.
Convergence, Absolute Convergence, Derangement of Factors,
Convergence discussed by Use of
504).
XXXII.
EXERCISE LI1I
(504).
EXERCISE TJV
(506).
^PROBABILITY.
First Principles, Exclusive Events, Independent and Interdependent Events (508513). Probability estimated by Frequency,
Expectation, Successive Events (513518). Probability of Causes,
Value of Testimony, Appli cation of Geometry (518522).
EXERCISE
LV
(523).
(2).
(VNb
=M
EXERCISE LVI
(540).
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
(543),
(555).
HIGHER ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
THEORY OF NUMBERS
In
*
'
this section
number
we
'
fs
(1)
taken to
mean
The word
Division.
1.
(1)
the sequence
...36,
26, 6,
0, 6, 26, 36,...
terms.
and
a=bq + r
To
divide a
ditions
is
is
to find the
numbers
and
and
the remainder.
= 0, we
If r
6 is
by
the
(2) If r
= 6~/, we have
a = 6flr'
if
and
then /<J6.
such that
>6
Hence
and
it is
and
Ex.
0,
1.
For
if
1,
2,
must be regarded as
divisible
also
zero
Every number
is
any number
52, 51.
is
JR<6.
1,
5n
2.
is
DIVISION
2
Ex.
2.
The square
and 5n 
l,
Ex.
For (2k +
by
l)
is of
odd number
form Sn + 1.
and either k or k + l must be even, so that k(k +
4k(k + l) + l,
(1
(2)If
of the
l) is
r is the
Division.
remainder when a
so also is
c,
divided by
is
ma
6,
nb.
ca is divided by cb.
For
a = 6</ + r
if
then
ca
(3)
(cb)q
and
+ cr
and
divided by b, then
is divided by b/c.
For
also
is
2.
Theorems on
when
2.
)
5wL
is
1.
3.
divisible
number
of every
if
is r,
(i)
r is divisible
is
equal to a
a/c
3.
by
bq.
since a and
Thus we have
6 are divisible
by
c,
so
O^r/c <6/c.
Divisor.
r is the
remainder when a
and, since r
= abq,
common
divisor of a
every
This proves the statement in question.
and
is
a divisor of
r.
(2) If a and b are any two numbers, there exists a number g, and one only,
such that the common divisors of a and b are the same as the divisors of g.
For numbers (q v rx ),
and uniquely, so that
(q 2 , r 2 ), etc.,
a = 6y 1 fr1
6=r1 ? 2 + r2
where
rx
...
= r2
+ r3
^0.
r 2
= r nl?n + rn>
rnl
is
limited, a zero
process terminates
Hence, by
(a, 6)
(6,
rj,
(r
r2 ) y
...
(rn ^ v r n )
Since g
common
is
divisible
numbers and
divisor of these
as the greatest
(3)
by any common
common measure
divisor of a
known
is
(G.C.M.) of a
and
the greatest
in elementary arithmetic
and
it is
ft,
ft.*
common
or divided by m.
For each
(4) If a,
c,
ft,
and
divisor of a
ft,
is
multiplied or divided by m.
and g l
g 2 that of g 1 and
c,
ft,
d,
c,
. . .
),
(gv
ft,
c,
d,
. . .
common
(# 2 ,
),
c, d,
the greatest
4.
ft,
and
d,
divisors
. . .
),
common
so on, then
:
etc.
common
c, ...
common
the greatest
g3 that of g 2 and
is
also g
is
Numbers Prime
Two numbers,
to each other.
a and
6,
are
ft,
or that
ft
is
prime to
a.
The following
is
to
prime
one
hence
m is equal to,
// a is prime
a divisor of N.
(2)
is
or
to 6,
is
a divisor
of,
ft.
is
a divisor of
2V,
then ab
N = waft, and
*
The
aft is
a divisor of N.
is
PRIME NUMBERS
4
If a
(3)
is
prime
to b, positive integers x,
axby
For
it
that
1.
= a  bq v
r2 
aq z + b (1
+ qfa),
prime to
is
6,
is 1,
5.
A number
(ax~by),
follows.
which has no
(1)
prime number, p,
is
prime
to
every
number which
not a multiple
is
For, if a is any such number, q and r can be found such that a~pq + r
where 0<r<Cp. Now p and 1 are the only divisors of p, and as r<,p
the only common divisor of p and r is 1, that is to say, p is prime to r and
9
therefore to a.
(2)
least
...
hk,
it is
a divisor of at
For
if
a, b, c,
...
h, it
must be a
6.
(1)
divisor of k.
is
factor, q
Thus,
N =*papqb
COMPOSITE NUMBERS
But the numbers
the set
N are limited
than
must
...
a, b,
less
finally
N=pqr
...
and N>a>b>...
u,
therefore
can be ex
all
primes, not
all different.
necessarily
That is to say,
N=p
where p,
q, r, ...
u are
.q .r
all different
as
s
,
primes.
. .
. . .
. . .
. . .
a divisor of one of the factors p, q,r, ... and is therefore equal to one
of them. In the same way each of the set P, Q, R, ... is equal to one of
it is
the set p,
for
a A one of them must be the greater. Let A>a> and suppose that
+ e, then q b r c .... t m ^p c qB r .... t M but this is impossible,
If
Aa
is
and
similarly, 6
= B,
. . .
m~M
and
N are identical.
is
//
product ab
(4)
// a
is
...
is
i,
...
k, it is
prime
to the
is
any
integer
and
**""*'
number
greater than 1
For, if 2V
to
to b,
prime
conversely.
(5)
prime
k.
and
is
a prime, if
less than, or
it
is
equal
to,
not divisible by
v^V.
N^a
2
;
that
is,
a^.*jN.
(6)
1 is
divisible
by p
must have a prime
than
exists.
If
greater than
then
and in
p+1
is
p and
is
not
not a prime,
either case a
it
prime greater
NUMBER
DIVISORS OF A
which are
...
N
than
less
If n
1.
is
that
n(n + I)(n + 2)
be obtained in order by
N can
number
1,
one
%/JV.
Nevertheless, the
prime or composite
is
is divisible
by
6.
by 2
divisible
is
is
and one of
divisible
Ex.
We
G.
by
2.
have
+1
2r2
=3
+ 2"+ 2
is
divisible
7.
by
= 3 (7 + 2) n = Ik + 3
9W
2 n,
and
7.
The
where p,
q,
the divisors
Then,
n = (a +
_1
(1)
pa+l
l)(6
yft+l
pl
For the divisors of
+ l)(c + l)
_ l r c+l _
...
For,
if
the
rc
...
sum, of
rl
ql
and
1, is
%(n +
the product of
l) or %n, according as
is
6, c, ...
is,
is
or is
even,
two
and
factors are
did n
d^dn
ways
of expressing
as the product of
d 2d n _ v
c^ n _
d 2dn , l9
dsd n _ 2
is,
or
is
...
2>
d xd x
d yd y+l
is
either
when
x or
when
y,i.e.
n=*2a?l,
= 2y.
either (w
+ l)
or \n,
~~
and their number is 2 W Hence the number of pairs is 2 m 1
For example, if # = 2 2 3 3 5 = 540, n = (2 + l)(3 + l)(l + 1) = 24,
.
8.
The Symbol
l[x/y].
If
is
m==3
and
'
// n v n 2 n 3
,
...
are
any
>
integers,
and
Thus
a.
s is their
if
x = qy + r
sum and a
is
any
number, then
Let n
Hence,
etc.
then
/[/a]
The
(2)
highest
52
==
^[ n 2/a ]>
>
^e resu
is
lt
follows.
contained in
is
For, of the numbers from 1 to n inclusive, there are I[n/p] which are
2
2
and so on hence the
by p of these I[n/p ] are divisible by p
divisible
result follows.
9.
by
Theorems.
(1)
integers is divisible
\n.
For (m + l)(w + 2)
last expression is
occurs in
[m
n^
...
(mf n)/\ n =
m + nj\ m
w,
an integer
Now
ft
. . .
if
we
replace
8
(2)
is
Ifn
a prime,
is divisible
C?
by n.
n(n  l)(n 2)
Hence,
...
r+
(n
1) is divisible
is
by
[/% aijid
prime to
;n.
and
Thus
a prime,
t*
ft
t/
and
last,
textbooks about
'
divisible
is
l)/[r
by
n.
n
,
are divisible by n.
The reader
NOTE.
(nr +
...
^(ftl)
is
'
Find
1.
We have
the highest
power of 5 contained in
7[158/5]31,
158.

/[158/5 ]=/[31/5J:6,
/158/f>J=y<$/5J
= 31 +6 + 1 =38.
an odd prime, the integral part of (x/5 +2) n 2 W+1 is divisible by 20n.
Let (V5 + 2)
#+/ where 0</<1; and let (>/5  2)n =/'. Then, since
0< V5 2< 1, we have also 0</'< 1.
n
w
2V
+/ /' = (</5 + 2)  (v/5  2) =an integer
Again, since n is odd,
and
thus
than
and
and
are
less
since
1, / /',
hence,
/
/'
positive
Ex.
If n
2.
is
n=
N =2(Cf
Moreover, since n
by 20w
which
is
is
Sty 1 ) + C%
a prime,
C^
is
23
5*( n
divisible
~3
by
+ ... + C
n,
2n
~z
.
and therefore
+ 2n ).
N 2 n +
is
divisible
10.
Numbers
(1)
Let a be prime
in
to
Arithmetical Progression.
n, then if the first n terms of the arithmetical
sion x, x
0, 1, 2,
the
progres
we suppose
//
same order.
For the terms x + ma, x + m'a leave the same remainder
the
For
let
a' is
prime to
n'.
if
m = m' + qn\.
their greatest
The terms
common
METHOD OF INDUCTION
is, if
o ly happen
different remainders and, after that, they recur in order.
Method of Induction.
11.
Many theorems
to whole
relating
'
if
is
true
when n = m,
it is
also
Then
since
in succession, that
Ex.
is,
 3w 
that 2 2n
Show
1.
2n
3nl,
Let/(tt) = 2
for n = l.
Also 2 2n
Hence
/(n)
if
=(3 + l)
divisible
is
f(n)
1)
=2 2 w +1
(
= 3fc, where
9, so
by
fc
by
1)
so the theorem
9,
 2 2W  3 =
3(2^ 
an
is
is/(n +
divisible
is
af 3,
...
9.
by
=0 and
when n = a + l, a + 2,
true
it is
1 is divisible
then /(I)
f(n +
n1
Again,
1
when n = a,
when
true
is
is
true
1).
integer,
Or more
Ex.
2.
easily,
If
is
~Zi
n+2
n+1
1,111
__
2nl
23
111
7^
i*
^*
1_
n
Again,
= (3 + l) n  3n  1,
etc.
11
___T__
f(ri)
vn~^
if
t^en
Vti ^ f
1
_
2n
= i>l + l
"
...+
23
1
I
~T~
2n 
1
J_
2n + 1
"*
'
~~
"""rki"**
2nl
2n
2n + l
^n+i^wHence
if
succession,
un vn then
,
it is
true
t*
n+ i=t;n+l
forn=2,
3, 4,
Now
...
that
for
any value of
n.
hence, in
10
EXERCISE
q
is
1.
If q
2. If
is
6,
show
th*
id
3.
If a
(a
have no
4. If
5.
If
common
a
is
a+b
factor, unless
prime to b and
y,
that
other,
n + bn
and
is
is
3.
a multiple of n.
prime to
x,
then ax + by
ab' a'b = l,
prime to
is
ab.
common
the greatest
divisor of
If 2>
is
7.
8.
If
6.
a;
(i)
1, 2, 3, ...
z 2 + x+
17,
(ii)
l) 9 b
\(p
1).
in the expressions
2z 2 + 29,
(iii)
x*
+ a; + 41,
(i)
#<16,
in
(ii)
is
'
12.
that 2 n
Show
13. If
is
of the form
+1
prime to
or 2 n 
5,
1 is divisible
then n
+1
or
n z
by
3,
according as
1 is divisible
5m f 1.
by
5,
is
and
odd or even.
therefore
n4
is
even.
 1 is divided
by 13, show that the remainder is either 0, 2, or 8,
as
n is of the form 3m, 3m f 1, or 3m  1 ; hence prove that 3 W  1 or
according
3 2n f 3 n + 1 is divisible by 13, according as n is, or is not, a multiple of 3.
18. If 2n f 1 is a prime, then n must be a power of 2.
17v If 3 n
19.
Show
that 7 2n  48n 
1 is divisible by 2304.
20. Show that 7*" + 16n
1 is divisible by 64.
21. Prove that 2 2W + 1  9?i 2 f 3n  2 is divisible by 54.
22. Find the number of divisors of 2000, and their sum.
1*
DIVISORS
Let
23.
is
s be the
called
perfect
Show that, if 2 n
*nd the three least
'
24. If
<
numbers, and F, R,
a are the
r,
ft,
NLM, and
L,
respectively, where
rove that (i)n=r.0, (ii)P=R s
''J7,
$ 25. If
is
11
.Sr
prove that
=lfn.
9 excluding
the product of two primes or the cube of a prime.
itself, is
equal to
then
28.
29.
30.
31. If
less
is
divisors.
l<N<pr +p;
...
in
(u)p
+r 
(n
JV,
1) is divisible
by
\r.
when
p<N<pr
than p, and
tained in

32.
when
33.
is
(N  s)i(p 
1)
Show
is
Show
that
as
is
N1
or
is
not,
is,
power of 2.
34.
Prove that
2n
is
divisible
35.
Prove that,
is divisible
by
by n
if g is
the greatest
1.
m 4 n
.
\
n f 1.
.
\
n f
3n
is
37.
38. If a, 6,
is
an integer
39.
c, ...
are
divisible
41
4f 2.
by
The
f
is
byn.n + l.nt2.
a prime, p then
9
that
wn
is
If 2"
3nis divisible

p.
is
+ \^3) an
and y
*
an
integer,
+ */5) n
is
is
divisible
and that
divisible
2n
by 2
are divisible
n
by 2
CHAPTER
II
(i)
possible
in.
may be
always
(ii)
may
be always possible.
We
With
c
reference to
equal to
'
and
any two
'
less
than
'
rationals x
and
y,
the terms
greater than/
To say
then 6 = a.
+ x,
ax = bx
(6) If
a = b and x = y, then
(7) If
a>b
inequalities,
ax
bx
a/x
b/x.
then
and
(8) If
divisor
and
a=
a+x
Also
equalities
according as x
then a + x>b
ax>bx.
is
positive or negative.
+ y, and
if
a and y or b and x
ai!
3.
Any two
13
rationals can
j8
system of rationals
(1)
(3)
4.
an
+ 6 = 6 + a,
ab = ba,
+ 6) + c = a + (6 + c),
 ac + be,
(a + b)c
(a
(2)
(4)
(5)
The
a nd
fifth
is
of addition
= a(bc).
(ab)c
first
Theorem
integer
of Eudoxus.*
is
5.
OX
straight line
and
which represents  a
is
OX, equal
OX', at the
in
FIG.
The point
of these parts.
Ola
a
X'
to
as the point a.
1.
(ii)
The point
point a
is
generally taken to the right of
to the right of the point 6.
Absolute Values.
6.
 a,
is
according as a
a6=6a.
is
It
The
positive
is
i
is
or negative, and
x>a
is
denoted by
a>6, the
is
fa or
Thus
a

obvious that
x >a, then
if
+ 6,
j
so that,
or
x<
x <a
a.
is
a+6
>
a  6
a<#<a.
NOMENCLATURE
14
7.
large or
error of 6 inches
but small in
table,
settir
numbers of
We
the
same
order.
'
order as
If
'
is
0(x)
to indicate that y
is
same
of the
x.
is
small,
same order
of the
as
e,
...
are
orders respectively.
called small numbers of the first, second, third,
2
2V 3 , ... are called
If JV is large, numbers of the same order as N,
,
. . .
large
If
orders respectively.
numbers of the first, second, third,
x  y is small, we say that x and y are nearly equal.
. . .
Meaning of
8.
'
To say that x
Tends.'
way
that
its
small.
is
If
from
If
we say
or/rom the
x tends to a and
above,
is
left,
always
less
than
a,
is
oo
Any
we may
 x tends to  00
Thus,
and  l/x tends to  oo
collection of
number
as x tends to zero
numbers
is
have what
is
called
an aggregate or
set.
of
called
to a
x becomes and
choose, however
and
to say that
set
to a,
Aggregate.
that x tends
is
9.
how
x tends to a and
from
To say that x
to say
choose, no matter
may
x  a tends to
we write x > a.
If
is
tends to zero
an
infinite set.
^^
APPROXIMATE VALUES
10.
system of rationals
many
infinitely
For
if
is
An
is
rationals.
a<b and
This fact
15
is
any
positive rational,
it is
everywhere dense.
1 1
Sequence.
according. to
some
succession of
definite rule,
Such a
denoted by (u n ).
numbers u ly u 2 u 3
,
called a sequence,
is
rule defines
...
un
...
which
is
u n as a function of
formed
generally
the positive
integral variable n.
is
is
called
an
infinite sequence.
12. Approximate Values. Suppose that the object of an experiment is to determine a certain number represented by A. No matter
what care may be taken to ensure accuracy, it is unlikely that the exact
value of A can be found. All that can be done in most cases is to find two
numbers a and a' between which A must lie.
If we find that a<A<a', we call a a Lower Limit and a' an Upper Limit
to the value of A
a and a' are also called approximate values of A.
;
Definition.
(Absolute)
If
represent A.
If
a<A<a', we
in defect
and
a!
therefore a
a
 a.
a
is
an
hence
(a'
a)/a
is
We
relative error.
estimate the comparative accuracy of different experiments by comthe smaller the relative error, the greater is the
paring the relative errors
:
(degree
of accuracy.
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS
16
scheme
(i)
If
we
write
7r
= 31416
(approx.),
we
mean
shall
that
than 000005, or 2i
(ii)
If
we
write
10
TT
by 31416
is
numerically
314159
n
lyinig
correct to 15
TT
4 places of decimals.
some number
is
TT
the value of
is.
...
we
shall
mean
3, 1, 4,
...
9 are those
which actually occur in the decimal representation of TT, and that TT is some number
lying between 314159 and 314160. The error in representing TT by 3*14159 is positive
and is less than 1/105
.
Fundamental Theorems.
a<A<a'
then
and
(i)
b<B<b
and
ab<AB< a'V
(iii)
The truth
Proof of
of
(a
Similarly
Proof of
(i)
and
Since
(ii).
Subtracting
B+V
(iii)
(iv) a/6'
a<A
and 5<6',
a+
.*.
it
(iv).
a<A
b'.
a~b'<AB.
/.
);
Ab'
oJB
Similarly
B<A +
a,
A, B,
are positive,
aB<Ab'
Bo
1.
(8).
A  B<a'  b.
(A)
Ex.
+ B)(B + b')<(A+b')(B + b
therefore
lir
a  V<A  B<a'  b
(ii)
it
Show
Wehave
12
35
f<
.
'
Bb''
is
positive,
a
b
f< B
1234567
13
.,
Also
12
is less
than 005.
12
by oO
.
^=034...
^^< 039
therefore the error
1234567
,0400709
 is less
and
13
00
^=038
034 =005;
than 005.
....
Hence,
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS
Ex.
7/0< x<
2.
division
By
we
find that
an approximate value of
is
 2x + 
//" .4

an
is
For,
so
15.
with an error in
<
 2x + 5z 2
= A.
is
p/q,
whore
it
rational
I/ (I fa:)
If possible, let
is
~
no rational x
and
2x
Nonperfect 'Powers.
14.
p/q
then I
1,
5a? 2 .
than
defect less
17
2
There are
for
many
(i)
example
whose square equals 7
(ii) if the diameter of a circle is 1 inch and we
denote the length of the circumference by x inches, it can be shown that
x is not a rational number.
;
We
class of
numbers
called Irrationals.
An
Meaning of
is
We
"/A.
number
consider a positive
it
which
is
not a
Thus
A.
if a, a'
a n <A<a' n
then
and
a, a'
excess, less
than
a'
 a.
Now
22
<7<32
(21)
2
,
(22)
...
therefore 7
2
(30)
We
(20)
of (260) 2
2
,
(261)
...
(270)
and we
find that
<7<(265)
However far this
(264)
otherwise
lies
it
process
is
carried on,
would be possible to
it
find a rational
whose square
is 7.
for
18
The process
such that 7
22
and
lies
(26)
,J1 lies
and
...
^.(2646)2, (2 .65)
is
which
2
,
(27)
32
is
numbers
classes of
and
is
what
is
(2645)
This
(264)
...
....
...
in the
is
For if we say that 2/3 is equal to the endless decimal 06666 ... this is
only an abbreviation for saying that 2/3 lies between the two classes of
numbers
,
and
...
...
if it
did, ^/7
^7 cannot
By
Real Numbers.
17.
The
to
and
extended so as to apply
numbers.
Theoretically
it is essential
to
make
Ex.
all real
may
rational
this extension,
but
where dn
Given that
is the
$2 = 1259921
decimal continued
n
,
then
2 rf
to
prove that
places.
d%<2<d'l;
<** = (d' n dn )(d* +
rf'J
<
Now
w rf'
rf
dn <d'n <l3;
'
It follows that
...
*l +
Wn + *l<
2
 d* *
(
%/2 )
as
=2
(1'3)
n>
oc
.3<C;
it is
unnecessary
irrational
which
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
Ex.
We
Given that
2.
Find
s/5 / x/6.
also
have
2236 / 1818<
...
and
...
^5 f /6<
find
19
a decimal approximation
to
2237/ 1817.
2237/1817 = 1231
...
/.
1229
is
3.
If a is positive and less than 1, show that 1 a/2
2
a) with an error in excess less than a /2.
Applying the square root process to 1 a, we have
Ex.
less
than 0003.
an approximate value of
is
a
af^a
fa
fa
\a* =
N
\a
a
2 2
)
since
0<a<l,
and
The Function
18.
a*.
(1)
Ifa>l and n
is
a positive
integer, then
a n >lfn(al).
For,
if
a=
n
by the Binomial theorem, a = (1
I h 6,
f
n
6)
>l 4 nb.
n
n
7/a>0, ^en a ^l and a ^l according as a^l.
For if a>l, then a n >l. If a<l, let a = l/i; then 6>1
(2)
Again,
Similarly,
(3)
if
if
x=p/q,
(4) //a>0 and
For a /a y = a ~
(5)
ax
if
a?
for otherwise
//a>0 and
For
and
aj
Ifa>l and
>l
<Aen ax
according as
a>l.
according as
>y,
I/
>l
x
positive rational, then a
p
1, according as a^.1.
%Ja
ts
an
>N
for
n^m.
and then by
(1),
APPROXIMATE VALUES
20
// a
(6)
is
If
a<l,
positive
awarding as a>\.
First let a>l.
Then
in (5),
if
an is
any
a>l,
If
positive
as in
(5),
z>w,
<
oo
6*
~>
oo
n^m,
for
and
If
as
or
where
a^xx)
then
1,
let
(7)
to
(1 f e)
m >a. Hence
a"l<.
can be chosen so that
f
>
that
m
(lc) <a.
is,
Hence,
if
n>m,
(1
if
JL
m <, and
\m
1
'1
>,
d
therefore
la n <.
If a = 1,
then a7 
If a
is positive
(8)
part of
If
(7)
=0
then
if
x<l/m,
m as
x
1 a <l a m <.
in
values, let
If a>l, choose
I<a
l<e.
a<l, choose
and
Thus
ax
then
if
m as in the first
x
nt
#<l/w, a >a
x>0 through
negative
EXERCISE
II
APPROXIMATE VALUES
a<A <a',
If
between a and
where
of is
(c^a), (a'c).
f(x)
= 2 + 3x  4x 2  5x 3 + 8x* and x
is
small, find
an upper
when
<
41
limit to the
8* 4
<
17* 2 ,
1.]
The length of a man's step is approximately 30 in., this value being correct
to the nearest inch. If the number of steps which he takes per mile is calculated
on the assumption that he steps exactly 30 in., show that the error in the result
3.
may
be as
much
APPROXIMATE VALUES
4. If
21
(i)03<2/z<05;
2<
(ii)
yx
<4
(iii)
5.
If
6.
cannot
If the numerical value of the error in taking a to represent
a, and the numerical value of the error in taking a' to represent a cannot
a', then a fa' is an upper limit of the error in taking a! for A.
[i.e. given
y, z
exceed
exceed
that
aa<A<a +
(x.
and a'a'<a<a'4a',
it is
+ (a + a').]
:a'
af /?
a f ft
(iii)
(iv)
ajb
to
represent
is
small,
less
0<x<l
If
is afcf
i/(
!/(!
+ a) 3
is
less
than
x> 100,
is
if
By
3 in descending powers of
show that
(i)
~r~
is
OX
o j,

h
x.]
nearly equal to
+ (a  b)x  b (a  b) x 2
is less
than 001.
R = (b + c 
By means of Ex.
1+ (a~bc)x.
13.
Show
is less
than 00007.
is less
4#
I+ax
to
is
o f" Q.X
small,
(1
where
Also show
x as the value of 
12.
positive
A
(ii)
any
[Divide 3# + 2 by 4#
11. If
is
o
10. If
6'
numerically
where
~l~)"0K
ft.
(af a)
is
yl/7?
than b
show that
if
that,
9.
is
A  B is
number
8. If
A +B
a + b to represent
a  b to represent
also that if
12,
show that
a = 2, 6^3,
if
is
small,
r~r/l
+ ox)(l+cx)
"\
(l
^ nearly equal
than 0003.
The focal length (/) of a lens is given by the formula l//=l/t>  l/u. The
values of u and v may be in error by as much as 2 per cent, of the corresponding
true values. If the true values of u and v are 20 and 13, show that the value of/
'
14.
may
be in error as
much
APPROXIMATE VALUES
22
15.
formula
vacuo,
may
in water.
(ii)
be as
much
as
l<t
18. If
_
value of Va6 with an error in excess
less
than
an approximate value
is
j~
_M4
r
is
...
4(d } uj
an approximate
[Use Ex.
17.]
19. Given that ^14 = 3741..., 4/31442..., for each of the following
obtain a decimal approximation with an error in defect, finding also an upper
limit to the error
:
(i)
20. If
^14
0<a A <e,
3
x 4/3
s/14/4/3
(ii)
then a 
(iii)
V A <.
14 4 4/3.
o(^JA)
[Put
yZJA
21. If
is
in the identity
a 8  y 3 = (a  y) (a 2 + ay + 1/ 2 ).]
N/T
(i)
+x
is
cally less
(ii)
is
if
a;
is
numeri
than # 2 /8.
10# 2
(x\*
o/
1 H
1 4
last example.]
nearest digit.
[The error
<
(05
+ 04 xO5)<
.]
23. In the last example, suppose a/b expressed as a decimal to n places, to the
nearest digit. Show that the numerical value of the error in taking this as the
value of A /B is less than
111
W*2 "iO"'
Hence show that
it is
useless to carry
of decimals.
B = 1 414213
by using Ex. 7 find how many
B to find an approximate value of AB with an error
24. If
figures
^=3141592,..,
must be kept in A,
...
take
a,
We may
such that
2<xf
therefore take
+ a)<l/108
4<1/103
This
Now 6<2
is
a = 3 1416, 6 = 14142.]
and a + a<4,
satisfied if
a<^6
1(
/.
we may
<
^.
1U
^
CHAPTER
III
POLYNOMIALS
1
An
Definitions.
a xn
where a
a 1?
+ a^" 1 4 a 2z n ~ 2 +
a n are independent of
...
(1)
. . .
+ aw
x, is called
a polynomial in x of the
nth degree.
A
ax m
polynomial in x and y
n
,
where a
any number
y,
and m, n are
of terms of "the
form
positive integers.
and
is
degree
is
its
its
the
sum
instance,
atfP
is
number
of a
highest term.
of the indices of the variables in each term of a polynomial
a constant number, the polynomial is said to be homogeneous. For
If
is
sum
the
independent of x
is
polynomial in
that of
is
+ a^^y + a2 x n ~ 2y 2 +
. . .
+ a nyn
. . .
...
homogeneous polynomial
as
functions respectively.
known
in x, y of degree
is
is
called a quantic.
form
n
atfc
where binomial
+ na^iy 4
*!
a 2x n
~2
2
y +
. . .
+ a nyn
denoted by
(00,^,02,
..,
a n \x,y) n
d$x,
I)
d e\x,
I)
(a, 6, c,
(a, 6, c,
may
=aa?3
h
This
is
shortly
be denoted by
36x2 4 3cx + d,
SYNTHETIC DIVISION
24
Let
Division.
2.
and
be polynomials in
x,
being of higher
'
where
Q and R
unique
R the remainder.
In dividing ax3
Synthetic Division.
3.
reckoning
be arranged as on the
may
+p + q + r
fcz
ex}
z
d(ax +px + q
+ cx
px *phx
>
>
= qh
+d
2
the quotient = ax 2
the
ax*  akx 2
where rp = ah + b, cr=ph
r + c,
2
and then
+ ex f d by xA,
ah + yA + g
bx 2
xh)ax* +
+d
a +b + c
7
left
f
f
qxqn
px + q,
the remainder = r.
and
It is justified
by a com
is
Ex.
We
Divide 3* 4  x* f 2x 2  2x x divide
as follows
1.
by
2)
l(2)
.'.
Quotient
by x +
2.
1
+2
 2
0
7
+14
+16
32
34
+68
+67
= 3z 3  7z 2 + Ux  34
remainder
= 67.
then Q/a
by
and
ax b.
and remainder in
the division of
APPLICATIONS
25
Dividex* + 2x ~3x~4:by2xl.
as on the
it is
Dividing by x Ex.
2.
right,
J,
seen that
+2
3
 4
+t
+4
the quotient = a; 2
+ # J
and the remainder =
/.
7/ the divisor
to divide 4#4
+ fa;  J)
y
^.
;
remainder =  ^.
+3 +0 +1 1
123330
8
+ 22 + 20
(b)
101231
The quotient
term in
line
in (a);
is
(c)
llo;
where
the remainder
12z31.
The
will
be understood
+ 3#3 + x  I
if it is
in the
e are independent of x.
a, 6,
Divide f(x) by x*2x + 3 as above.
2
quotient 4# + 1 Ix + 10.
division.
form
. . .
The remainder
is
Divide 4z 2
is 19a;
+ 1 Ix + 10 by x 2  2x + 3.
 2 and the
quotient
4.
The remainder
+ 11 + 10
12
Hence
~ 2
 12* 31.
Let/(x) be a polynomial in
(I)
first
3.
+ 10 and
(c)
+ 3 = 11;
and so on.
The reckoning
Ex.
4z 2 +
is
(a)
To
an _ 2
is
xh.
n l
Suppose that
+ ...+a n _l (xh) + an
Then ar
an1
trans
x.
The following
can find
is
all
the coefficients.
The reckoning
is
arranged as in Ex.
1, overleaf.
REMAINDER THEOREM
26
Ex.
1.
Express 2x + x
5x  3 as a polynomial in x2.
+13
Ex.
in
2.
Proceed as in Ex.
and substitute x + 2
for
2
f(x + 2) = 2x* + 13* + 23* + 7.
(3)
Iff(n)
is
a polynomial in n of degree
aQ + a^n + a 2n(n +
1)
r, to
+ a%n(n + 1) (n + 2) +
4
Express n
Divide n4
and
+ 3n 2 + 2
+3n 2 + 2 by
+ 2,
...
in succession.
in the form
1+1
1+0+3+0
1+2
1+3
1+14
_i +44
2+6
1
/.
. . .
w, the quotient
3
3
+10
6
5.
is the
where
of f(x)
IMPORTANT THEOREMS
Corollary. Iff(h) = 0, then
For, in the preceding,
x~h
is
27
a factor off(x).
Ex.
Show
1.
Since
is
that, if
odd,
l)
is odd,
=  1,
an
hence
2.
///(a;)
is
f(02)
a factor of xn + 1.
 1,
x
1 is
if
+ x = ( _ ! jn f ! _ _ X + X _
.*.
##.
x+
x 4
1 is
a factor of x n
*fce
+
a;
 02.
102
Theorem.
6.
values
a 1? a 3
...
is
the
...
(za w
a factor off(x).
For since /(a^^O,
where /2 (x)
is
and
(x^(x^)(x
a polynomial.
is
factor oif(x).
7.
Theorem.
which
is
Thus
it is
impossible.
If all
is
(x
of
Corollary.
An
for
x.
roots.
NOTE. Later
c
B.C.A.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
28
Theorem.
8.
ax n
then a
= a',
f
= 6',
...
. .
f
. . .
h'x
+ k',
polynomials are
identically equal.
k')
by the preceding
hence,
(k
article, it
follows that
6
a^a',
9.
Polynomials
(1)
///(x, y)
is
= 6',
Two
in
...
=h
k^=k'.
More Variables.
or
all
values
ofx
u = ax 2 + bxy
which
is
all
f
+ dx + ey h/,
cy
values of x and y
u = ax 2 + y(by + d) +
and
for
vanishes for
all
a = 0,
/.
(2)
If for
all
ey +f)
by
6 = 0,
values of x
is
then
a polynomial in x, which
+ d = Q,
a = 0,
f
values of x
hence
(cy
all
rf
and y
cy
+ e?/+/=0
values of y
= 0,
c = 0,
(A)
e0,
/=0.
and F(x,
y)
have
equal values, then the coefficients of like terms in the polynomials are equal.
This follows immediately from (1).
NOTE.
by
10.
necessary to enquire
specified
4
farm.
Undetermined
In
Coefficients.
It is
often
Coefficients/
which
may
be described as follows.
Assume that the function is expressed in the given form, where some of
the coefficients are unknown. In order that the identity involved in this
assumption may be true, the. unknown coefficients must satisfy certain
equations. If these equations have a solution, the function can be expressed
in the specified form.
QUADRATIC FUNCTION
Ex.
Show
1.
that values of a,
c exist
6,
23
such that
is
such that
~ b~< ~'2,
3A"5.
values of x,
all
a 
 c
2/y
if
1)
values for
a, 6, c
may
be
can be found
1.
specified
Thus, assuming that an identity of the specified form exists, wo can find
a
ti^(2x + y+p)(x ~3?/f q) =2x~  5xy 3y + a?(^
Equating
coefficients,
we have
From
the
iirst
two,
er,
b, c,
in succession.
Search for factors of #=3 2x~  5r//  3?/ 2 x + 10// Since 2x 2  5xy  3?/ 2 (2x + y) (x  3y) we assume that
Ex.
form
to the variables.
2q
\
y>^
tluj three

3,
(/
1,
conditions
3/> 4
= !, and
.
3.
i2q)
pq
10,
:
3.
condition.
11.
function of x,
y, z of
ax 2
When z^l
f 6//
is
of the
Every homogeneous
y.
form
this reduces to
az*
........................ (B)
which
is
From Ex.
that this
12.
may
he possible
Theorem.
is
faction
can be expressed as
=
abc
+ 2fgh
af
Itf
 ch*  0.
ax 2 + 2x (hy +g) +
giving
(hy+g)
(bif
+ 2fy f c)  0,
(hy+gfa(by* + 2fy + c)
............ (C)
DISCRIMINANT
30
is
this
may
+ r) and
be a perfect square
(i)
not zero,
is
//a =
(iii)
// both
fails
r ')
they
is
= 0.
but, except
solving for
by
f
2
2fghafbg*ch =0 ......................... (D)
the reasoning
(q'y
follows that
it
abc +
(ii)
y.
or
Now
a perfect square.
(qy
a and b are
zero,
when
6 = 0,
y and proceeding as
we
shall be led
before.
A = 2fghch 2
and only if, A =0.
factors
//a = 6 = A = 0, S
(iv)
if
if,
is
into linear
Hence, in
all cases,
NOTE.
Ex.
1.
//,
Observe that p,
in the above, p, q,
r,
The square
and
real
if,
root of (hy
and only
cag\
denoted by J, and is
prove that
abh\
or
ab)+2y(hgaf)+g*ac,
if
h  ab
2
Similarly,
is generally
vice versa.
y2(h
is
6c/
are all negative
bg*ch
by solving
S =0
and
ac
as a quadratic in y t
are positive.
be positive.
DIVISION
AND FACTORS
EXERCISE
DIVISION
31
III
AND FACTORS
when the
first
3.
+ 6x + 2; x + 4.
x*4x* + 6x z 4x + I
5.
6.
3z 5 + 6z 4 ~2o; 3 :e 2
5x*
1.
3x2.
4.
a;
 5x* f Ix* 
2;*; + 4; x* + 2xI.
3
2 If 4z
6x + 1 is divisible by 2x  1,
(a
l)x f ax
3
Express x + 2x* + x + 80 as a polynomial in (i) x + 5
8.
If
9.
giving
*/
is
when
(i)
x2.
!; 2x + l.
7.
10.
2. x*
#  a 2  8# + 3 = 0,
= 3x + 4.
(iii) y
3
x f
find
(iii)
the
x 4 J.
equation
4
Express n in the form
a + bn + cn(n +
11. Iff(x)Gx*
l)
+ 4x* + 3x + 2,
!),/(f), /(J).
x*2x*lx* + 8x+l2.
13.
2z 4  3x 3 2/  6z 2 */ 2 
8xi/
 3y 4
14. Find a polynomial in x of the third degree which shall vanish when x = 1
and when x 2, and shall have the values 4 and 28 when x~ 1 and # = 2
[The polynomial is of the form (x  1) (x 2) (ax + b).]
respectively.
f
when x
f and have
16. Find a homogeneous function of x and y of the second degree which shall
vanish when x~y and also when # 4 and y~3, and have the value 2 when
x 2 and y = 1
[The function is of the form (x y)(ax + by).]
.
17. If
18.
[It
19.
is
m
odd, show that x
+1
is
a factor of xmn
f
1.
15
Express # + 1 as the product of four factors.
follows from Ex. 17 that cc 3 + 1 and x 5 + 1 are factors.]
common
linear factor
may have
is
(ca'
20.
will
may have
linear factor.
21. If
ft
is
z
any number, show that n can be expressed
rt(rcl
and
c.
in the
form
common
DIVISION
32
AND FACTORS
r 2, s 2
are con
zp
Show
24.
and
that constants a,
6, c
c.
In Exx. 25, 26 show that values of a, b can be found for which the
sion
is
25.
divisible
x 5 + 2x 3 + ax 2 + b
a?
expres
l.
make
first
first
26. ax*
29.
2
28. 3x 2 + 2xy  Sy 2  1x
IGy 6.
3x~ixy~4y + 8x + 13?/3.
Show that x 6 ~ 6z 5 f 24z 4  56z 3 f 96x 2  96x + 64 is a perfect cube, and
f
find
show that
f
3x 2  9x h c
c is either
each case.
31.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
32. If
by
x 2 2ax + a 2
If
atP
(x
3
a) (x b), show that
In Exx. 3334 find the value, or the values, of A for which the given expression
can be resolved into factors, and for each value of A resolve the expression into
factors.
33.
34.
x z + y 2 6y + 4 + \(x 2 3
35. If
36. If 5x 2
4xy f y*  24x  Wy f 24 = 0, where x and y are real numbers, show
that x must lie between 2  ^5 and 2+^5 inclusive, and y between  4 and
h 6 inclusive.
[Solve for x and y in succession.]
f
EXPANSION OF PRODUCTS
2
f
2
xyy + 2x~y+ 1
real,
show that x
lie
38. If
lie
33
37. If
cannot
a;
and 
between
, biit
6 are unequal,
show that
is
[(xa)f(b)(xb)f(a)]/(ba).
[The remainder
is
a linear function of
x,
to be
A(xa)+B(xb).]
40.
(i)
(ii)
If ax 5
+ bx + c has a
(i)
If ax*
+ bx 2 \c has
(a
13.
+ bx + c (x*+ px +
2
)
(a
<7#
f
l)(ax
and
+ a have a common
+ c) put
+px + 1,
I/a;
for
x and
prove that
8
.
ca;
4
6x 3
+ a have
common
Expansion of Products.
(a
+ 6c)=a
2
4 6x
1,
ex* ibx 2
+ c and
(ii)
bx
+ px f
........................
(A)
we then
by each term of (p + q + r)
the products so formed by each term of (x + y + z + w),
of (a
f
b)
multiply each of
and add the results.
Hence the expression (A) is equal to the sum of all the products which
can be formed by choosing any terra out of each of the factors and multiplying them together.
In general, the product of any number of polynomials is equal to the sum of
all the
products which can be formed by choosing any term out of each poly
14.
i>
Theorem.
#2 a s>
For
(x
+ ax
//
an> token
(x
together.
p l9 p z p 39
,
+ a 2 ) (x + a 3 )
...
(x
4
denote the
...
at
...
an )
sums of
the products of
equal to the
sum
of
of all
the
each of the
BINOMIAL THEOREM
34
n
Choosing x out of each factor, we obtain the term x of the expansion.
Choosing x out of any (n 1) of the factors and the a out of the remain
we obtain
ing factor,
xn
~l
+ a 2 + d3 +
(a l
...
f an )
or
p^x*
1
.
<L
(a^i h a^ 3
f
4
. . .
a 2a 3
f
. .
p 2x
or
n ~2
.
of
Finally, choosing
+ aj (x 4 a 2
(x
.'.
In particular,
(x
which
a)
f
if
(x
4
a3 )
. . .
a 2 = a3
(x
+ a n =x n + p^" 1 + p 2x n ~ 2 f
)
Use
1.
.C"xn
f
x)
2n
= (l +2x+x 2
~r
ar
4
4
. . .
an
n to
prove that
3)
2?
UH
TUT
have
coefficient of
x n in
(1
+ x) zn
is
w
<7^
n
the coefficient of x n in (x z +2x) n
is 2 ,
~1
n
n
2
the coefficient of x in C^(a: + 2a;)
is
CJ
n
n
2
*
the coefficient of z in
is
+
C"(x
A
The
so on.
The use
result follows
by equating
Here
Hence,
C J" 1
(7J
(7^~
2
.
2n
the coefficient of
+ Sa^
= (1 +a? + x* + x*)
= 2m,
if
if
r=
x r in
then
(l
2.
x + x 2 4 x3 ) 11
n
n
+x) (l +x*)
(1 f
n=
~2
~
2W 4
Find
2.
22
2x)
and,
pn
an
the identity (1
The
Ex.
f
. . .
...
and
a^a^a^
= a n = a, we have
. . .
identities
Many
We
we obtain
is
different
Ex.
an a out
on the opposite
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM
Expansion of f (x + h)
15.
in
to be a polynomial in x.
When the coefficients in f(x) are
division, as in Art. 3.
is
f(x)
f(x + h)
then
=a
supposed
synthetic
r\
xn
A = aQh + a
where
is
required later
Ai
//
35
A 2 ^ a h 2 + 2%/fc f a 2 A 3 = a h 3 + Sa^h 2 + 3a 2 h + a 3
a \h, l) r
^ r (a ,a ,a 2
ly
...
ft
'YW
\JvfvJU
~L*
r*n\
j/>
/y7t
"T~ /i'o*/
I
i
~ n/y nffl~~T
_1
jf
. I
"^
<^
{/
tt
^"
*" 1
r
A;r = a C J?A f
+ agC^^Y^^ 2 +
a!^ iC^Ti A
where
to r +
terms.
Now
C*!>C*rI%
rj)nr
Thus
kr ^C^(aQ
16.
(1)
. . .
(a
is
the
sum
f
k)
...
to
factors
of each of the
factors
The expansion is
... k, where each index may have any
aab^cy
of the values 0,
1, 2, ...
w,
= tt
(A)
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM
36
To obtain the
a,
coefficient of the
...
y,
jS,
term a
K which
b^cv
...
k" y
The number
of
ways
in
which
this
can be done
is
In
and
which
of times
a a b^cy
term
this particular
(B)
a
...
.aWcv
where a,
from
y,
jS,
...
K are
numbers
the
to
have
...
0, 1, 2,
n,
subject to the
Jt,
(C)
Theorem
is
...
+K = n.
a + j8f yf...
This result
number
the
(i.e.
Hence
occurs).
index.
Thus
(2)
in the expansion of (a
If there are
m numbers a,
+ b 4 c f
sion of (a
. . .
f
 b  c f d) 6 the
b, c, ... k,
coefficient of a*b 2 c is
expan
n
k) is
is the quotient
. . .
. . .
l/c
Thus
j8
must have
its least
where
is
4
j8= C,
a constant.
of
. . .
. . .
a^C~a + l,
when a=j8=4<7
if
^~
and w a
agKCfl). Hence ua
even, and when a = i(C + l),
i.e.
is
^~
as
has
t/
a _1
accord
its least
= i(Cl)
j8
value
if
is
odd.
differ
by
1,
is
true for
any
EXAMPLES
37
We
0<r<w
and
Hence
is
r(q
and
+ (mr)q = n, that
l)
are equal to a
6, ...
1.
qm + r = n.
is
when n
divided by m,
is
(3)
numbers
k, the coefficient
...
a, 6, c,
+ bx + ex 2 +
. . .
+ kx m
is
sion of (a
ro~f^
r
of x in the expan
&*&&
r~~
. .
k",
where
a,
j8,
.../<:
y,
by putting
(1)
w subject
...
0, 1, 2,
2
6x, ex ,
...
to the
&x m for
conditions
6, c, ...
A in equation
(C).
j^o:.
Find
1.
The
where
a,
jS,
coefficient
expansion of
=2
0, 1, 2,
=5
la
20 3v,
^
j_a
j8
...
5 such that
y
a
and
The solutions of the second equation are (4, 0), (2, 1), (0,
and the possible values of a, /?, y are shown in the margin
2),
'
the coefficient
/.

'
24
5

4J)
+ ^ L rrr 2 2 3 + <:
3
2 2 1
'
'
= 80 + 360 + 90 = 530.
Ex.
2.
Find
expansion of
7
(a + 6+c)
Here
m=3
and 7^2
3
.'.
1,
so that
q^2, r~l
greatest coefficient
2

7/( 2)
3.
.

EXERCISE IV
BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS
If (1 +ic)
~c + c
1 o;
+ c 2x 2 +...
COEFFICIENTS IN EXPANSIONS
38
+ 2c 1 x + 3c 2x z + ...+(n + l)c n xn = {I + (n +
3. c
+ 3c 2 ...+(l
4. c (>2c l
5. c a
+ 2c 3 + 3c4 + ...+(ril)cn =
1271
..^
6. C
7. c c r f C!C
r+1 f c 2 c r+2
. . .
2n
+ c w _ rc n =
nr
...
"
c ni
9.
is
that
c!5
c?
1 ) <5
of the products of
+ c^ 
. . .
f
~
,
or
according
zero,
Show
sum
that the
2n
equal to 2
11.
c l9 c 2 ,
...
cn
\2n
~1 
...
f
c^)
show that
1,
2n ~ l
n ~ l in the
equal to the coefficient of x
expansion of n(l +x)
that the sum of this series is 2n n 2
is
l/(
12.
is
as
even or odd.
10.
is
Show
3,
I)
Hence show
show that
n
equal to the coefficient of x in the expansion of
(n
+ 2) 2nl
series is
13.
Prove that
n I
n
I
n> 1,
if
'
nll
14. If the
terms of the
are expanded
of xr
L
is
,
\L\^l.
series
In
r
(3
w ~r
[n
is
arranged in powers of
x,
coefficient
15.
Show thatZ ;
sion of
n (l^x)
.]
is
n
equal to the coefficient of x in the expan
THEOREM
IDENTITIES BY BINOMIAL
In Ex. 1618 find the
coefficients of the
products stated
expansion of (a + b + c+d + e)
39
5
.
4 5
(iii)
/.
= C 2n
CQ
f
(iv)c
C2
f
c4 4
Cr
C 2ni>
. . .
4
c 2w
n(nl)
v
0
c2
~
tt(nl)(rc2)7
r^
l.
term of
last
(i)
20. If
put
(i)
nc
is
or
is
is
to
equal
not a multiple of
 
'
C tC z
I/a;
when n
this series
+ C 2C4
...
3.
write
down
the
is
is
odd.
+ C 2n _2c 2n ~ cn+l
x and multiply by x m
for
2
3 n
(l+# + a; + ;r ) :=c
(ii)
l)
P~l2*
(vi) C C 2
[In
... f (
(v)c n
,.
c 3 f
!
In
"" or zero,
according as n
that
ci
nc 1 +
+ ac + a d + bc + bd + cd)*.
In
(ii)
put
x
for
a:,
c^ f c 2a: 2 4 + C 3nx 3n
Find the value of c f Cj 4 c 2 +
f c 3n
Prove that C + c 2 + c4 f c e + ...= Ci + Ca + Cs +
Prove that C = c 3n Ci^Cg^.j, C 2 =c 8n _ 2 etc.
f
. . .
. . .
(iii)
21.
In the expansion of
(i)
(ii)
What
is
coefficients.
(iii)
Show
(iv)
Show
is
equal to
that the coefficients of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end are equal.
n
,
371
==
coefficients of the
terms of degree r
is
.
r
23.
By
3nr
coefficients of
xn show that
,
when n
left (i)
when n
is
even,
(ii)
40
24.
By expanding
{(1 4z)
fi2m
~^9
/>m/nr2w2
L
L/
"^92
/TfW/t2
~
4
__/nfW

if
m>n,
25. If
prove that
(i)
a r = 2 r n {C* n
+ CjCj n
C"r
"2
or (^
+ C^Cf
at
(iii)
=4n
= \V
[We have
17.
(1
l
l
ii(l+3C + 5C% + ...
2
n(n ]){!. 3
42x4 2x
Highest
43
5C?"
accorc^ n g as r
45
7f7>
is
cven
n terms).
to
~2
4 ...
to (n  1) terms}.
)^
Common
in a single variable x.
+ ...},
+ l)^7(Hi)
~4
Factor (H.C.F.).
These will be denoted by
We consider polynomials
capital letters.
of A
of
// A = BQ + R,
and
7?.
(2)
(Q 2
If
R2
),
is
($ 3 J? 3 )
,
set
B,
R R2
l
is less
...
preceding.
from the
It follows
(a) if
factor, this is a
(h) if
theorem that
last
R2
common
common
),
(R2
R3
have a
common
is
Moreover, the process must terminate and that in one of two ways
the last remainder, say R n must vanish identically, or be independent of x.
:
Rn
If
Q,
then
R n _ 2 = Rnnl Q n
so that
Rn ^
is
a .common factor of
If
Rn is independent of x, then
the same
(3)
is
(J? n _ 2 ,
Rn i)
have no
common
factor,
and
by successive
Equations
(1)
found
H.C.F.
B) A
is
PROCESS
41
(Q,
BQi
(Q 2
Qi
BQ,
etc.
etc.
We may
(ii)
If
we
arrive at a remainder
Rn
(iii)
if
zero
Moreover,
A(lm'Vm) = m'XmY
therefore every
Ex.
is
1.
Find
common factor
the H.C.F. of
of
and
(i)
A = 3#3 +# + 4
remark
and
B = 2x*
coefficients, the
reckoning
3+0+ 1+
(a)
Hence the H.C.F. =x + l. But it is unnecessary to go beyond the step marked (a),
which shows that E t = 3x 2 + 2x  1 = (3z  1 (x + 1 ).
Now x + 1 is, and 3x  1 is not, a factor of B. Therefore x + 1 is the H.C.F. of B, R 19
and consequently that of A and B.
)
42
Ex.
Find
2.
A and B where,
^8*5 + 5* + 12.
A = 12x5 + 5x* + S and
2 A  3B = 10*3  15z 2  20  5 (2* 3  3* 2  4),
3 A 2B = 20x 5 + 15*3  Wx* = 5x*(4:X* f 3x  2).
the H.C.F. of
We have
is
3
2
3
Putting C = 2x So; 4 and Z> = 4#
the same as that of C and D.
2, it
A and B
C  2D  6z 2 + 3z + 6 = 3 (2z 2 + # + 2),
2(7  D = 6x* + 3* 2 + 6z = 3a? (2x 2 + x f 2).
Further,
of
+ 3x
D
is
2x 2 + x + 2
18.
it is
a polynomial has no
said to be prime
otherwise it is
If
said to be composite.
We
I,
Arts. 3, 4
Remembering the
distinction
For
if
H.C.F. of
common
is
prime
is
common
to
A, then
Hence the
factor.
is
is
factor of
is
is
and
are polynomials in x, then polynomials
If
each other, can be found such that
Theorem.
to
AX + BY = l
according as
is or is not
prime
to
or
AX + BY = G,
B G
9
X, Y,
and
in the
latter case.
For
if
Q 19 Q2
...
and B l9 J?2
A and B,
...
etc.
IMPORTANT USE OF
we obtain
Therefore
where
we can
Continuing thus,
Hence we can
find
X,
AX + BY,
is
In either case
X+
f,
common
Y = 1 and G
factor of
or
it is
a constant
c.
or
is
such that
AX+BY^G
.
Now
^
43
H.C.F.
is
a factor of
X and Y would
and
first
of
equation
J3.;
may
be written
be a factor of a constant.
In the second case, the polynomials in question are X/c and Y/c.
NOTE.
This theorem
is
fundamental
in the
EXERCISE V
H.C.F.
Find the
AND
ITS
Exx.
USE
16.
2.
3.
2z 4  13z 2 + x +
5
15,
3z 4  2z 3  11 x 2 + I2x + 9.
4.
6.
12z 3 + 2* 2
In Exx.
5.
2x*5x 2 + 3, 3z 5  5x3 f 2.
79, find
16.
true.
7.
(*l)
Z(* + l) 2 F=:l.
8.
9.
10.
Use the
and hence
find
A, B, C, D, such that
Ax + B
Cx + D
find A
and
p,
such
B.C.A.
CHAPTER
IV
Symmetric Functions.
1.
any two
interchange of
function which
of the variables
which
it
is
unaltered by the
is said to be
contains
to these variables.
2
2
2
2
2
y + y z 4 z x) (x z f y x + z y) are symmetric with
regard to x, y, z. (In the second expression, the interchange of any two
letters transforms one factor into the other.)
Thus yz + zx + xy and
(x
same type
is
f
Again, (x
It
y+z
is
letter
Z (sigma)
Hx and
represented by
For instance,
it.
before
yz
+ zx + xy by Zxy.
obvious that
is
(i)
all the
The sum,
(ii)
difference, product
and
Considerations of
processes,
Expand
(y
f
 x)
(z
+x
y) (x
f
 z).
This expression
may
is
where
a, 6, c, are independent of
In this assumed identity,
x,
>
z.
We
2x zy + cxyz,
x, y, z.
then 1 a;
0, z
(i) put x~ 1, y
= 2a + 26, .'.
(ii)puts = l y = l,z = 0; then
a? = l,
z
1
then
l=3a
+ 66+c,
;
2/1,
(iii) put
;
is
 a:3  y3 
f
yz
6^1;
/.
f
2.
yz
f
z~x
f
zx 1
f
x 2y
4
xy
2xyz.
ALTERNATING FUNCTIONS
Ex.
Expand
2.
(a
45
Test the result by putting
a~b=c~d = \.
The product is the sum of all the products which can be obtained by multiplying
any term of the first expression by any term of the second. Hence the terms in the
product are of one of the types a?b abc.
The coefficient of a z b in the product is
t
for this
term
is
of a
is
b(ac) 9 c(ab).
a 2 b + 32abc.
Hence, the required product is
The number of terms of the type ab is
Test.
type abc
is
hence,
if
Ea Sab ^ 4
.
Ex. 3
= 24
12,
and
Zab
\
%abc = 12 + 3
4  24,
is satisfied.
Factor ise
~d = 1
(x
f
f
 x5  5  2 5
y
z)
where a and
b arc
independent of
put x~l,
?/!,
put x^\, y
2.
x,
//,
z,
= l, z^l
Alternating Functions.
/.
a ^5
6=5
a + b^lQ.i
then
If a function
of x, y,
z, ... is
trans
formed into  E by the interchange of any two of the set x, y, z, ... then
E is called an alternating function of x, y, z, ...
n
for the interchange of
z n (x Such a function is x n
,
(yz)+ y (zx)+
any two
letters,
say x and
y,
transforms
n
y)
it
Observe that
the product
and
into
= E.
symmetric functions.
2
Thus
{x
3
~
(yz) + y (zx)+ z* (x y)}/ (y z)(z x} (x y)
with regard to
is
symmetric
x, y, z.
Ex.
1.
Factorisex*(yz)+y*(zx)+ z*(xy).
Denote the expression by E. Since E ~0 when x = y,
Similarly y z and z x are factors, thus
it
follows that x
y
is
factor.
E = (yz)(zx)(xy).F,
where
where k
is
is
independent of
 1, thus
find that k
x, y, z.
E=
first
Equating the
degree in x,
y, z.
coefficients of x*y
(yz)(zx)(xy)(x+y + z).
Hence
on each
side,
we
IMPORTANT IDENTITIES
46
3.
An
Cyclic Expressions.
c into d,
c,
. . .
h into
k,
and k into
a.
This interchange of the letters is called the cyclic substitution (abc ... k).
Thus a 2 b + 62 c h c2d f d2 a is cyclic with regard to a, b, c, c? (in this order),
for the cyclic substitution (abed) changes the first term into the second,
the second into the third,
It is obvious that
. . .
and the
and
(ii)
The sum,
must be
difference, product,
and
equal.
also cyclic.
it
x2 (yz)
..
...,
it
2.
a(&
3.
4.
bc(bc)\ ca(ca)
5.
6.
a(b
c ) + b(c
a (ic)
first
+ ab(ab) = (bc)(ca)(ab).
a + c(a 2 b 2 = (bc)(ca)(ab).
2
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
a+&+
It will be
(i)
(ii)
Any
proved later
that
symmetric function of a,
Any symmetric
27a, Za/J,
Za/?y and
aj
a* b* 
function of a,
j8,
j8,
y can be expressed
y, 8
in terms of
SUBSTITUTIONS
mode
This
functions,
of expression is
and
47
in proving identities.
1.
Factorise
a(l
Now
4. Substitutions.
ment
.*.
= (1
(1)
We
of a set of elements
may
consider processes
is
/abc\
fabcd\
,
\cabdJ
f
or
(abc\Icaoa = bdac.
,
\cabj
and we write
\cab/
As previously
which
two elements
a, 6 is called the
transposition (ab).
fabcd\
_
in
),
which each
letter is replaced
first, is
called a cyclic
is
Let
that one
= (bcda).
Two
by
This
is
mi
Thus
(bcad)>
This process
substitution
is
is
TS = (abcd
,
and the
resulting
no common
is
letter, it is
commutative.
SUBSTITUTIONS
48
Any
(3)
cyclic sub
stitutions
As an
more
fabcdefghk\
\chfbgaedk/
Here a
Also b
is
changed to
is
S = (acf)(bhd)(eg).
or
S~(acf)(bhd)(eg)(k)
This expression for S is unique, and the order of the factors is indifMoreover, the method applies universally, for in effecting any
substitution we must arrive at a stage where some letter is replaced by the
ferent.
first,
letters
(4)
cyclic substitution of
product
ofn1
transpositions.
(abo)
also
is the
= (ab) (be),
= (abc) (cd) = (ab) (be) (cd),
(abed)
= (abed) (de) = (ab) (be) (cd) (de), and so on.
(abcde)
For
We
n elements
= (abcde)
cycles is equivalent to
nr
letters
= (edcba)
and which
is the
product of r
transpositions.
(3)
and
(4)
Thus
if
S=(
ef^ h
\chfbgaed/
then
we
Thus,
a given substitution
if
number j
is
not unique.
j=n
This
(6)
and
number
of
is
shall
 r + 2s where
is
s is
a positive integer or
is
notion of
We
zero.
it
we introduce the
inversions.'
e,
call it
INVERSIONS
stitutes
an
inversion.
da,
dc,
49
five inversions,
ea,
namely,
ec.
n such
interchanges.
moved
to
fpq  x <?
...pq
...xgf...
...
...gpq...xf
the margin.)
Thus the transposition (fg) can be effected by 2n + 1 interchanges of
consecutive elements. Therefore any transposition introduces or removes
an odd number
of inversions,
Theorem
2.
into another
follows.
i is
If one arrangement
In other words
to
a given substitution
is
is
nr, and
so
we have the
distinct classes.
it is
equivalent
to
We
say
an even or
odd.
Or we can
of inversions, but
Thus we
inversions.
is
odd.
Also
it
has 17
50
EXERCISE VI
Show
2.
Show
(ii)
3, 4.
4. (x
5.
(ft
6.
(a
6, c, d,
(ab)(cd) + (bc)(da).
3. (y
Prove the
a, 6, c, d.
d)
Expand
is
Exx. 514.
identities in
+ y 2" 2 +
+ ft + y) =
2
) (
7.
8.
9.
10.
2
( j3
2
2
2
2
y f 0y + y a + ya f <x
f
a0
2
)
(a
4
+ y) =27a3 + 227a 2
+ 2ajSyZ'a.
a3
11.
12. (a 2
13. (6
f
6 2 f c 2 ) (x*
=
14. (a
6 8c 3
f
6, c is
the geometric
c 8a 8 f a 36 8
(i)
6c~ca
17.
2
2
a
(6cf caf a6)(a h6 4c
=a6c(a
4
mean between
6 3 f c 8 ).
some order or
other,
form an arithmetical
sum
of
three squares.
(ii)
 c) (c  a) + (c  a) (a  b) 4 (a  b) (b  c)
except when a 6 = c.
all real
[Put
values of a,
6, c,
bcx, ca
18. If
a?
(6
ab
+ y+z=0, show
2
(i)2yz=o; ~i/
(in)
negative for
that
2 2
2
2
2  2
z ) + Sx*y*z* = ;
y ) (x ft/
ax 2 + by 2 + cz 2 + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy can be expressed in the form
2
2
2
px + qy +rz ; and find p, q, r in terms of o, 6, c,/, g, h.
(ii)
z,
is
(y
f
z2
 x 2 ) (z 2 f x 2 
51
Prove the identities in Exx. 1923, where 27a, 27aj9, etc., denote symmetric
functions of a, 0, y, 8 : also verify each by putting a =/3 = y = 8 = l.
19.
20. (a 421.
22. (aj8 + ay
23.
+ c 1
(6
+ c  a) + (c^ 1 + a" 1
(c
+ a  b) f (cr 1 4 ft 1
(a
+ b  c).
(xa)(xb)
(a6)(ac)
(6c)(6a)
(ab)(ac)
(bc)(ba)
ca
ftc
14ca
(ca)(c~b)
6
l+a6
a(6~c) ""
*
1+ca
l+bc
29.
30.
(6~
32.
[Put
33.
34.
[Put 64
cx
c+a=y, a + bz.}
35.
(l
36.
^
<
l>
/123456X
....
;
(654321 J
(U)
/123456X
.....
;
(246135J
(m)
/123456X
'
( 641235J
CHAPTER V
COMPLEX NUMBERS
1.
root of a
so as
x*2x 45 = 0.
Proceeding in the usual way,
a?=l%/^T,
x=
or
solution,
l2j~^l,
the
symbol
to
and with
real
numbers according
to the
laws of
algebra.
(ii)
We may substitute
I) for
2
,
these rules will not lead to results which are mutually inconsistent.
Ex.
We
1.
Show
that if
have
.*.
x 2 2z + 5=
Immediate consequences
3 + 4t2(l+2t)+5=0.
(i)
(x
+ ly) + (x + iy') = (x + x
(ii)
(x
+ itf
(x
iy)(x'
(x
(iii)
4
iy) (x
iy') (x
'
f
iy
x'*
+ y'*
x'*
+ y'*
an extension
A Complex Number
2.
53
is
class,
and they
single complex
and
numbers
(x, y)
number.
be regarded as identical with the real
lO is to
iQ = x
x+
in particular
(A.)
tQ
f
(B)
real
numbers,
and
in particular
tl
/QX
= *,
(D)
so that as
to express a fraction.
In order that expressions of the form x
numbers, we have
to say
what
is
'
fundamental operations.
We
3. Definition of Equality.
x+
ly
= x' + iy'
if
say that
and only
if
In applying this definition, we are said to equate real and imaginary parts.
It should be noticed that the terms greater than and
less than have
no significance in connection with imaginary numbers.
'
4.
by
as defining
'
'
5.
'
The sum
Addition.
1,
of the
iy
and
x'
+ iy'
is
defined as
(x
')
i(y
+ y')
and we write
(x
iy)
(E)
It follows that
+ iy
is
the
sum
of the
(P)
iy.
54
Subtraction
6.
is
is
the
Hence
In particular, putting
.)
y=*(y)
7. Multiplication
is
by the equation
defined
Putting
#'
= &,
2/'
is
commutative.
number,
we
see that
if
is
a real
(x
if
Again,
8.
Division
is
is
to say, the
equations
x +
mean
and
ly
From
Equating
real
and imaginary
parts,
Xx'Yy' = x
mi
and
we have
and
Xy'+Yx' = y.
v x
*
Therefore
unless x'
we have
y'
Thus
x + iy _xx' + yy'
x'
+ iy'
x'*
yx'xy'
+ y'*
x'*
+ y'*
'
...................... (
'
+ iy' =0.
see that
if A; is
,)=
+i
................................. (N)
ZERO PRODUCTS
55
and
division
to,
the process
1.
Zero Products.
9.
is zero, then
where
Then
numbers.
xx yy'
+ i (xy + x'y) = 0.
f
.\
2
xx'yy'~Q and
2
2
and
z(*' + 2/' ) =
a;'
If x' 2
10.
Ex.
1.
y(x'*
+ x'y
Q;
+ y'*)=Q.
x = 0,
y = 0, and therefore x + ty = 0.
real
zy'
Examples.
Express
(1
+ 24) 2 /(2 +
(2+4)
in the farm
=
=
~4+4il""
X + iY.
3+4i~~ (3+40(3~4t)
24
7
9 + 16 + 244
Ex.
If
2.
x3 = 1
Hence
Ex.
3.
the
numbers
Fen/y
that
1,
J(
J(
11.
V3)
 1 + K/3)
M a roo
CD,
3
o/ x
= 1.
we have
Geometrical
+ a: + 1=0.
a;
Representation
of
1.
Complex Numbers.
AB + BA0,
and
EAAB.
ARGAND DIAGRAMS
56
Again, we use L BAG
must turn in order that it
'
'
AB
that
7T<
= x + iy, we
When
there
is
no
z.
Let
point
6)
(r,
then
z,
where
and hence
Here
r,
FIG. 2.
which
denoted by
is
or
z
\
is
essentially positive,
called the
by mod z. Thus
modz = z\ = r = J(x 2 + y 2

It follows that if
The angle 6
is
then z
= 0,
z,
and
is
and
is
= 0.
denoted by
many
).
y = 0, and consequently
is
z
\
modulus of
2rr.
am z.
This
The value
of
(1), it will
am z
amplitude of
amz
will
mean
z.
and Subtraction.
=
z
x + ty, z' = x' + iy'
Draw
12. Addition
(1)
Let
'.
For
then
if
s represents z
the
+ z'.
5,
OX
FIG. 3.
Y = y + y',
Similarly
that
therefore s represents z
+ z' = the
length Os,
this algebraically,
is
and
+ z'.
am (z +
')
57
It is to be observed
= L XOs.
of equality occurring
we have
to
if
LXOz =
L.XOz'
show that
2
)
(x'
if
+ j/ /2 ),
i.e. if
or
if
(x
or
if
(xy'
(2)
Draw
the
^en
is
the case.
Oz'zd
d represents zz'
(Fig.
4),
Observe that
= the length
am (z  z') = z. Jf Od.
 2'
and
(3)
it is
=
// s n Zt
+ z2 f ...
4z w ,
FIG. 4.
wAere zl5
~O
z'z,
2J
2>
FIG. 5.
2j
+ 22 + 23,
This
is
Oz4
...
s 2s3 , 5 35 4>
then
s 2 , s3 ,
etc.
first
58
(4)
or equal to the
sum
For in the
Ozl9 21$2> S2S29
an(^
the moduli of z v z 2
^at
Osn
Therefore

f sn
< Oz
*n
1s
Os n
<K
z2
+
eng^s
Also
+ 2^2 + s2s3 +
^e
are
2s
>
. . .
4...

+ sn _ r
*n
+
.
The sign of equality is to be taken if, and only if, che points O,
the same straight line and occur in this order, that is, if z l9 z t ...
XOTE.
are in
than
last figure,
>
is less
z l9 * 2
zn
tS
have the
same amplitude.
To prove
this algebraically,

and
sn
sn
+

we have by
\z n
<
s n _2
z n _i
h
1
h
I
\z n
,
I
so on.
13.
(1)
By
==
rr'{cos
cos
0'
 sin
sin
& + t(cos
sin 0'
/.
Since division
is
multiplied
by
z'
produces
z.
Hence
also
)
z l *=x l
If
+ iy^ = fj (cos
23 ,
...
zn ,
l h i
.............. (C)
sin 0j),
by continued application
of equation
we have
In (D) put
Z1
where n
rn (cos
n0 +
sin n0),
...(D)
........................... (E)
is
DE MOIVRE'S THEOREM
Show
Ex.
1.
We
have
few 1 
that
is
nearly equal to
59
and therefore
But
(2)
of the
see that

last
if
the product
is
and
nearly.
40=rr/4 approximately.
.*.
..................... (0)
+ amz n
(H)
unless
am Z
we have
M
am =
and
am
0'
21
.(I)
am z'
(J)
although the last equation does not give the principal value of amz/s'
unless
7r<00'<7T.
is
is
the angle
lie
along Oz;
ft
Again,
if z,
a, a' are
am  = L z'Oz.
any numbers,
za
am
and
(3)
the length az
the length a'z
za =
L aza.
za
,
De Moivre's Theorem.
FIQ. 6.
From
(E)
and
is
This, with
+ i sin
n
0)
an extension to be given
known
as
De
Moivre's
Theorem.
B.C.A.
60
14.
Conjugate Numbers.
z=x + iy and
//
(1)
= xiy
z'
then
z, z'
point
z'
are r
 0.
6 are the
if
r,
z,
those of the
Hence
a polynomial in
is
// /(z)
with
real
= X + 1 F, where
f(z) =f(x + iy)
then f(x  iy) = X  4 Y.
and
coefficients,
Y are real,
We have /(# 4 iy) = a + a
X,
(x
+ iy) + a 2 (x + iy) 2 f
FIG.
. . .
where a
7.
ax
are
. . .
real.
We
iy)
= 2axm (iy) n
f(x
ty)
= Zaxm  iy) n
(
where every a
Let a +
tjS
be a root of f(x)
Let /(a +
ij8)
A = 0, B = 0.
= A + iB,
= 0, where
a,
j8,
real.
where
A B
9
are real.
Since /(a +
1/?)
==
0,
we have
Hence
Therefore a 
ijS
is
= 0.
EXERCISE VII
COMPLEX NUMBERS
1.
2.
3.
Find
4.
2 so that 2(3
(i)
(a + t6)/(a'
+ 1 7,
iJ
+ 1, V3  1,  <s/3 f *,  \/3 ~
may
f i4) =2 f 3*.
2~+3i
4 ib')
s/3
(iii)
be real
is
ofe'a'6=0.
COMPLEX NUMBEEb
x 4 iy> express
If 2
5.
form
in the
X + iY
9
7.
What
(i)
If
(ii)
If
8.
2

(i)
if
(ii)
if
(2
+ 3i) 2 (340 3
=
=
z'

= 1 and am z =
 am 2', then
am 2, am z'
and
z'

x + ty where
differ
by
z'
z describes
11.
Prove that
12.
22 cos a 42*

22 cos a
4
<1
22
<2
z

cos a
4
Given that
+ 24
is
14.
< 2r 4 r < 1
2
2

if
___
From
integer,
that
..
13.
2

z
1
then ,,,
2<O41.
if
'
circle.
[Let
C\ cos
n0=(7?
cos* 1
1
sin
n^ = (cos 9 + 1 sin
n ~ 2 ^ sin 2
sin
C?" cos
cos n
+ <7
n~3
tf
0)
~4
n where
,
^ sin 4
+ ...
sin 3 ^
a positive
ri is
...
tannf.
15.
By
putting
2=r (cos
f i
prove that
1 f t
coM+r
cos 26 +
2
r sin 04 r sin 26
10.
=r, then
50)
,
sin
TT,
=
4
+ 4t) 3
Prove that
y are variables.
x,
(ii)
is
Let
9.
(i)
2~ 1
Z
6.
61
...
(rc
~ 1)0
cos
'
rsin0rn 8inn0f rn
" "
t
sin
(n~
(TI
62
= cos
16. If z
and n
sin
4 1
zn
is
+ z n = 2
 z~n = 2i
zn
cos nd,
sin n0..
and
if
is
...
even
n
and
if
2" 1 sinn
1)2
odd
nl
nl
(1) 2 2
is
Binn
0==8mn0C%8w(n
similarly for
...;
17.
By
(*ar
l
)
l
16 cos 8
18. If cos a
+ cos
0=  cos
sin*
50  cos 30 4 2 cos
0.
/?
that
8in34sin3)548in3y = 3sin(aH)S4y).
and
and a 8 4 6 8 + c3 = 3a6c,
(19)
From
a,
= cos j3 4
sin
j5,
then
etc.]
the identity
(xb)(xc)
(xc)(xa)
"
(a6)(a~c)"
(ftcXfta)"*"
(xa)(xb)
(ca)(c6)
sin (0
sin (a
B) sin (0
j5)
sin (a
y)
y)
z = r (cos
Let
where
r>0 and
root of
r.
is
sin 0),
7r<0<7r.
>
where &
4 1
etc.]
from which
it
follows that
By
I
is
+ L sin
Art. 13
2for)
+ 1 sin
we have
(0 4 Zkn)}
an nth root of
z.
PRINCIPAL VALUES
63
if,
those given
Thus
by
& = 0, 1,2,
cos
ofz = r(cos 6 +

lvalue of
(2)
n
.
/n +
cos
_
1, 2, ...,
,
where
&=A
0,
,
n1.
0\
i
sin
~i
is
called
the
principal
^z,
To find
Find
1.
representing
where
%Jz,
we must be
able to
V#
into
Q lt Q2
the points
values of
the
n values of
by $r
n1.
+ 1 sin
v^. v
,,^ v ^,,,
...,
Q^
/z,
Oz=r=\/5 + 3~=
^Oz =tan 8 ^=
Here
and
tan
FIG. 8.
16.
then
The
is rational,
case in which
is
in Art. 13.
is
therefore
cos 0/q
also, since
j? is
an
+ 1 sin 0fq
is
a value of
(cos
sin 0)*
integer,
(cos 0/q +
sin 0/q) p
therefore
,,
cos p0/q 4
sin jo0/j
is
a value of (cos
+ 1 sin 0)
64
17.
+1
of Unity.
= 1,
sin
2krr
let
2kn
hsm~
n
n
cos
In Art. 15,
where #7 = 0,
1, 2, ...
1.
71
. . .
other than
of x"~
1,
71
The
+1)77
(2*
VL
sm
ft
(2A
.n
If
nth root of
is
+ 1)7T
T
where k = n
Q,
n
,
1) is
1) is
cos
root,
given by
1, 2,
...
1
n~l.
6 = 77.
l,
to k = 0.
n corresponding
& = (n  1).
+
n
Factors of x n 1 and x n +
19.
any
1 ).
The principal
is
nth Roots of
cos
1=0, then
a 1
18.
if
sin
1.
(1)
= 0,
1, 2, ...
n1.
= 0,
(i) If n is even, the factors x1 J.nd x + 1 are given by r
The remaining (n  2) factors can be grouped in pairs as follows
= n/2.
Since
2r7r/n
+ 2(nr)7r/n = 27r,
the
factors
corresponding to r and
n  r are
x
f
{
cos
2rn

And
f
sm 2f7rl
.
'/
x
f
{
cos
2rn
n

2f7T
 cos 2f7T\
= x^  2x cos 2f7T
+ sm^2
n
n /
n
.
a;
and
sm 2r<jr}/
n
is
2
/
\
h 1
therefore
(A)
n1
(B)
x{cos
// n
(i)
15
(2r
//"
l)77/n
+ ism
+1
(2r
are
+ l)7r/n},
where
'r
= 0,
1, 2,
...(n1).
even
x +
(ii)
factors of xn
the
(2) Similarly,
65
is
n^
n  2)
C
(x*2x
\
os&^
+ l) .............
n
(0)
ocW,
(D)
.277
277
cos
cube roots of
1,
co,
the other
+w+
^3).
for (a> 2 ) 3
o> 2 ,
is
= (6t> 3 2 = l.
)
.................................. (A)
and
o>
2r
so
lfo/4
The following
co
/Q
1,
r is a multiple of 3, co r
when
and
Again, except
,
or
sin
o> 2r
.................................. (B)
x*y* = (xy)(xo)y)(xaj
y) ....................... (C)
x 3 + y3 + z3  Sxyz =
Ex.
Prove *Aa*
1.
(x*
(x
f
y + z) (a; +
coy
X=x
+2yz,
co z)
(x
co
3XYZ,
y h
where
Y=
and
Ex.
2.
If (l+x)
n =c
o/ the series being continued as far as possible, show that the values of
are
(2
\
+ 2 cos ~
Putting
1, o>, o>
) ,
where r = n,
n  2, n + 2,
Slt #2
respectively.
for #, in succession,
(lfl)
n c
...hc n a>
4...+c n cu
........................... (B)
2n ..........................
(C)
COMPLEX ROOTS
66
r
3, 1f co
not a multiple of
If r is
we have
Now
i
+c3 +c 6 4..0=2n + (l
3(c
XT
+ o>2r =0;
+co = l
i
2rr.27r
7r/7r.
TT\
+ cos ^ + 1 sin 5 =2 cos cos^+tsmO /),
O
O
O
O
rt
and, since
AI
Also
cos ~
=i, we have
+aj 2 =
27T
co
a
,
by
(C)
1 f o>
= cos  + 1 sin 
,,
and
Ttrr
+o> 2 ) n
,.,
(1
cos
tsui
co,
Al
a>
277
mn /
(l+eo) =( cos ^4
2 /i
sm
27T\/
(n2)ir

If
tJ
then
n
2 n
n
2
8(^+04+07 + ...)=2 +co (l4a>) +o)(l+a> )
Also
nrr
TlTT
cos
W7T\
+tsm~
(n2)ir
^~
and
3
by
o>,
(C)
by
o>
2
,
and add
EXERCISE
to (A)
it will
be found that
VIII
COMPLEX ROOTS
1.
^1
are
~^(1
v^
2.
3.
Use
Art. 19 to
t).
show that
1),
)
4.
Prove that
=a; 2 (a;
where
a,
j3
'
(#
2x
cos^H
l).
COMPLEX ROOTS
67
5.
the values of
z l9 z 2 corresponding to
*Jz.
to
01 and Oz ; and
2 2 is
on
6.
a
[Let 2 1 =a + */a
2
I
*i
6 2
2
I
*$J
.

a 6
f

a 6
2

= {a + 6 + a6}M
Solve the equation
7.
 (11 + 20.
Verify that the sum of the roots is 2(1 + 20 and the product
[Put z~x + iy, equate real and imaginary parts to zero and solve for x, y.]
Prove that, with regard to the quadratic
8.
z2
(i) if
(ii) if
+ (p + ip')z
and
p*p'*=:4q
If a
[(i)
Eliminate
In
(ii)
is
real root,
by
a.
this case (p
+ ip')*=4:(q + i,q'),
If z ~x + ly =r (cos 6 +
9.
etc.]
Jz=z={'Jr + x + i*/rx}
according as y
Also
if
is
y>Q
f l
sin
cos 6 = 
and
if
the roots of zn = (z +
them
{Vr f x
or
 i\lr  x}
positive or negative.
*/r ( cos
[\/z
pp'ty'*
y<0 we
l)
n
,
have 7r<8<0
etc.]
are collinear.
lie
on the
line
+i
cot
x + i=0.]
J,
where r=0,
1, 2, ...
COMPLEX FACTORS
68
Show
r
= 0,
1, 2, ...
12.
tan^, where
Prove that
* 2W 2xn cos
(i)
194 1
*n + ar*  2 cos
(ii)
cos
(iii)
[(i)
1
2
/Trio" (*  2x cos
"*
 cos nS = 2n  1
77^o
rz<
~*
is
+ l) n xn l.
 1, co, where
[Put x=Q,
cos
(a?
cos
put
3,
 cos
<
n
0)} {z
Art. 15.
13. If
+ ar *  2
/T^I JJ
+
1
(cos
sin 0)}.
Now
use
n0.]
1) is
factor of (x
14. If
+ x + x2
n=a
f
a; is
a^ f a 2 +
a:
. . .
f
n^
2n
>
prove that
aQ + a 3 + a 6 +
15. If
v=x+y
+ z + a(z
prove thUt 21 a (x
(a
where
4
f
Sa^z)
= w 3 f v 3
 Suvw.
a>
[IT] If 2^
4
2 2 2 4 z 3 2
[For
18. If
o>=J(
then
2;
2 2;3
x 4 a>2:2
1 4t\/3),
4
x)~
f (c 4
z)
4
(d
4 x) 1 = 2ar 1 .]
 Zfa  2^2 = 0,
prove that
*
^^s = 0,
/.
ZB
 zt =
a, 6, c
are
</(
where
1^
1
[Consider the equation (a f a)"" f (6
real,
f
J{>
D = s/(
(1)
the
point
69
and Quotient of
z' = r'
(cos 0'
Two
+ 1 sin 0').
representing
L^t
Then
FIG. 9.
OP
Oz
,
OP
that
Lz'OP^ LlOz = 0,
also
But
zz'
Therefore
= rr
{cos (0
represents
Construction for
(2)
..OP = rr
r,
IB,
f i
LlOP =
:.
+ 0')
sin (0
+ 0')}.
zz'.
the
point
representing
Draw
the triangle
directly similar to
OzQ
Then
by the
For,
FIG. 10.
z/z'.
last construction,
(number represented by Q)
// k
(3)
is constant,
za
za
and
.z'
z.
z varies so that
"k,
For
at d,
let
f
.
aa
f
.
FIG. 11.
Therefore
ri,
(2),
az
a'z
=k
1.
and externally
>
in the ratio
1,
70
Also
a,
we have
ca.ca'
= cd2
hence
a'
the
the midpoint of dd
c is
if
circle.
If
&=
1,
on
z lies
Conversely,
which
circle of
then
za
For, since ca
ca'
Hence,
a'z
=cd 2 then
,
where
<f>
on
is
dd'
is
say.
1,
=k
1 .*
If z varies so that
(4)
circle
az
FIG. 11.
K.
am
za
aa',
containing an angle
z describes
an arc of a segment of a
<f>.
\a
FIG. 12.
FIG. 13.
<f>.
The
Thus
sign of
<f>
is
<f>
positive in Fig. 12
and negative
in Fig. 13.
22. Displacements
and Vectors.
vector.
* See Elements
of Geometry,
p.
316
'
:
Circle of Apollonius.'
ADDITION OP VECTORS
If
any
sense as
71
is
and
to,
in the
same
said to be equal.
To
specify completely a
we must know
its
(i)
magnitude,
direction
(ii) its
its
(iii)
i.e.
denoted by the
sense,
If
PQ
the length
that L
PQ
displacement
if
order of
necessary by an
FIG. 14.
parallel to
sense,
we say
An
(3) Vectors.
with reference to
line
expression (such as
length, direction
its
being indifferent,
is
called a vector.
Quantities which can be represented by lines used in this way are called
Velocities and accelerations are vector quantities.
vector quantities.
by a vector
'
'
localised
to
lie
in the line of
Quantities (such as mass) which do not involve the idea of direction are
called scalar.
(4)
If
the point
is
and any
(iii)
the
Any
to be
represented by
may
therefore be said to
represent
%*
z.
and of Vectors.
If
(1) Let P, Q 9 R be any three points.
a point moves from P to Q and then from
Q to R, the resulting change of position is the
same as
to
R.
if
We
it
had moved
therefore
displacements as follows
*
Some
from
addition
of
directly
define
the
Flo
writers use
an underline instead
of
an
overline.
15
z,
or
72
The
result of
adding
QR
expressed by writing
This equation
PQ, QR,
If
to
PQ
is
defined to be
PR\ and
this is
is
RS
are
(Fig. 17),
Q
FIG.
FIG. 16.
17.
(i)
and
PQRS\
(1),
22,
holds,
and
QR.
In Fig. 17,
therefore
and the
NOTE.
In Fig. 16,
placements and
PQ + PS = PR
vectors are
dis
This equation
the meaning
of
is
form
PQ = QP,
which
defines
 PQ.
These equations are also taken as defining the meaning of zero and
negative vectors.
DISTRIBUTIVE
LAW
73
25. Subtraction.
PQQR is defined by
PQQR  PQ + (QR) = PQ + RQThus
OPOQ OP + QO = QO + OP = QP.
Number. To
number k is to multiply
The
resulting displacement
length
or vector
by
is
A,
its
direction unaltered.
denoted by JcPQ or by
we
Further,
leaving
define
PQ
k.
 k)PQ by the
equation
In particular,
(
So that
to
multiply a vector by
1) is to
Law.
turn
We
it
shall prove
that if
is
a real
(i)
to
Draw
Q'R' parallel
PR
and
and
Q'R'
= kQR\
kPQ + kQR^PQ'
for
positive
k),
we have
numbers.
(ii)
and
IG *
Thus
the distributive
vectors by real
NOTE.
numbers.
The diagram of
Fig. 18
is
drawn
than unity
student should see that the same result follows from a diagram in which k
unity.
is less
the
than
74
28.
It will
now
if
Theorem
1.
If
divides
number
AB
and am z
then z is the length
makes with the directed line Ox.
is
AB in
the ratio
m and
is
mOC^mOA+mAC,
Also
whence the
Theorem
in the ratio
result follows
2.
If
n:m,
by
O
FIG. 19.
addition.
z z
point which divides the straight line joining v 2
then the corresponding numbers are connected by the
z is the
relation
1, in
this article.
In particular, if z
midpoint of
z^ then
= %(z l + z 2 ).
that
// a, b are complex numbers, prove geometrically
Ex.
1.
Let
A B
Bisect
is the
a, 6.
AB at
OA+OB=20C
and
Therefore
OAOB^'BA^Z'CA.
a +6
200"and2CJ;
Now, since C
hence
is
midpoint of base
A B,
SYMBOLS OF OPERATION
Ex.
2.
//
OA, OB, OC
= 0,
Men A, B, C
[This
a f b
where
f
= 0,
are collinear.
the converse of
is
75
(a
Theorem
We
of this article.
+ c)(W==a.OA+c.OC'; hence
The Symbol
have
AB^c
BC.]
as an Operator.*
29.
applied
through a
it
of turning
operation
to
angle
right
in
FIG. 21.
positive sense.
Thus
in Fig. 21
OQ=i OP
OP' =
Therefore
where i*OP
Thus
an abbreviation
is
1(1
OP) 
OP,
Hence
for i(iOP).
Again,
OP' = i OQ.
and
multiply a vector by (
is
i)
turn
it
OP 
 1)OP.
in this sense
OQ =
is to
1)
we
write
l)iOP.
OP^OQ',
so that
sense.
Again,
Ex.
z, z'
if i
//a,
3
.
OP
is
taken to mean
(i
OP),
it is
obvious that
corners of a square.
Let
Oc + icb
Similarly,
*
2'=! (a
FIG. 22.
his conception of
as denoting a number.
B.C.A.
76
OF = ON + NP' = ON + iNQ.
ON = ^ n OP  cos
Also
OF  cos
/.
OP +
OP,
sin
OP,
OF(cos0+ism0)OP,
and we say that
to
sin
is to
turn
it
through
the angle 0.
31. Multiplication
Number.
say that
to
we
is
to
multiply
Here
applied
If
z,
OQ
we
its
r is
indifferent.
is
is
OP
write
OQ^zOP
arid
OQ/OP^zi
we
is
Therefore
to divide
a vector
OQ
The
result
is
by
0).
32. Product of
OP
by multiplying
OQ by
I/z.
Complex Numbers.
OQ^z'OP and OR^zOQ,
Let
then we write
where
zz'
applied to
OP
z',
z are to
be applied
AEGAND DIAGRAMS
77
Since the stretching and turning factors may be applied in any order,
OP may be transformed into OR by multiplying its length by rr' and turning the resulting vector through the angle (6 + 6').
(0
+ 0') +
sin (0 + 0')}
are equivalent.
Again,
if
we take
(cos 0h
sin 0) n to
+1
(cos
is
to be applied
n times, the
result
is
mean that
the operation
sin 0)
cos n0
f i
sin 0) n
= cos n0 +
sin n0.
sin w#.
laws of algebra.
EXERCISE IX
1. If z = 3 + 2i, z'
1 f i, mark the points z, z' in an Argand diagram, and
by geometrical construction, the points representing
+ Z',
ZZ',
ZZ\
find
Z/z'.
Let
z,
a, b
FIG. 24.
(ii)
(iii)
Z=
(iv)
Z=tz where
Z~az+b.
t is
real,
CENTROIDS
78
Z=(l + z)/(lz),
3. If
= 1,
numbers and
4. If a,
if
J^
6^,
value
of
oo to + 00,
passes through a, b,
to the values from
[Along the
from
which
line
line
Oz=0a+az~0a + t
then
varies
the entire
describes
real
any given
t,
ab;
:.
z=a + (ba)t,
etc.]
6. If
c,
real,
and,
is real,
once the
circle
7. If
A, B, C,
8. If
is
is
is
m m w
at A
A A&
=
m
m
OA
+
+ ...)OG
+ msOA + maOA
29
. . .
all
mass
of the
Any
three coplanar
Moreover,
2,
m w m
s , ...
and nonparallel
OA,
vectors
where
we may suppose
acting at A l9 A% ...
.
at z l9 z 29 z a ,
. . .
OB OC
9
...
then
are connected by a
...
3 4 ...
sign,
m^ + m 2z 2 + w 3z3 +
...)s
same
m m
2,
29
l9
l9
19
are not
3 , ...
z,
19
10.
= tan J<^.]
l9
+ oo
[Put
m
To include cases where m m
O
GO to
and
(ii) if
Show
varies z describes
z = c+a(cos< + isin<),
(i) if
where
where the signs of the area# are determined by the usual rule.
Also the points A, B C are collinear if p + q +
and conversely.
rQ
[For
and
q,
let
&OAB,
let
9
(7,
and proportional to
j8
If a,
(ii)
p=p'
andp,
q,
79
q=q'.
where p
q, r,
is
three complex
Any
numbers
z l9 z 2 , z 3
are connected
by a
relation of the
form
where p,
q, r
p:q:r~ A0z 2z 3
Moreover,
Q,
[If z l
=x + iy
l
whence the
l9
z2
=z 2 + iyl9
zs
=z 3 +
(i)
Zj, z 2 , z a
then
Let
we have
14.
it/ 3 ,
and conversely,
22~2l
Z 2~*3\
*8hl2l
=
Also, if the point z l lies between z 2 and z 3 , the ambiguous signs are both minus.
(ii) If the above equation holds, then either z l9 z 2 , z 3 are collinear, or else O is
the centre of a circle which touches the sides of the triangle Z 1 z 8z 3 .
15. If A i^4 2^4 a is an equilateral triangle, the vertices occurring in the positive
direction of rotation, prove that
s
where
4 1
sin
16. If
numbers
A X YA'X'Y'
a, a' 9
~,
~
3
A t9 A
B9
prove that
TRANSFORMATIONS
80
The
17.
triads of points
A B C and X,
9
x(b
Y,
complex numbers
 c) +
y(c
and
a, b, c
x, y, z are
similar
connected
 a) + z(a  b) =0.
if
=
AC XZ
i.e*.
if
ca
=.]
zx
18. If ABC is a triangle and triangles BCX, CA Y, ABZ are drawn on BC,
CA, AB, directly similar to one another, the centroids of XYZ &ndABC coincide.
[By
1
J Ex.
17. i
bc
outwards or
all
[Let P, Q,
Prove that
_ _
QA = CA
(cos
30 + L sin 30),
__ __
A R =AB
i
.
\/O
30 
(cos
Hence
sin 30).
*Jd
a similar value.
'
TRANSFORMATIONS
'
if z
describes a
Z=tz where t is real, the curves s, S are similar and similarly situated,
the
centre of similitude. In this case we say that S is a magnification
being
(ii)
of
If
s.
(iii)
If
Z = (cos af
tsin a) z,
through L a.
(iv) If
Zaz
f 6,
Z = l/z, S
is
the reflection in
a magnification and a
rotation,
translation.
(v) If
OX
of the inverse of
s,
of inversion.
21.
Show
22.
except that in
circle C,
Show
(v), if c
[Z
L
or
circle into
= ~> Ha
is
a straight
line.
a'z
converts
more of those
circle or, in
;
az
+ br?
in Ex. 20.]
an
+ b'
is
to one
equivalent
^
CHAPTER
VI
THEORY OF EQUATIONS
1
Roots of Equations.
type f(x) =0
of the
an equation
where /(x)
is
of this kind.
(1)
nth degree
of the
will
xn ~ l + pfln  2 +
~
a xn + c^z" 1 + a2xn 2 +
M (yt
1 \
~
aQxn + na^ 1 +
a zx n 2 +
xn
+p
~
or,
where binomial
briefly in the
= 0,
=
+ an
... f
j0 n
. . .
+ a n = 0,
. . .
The
last
equation
is
written
form
(a0>
a 1? a 2
...
a n $x,
l)
= 0.
For the present, we assume that every equation has one root. This is the
fundamental theorem of the Theory of Equations, and will be proved
in another volume.
(1) It follows that every equation of Ike nth degree has exactly n roots.
~
For let f(x) = xn +p l x n l + ...+p n and let a be a root of/(x)=0. By
the Remainder theorem, f(x) is divisible by x a; we may therefore
assume that
Let
may
/J
be a root of
=0
<f>(x)
as before,
<j>(x)
is
divisible
by x /J, and we
assume that
we can show
that
right.
Hence f(x) =
has n roots
82
(2)
is
if
a Mj8
a root, so
that
is,
2
by (xa) +
2
.
real coefficients
(3)
by
re
a, a
When
is
If
f(x)^(xa)
where
(f>(x)
</>(x)
not divisible
is
an rnndtiple
called
we say that a
2,
root otf(x)=^Q.
a double root.
is
Theorem.
then the
//a 1? a 2
...
a n are
...
<x.
...
Pv
Pi>
For
xn
+piX
n l
+pzX *+
P*>
...
(~ 1 )>rr
>
+ p M ^(ffa,)(xa 2 )...(#a,
 x  Zaj
xn
11
~l
+ 27a,a 2 x n ~ 2 +
.
...
...
........... (A)
we have
.a n = (l) wy n ............. (B)
Conversely, if ot^ a 2
...
xn
an
\p l x
n ~l
4y 2 x
n ~a
+ ...
+7> n =^0.
is
f
j^a;. 1.
a~ x f
// a,
j3,
...
+t) w
arc
Mo roote
a + /?
3.
in the
o/ 2a;
f
y,
form x3
f
2
# 4
l).r 4
Transformation of Equations.
= 0, and suppose that we require
of /(z)
),
...
= 0.
where
<f>(x)
is
)
=0
Let a,
the valuer of
j8,
y,
...
be the roots
TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATIONS
Let y =
<f>(x)
83
we can
this equation
find
a;
as a
obtain /{^"^(yJJ
A
a
O,
case in which x
Ex.
which
1.
//
a,
j
Let
~p
y~ lx
)9,
x^xlQ,
Hence
ivrite
down
then x
and,
(y) 9
we
#3  x 
if
is
given in Ex.
2.
is
is
x=$~
0,
y H 1
f
a)/(l a).
then y
is
given by
yl
/yl\
UTIJ
which
This
is
is
equivalent to
Hence
'
also
i+v + i+P.^+Y^l
1a 1J8 1y
Ex.
2.
roots are
If a,
a3
3
,
jS
j9,
fere
Me
Let ,v=rc 3 then a;?/3 where ;/3 denotes a?^y cube root of
therefore obtained by rationalising
,
is
)y+ p
for the result will be the
equation,
let
y+p*
l,
pM* ~m,
is
the
same
s
+ p^
4 p,
y.
which
equation whose
roofs
n,
pdj*
3
f w*
for.
To
rationalise the
+ n8
is
as
4. Special Cases,
The following transformations are often required.
Let a, jS, y,
be the roots of f(x) = 0, then
. . .
(1)
(2)
(3)
This transformation
(4)
We
is
called
+ h)
as in
1//J,
1/y,
is/( x)==0
...
...
is
/(1/rr)
a  A,
ft
 h,
A
is
/(x
f
Q by
A)
6y
A.'
k.'
= 0.
off(x) =0
f(x/k)=0.
roots are
=0
is
called
84
(5)
For
f(x
f
...
+a n =
can be
ajna^.
= a^(x + h) n + a t (x + A)  1 f
h)
11
~
so that the coefficient of xn l
iuf(x + h)
is
na
. .
A+a1? and
this is zero
when
Ex.
1.
Write this
Putting x
ar>
fz
yjk
& which
least value of
will
!*
make every
3
2
y  9y f 90y  168
Transform x* 6
2.
^ =0.
=0.
coefficient
an integer
+ 5z + 12 =
=
into
i_2)
which
is
jr.
3.
7a;
right
"J
shows that
// a,
)8,
2/S + 3,
is
+ 6^0,
are
45
8
6
ITJ
173
_^_
^_2
4
T2
+2
ITy
+12
g
Me
roots of 2x*
+ 3x*  a:  1 0,
2yi3.
6
+2

are2a + 3,
so that the
y = 12a;.
where
an equation
Wo
is 12,
is
required equation
j&a:.
7=0.
f\W +^y
The
fa:
2.~'+3jgl=0,
or
2j3,
2y
is
 (
3) )
^ + 3^2^4=0.
3  2  4
 3 +
+ 6
h
1+02
3
"j
we
_ 3
+
+
+ 2
9
7
H.C.F. process.
fails.
be
a + 3,
a,
+
+
+
Find the
j8.
is
common
~ 6
+ 21
+ 42
+53
is
wsa^ + 36z
# + 1, therefore
We
""^"19
this proves to be
If
+ 13
5.
is 3.
factor of
2^ + 19z 2 + 53z + 36
Hence, x  a
86
is
= 1

3/2.
x = y + h, this becomes
B=
where
If
h=
b/a, then
JB
= 0, and
^+
H = acb
where
Or,
if
we
write
]8,
= ay = ax + b,
+
03
.................................
the equation
+ 3ffz + <? =
+ 6, ay +
a]8
is
a + 6/a,
We
The function u
is
called a quartic.
If
6#
/J
6.
(B)
.................................. (C)
= 0,
is
G  a*d  3abc + 2R
z3
If a,
the equation
x^ybja
....................... (A)
40
(B)
where
ac  i2
If z
= ay = ax + 6,
the equation
s4
If
K = a e  4a 6d + 6a6 c  36
and
<x, j3,
4
.
is
a + 6/a,
etc.,
and those
86
EXERCISE X
TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATIONS
1. If a, jS, y are the roots of 2ar* 4 3# 2  x 1=0, find the equations whose
roots are (i) l/2a, 1/2)3, l/2y ; (ii) a 1, 0 1, y 1 ; (iii) !/(!), l/(l0),
2
l/(ly); (iv)a + 2,0 + 2, y + 2; (v) a ,
[(iii) should be deduced from (ii).]
2.
If a,
roots are
[For
3.
y\
2
y are the roots of 80^ 4# f 6# 1=0, find the equations whose
+ i, y + i; (ii) 2af 1, 20 + 1, 2y + l.
)8,
(i)
(ii)
a + i,
(i).]
Solve
unity.
1
[If a, a"" are these roots,
(a;
 a)(x  or 1 )
x4  2x*  3x* + 4x 
and
is
x*
common
factor of
 4x 3 + 3z 2 + 2x 
1.]
Solve 4s4  4x 3  13# 2 + 9# + 9 =0, given that the sum of two roots
 a are these roots, (x ~oc)(x + a) is a common factor of
[If a,
4.
4x*4x*13x* + 9x + 9
5.
is
zero.
and
progression.
[Let the roots be a
6.
is
a+
S, a,
8,
.'.
3a =^.]
gressions
[Solve 2#
 3t/ 2 
lit/
+ 6 = 0, whose
in harmonical pro
in A. P.
9. Solve
a?
7x 2 + 36=:0,
is 5.
difference
11.
12.
(u)
13, If
Un
is
coefficients
between two of
^
n0 = (l)Kni)tan0tan(VWn^
\n/
\n/
V
14, as giving
n/
GENERAL THEOREM
87
The position (jf a real root is its position on the scale of real numbers,
and is determined roughly for a nonintegral root by finding two conFor a complete discussion,
secutive integers between which the root lies.
we require Sturm's Theorem (Ch. XXVIII), but a good deal of information
can be derived from the elementary theorems which follow.
Some
8.
general Theorems.
= n
f(x) X +p
where
p l9 p 2
+ im is a
,
...
Xn
1
~l
+ p2Xn
~~ 2
+ ...
f
pn
Thus
if
a,
/?,
. . .
all different,
= (x*)(xp)...(xK).<l>(x),
Hence, if x varies, the sign of f(x) can change only when x passes through
a real root of /(x) = 0, and we draw the following conclusions.
(1)
case
If x
when
is greater
Whence
is positive.
This
is also the
are imaginary.
it f
real
numbers
then
(ii)
lie
///(a) and f(b) have unlike signs, an odd number of roots off(x)
between a
and
lie
=Q
b.
///(#)
is
sign
Hence
lies
odd, /(a) and/( a) have unlike signs and at least one root
between a and  a.
If n is even and p n negative, /(a) and /(  a)
if
is
least
one root
lies
between
88
we say
left
to right,
is
missing.
In a complete equation : (i) Ifx is changed into x,a change of sign becomes
a continuation and vice versa.
If
(ii)
is the
of sign, then
p f p,' = n,
Descartes' Rule
is
where n
the
number of continuations,
as follows
To prove the first part, we shall show that if u is any polynomial and
v~u(xa), where a is positive, then v, when expanded, has at least one
more change of sign than u.
First suppose that no term is missing in
instance
Signs of terms of u,

Signs of terms of v,
where
is
+ +  +
+ + 4 + + 
++
term
may
be
f
or
zero.
is
ambiguous.
ambiguities.
(iii)
On
change of sign
account of
(i)
is
and
(ii),
v has at least as
sign than u.
and on account
of
(iii)
v.
changes of sign as u,
the ambiguities are con
many
all
89
That no changes of sign are lost on account of any terms which may be
missing from u appears on considering such instances as
+00
+00+00
+0
00+

of
of sign
. .
than
where
a,
/(z)=0.
u.
j8, ...
by
a?
a, xfl,
...
each
has positive
roots.
Again, the negative roots of/(x) = are the positive roots of/(x)=0,
with their signs changed. Hence the second part of the theorem follows
from the
first.
Corollaries.
10.
the
fji
then
(i)
roots
ifp,
+//<w,
=0
has at
least
n  (^+/A') imaginary
;
(ii)
For by Descartes'
o//(x)=0 are
rule,
m^p, and
m'^p,'
'.
and m'
=///'.
Hence
m + m'^fi +fjL'^n,
(A)
Now
1.
//
q, r, s,
is
=/z +fi'.
impossible.
x* 4 qx 2 +rx  s =0
Also
/*
and // = !,
Ex*
2.
Here
Show
= 2,
/u
real roots,
that x?
=
^' 1
2#2 +7 =0 has
therefore
at least
3.
/Lt'ft'~
two imaginary
roots.
90
DeGua'sRule.
11.
(i)
(ii)
+1
imaginary
roots
or at least r
is
missing from
imaginary
roots,
according as the terms which immediately precede and follow the group have
J
like or unlike signs.
"
~ ~
terms between hxm and kx m r l are missing from/(x).
m ~r  l +
= m
and fl (x) = t/j(x) + (f)(x),
<l>(x),
f(x) hx + kx
1
m ~ 2 4m
^ (x) = hx + c^x + c2x
where
none
of the set, c l3 c 2 ,
...
cr ,
= number
= number
/*'
Let
/x
...
c rx
m ~ r + kx m ~ r  1
being zero.
of sign in
ifj
(x)
of changes of sign in
+ the number
~ r ~l
hxm + kxm
of changes of sign in h(
~x)
m+
k( x)
(x)
m and
"~ r
~l
.
and /(  x)
of changes of sign
is less
than
roots.
m ~ r ~ have
opposite
l
(~x)
and
signs,
(i) if
h,
(ii) if h,
/x
and
is odd,
(i) if
h,
(ii) if
h,
(x)
=1
~1
m and
have
( #)'
t
If r
//
in both cases
= r + 1.
k have the same sign, p = 0, /// = and r + 1  (p,
= 1 and r + 1  (/x +/z') =r  1.
k have unlike signs, ft = 1,
\JJL')
/it'
1.
If
H = ac  6 > 0,
2
<Ae equation
(a,6,c,
/wo imaginary
by De Gua's
12.
w
...%,l) 0
roots.
x~y~ 6/a,
^
is
is
an equation
.
a2
whatever
if
(1)
xn ~ 2 f
...
=0, and
H > 0.
In this
article,
its first
term
positive.
91
we can
in groups, so that
find
by inspection a
number h such that the sum of the terms in each group is ^0 for x^h.
To distribute the terms conveniently, it is often advisable to multiply j(x)
by some positive integer. With a little ingenuity, this method can be made
to yield quite close limits, as in the examples at the end of this article.
Other methods are given in the next exercise, and in Ch. XXVIII.
Lower Limits.
(3)
If
(i)
an upper
is
li
0, then
x)
li
a lower
is
For
(
if
is
Hence, h
a;)=0.
is
>
(ii) If h" is an upper limit to the positive roots 0//(l/x)=0, then I/A"
a lower limit to the positive roots off(x) 0.
For
if
a' is
Ex.
Here
Qf(x)
f(x)
>0
for
x^l& and
Again, putting x =
Now
The
Hence <f>(y)>0
Ex.
We
The
l/y,
15
106
is
for y"^
is
4x~(x
+ Hty 
~~
>
ie
(20*/
1
15)
the greatest
<(*/) =5*/
Thus
I/a' is
so l/A"<a'.
1.
Thus
then
/()= 0,
is
0
<f>
(y)
roots.
= lOOy3 f lly 2
f
IQy
10.
 1).
1) + (16r + 10y
14
^^
is
lo
for x = 
^vp
and
if
ie. for
20t/
> 0.
106.
roots.
2.
I
greater root of 3
61o;4127=0
is
179 ....
Thus 18
is
an upper limit to
the roots.
Again, /(
if
.0^4.
of terms
is
positive
B.C.A.
RATIONAL ROOTS
92
To
13.
roots which
px~q
is
and
+ bx n ~ l +
p, q are integers
. . .
prime
. .
to
is
a factor of
a,
q is a factor of k.
aq
Hence aq n =p x an
to
such
Any
exist
may
a factor of axn
and
or zero
Roots of an Equation.
<?,
therefore
divisible
Hence
by
by
+ bqn lp +
pxq
if
f(x),
...+ hqp n
~l
is
+ kp n = 0.
n
integer, so that aq is divisible by p.
n
Hence a is divisible by p.
prime to q
Now p
is
is
prime
Similarly k
is
q.
axn + bxn
~l
. . .
+k=
must
be included
among
Ex.
We
Also
/(
x)
it is
14.
transformed into
n
n ~l
+ p 2x n
f(x)=x + p l x
where p^ p 2
~2
...
+p n = Q,
..................
By
and p n
is
divisible
by
(6).)
is
an integer
a.
1+ft
I/*)
(A)
h
If
is
as follows
is
we
divide f(x)
+y 2 +...+?V_ 2
+p n l
+Pn
h
9l
Where
q^pt
+ h,
Pn+Pnl
gnl
+Pn2 +...+ft
92
gn2
+Pl
" gl
+1
"1
93
this is added to
divided by A, the quotient is ~q n i
giving ~q n _ 2 h. Dividing this by h, we get ~g n _ 2 which is added to
Here p n
is
p n .i,
;p n
>
and
number
To
lessen the
Ex.
Find
1.
is
0.
4/(
1.
lie
a rational root, it is
possible values of h are therefore
2,
1,
A number of these
so that
4,
3,
7,
6,
=2 3 .3.7.
8
(A)
5
/(I) 160 ~2
if
is
2
off(x)^x* 39z + 46z 168==0.
between  9 and 7.
h is a factor of 168
an integer and
is
The
xh
if
2
 30) + 2 (23*  84),
f(x) = x
(x*
3
=
x) 2x*(x* 78) + (x* 672) + x (x  184),
Also
must be
and
h
line
Since
If
bottom
in the
is
number of
factor of/(x),/(a)
it
_2
so on.
/(
 1)
252 2 2
32
7,
a root,
h
is
Again, I h must be a
4,
6,
8.
The remaining
numbers are
7.
+3,
3,
+6,
that 6 and  7 are the only
find
Newton's
we
method,
by
2,
13) 168
+46
56
~^To*
16) 168
446
^28
Tl8
39
43
36
40
_6
JL
1J
~~6
EXERCISE XI
REAL ROOTS
1.
Use Descartes'
(i)
If q
(ii)
x*
is
positive,
 3#4 + 2a?3
*
rule of signs to
sc?
+ qx + r = Q
1=0
show that
divisible
by
41
3.
REAL ROOTS
94:
Show
2.
and by
 x)  h* =
are real
6.
By grouping terms,
Exx.
in
find
39.
3. x*
 3z3  2* 2 + Ix + 3 0.
4.
350).
 llx*
9z 50=0.
5.
x* + 4x3
7.
2x*~llx*I()xl=Q.
6.
x*
9.
a;
= 0.
10,
l
[Let
sol, then/(z)>0
This holds if xn
>p
if
xn
,
i.e.
xn >p(xn
if x 
10).]
+p
~l
xn
~2
then
+ xn * +
...
+ I),
i.e.
if
numerically
limit to the
xn
x n >p
1
.
> p.]
11.
This holds
if
x n >^
r
i.e.
if
(xl)x
r~ l
>p, which
holds
if
(*
I)
>p,
i.e.
12. If the rule in Ex. 1 1 is applied to the equations in Exx. 37, show that
 51
 1 ; (5) 7,  6.
the limits are (1) 4,  4; (2) 351,  5
(4) 6,
(3) 9,
;
13.
By
1 100# 2  237=0.
using Ex. 11, find an upper limit to the roots of x
3* 3  2* 2  6*
4
4=0.
17.
4# 4
i
18.
6s
25^426^ + 4s8=0.
19.
6a;H53^95a; 25ar+42=0.
95
15.
Let a,
y, 8, c,
/J,
then by Art.
2,
be the roots of
^
xn +p 1 xn 1 +p2x n  2 +
...
27a=
p
27aj9=]9 29
l9
... f
pw = 0,
27a/?y
=  j>3
...................... (A)
...
where
a, 6, c
...
Ex.
(i)
1.
The product
Sat,
a,
a88 =27a 2
Za 3
yS and S**ffy.
a 2/?y8, a/?yf The first
the product. The second occurs five times, namely as the
c and a term from 27a/?y8. Therefore
j5, y, 8,
the values of
8 +527<xSc,
and
2 2
(ii) Consider the product 27aj8
y,
ZajSy. This consists of terms of the types a
The first of these occurs once.
The term a 2/?y8 occurs three times,
a s)8y8, a/tySe.
The term ajSySc
namely, as each of the products (a/?)(ay8), (ay)(a/?8), (a8)(ay).
occurs ten times, for we can select two out of the five, a, j, y, 8, c, in 10 way?.
.
Therefore
^aft
Using the
NOTE.
becomes
^y 
27a 2 j8y
and equations
last result
(B),
we
find that
results,
" 1
"" 2
process of reckoning.
// a,
j3,
. . .
 (27
2
.
aj8)
j8,
y,
...
+ p2;rn
. . .
+ y n == 0,
xn + fto;71
DIFFERENCES OF ROOT3
96
16.
if
by any number
Exx.
Ex.
2,
h.
Hence
f(y + h) = 0, where
1
below.
is
The functions
3 are important.
1.
a l9 a 2
...
n =0
the
sum
zero.
Ex.
2.
// a,
jS,
1
is
1, and
the values of
We
a 2 (a 2 +
therefore
(ii)27(
Ex.
3.
2
)
(j8
+ 1  (a  3c) 2 + (36  d) 2
2
)
(y
8y)(ya)^yZa2 3
// a,
/3,
0,
<!).(
(ii)r(aj8)VS
+ a/38)(a+/3y8).
/3)
a)
(ii)
and
(iii)
its
roots are 
i
8Za8
,
^ y
thus
,
^
is
fi
8
(6
ac).
differences of a,
j3,
e,
y, 8,
value
xyb/a.
4#
y+iO,
................................... (B)
a',
',
97
y', 8'
and
.'.
#*.
7/a + jS + y + 8 = 0, prove
4.
827a'j8'y'
y + yV +
a,
j3,
!=<), 5 2
2^p 2 , 5 3
Hence by
tions.
tftaf
Also a 5
+p
= 0, and
4
2
2 <x?+p3<x.
addition,
y.
j8,
= 3p 3
17.
a,
y, 8 be the roots of
+ a'j8'y'
= 320/a*.
a 5 + )3 5 + y 5 + 8 5   SjScejB
Let
'')
If a,
^J&f'l.
2
(j8y)
(ya)
/?,
typical examples.
+ qx + r=Q,
(ajS)
By
subtraction,
a 3 zaf4r=0.
(z f q)oc
Substituting for
a in the
first
= 3r.
The

Ex.
artifice
2.
(i)
employed
Find
in the next
4g
+ 27r 2 =0.
example
sum
is
often useful.
of two roots a,
xt+p^+p^+paX+p^Q
may
ft
of
................................. (A)
be zero.
Use
(ii)
a, j8 are
any two
roots of
Since a and
a
.*.
Now a 9^0
which
is
unless
p4 =0,
2>i<x
fj 2 a
+^4=0
therefore
+ #2
2
2>1
~^3 +^4 =0
and a^a 2 ^ p a )=0.
;
............................. (C)
98
Let
(ii)
If then
\ (a + j8),
we have
then
we diminish the
 z) =0.
 z) +
(j8
(a
roots of (B)
by
z,
B=az + b,
D(a,
For equation
b,
x~y + z,
0,2*
I)
sum
of
two roots of
.............................. (D)
+ 2bz + c,
E = (a, b,
c,<%,
the
is
ay*
where
writing
This equation
c,
d,e$z, I)
4.
in
2,
EXERCISE XII
j3,
2
y are the roots of ax* + 36# 4 3cx + d=0 and
H = acb 2 G = a*d  3a6c + 2b\
,
prove that
a^a3 ^
1.
2.*
a^V
2
3(a' d9a&cf9&
3
= 3 (^
3
).
a  9^6 h 9c 3 ).
8
2
2
2
3
2
^y + ya*)(ay + j8a h yj8 ) = a*(3a ]8V
= 9 (aW  6a6aZ + 3ac 3 f 36 8rf).
3.
a*(a^
4.
5.*
f
*Explain
how
and
(5)
from
a {a(j3~
7.
a 4 {(j8y
8.
a3 (^4y
9.
a 3 (2a~y)(2j3ya)(2ya/3)^ 27(9.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
[(i)
If
2a = /My,
ax + d=0.
11.
(iii)
then
a=
b/a.
(ii)
Eliminate x between
aC 3 =5 3D, where
12.
(4).
6.
10.
is
a,
/?,
may
B=
roots are
jgya
yqj8
2
)8
2j8'
is
Show that
(i).]
a(aa:
h 26a;
this reduces to
af j82y
a cubic equation.
[Use Ex.
11.]
u=
and
13. If a, 0,
rootsare 
ft
[Let 2 =
14. If a,
4
+
is
any two roots of x* + qx + r=Q, the equation whose roots are the
are
]8
 + ,
a y
+ ,
&+qx + r =0,
99
[Let z = 
/.
^
15. If
[Let a,
+g0fr=0
6, c
last
17. Solve(xfaf6)
18. If a,
x a 6
f
x) +
6
j8,
) +
f
26 3 , prove that
from
a*Z(*
a 32;(a 
(ii)^
4, p. 97.J
prove that
~lp*(p**pt).
20.* a 2
= I2(ad~2bc).
*Note that
a 2 a 2 =4(4& 2 3ac).
21. a*i;a z p
x*+p&*+pjc+pt=0,
y,
Ga*d 3abc
23.
j8
:0.
(1)^ = 2(^2^),
24.
got by eliminating
[Observe that x f a f 6
19.
is
+ qzp + r = 0.]
a*
Use the
If a,
z3
and
16.
22.* a 2
from
(20) follows
(19)
and
(22)
from
(21).
= 144(c 2  bd).
8) (y + y8 + S
 32(7.
y)(a 8) =
]8)(a
2
25. If a, 0, y,
...
1
+p xn
2
+ ...+p n = 0,
prove that
Ev* j3 2 =  ptf
Show
a^
 M*"" 1 +
a^
n~2
. . .
i
... 4(
l)
na
n =0
1)
n6
w = 0,
where
= 2  2a 2
= oS
* b r =ar
2a r _ a r+ ! f 2a r ^
&o
ft
is
ar+2
r+8
. . .
. . .
the roots of 3 a
a a
%<*>ia* + 2a a4
 2ar ^30
+
^2 ==
a =6=0 or a =6 =3, or
a, b are
CHAPTER
VII
PARTIAL FRACTIONS
1
in x,
An
Rational Fractions.
is
If
is
By means
of the division
**
If
X'
A' + ^,
A+^
where the
X'
A A
Also
therefore
Hence
^7
YX'XY'
A  A' =0;
is
2.
and X/YsX'/Y'.
*
y.
of lower degrees
of lower degree
than
and
Y',
and
than YY'.
A  A'
impossible.
X/Y^X'/Y'.
To resolve a given fraction into partial
the sum of two or more simpler fractions.
is
to express
it
as
Fundamental Theorem.
A,
denote polynomials in
Partial Fractions.
fractions
A^A'
X YX'XY'
yy
consequently
letters
of an
ix
Theorem.
sum
Thus
are prime
to
//
such that
For since
C/AB
CX
A
is
is
prime to
polynomials X',
BX'+AT = 1
j^
*
and therefore
C = CX> CT
+ ~j
fractions,
by
101
division,
we can
find
CX'
where
BX + AY
is
fraction
so also
X Y
Y
+>
and then
_,
A and B, therefore
Thus (BX + A Y)/A B is a proper
than AB.
of lower degree
is
CT = n
and
C/AB,
therefore
C + tfO and
To
(i)
To a
nonrepeated factor
xa
of
its
there corresponds
simplest
a fraction of
the
A
form
xa
(ii)
To a factor
 b) n
(x
To a nonrepeated
.
there corresponds
J
xb
(lii)
o?_T\O'/ '***',
i
of
/
(xb)
1\*>
L.
(xb)
(xb)*
2
quadratic factor x
+px + q
of
there corresponds
(iv)
To a factor
(x
+px + q)
+
of
there corresponds
'"
(x
Here A,
Proof
B is
B B2
I}
(i).
Let
prime to
...
x  a, and
+px + q)
'
of
x.
is
a nonrepeated factor,
so
fractions.
Hence
is
constant.
(ii)
that
Let
JS is
B. It is assumed that x  b
n and
(x
6)
consequently
Q = (x  b) n
prime to
is
fractions.
not a factor of
JB,
so
TYPICAL EXAMPLES
102
X is of degree n  1
Hence
Bi(xb)
where
51
+ B2 (xb) ~*+...+ Bn
is
of
Ex.
1.
Express
as the
~ j^*
'
sum
of
an
integral function of
x and
three
proper fractions.
We have
Hence
is
 a) (x  6) (x  c) = x*  a:2
(x
it is
2a + xZab  abc.
4
easy to see that the quotient in the division of x by (x a)(x ~b)(x~ c)
We may therefore assume that
x + a f b + c.
re
5
C
4
xa xb xc*
(x~a)(xb)(xc)
To
by
(A)
a;
'
(ab)(acY
The
values of
and
a4
(ab)(ac)'
(xa)(xb)(xc)
Ex.
2.
a?
a;
5
 
m
Therefore
,
xa
5 =
r^rr
s
(#l) (a;2)
21 43
xl
f
,
=^
2
+T
(*~1)
rr*
8
(a;!)
x 2^
Second method. Find d as before. Next, multiply each side of (A) by (x then put
a?
=l
a?,
r~
l'5
^~
and
;
Finally,
put
a:
=0 in
(A), /.
=
2i
~af 6
let
/.
4.
#>oo
a=
~c~JL
2.
.'.
= 1.
1)
and
103
is
two
steps.
W
...
33?  2x 2  1
Multiplying by (x
ax + b
cx
+d
...
find that
3x*~2x2 l=(a
and, equating coefficients,
Whence
Note that the first and last equations in (B) can be found by (i) multiplying (A)
by x and letting #>oo and (ii) putting x=0. Two other equations may be quickly
obtained by putting x~l and x  1.
,
is
sometimes
3s  2x 2 x 2 x fl
3
whence by
The
a +c =3
= 2,
= 1, c = l,
and
9
find e
and /.
2c
2c=
+ 2d= 2,
and so
2,
rf= 2.
"
__
first
+ d)
x 2  x 4
+ 2c + d = l,
(m)
We
ca^f (c
_
~~ aX
(A),
division,
integral functions
giving a
From
useful.
^ + ^l>
c?
f
(^^ + ^
ea;+/
x + 1, and then
*" (
let
This gives
We have &2 =
 a? ~
= * B+/
'
when
and #3 = 1, whence we
find that
and
It follows that
l=3(
/.
3(/2c)*3(e+/) = l.
This linear relation holds for two values of x (namely, the roots of x 2
It
is
therefore
an
identity,
/2e=0 and
4
x + 1=0).
and so
l=3(e+/),
giving
e=l/9 and /=
2/9.
104
Next, multiply (A)
PARTIAL FRACTIONS
by x + 1, and then let x = 1
;
"
Multiply (A) by (x I)
Multiply (A)
In
(A), let
by
x,
xQ,
and
and then
#=1
let
> oo;
let
3
~(2) .l~
;
= a f 6 f e,
/.
l=a~& + ed+/,
.'.
8*
i
giving c
= ^ + ^ = ^.
giving
;
1
'
(xl)(x> !)(**!)
1
17
!**
*l
s + 1'72
/
2r 6
1 \9
/__
(*l)
'
(x~l)
a;
EXERCISE
PARTIAL FRACTIONS
Resolve into partial fractions
3( *~ 6)
I.
3.
a:
"
'
'
g
'
10
11
'
as the
fl)
sum
(lax)(l~bx)
Hence show that if 1 o&x 2
is divided
quotient of (n 4 1) terms, this quotient is
and
a;
12
'
(a:
Express
r
Ha: f 1
 I9x  15
'
)(a? f2)
15.
'
'
(a;
of a constant
by
f2)"
fractions.
16.
Express
fractions
  
~ =~
<a)(*&)(*c)
.
sum
of a constant
as the
sum
x3
17.
Express
fractions
18.
r
(a)(*6)(ac)
as the
and three ^
proper
_
""
IDENTITIES
19.
Express
r
3.4
rr,
sum
as the
(xa)(xb)(xc)
function of x and
of an integral
6
(ab)(ac)(ad)
(bc)(bd)(ba)
__
(cd)(ca)(c~b)
(da)(db)(dc)
is
equal toaffcfcfd.
20. If ( 1
+ x) n
+ c x + c 2x 2 + ...+ cn xn show
,
x+ 1
x
[Assume that
21.
...
=^ +
v; 2 _
22.
"
that
ct
_c
v;
34 _
___
7142
_^___fL_4__^__ "
1.2 2.3 3.4
_
3.4
vlvy
4_f_l\n
V
;
(
_.
4.5
;
1.2.3
2.3.4
2.3.4
370 T '"'
(n
+ l)( + 2)(n + 3)
24.
n f 1
!
for n,
and put
an =w,
...
= !, a,=2,
105
and
a?=0.]
2(nf3)
CHAPTER
VIII
SUMMATION OF SERIES
1
Meaning of Summation.
integral variable,
and
Let u n be a function
of the positive
let
The function
Sometimes
sn
it is
of
n.
sum
of
terms, where
and
is
For example,
independent of n.
To sum a series to n terms or to find the sum of the first n terms of a series
but this is not always possible.
to express s n in the form just described
is
The sum
of the first
n terms
of the series
ui +
is
often denoted
2.
by
Method of Differences.
v n  vn _
form
to n terms.
For,
1,
where v n
by hypothesis,
whence by addition
is
// we are able
some function of
n, then
to
express
we can sum
sn
u n in
the
the series
METHOD OF DIFFERENCES
Ex.
1.
Sum
the series
'
and since v
Q,
u n ~n(n +
Here
3 +2
f
to
...
f
107
n terms.
l)(nt2)
u n= vn~ vn
where
vw
=i(
(n
4
+ 3).
2) (n
The
last
example
an instance
is
of this type,
sum
to
n terms
is
successive
as follows
which
the series in
"
wn =
where
We
(a
+ w&)(a + n + I
6)...(a
+ w + r
n
un
/>),
a, b y r are constants.
__
_
have
__u n {(a
u n (a f n + r
Therefore w n = v n  v n _^
where
and consequently
Here v is independent
the following rule
of the A. P.
+ n + r .b)
On
b)
vn
5W
f
(a
b)
n
/
= vn  %
sum
of n, hence the
the right of
to
number of factors
and add a constant.
found by putting w = l,
divide by the
so increased
and by
the
common
difference of the A. p.
The constant
substituting
is
for
in v n
as in the next
1.
Sum to n term* 1 3 5 + 3 5 7 f 5 7 9 f
Here u n ~ (2n l)(2wf l)(2w + 3), and applying the
Ex.
To
put
?i
=1
The expression
which follows
. . .
or
by
3)(2
rule,
f
example
=I
+ 5) + 15}.
108
which u n
4. Series in
In Ch. Ill,
of
4, (3), it
is
of degree r
where
a, 6,
division.
e, ...
We
I.
Sum
to
may
Ex.
...
(r
+ 1)
terms,
be found by synthetic
last article to
sum
series of
next example.
the series
2.343.6 + 4.
Here
llK..f(tt
+ l)(n 2 f2).
= (n + l)(n' + 2)
tt
+ 1 )*
+2
+2
+0
2
+1
2
n = n(
therefore
'
constant
'
simple instance
the following
is
Ex.l.
111
Here
(2/il)(2w
+ l)
where
t>
The general
in which u n is
case
is
as follows
It is required to
sum
to
n terms
the series
the reciprocal of
(af n6)(a
where

+w+ 1
6)...(ahntr~l
6),
a, 6, r are constants.
The numerator
is
first
and
denominator.
SUM OF RECIPROCALS
109
(a
u n ^v n _ l v n
Therefore
and
sn
= vQ vn
1
.
Now
where
b)(a + n + 2
b)
...
(a
+ n + r
.6)
independent of
is
The constant
in v n
is
,,
Ex.
for
2.
Sum
the series
4
l.Tc
n(n + 3)
J*
n(?i
+ ^^ +
O.U
l)(n
. . .
.,
7i "f
C== _L,
+ 2)(n
To
"
put w = l in
_L^
1.4
We
have
n
.
11
5
1
u
1
^
""18
which
is
11
" c^ 18*
3.2.3.4*
s^
10
The
last
an instance of a
is
example
scries
P is a polynomial in n of degree m.
m<r  1, this can he summed by expressing P in
is
where
If
a
If
w=r
1,
H
% (a + n&) + a
2 (a 4
n+
4
w6) (a
1/>) 4
do
for to
summed,
the form
. . .
this
we should have
sum
a harmonical progression.
If w>r~l, the nth term consists of an integral and a fractional part
which can be dealt with separately.
to
6.
+
6
a(a +
b(b
a (a +
\)
1) (a
If u n
+ 2)
a(a+
"
term of
is the nth
1)
...
(af
n
1)
sn
rn
= u n (a + n)/ (a  b + I
AT
Also
w,
=w
Therefore
sn
= vn
then
+ *) 
For
where
(afl)fc
v
/
 ~=
r T
ab+1
The
If x
= l,
this series
then
s (1
where
^i
can be
a6hl
v 2 ^u z
a
f
1 ).
_
a~fe+l
1
=
a6 + 1
as in Art. 4.
 x) = w + v& f t'^2 +
= %^o>
>
{w
n
^
* (a
+ n)  a}.
'
+ u n x n where u n
4...
summed
(n
u lt
. . .
If
x ^1,
+ vw a:n  u nx n+l
a Poly
let
= w n w n . r
... t? n
is
1.
Sum
Denoting the
sum by
s(I
Let
+ 2 2z + 3 2za +
we have
the series I 2
s,
. . .
 x) = 1 + So: H 5x* +
5'
+ n*xn ~ l
. . ,
a polynomial in
is
+ (2 H 
xn  1 
x.
SUM OF POWERS
then
a' (I
 x) = 1 + 2x + 2x* f
. . .
111
+ 2a;w  1 
n
(2n l)x
.__
The
8.
Series
+ 2 r + 3 r f
and
cr
...f
nr
= n(nfl),
We
shall write
a'
Theorem. // r is a positive integer, S r can be expressed as a polynomial in n of which the highest term is n r + l/(r + 1 ).
For we can find a l9 a z ... a r independent of n, such that
(1)
where
adding, by Art.
3,
we have
+
The righthand
highest term
is
Show
#*.
1.
We
have
side,
a r (w + l)w(ttl)
when expanded,
n r+1 a r/(r +
that
1),
that
is
n r+l /(r
is,
f
1).
7i
nf W(TI~
...
1)
Also
(2) If /S r
fe
"
r _j, ...
w =/(n) /(n  1 )
therefore
so that
n r = 6r41 {w r+1 
(n
7,
6r+1
""'
1
'
r+1
l)
+ b r {n r  (n  l) r} +
coefficients, it will
h  =
ftr 1
...
r
'
h
6r 
2= n
'
. . .
+ 6r
be found that
h ftr 8=
r(rl)(r2)
112
The values
(3)
of
succession
by
consider
We have
v1 + v 2 + ...+vn =n (n +
l)
Putting n
n  2,
1,
1 in
...
n and adding,
succession for
_5 +
where
last
term
is
rSr+l or Sr
...
..................
according as r
is
(A)
even or
odd.
When r = l,
2, 3,
this
...
formula gives
=4
$3
87
(4)
The values
Let
of
(n
+ l)
and
cr'
then
a=n(n + l)
where
On
(2n + l)=a a,
expansion, we have
*2r4
Putting n
1,
 2,
in succession for
...
Sr
or
(r + 2)S r+1
...
this
n and adding,
(B)
When r 1, 2, 3,
r=l
Jour' =3S2
=
r 2
according as r
is
even or odd.
formula gives
r3
r=5
'

(3o*
BERNOULLI'S NUMBERS
113
from (A)
this
$ 3 $5 5 7
,
. . .
number
//r>l,
all
...
of
/(ft),
1).
immediately deducible
Sr
as the coefficient of n in
2
.
for
S 1 =ln(n + l) and
The numbers
B B4 BQ9
2>
Bv B2 B3
,
is
the following.
the zero
B2m
on
the coefficient of
is
in
(4),
%n (n +
as Bernoulli's numbers.
...
then
(2r
For
Br
many
Art. 8,
n(n +
great
= 1,
define
If r
We
expressed as a polynomial in n.
= 2, and 7?3 , B^ ly ... are all zero;
of
is
Thus
is
a factor of
Bernoulli's Numbers.
(5)
when
 #8
is
l)
(2n
Putting r=l,
is
52w
(B) of
l).
2, 3,
...
in (C),
5B4
.B 2
30"
""
A
691
M "6*
p ~
16
43867
3617
510'
798
'
20
_
~
174611
*
330~
Bv B2 B39
... are
given below.
the Binomial theorem,
,
By
Putting
n1, n2,
Equating the
...
coefficients of
in succession for
n on each
side,
n and adding,
we have
(D)
SYMBOLIC NOTATION
114
Similarly,
it
follows that
n r+l
=ci
and consequently
1
From
and
(D)
(E)
...
+ (ir~ 1 Cj
{1
............ (G)
),
where each
series continues
or Q
till
1, appears.
19
are
to
(F), (G)
equivalent
equations 10', 11' in Chrystal's
Formulae
Equations
etc.,
(D)
(E)
(F)
(G)
Bm
Theorem.
(6)
i.e.
Bm
is to
//
8f =
2r
+ ...+n r where
is
a positive
integer,
then
Sr  rS r _i + Br
(i)
where
is
<d
independent of n and
defined in Art. 8,
is,
(")
S r = r [s r ^dn + nBr
in fact, the
Bernoullian number as
(5).
of degree r
f 1.
Denoting
* r /(*)/(*!)
This relation involves only positive integral powers of n up to n r y and
holds for all positive integral values of n. Hence it is an identity, and we
may
differentiate
Writing n1,
ft
2,
...
/'(n)f{n
where
r is
r1
1 in
Therefore
=f(n)~f'(nl).
and adding,
succession for n,
+ (nl) r
independent of n.
n.
l
+ ...H2^ 1 + r
BERNOULLI'S THEOREM
Br is the
Moreover,
lian
number
No
first.
Ex.
1.
Putting
coefficient of
defined in Art. 8,
(5).
constant of integration
115
n in/(n), and is therefore the BernoulThe second statement follows from the
is
added, for
8, (4),
Sr
is divisible
n.
by
8, (3).
i(r
No
+ l)aV = C[ fl (2r4a)S2r +
constant
Dividing by
(7) I'sin^
/S'
...
2 , N.j
C^
is
the relation
^VM^'ri^ +
.)
we can
//#,.,
S = n,
Thus
by successive integrations.
found by putting n =
n.
B r can
be
=
xS A
2.;
==
we
which
r1
'
r2
3
'"
be written
may
(r
(H)
form
in the
This result
Ex.
1.
8, (5).
n3
n4
by successive
or, starting
with
nz
integration.
n*
~
n1
~2
n3 n
3^~30
n8
"
10
2n 7
7?i
"15
2w 3
"
2
9
_n ^ w + 3
"TO
4"
"9
__7
"T(J
11
30
w*
n2
"20
'
Tl
8
n
In*
_w
s
+ +
"8
"2
T2
In 4
w2
""24"*" 12
66
116
EXERCISE XIV
SUMMATION OF SERIES
A
Sum
n terms the
to
(Arts. 3, 4.)
Exx.
series in
19.
1.
2,
4.
....
6.
8.
...,
to
P+3 +5
2
2+2
+
3
...
+ 3* .4+
5.
7.
9.*
....
...
of
lP + J2 2 + 13 2 + ...+2P.
lP + 12 3 + 13 3 + ...+2P.
Sum
3.
....
n terms
11.
13.
20 3 19 3
+ 18 3 ...+2 3 ~P.
14. !
16. l
17.
Show
(i)
(ii)
18.
Show
that whether n
P2
is
odd or even,
to (n1) terms 1( to (n  1) terms = ( 
+ 3 2 4 2 + ...
1*  2< + 3 4  4 4 + ..
2
that the
natural numbers
is
sum
n
l)
l)
n(n 1).
n(n l)(n*n~
1).
2
^n(n 
first
l)(3?i
sum
20. Find the number of shot which can be arranged in a pyramidal pile
triangular base, each side of the base containing 10 shot.
21. Find the number of shot in a pile of 8 courses
side of the base containing 12 shot.
on a
23. 'Find the number of shot in a pile of a rectangular base, the sides of the
base containing 16 and 10 shot respectively, and the top course consisting of a
single row of shot.
24.
pile of shot of n courses stands on a rectangular base, and the top course
consists of a single row of x shot. Show that the number of shot in the pile is
3, 3, 5,
...
is
Here w f =r(w
l)=nr
(r
l)f.
5, 8,
...
and
26.
Show
if
of the form
is
+ 2 4 + 3 4 + ...+ n*is
that
if
is
B
to
n terms the
,111
__ __
1
2.3
2
2
2
by Pf 2 h3 4...+7i
divisible
by
3
.
3.4.5
3.6
6.
1.3
o
O
F + 2 + 3 + ...4 n
124.
2.3.4
(Arts. 5, 6, 7.)
3.4
1.2.3
m is a natural number
5m f 3, where
then
____
1.2
3.
3m f 1,
Exx.
series in
or
divisible
of the form
is
.+w
Sum
5m f 1
11?
7*""
2.5.8
6.8.
11
8. 11
14
5.
5
6.
8.
__ 2.3.6
__ __
1.2.4
07II + + ~f ~ +
,1 +
2.4
5\"9
JLL
2. 4.
_LL*L*. + "
6^2. 4^6.8
12.
...
32
14. 1
3.4.6
' * *
77
F75
52
13.
72
+ + 2i + ~
1
~
(!+*)(! +2*)
16.
3.
l. 1f 2.2f
3
1*
+ ...
1
n.]
(2rnl)l
(nfl)
3. 9.
*
*
11. 137. 13. 15
115.
""
on
"
n ~ l = a;* " 1
 a:n .]
(a: + n)
[Observe that nx
1
21.
11.]
n 2
BERNOULLI'S NUMBERS
118
22
"'
17273
.1
24
[3
25.
+
+
il
n~
27374
11
23
M
475
3~.
+w
l
'
273
+22
+
+ 2*
'37I
'
+ rel
[5
Prove that
l+n + n(n
v
Sum
26.
n 2
+
to
+ l)
ft
'
r^
f
+ ... xtor
terms =
n terms

+
....
3* 2
/r*
aa
(1
C
1.
If
[Put Ti +
2.
If
3.
n + 2,
1,
...
/(n) = (ir+y(nl).
1 for n in the identity f(n)f(n l)~nr .]
[Use Art.
8, (2).]
Given that
value of
(Art. 8.)
Ss by
3)
where a
n (n +
),
deduce the
differentiation.
4.
5.
Show
8, (5), to find
form
(5),
Bm is to
be written for
B 12
1),
B.
6.
7.
Show
8, (5).
that
C\+WBr + C$+W*Br_
[Expand (2n +
l)
r+l
(2n 
!)'+>.]
z 4
and
J514 .
 \Y (2B 
'
may
the values of
C rb +*2r 'BT _ 4 +
. . .
=r+ 1
CHAPTEK IX
DETERMINANTS
Notation.
Many
'
=
equations a^x f 6j 0, a^c f b 2
=
of x, then
0.
The expression
If the
a^ a^
and
is
are satisfied
a^
aj) v
is
called a determinant
denoted by
or
by
(a^).
a 2x
f
b2y
+ c 2 = 0,
= 0.
y, it is
easy
left is called
denoted by
or
This determinant in
its
a 1 6 2C3
expanded form
C&ifyjCg 4
by
is
^ 2 63 C 1
this expression,
observe that
'
The number
ways.
(ii)
As
is
arrangements
is
six terms.
[3, giving
The sign
in
of
of
f
DEFINITION OF DETERMINANT
120
The
or by an odd
third terms,
Also
in this
2.
a, 6,
number
1
2 3
is
term
is
or
of transpositions.
changed to 1 3 2
by the
23
is
of
Definition
c, ... I, and n
Determinant.
suffixes 1, 2, 3,
an
The determinant
of the
...
bn
bn
c n ...l n
of
performed
letters
2
represent n numbers thus,
By means
we can
n,
(1 2), (1 3)
cn
or
by
(^i^2 c3
ln)>
... l n
is
defined as the
Rule of Signs. The sign of the term a 1 6 2c 3 ... l n where the suffixes
The sign of any other term is f or
occur in their natural order, is +
,
term
is
number
of transpositions
is,
Each
of the
n numbers a l9
6X
...
a 2 62
,
4.
^s
called
an element
of the
determinant.
a i&2c3
i fi
... l n ,
is
and
The expanded form of the determinant has n terms half of these have
the sign + and half the sign For suppose that there are p terms of the first sort and q of the second.
Since the interchange of the two suffixes transforms a positive into a
negative term, p^q* Similarly q*^p, and therefore p = q.
Every term contains one element and one only from each row, and one
element and one only from each column. We can find the sign of any
particular term by the rule at the end of Art. 4, Ch. IV.
:
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS
Ex.
1.
= (I 2 4 X 3 5 )
, ? t Q)
f <u
o 4
o
o/
\
(i)
121
2 H 2 4 H 3 5 )>
and tho
si
Sn
is
(ii)
ajb^c^d^.
~
(
The
last steP is
JL
unnecessary
if
we use the
we may make
Or,
24513,
showing that
three,
() (\ II I ^}=( l
Or
as
if,
14523,
some textbooks
advise,
12345,
is
number
of
so the sign
si s n is
wo count
the
inversions
'
(Ch. IV, 4)
12543,
and
3.
Theorem. A
columns and
its
(i)
determinant
is
unaltered by changing
its
rows into
Let
to a determinant of
4.
any
Theorem. The
order.
is
changed.
Theorem.
of
But
of a
determinant
into
 J,
J=~J, and J = 0.
therefore
122
6.
Expansion of a Determinant
Row
of any
in
Terms
of the Elements
or Column.
Let
Every term in the expansion of A contains one element and one only
from each row, and one element and one only from each column.
Hence,
A can
a 1 A l + b l B l f CjCp
4
a 1 u4 1
b%B 2 4 CgCg,
+ a2 A 2
b}
Bl f b2 B2
cx
Cl
+ c3 C 3
where
To determine
A^
every term of
A which
from a^^s by keeping the letters in the natural order, retaining 1 as the
suffix of a and arranging the other suffixes in all possible orders, the interchange of two suffixes producing a change of sign.
Hence A l is equal to the determinant (6 2 c 3 ), obtained by erasing the
interchange
to the extreme
consecutive
bring
c3
the
to
the
interchange
the top.
of
the
By
column containing
c3
left.
Thus we have
in succession
*3
and now
columns,
By
c3 occupies the
&3
c.
c3 is
unaltered.
this case is 4.
Hence,
<73 is
c8
column containing
c3 , multiplied
by
1)
1.
A~(a 1 b zc B
in the
results are

2.
aa
J
(ii)
Ex.
(i)
The
the determinant
Expand
123
62
63
Prove that
g \^abc
c\
to the
first
row,
fh
A=a
7.
The
(H r )
cofactor
of
The sign
is
of consecutive
determined as follows
rows and columns
(i.e.
required to bring the element to the lefthand top corner. The sign is +
or
according as this number is even or odd. The rule may be stated
thus. For the element h r which is in the rth row arid the sth column,
,
the cofactor
of
= ( l) r + s
(the
minor of h r ).
'
(rl)f (.91).
1.
Find the cofactors of d 2 and c 4 in the determinant A "(a^b^d^).
Omitting the row and column which contain d 2 it will be seen that
Ex.
the minor of ^ 2 = (a 1 6 3 c 4 ).
Similarly
O4 =
1)
in question
4 ^" 3
is
(a 1 6 2 c? 3 )
by
Z) 2 , (74
by the
rule given
above
(a^b
acquainted with
partial differentiation
'
B.C.A.
MULTIPLICATION OF DETERMINANT
124
8.
Identities.
Important
A = (aj)&)
we have a number
(i)
a 2 A + b2 B l + c2 C l = 0,
l
(ii)
61
4 1 f b 2 A 2 + b z A^ = 0.
where
A B ly
...
where
A B
C^ are independent of a l9 b l9 c v
19
19
19
...
is
a 2 A^
The second
identity
is
+ b2 B l ~f c 2 C l = 0.
A = a^! + a 2 ^ 2 f a3 ^ 3
e q ualit 7
therefore
is
Theorem
minant
is
// every element in any row, or in any column, of a determultiplied by a number k, (hen the determinant is multiplied by k.
.
Thus
ka
Conversely,
common
'2
^2
'3
^3
if all
a2
factor k, then k
outside.
10.
Theorem. A
sum
For example, we
shall
the
prove that
a.
a2
o2
oc
63
c.
Denote the determinants on the right by A A' and the one on the
by A".
9
left
We
have
+ a2A 2
a^A^
f
a^A,3
where
And A"
a 19 a 2 a3
,
is
obtained from
J by
and
(or
Theorem.
+ a 2 a 3+ a 3
,
+ a 2 ^ 2 + a3 ^ 3
J +
a +a
a^
all cases.
column), where k
For example, we
is
determinant
is
shall
prove that
e,
+ kb3
63
c3
we have
/r
I
A and
6X
cx
62
c2
left
by
A',
0.
of the above,
/c x
+ I U3
ha
that on the
=*
Now
NOTE.
=oc l A l
J" = a+a4f
any row
a 2 a 3 for a l9 &2
Hence
1 1
125
C3
observed.
one which
(i) When, as in the last part of Art. 11, a column (or row) is replaced by
contains the elements of that column (or row) all multiplied by a number h, then
the determinant is multiplied by h. For instance, if the second column is subtracted
from the
minant
(ii)
is
first,
in the second
changed.
one column
column
(or
(or
row)
row) must be
is
left
126
Theorem.
12.
For
(is
For
K)/
J=0
when x = a;
(x
 a) r ~ l
A.)
of these
rows
and the
13.
result follows.
Examples.
The determinant
in question
[In the
first
is
column
taken
denoted by A.
+2 31)^10209.
from the 2nd to form a new 2nd column,
.
11
taken from the 3rd to form a new 3rd column, and twice the 1st
taken from the 4th to form a new 4th column. In the second step, six times
column
is
is
is
is
1st,
the 3rd
is
Ex.
2.
Prove that
1
If
Similarly
ft
y, etc.,
in
)()(
are factors.
is
a factor of J.
Hence
Since J is of the sixth degree in a, /?, ... , k is independent of th^se quantities. Now
the term j5y 2 S 3 occurs in J, and on the righthand side the coefficient of this term is
 k, therefore k ~  1.
METHODS OF EVALUATION
Ex.
3.
//
a cube
oj is
a f&eo +c<o
127
is
a factor of
cab
Hence show
To the
first
column add
CD
4 bat + co>
wz
6f ccofoco 2
o2
4 6o> 2
ct
a

C 4 #cu
jab
a4&o>4co> 2
.*.
The
Ex.
2.
to
is derived
are factors.
the first,
from
and a
a factor of J, similarly
is
rest follows as in
substitution.
Ex.
Prove that
4.
(6fc)
(c+a)*
(&4c)
a 2 (&4c) 2
c2
a2
(a
Subtracting the
sum
of the
6
be
2(af6+c)
b*
first
6c
bc
+ ba
a+b 
In the
column
is
ac
Alternatively.
If
we
substitute
+ bc
c times the
for a,
=0;
hence a
is
Again,
a factor
if
and
(6 4 c) is
similarly b
and
(a)
62
c2
and
factor of J.
are factors.
substituted for a,
2
a2
(6)
c2
a2
a
62
(
 c) 2
12,
(a
4
b he) 2
is
RULE OF SARRUS
128
Hence, since
is
the remaining factor necessarily being of the first degree and symmetrical, since the
cyclic substitution (a, 6, c) gives a determinant equal to A.
Putting o =
whence
l, b
= 1, c~l, we have
4
= 27iV,
2.
EXERCISE XV
A.
1.
The
SIMPLE EVALUATIONS
fliVa*
Hence the
rule of Sarrus,
which
is
btCMz,
as follows
Negative
terms
Cjtta&a.
:
'2>
V*/
^r
a2 b,c 3j.'
a3.'3 ' C a3
"3.
3^
D=PN
is
the
sum
on each of the six lines in the above diagram on the left, the sign of the product
 according as the line which determines it is drawn downwards or
being f or
upwards, proceeding from left to right.
A more convenient way of using the rule in numerical cases is shown on the
right.
2.
3.
Apply the
Show
rule of Ex. 1 to
show that
f c
SIMPLE EVALUATIONS
129
any term in the expansion of (a^Ca ...) and another term T' is
T by a cyclic substitution involving r letters, the order of the
suffixes being unchanged, then T and T' have the same sign, or opposite
signs, according as r is odd or even. [Exx. 1 and 3 are instances.]
4. If
is
derived from
5.
In the determinant (a 1 6 a c 8
Z ), the
^i>
sign of the term a w 6 n _ 1c w _ 2
M
second diagonal has the sign f if and only if n is of the form 4k
. . .
forming the
or 4& + 1.
6.
'
'
In the expansion of (a
f
aj
occur.
7.
In the expansion of
4
a 26 4c 6^ 1 e 8/
occur.
8,
10.
Expand
the following
Prove that
is
equal to
where
11.
L lf
Jlf2 ,
1 19
m^,
n3
in
Prove that
I
a;
n
a;
y
values
whatever.
w
have
Z, m,
any
[From the first, second and third columns
where
fourth column.]
respectively take a,
/?,
y times the
130
12.
abe
Prove that
6
c
d
d
c
d
new top
to form a
row.]
Prove that
1i
^
i
"*"
'
and that a
and of
this
form.
[Subtract the top row from each of the others and expand with reference to
the top row.]
and u ll =
14. If
o
2
[From the fourth column subtract x times the
and
the
second,
third.]
15. If
u=ax*
y*
.'y
ax + by
xy
b'
c'
a'x
prove that
bx + cy
+ b'y
b'x
first
+ c'y
ax + by
a'x \b'y
'
to
first
16.
Prove that
a
ax 4 by
bx + cy
ax + by
bx + cy
[Multiply the
17.
first
column by
the second
x
b
equal to
(x
by
z
)
2
(ax 4 2bxy
+ cy 2
x
a~x
cx
).
y,
bed
is
x,
=  (ac  b
(a
c)
(6
third.]
METHOD OF FACTORS
bed
B.
18.
x+a
Prove that
19. If 25 ~ a
x+b
x+c
x+d
+ b 4 c, prove
(sc)
2
factor,
(.sa)
6
(*~6)

6,
by putting a
A'
a)
(s
are factors
2,
deduce that
Ns is
the remaining
&~0, c0.]
2
2
 a,
that
(a
a
 a
6)
131
(ii)
(iii)
y
1
Ah/x
21.
Prove that
[Divide the
'6'
/x,
22. If
c/c'
bc'
ca
caf 4 c'a
c'af
ab
ab' + a'b
a'6'
row by
first
b'c',
A~y4aS,
I
fA
b'c'
the second by
example.]
c'a',
the third by
a'6'.
last
prove that
fJL
A2
+ b'c
be
va
Hence show that the following determinant has the same value
x3
a
By
a2
a;
au
a2
Put
a/a'
A,
COMPLEMENTARY MINORS
132
24. If
is
a root of #
= 1, show
that a
4 baj
abed
b
+ cw z + dw 3
14.
Minors of a Determinant.
f
(b
is
a factor of
 d) 2 }.
omitting any number of rows and the same number of columns from a
given determinant A is called a minor of A.
If
of a given minor,
to the
first.
we
Thus
By
seen at a glance.
15.
n o rs
its
Second
sum
of the terms
which contain a v hz
is
Hence A
is
sign, of the
where the
rows
equal to the
sum
form
first
factor
minor.
The sign
of a
product
is
same
133
occurs.
Keeping the
abcde
Therefore, in the expansion of J, this term occurs with a negative sign,
sign of the product is
and the
More
generally,
if
of a
ar
br
cr
df
br
cr '
...
determinant
hr
... rif'
kr
...
kr
'
...
. .
'.
are
where hr hr belong to the sth column and kr kr to the s'th column, then
A ZX  I) r + r '+*+*'(h r kr >) (the complementary minor of (h r kr >)).
>
The summation is to include all the minors which can be formed from
The sign of the product may be determined as above, or as
in Art. 7 by counting the number of moves required to bring h r to the
place occupied by a x and k r to the place occupied by 6 2
'
>
In a similar
(b 1 d 2 )(a 3 c4 e^) is
given by
NOTE.
In the
doublesuffix
sign
Ex.
It
is
1.
'
In
1 VP+^'t" *"+*+
Expand A = (a 1 6 ac3rf4
+(A)(to)
Ex.
2.
Prove that if
aiui
<>i
c8
c*
Pi
Pz
P*
nt
m^
rc 2
m2
Pa
Considering the minors of J, which can be formed from the elements of the first
three rows, the only o^e not equal to zero is (a 1 6 ac a ), and the complementary minor is
Moreover, the term a^c^^m^n^ occurs in the expansion of J, therefore
Again, A
second and
is
transformed into A' by the interchange of the first and fourth, the
and the third and sixth columns. Whence the second result follows.
fifth
MULTIPLICATION OF DETERMINANTS
134
16.
Product
As a typical case
4
left
61
by A and
a^
4
bl
same Order.
then we have
al
6,
a2
Cinvn
1
1
1
1
where the second determinant
the third column add
fourth column
times the
Hence, as in the
last
JJ'H1)
is
first
first
and
and
as follows
first
To
to the
example,
2
.
I
+v
aj, 2
4
1
bfl
1
whence the
result.
The product of two determinants of (he nth order (n>2) can be expressed
in a similar form, and by the same method.
Second method.
It
is
aJi
4
b^wii
a3Z1
4
b3
The determinant A
+ c^n^
l 4
is
c^
the
^A, where
al 2 4 b^w
4
61
m3
a3
4
63
sum
2 4
b^i
of 27 determinants,
two
4
cx
of
which are
and
same
as
^i
ai
c\
b2
a2
c2
and
b3
The second
of these is zero,
and the
first is
b3
equal to
Of the 27 determinants, all are equal to zero except the six of the first
type, in which a's are in one column, 6 s in another and c's in the third.
J
RECTANGULAR ARRAYS
135
Moreover, for reasons similar to the above, (a^c^) is a factor of each of the
six, and the other factor is a term (with the proper sign) of (Iitn 2 n$), there
J = (a
fore
6 c
(I
).
= 4,
...).
(1)
!;
Proceeding as in the
al
a2
li
"2
C2
last article,
fro
n^
Wl
I lit)
W
tin
J = al + bm + cn
!
By
This process
is
it will
be seen that
In general,
the
other array.
(2) Let the
If
number of columns.
the
b2
a3
we form

the determinant
^2^3 f
it will
63
be seen that
J =0.
J
b 2 m^
+ bm
22
62
b,
m
m2
w3
l
is zero.
RECIPROCAL DETERMINANTS
136
Ex.
// *r = a
1.
+ yr + 3r
prove that
^2
S3
The
first
54
two
55
^3
&A
S6
1111
1111,
aj8y&
The
last is
Ex.
2.
y
2
y
j3
a2
S2
Prove
that
2(a t  a z ) (o a  a 3 ) (a 3  ^5(6!  6 2 ) (6 2  6 3 )
This result
is
Reciprocal Determinants.
18.
where
^ij,
l9
...
2b 1
26 2
Let
...
6j
622
^ = (^63
in A.
...
k n ) and
//
is
a determinant of
minant, then
The .following
identities of the
A'
method
type
=A
al A l
n ~~ l
+ fej JBj + c l C l == A
aA% f 6^82 +
it will
and A'
c i@2
" 0>
be seen that
J
A
whence
it
follows that
J'= J
2
.
Any minor
(2)
of A' of order r
is
137
r ~l
then
.
We
and
(A,B<>C) =<LJ
if
2
.
have
A
A
c2
C^
7?
64
000
C4
ca
d1
c2
d2
c3
d3
c,
d.
therefore
and
The second identity
is
obtained by multiplying
11
jLjL\
JLJ\
juL
^2
Oi
/y.
D
B
0001
AS
Two Methods
19.
C3
of Expansion.
With
(1)
A by
and
Let
^=
m
n
m
Let ^j,
jBj, ...
be the cofactors of a v bv
...
in A.
>
and
Again,
r
hence, coefficient of IV in
K=
coefficient of a^r in
=  coefficient
and
of a x
in
K
J =  Al
similarly,
coefficient of
mri
m K=
 coefficient
=  coefficient
Thus
it will
of c2r in
of c2
J =  C2
in
be seen that
Ar  {AJl' + B2 mm' + Cz nn
f
4
C2mn'
DOUBLESUFFIX NOTATION
138
(2)
With reference
Let
a diagonal.
to
c.
/? 2
C3
x2
f
is
+ #3^64 f x^
# B2 f
03 +
x)
in brackets is the
sum
of
x^x^a^ x
The
20.
in the
verification
d2
c2
Cr^efy? 4
7^4
a2
f
K=
&3
Let
and
dl
Cx
&!_
a2
is left
xj) 3 c 2
and
to the reader.
Definitions.
(a&c), (123).
is
often written
form
lw
if
implied that
all
For example,
if
a
h
first
f m
y
is
symmetric and L
determinant is bordered by
the determinant
that the
is
I,
Ox
x
skewsymmetric.
m, n.
We
also say
Symmetric Determinants.
21.
For
A r8
Thus
is
transformed into
A sr
^ = (011
if
au
a 12
a31
a32
a*>.
OM),
Z
a21
32*
SYMMETRIC DETERMINANTS
(2)
J=
K=
139
f m
we have
etc.
a, 6,
...
in J.
Let A, B,
if J=0,
(ii)
(3)
be the cofactors of
...
then
AK==Z (Al +
Because A = 0,
...
a, b,
:'
We
in J.
shall
prove that,
Hm + Gn)*.
is
zero, therefore
^J5ff2 = Jc,
In the same
A n = (a n a22
...
...
and
let
A U) A 12
let
^ n i==(a n a 22
a nn ),
a 12
...
ni)>
be the cofactors of a n
A 22A n A^A n
,
A!, n _ 1 a w _ 1 n )
,
....
For,
in
Art.
19,
(^11^22
is
zero.
Hence, by
Using such
^nl> nl)
and A^A^^A^A^.
(2), A n A 99 ^A^
follows that A n A n has the value stated.
Art. 18,
identities, it
B.C.A.
SKEWSYMMETRIC DETERMINANTS
140
The following
(4)
ax
ax
bx
bx
f
ax
~x
J 2 J 3 J4
Denote these by
J 2 ^3
Jj,
Then
above type.
dx
Let A^
the sequence
>
bx
f
f cx
preceding equation.
A 1? A 2 (A 1 <A2 )
If
cise
XI,
oo
/x2 ,
/u, 3 ,
if
we have
/x t
J4
are
so
Exer
</z 2
=
3
^1
</n3
then A^A^
+,,+>>
fa,
are real
negative.
f
/^2 ,
f
Hence
.
in ascending
oo
is
are
is
negative; hence,
of
Zl 3
= 0;
Skewsymmetric Determinants.
For
cofactors
For
(see
on without end.
22.
(1)
J4 =
if
zJ 3
<A
/^3 ,
oo
and
A x <a<A2
then A^A^
the signs of
are real,
<A
the signs of
J 2 = 0,
A 1? A2 oo
J^O
if
then
2).
J 2 = 0,
A r8
22 , ...
a nn ), if
A rs A 8r
,
are the
A sr
transformed into
c
6
the cofactors of c and
c are
c
b
and one
of these
is
a
1)
and
a
THE PFAFFIAN
141
is
the
= (\} nA=A.
from
also be obtained
thatJ'=J: whence
A by
c
6
(3)
a
(i)
A n = (a u a 22
Let
. . .
J n ^ = (a n a 22
a nn ),
a perfect square.
is
a^,
n _ x ),
where
is
For n = 2,
12
*12
Let
^4
^4 12 ,
...
A n _l =
by the preceding
that a sr =
a rs
... in J n
_!.
n
=
and A sr (l) ~ 2A rs = A rs
be the cofactors of a n a 12
A ll A n = (A ll a ln + A
(3),
Since n
is
even,
Remembering
^ 2n + ...+A lin _
if
If
is
even and
J n = S n2
the value of 8 n *
is
rule.
a hlfllm
hklm
transpositions.
(a)
where
The
rule is suggested
A n A 12 A 13
,
is to be
...
...
a n _ lt n
is to
or by
J3
find that
rule.
Named
the Pfafflan,
an odd number of
when n = 4. By
Whence we
n.
A 12 = 
...
a uv)>
n by an even
by the case
2, 3,
1,
by Cayley,
after J. F. Pfaff.
equation (A),
so that
142
(j3)
n2> we shall
holds when n = 4,
Assuming
Now J n _ 1 = 0,
therefore
it
by
Hence
etc.
of *JA n ,
.JA^,
etc.,
are given
2, 3, 4,
n1
...
and
1,2,3, ...yl,p
+ I,
...
n1.
Moreover, every term in the expansion of P, with the proper sign, must
occur in J n
.
the product
is even,
will
be denoted by
contains a term
M,
(rs),
so that (sr)
which
is
=  (rs).
the product of
and
1,
2,
2,
3,
3,
...p2, p1, p, p +
4,
...y~l, p + l,
The numbers
those in the
n,
l,
p,
first
by %(n+p)
transpositions,
and
n,
1.
same order as
since
follows that
value of 8 n
//
is
1)
numbers
is n,
It
of
<
is
a term in
Jn
so that
i(n p +
rule.
which
is
even,
+a pn *JA p9
occurs in 8 n
thus
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS
This
143
(pn)(l2)(34:)...(pl,p +
is
or
according as
is
Now
even or odd.
the arrangement
+ l,
p, n, 1,2,3, ..._pl,p
...
nl
...
1, 2, 3,
been proved.
EXERCISE XVI
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS
A.
1.
If a
+6
I
ax
c
0.
cx
b
2.
x
Prove that
(&iC 2 ) (#^2) "f ( c i a z) ftA) f
3. If (a l b 2 c 3
+ 6i(c
o2 )
)=0 and
+c
a 2 (6 1 c.2 ) 462(0^2)
(o 1 6 2 )=0,
(^62^3)
f
(& 2c 3 )
4.
Prove that
c a fa 2
5.
aa
Prove that
 a2
l/(a +
6. If
ca
!/(&
+ *)
l/(c
+ a)
''Q'
where
is
03(^62) =0.]
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS
144
7.
Show
that
c
8.
is
'
(a + 64c)(6hca)(c+a6)(a + 6
c
c
skew
determinant
b
I
a
n
x
am
equal to
9.
Prove that
10.
is
6c
c a
a 6
a + 6fc
=2(a + 6 + c){a6c
(6
c) (c
 a) (a 
6)}.
Prove that
equal to (a + l)(6
1
lj
by putting
+a ~
l
I/a, 1
+a
or, directly,
11.
(ii)
(Hi)
(iv)
 ax
by
cz.
6)(a + 6c).
where 2*=
1/6, etc.
PRODUCTS OF DETERMINANTS
12.
145
and those of a 
/,
m, n
prove that
determinant A, when x= a
~
the same, then (x a) p l is a factor of J
rows
become
(i) p
 a) p + ~~ a
(ii) p rows become the same and q columns become the same, then (x
a factor, provided that the common elements are zero or are divisible by (x  o) 2
14. If in a
ff
is
B.
15.
PRODUCTS
is
y
x
y
X
Hence show that the product of two expressions of the form a 3 + 6 3 f c 3  3abc
of the same form.
16.
Prove that
17.
By
a*
where J 1 =a 1 c 1 6 1
1
,
c,
26,
a,
c.j
 2&2
Oj
I^^
left,
^b^
etc.
24,
7 12
2J
/31
/,
2J 3
PRODUCTS OF ARRAYS
146
18.
By
a+
ib
c+ld
c +
id
a  ib
b'+la'
d'+lc'
d'
ic'
V  la'
prove that
2
(a
H
62
+ cz + d2
where l=(6c'),
19.
(a
/2
f 6'
+ c'* + d'*)
m = (ca'), n = (ab')
2
2 2
2
Express (P + 2 43 + 5 ) as the sum of four squares by taking
c, rf and 2, 5, 1,3 for a', &', c', d'.
1, 2, 3,
for a, 6,
20.
By
left,
V
m'
2ir
m'
lm' f I'm
n'
n'
nl'
if
+ l'm
2mm'
mn' + m'n
Im'
+ n'l
nl'
21.
+ n'l
2nn'
=0.
Prove that
=0.
al
a^
etc.
Prove that
(i)
...
1*1...
1
...
etc.
C.
22.
26 t
ab
a + nb
a + b.
a + nb
a + (n
a+b
1)6
a + 2b
+ 2b
a + nb
a. (n
zero.
mn' + m'n
factors, then
is
APPLICATION TO GEOMETRY
147
23. If
prove that u n ^a nu n
called
continuants,,]
(ii)
sin
Hence show
(j3
y) sin (y
f sin (y
(iii)
that, If a,
Use the
 a)
a)
sin
(a
sin (y
last result to
y, 8 are
any
+ sin
/?)
8) sin (a
(/?
show that
angles,
y) sin
8) fsin (a
if a, 6, c,
(j3
/?)
d and
8) sin
sin (a
7
,
where
[(ii)
In
(i)
put
m = (ca'),
~ cos
z
(iii)
Let
a, 6, c,
circuits a, b,
c,
n=(a6
x = cos 2a 4 1
2y + 1 sin
sin(a8)__
),
sin 2a,
d make angles
d and
8) sin (ft
6, c,
8)
= 0.
d are parallel to
respectively, then
= (6c'),
8)
(y
2y,
a,
on
/?,
L = (ad')>
y = cos
2
y, $
M=
2)9 f
= cos 28 +
(bd') 9
sin
sin 28.
with a fixed
N = (cd').
2/J,
line.
By projecting
lines perpendicular to d, a, 6,
_sin(ft
c,
the
prove that
APPLICATION TO GEOMETRY
148
Prove that the equations (i), (ii) are respectively the equation to the
joining (x^y^, (x t y t ) and the equation to the plane through
26.
(ii)
2/2
Show
0.
X/j
^2
"~
'i
Vi
*i
^2
2/2
^2
'3
2/3
23
may
41
line
<!/
Mj
#1
2/1
2/2
fi, C, Z> are four points in a plane and the lengths BC, CA, AB, AD,
are denoted by a, b, c, x, y 9 z, prove that these are connected by the
27. If ^4,
BD,
CD
equation
c2
62
z2
a
b2
a2
x*
z*
z2
0.
11110
[Let (x l9
y^
(x 2 ,
y*
y 2 ),
X2
l/ 2
2z
000
28. In a tetrahedron
by
a, 6, c, d, e,
sphere
is
...
the volume
is
E.
Assuming equation
A B
/ respectively
(i),
prove equation
where (x v y lt
Zj),
(x 2 ,
y2
z 2 ),
...
(ii).
this
)^c>,
11, (iv).
etc.]
CHAPTER X
SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS
1.
Systems of Equations.
variables x,
is
t/, ...
which
If
is satisfied
w=
is
when x = x ly y = y ly
u = 0.
called a solution of
= 0,
If the
be a system of equations connecting x, y,
solution
are
said
to
be
have
a
common
con(x l9 y l9 ...), they
equations
sistent, and (x l9 y v ...) is called a solution of the system u^Q, v~0 ...
Let u =
0, v
. . .
. . .
which each
be consistent unless
exists.
two an equation
free
from
Any
x.
result so obtained
must hold
if
the
To
exist).
solve a
This
all
the solutions
(if
any
is
Illustrations.
= 0,
lu
+ tnv0
u~ 0, v = 0,
2% + 3v = 4.
(2)
// a v a 2
are constants
...
MI
is equivalent to the
= O,
and a l ^0
w 2 =0,
...
w n = 0,
system
system
is
150
(3)
I,
lu
+ mv
Vu + m'v = 0.
0,
the pair of
z, y,
which
...
satisfy
w = 0, v =
also
x, y,
satisfy
m'(lu
which
...
+ mv)+
l(l'u
 I'm) u  0,
(Im
l'(lu
+ m'v)~0,
(lm
and
since
It
Irri
is left
Z'w^O,
same as w = 0,
Any
(5)
M2 = V 2
1/^2^2,
But
^1=^1,
W2 = v2
w1 = t;1
u%
= v2 and w2 = 0,
t;
= 0.
3.
is
formal proof
(2)
to include
The equation ax + by + c
all
has infinitely
many
solutions, unless
hardly required.
= 0.
a solution of
t>
(4)
is
 I'm) v = 0,
is
of the
form Ox + Oy + c = 0.
For by Art.
Wj62
w
2 &!
=0,
 w xa2 + u<p t = 0,
<&
= 0,
INCONSISTENT EQUATIONS
(ii)
//
(a 1 62 )
= 0,
if
(ai& 2 )
= 0, we
For
151
have w x 62  u2 b
(b^) =0 and
Hence the equations cannot have a common solution unless (b^) and
c a
( i %) are
both
zero.
(iii)
many
solutions.
and
u^a^u^av
Hence any solution of one equation is a solution of the other, or else an a
is zero and a 6 is zero.
The latter alternative cannot occur.
For example, suppose that a^O; then by hypothesis fc^O and
a 2 61 = a 1 62 = 0, therefore a2 = and b2 ^0.
Hence the equations are one and the same.
uj) 2 =zuj)i
(iv)
may
be regarded from
Suppose the
(6^2)
bja
We
&2/a
finite
equality.
=
say that in the limiting case when (a^) 0, the equations are
 fe a l or  62 a2
x
by infinite values of x, y which are in the ratio
shall
satisfied
(3)
coefficients of x,
Ifa^x + b l y =
either
x = 0,y = Qor
else
(a^) = 0.
i.e.
This
is
The following
Ex.
1.
=0
=0 or
//
For a lf a 2
a x =0, a a =0.
a^  afa ~0.
and therefore
Prove that if
(Ci4 t ),
LINE AT INFINITY
152
4.
let
.4^
...
l9
be the cofactors of a x b l9
,
J = 0.
identities
+ a 2 C 2 f o3 C3 = 0,
a l Cl
C^ +
we have
...
(7 2
w2
satisfied
of x, y,
we
AQ.
=
If A
// no
is zero,
= and w 2 = 0, w3 = are
(ii) // CjL0, C 2 7^0, C 3 =Q, then u 2 C 2 4 u 3 C 3
the same equation.
In both of these cases, since C3 ^0, the equations w 1 = 0, w 2 = have an
unique solution, which is the solution of the system.
7/C'1
satisfied
5.
by infinite values of
The Line
x,
y which are in
the ratio
at Infinity.
of
 6X a r
:
complete generality we
'
equation/
Ox + 0yhc =
represents the line at infinity.
w = meets the line at infinity
The
is
where
c^O,
ideal point in
For the
lines
w = 0, u + k = Q
intersect
on the
line
Oxf Oy
+ k = 0.
These
// u 1 =0, w 2
and
A =0.
0,
u3 =0
may
may
be
SYMMETRICAL FORM
6.
Two
Equations
in
Three Unknowns.
^O,
........................... (A)
= 0,
........................... (B )
Of the
three
153
(0^), (^2)5
Cj
c i a a)>
oppose
say (a l b 2 )
>
is
 %a 2 + u2a l = 0,
Wj&jj
~ w^i ^
........................... (C)
provided that
c
(fc 1 2 )
(2)
(a v
Suppose
2 ),
(b ly
quantity
is
that
all
zero.
Also
Then
zero.
of the pairs
a2 ), in which neither
we have
(3)
In particular
it
a i x + b^j
are always consistent
are equivalent to
(i.e.
f
cz = 0,
a 2x
+ 6gt/ 4 c^ = 0,
(0, 0, 0)).
They
is
zero.
If (6^2)
If
(4) If (a,
j3,
y)
is
any solution
may
be written
is
If
=0 and
(0^2)
= 0,
................. (F)
zero.
If (6^2)
(6^)
then x=oc,
y==)8,
and
value.
154
NOTE.
Much
Equations
(a*6 2 c2 ), (xyz).
(B),
from
The Equation
7.
to a Plane.
The equation
(1)
Ox + 0y + 0z + d =
represents an
(2)
to
Two
'
equation
d^O
where
= 0, w2 = be the equations
Eeferring to Art. 6, let
In general these intersect in a line, and we say that the
Planes.
two
planes.
equations to the line are 1^=0, u2 Q. The equations may be written in one
of the forms described in Art. 6, (4), where (a, /S, y) is any point on the line.
The equation to any plane through the line u 1 ==0, w2 = is of the form
u l + ku 2
where k
Parallel Planes.
is
a constant.
If
all
^ = 0,
u2 =
We
is
of the
6, (2).
infinity.
Ex.
1.
The condition
may
is la
+ mb + nc == 0.
If the line
where
2.
The condition
~~
may
and
If
meet in a point
if
(x,
lll
a ) = 0,
/
m
/
then
~~
z)
= m/m
and
which
satisfies
value.
Hence the
results follow.
'
m'
I'
r exists
r,
+ mb + nc)faa
r(la
Ex.
............................... (A)
~
n'
'
 n'l) +
(y y') (lm' I'm) =0,
n/n'.
f
(x a)/J=r, (x<xf)ll'~r
mr~wV
4(j8~^ )=0,
we have
nrnVf (y /)=0.
by the same
satisfied
a a'
P~p'
yy'
(finite)
I'
m'
ri
values of
155
r, r' if
=0,
provided that (mri), (nl') (lm') are not all zero : but if these three are all zero, the
values of r, r' are infinite. In the latter case equations (A) are satisfied by infinite
values of x, y, z and the lines are parallel.
9
Three
8.
Unknowns.
Three
in
Equations
equations
i2/
~*~
ciz
Consider the
+ di =
.(A)
A l ^(d 1 b2c,)
let
On
let
19
ly
...
be the cofactors of a l9 b l9
A 2 ^(a 1 d2c3
...
in A.
J 8 (
we have
and
and
Suppose
(1)
it is
u l B l iu 2 B2 + u^B3 ^ Ay + A 2y
similarly,
that
given by
We
........................ (C)
the equations.
Because
Suppose that
zero.
Because
that
2
(A^C^) =A ^0,
is
A^^Q,
to
A^gC^^O,
so that no one of
U2 = o,
w3 = 0,
u^ = 0,
* It
2>
not
Ax   A r
^ = 0, Jy=~J
19
is
zero.*
(A^B^C^
A B C3 is
%==0, w2 = 0,
solution,
Az=  J 3
 AJA, 
all different,
Cr
B.CJU
is
THREE PLANES
156
(2)
= and A v A 2 A 3
If A
since
(E)
A v J2 J3
and at
least
one of
tends to infinity.
d
in
with
the
d.
d
large terms, we see that in
Neglecting l9 2
3
comparison
general the following ratios tend to equality
,
remains
finite,
x, y, z
A :B :C
x:y:z,
A2
lJ
J5 2
C2
A^
B3 C3
:
In the limiting case when A=0, we say that (he equations have a solution
(x, y, z) such that at least one of x, y, z is infinite and
x:y: z = A l B l
C^A
C a = 4 3 #3 C8
:
A l9 J 2 A 3
are all zero, the equations are not all independent and
there are infinitely many solutions ; or else each of the equations (assumed to
(3)
If A,
u^A^ + u 2 A 2 + u^A 3 =
For we have
If no
(i)
A =
//
(ii)
(F)
is zero,
A^O, ^
7^0, then u 2 A 2 + u B A 3
= Q; and w 2 = 0, w3 =
same equation.
are the
the equations M 1 = 0, w 2 =
solutions which are solutions of the system.
many
A.^Q,
have
infinitely
(iii)
(iv)
C,
Ex.
We
1.
// a,
6,
have
1
a2
62
c2
<P
b*
9.
of y, z are obtained
Three Planes.
by the
(i)
(ii)
which
If
A^O
(db)(dc)
(a6)(ac)'
Referring to 8, let
x+y+z~I,
^=0,
w 2 = 0, Wg=0 be the
// A =0 and A l9 A 2 J 3
,
8, (1).
FOUR PLANES
(iii)
// A,
J x J 2 ^s
>
157
common
line of inter
Proof of
Suppose that
(ii).
Jx ^
We
0.
have
J 1 ........................... (A)
A l ............................. (B)
,
which
all the
The truth
of
(iii)
follows
Hence we conclude
0,
to the line
w 2 = 0, w3 = 0.
from Art.
that, if
infinity,
8, (3).
J=0,
common
a point at
which may be
at infinity.
Four
10.
Equations
in
Three
Unknowns.
Consider the
equations
A = (^i^a^) an ^
^ ^i>
BI>
(1)
of a l9 b
...
A =0.
u l D 1 + w 2 D2 + w 3 J53 f ^4^4 = d
(2)
//
A =0,
when every D is
solution except
zero.
(3)
to
be
is
zero, in
This
is
and lead to
similar results.
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
158
EXERCISE XVII
xy + z~Q,
2x 4 3y  5z = 7,
3x  4y  2z =  1.
(i)
(ii)
y+z ~
1,
3y 22 43^
2.
With regard
to the equations
4x 4 7y  142 = 10,
first
l(2x
and
find
3.
n.
2# + 32/4z= 4,
3y  4z) + m (x + y + z)
= n,
inconsistent.
x + y + z6,
find
m.
4. If x, y, z
ax
all
f
zero
where
f
63
+ c 3 H 3a&c ==
not
az + cx,
x*j(l
A fcos
26c cos A
6
and
8.
prove that
.4
+a
cos
).
=a
cos
b cos
jE? f
cos 2
7.
bx + ay
prove that
all zero,
and
6.
a3
prove that
5.
and
by + cz
jftHcos
he 2
 a2
(742 cos
,
^4
a/sin J.
cos
B cos (7
=6/sin
J5
1,
=c/sin 6
ax + by + cz=d, a zx 4 6 2t/ 4 C 2z = cZ 2
a 3 x 4 6 3 ?/ 4 c*zd 3 (da)(d b) (d  c)
a*x + b*y + c*z= d* ~(d a)(d b)(d c)(
,
If the equations
cy
4
bz
6~c
__
az
c
f
ex _ bx + ay _ ax
4
6y 4
a b
^4,
APPLICATION TO GEOMETRY
9. If the three
that
J 2 =0 and J 3
[Since
therefore
unless b 1
:
are consistent
if
Cj
=6 2
c2
=63
if
ca .
Also
.159
xby + cz + du,
y~cz + ax + du,
uax + by + cz
z=ax\bydu,
and no one of a, 6, c, d is equal to  1, then
a= 
1,
then one of 6,
c,
is
equal to
1.
[Ex.
XVI,
10.]
Using the notation of Art. 8, show that if t* l =0, u 2 =0, w 8 =0 are the equations to three straight lines, the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle formed by
11.
them
are
triangle
12.
(4, ),
if
13.
(# 4 ,
2/4,
i JV^A^
is
Prove that
if
c^O,
valent to
and
^=0,
the equations
A^
Show
24 )
,(x^ 9
t/ s ,
may
y\
~
"i
2/3
23
2/4
Z4
n
^*
14. Using the notation of Art. 10, consider the lines whose equations are
U!=Q, 1*2=0 and w a =0, w 4 =0. It is required to find the equation to a plane
which passes through either of these and is parallel to the other.
therefore the required planes are
[We have u 1 D 1 +u 2 D 2 \u 3 D 3 ^u t
~\=0 and
D^A
XaS
Sql/j8Sm
n
Show
to the second
first line
and
is
parallel
is
is
lines
a (x  a)
16. Using the notation of Art. 10, show that if ^=0, % 8 =0, t* 8 =0, w4 =0 are
the equations to four planes, the vertices of the tetrahedron bounded by them
/'A
f^r> y^
the tetrahedron
jr)
>
is
**A
/A
(jr*
ff
ID
>
77
>
e ^c
>
an(^ * na ^ tn
volume of
DDD
160
17.
(ii)
D is zero,
then
(a) If all the fninors of A are not zero, the four planes are parallel to a certain
line, that is to say, they have a common point at infinity.
(/?) If every minor of A is zero, the planes have a common line of intersection
or they are all parallel.
For example, if
and we consider the planes u l9 u 2 i/ 3 Since D 4 =0,
two of these, say u l9 u 29 meet in a line which is parallel to the third.
Also, considering the planes, u l9 u. u^, since /) 3 =0 the plane w 4 contains or is
parallel to the line u l ~0, M 2 =0. Hence all the planes are parallel to the line
A^O
x\ (6^2)
18.
a 3c l
= yj (Cjda)  zf (a^).
f
iC 3
26^3
= 0,
a tc 2
+ a^  2bJ) 2 = 0,
prove that
gl
[Prove that
L lf
20. If
Jf ,,
a;,
~ 2&1
^ 2 (i
Cl
c i^i 2 )
.
X= N
prove that
P
where
etc.,
1'
N XN Y=L M
given by
l lt
lt
etc., in
the determinant
The question of
Here we illustrate
Ex.
1.
Find
to
y, ....
x *+ y * +558=50,
3
ir'+^+z  32^2 = 146.
If
2
Z>
2g = 50,
are
^2 .
y are given by
= m v f
elimination
and X,
t,
11.
19,
pqr = U,
p 3^146;
 23,
find that
p =2, then
Thus
x, y, z
giving
or
161
1
^147.
the roots of
y, z are
order,
and there
is
no other
rational solution.
(2)
solution
may
a particular determinant.
Ex.
Solve
2.
x 2  yz = a,
zx = b,
z2
 xy
c.
y
x
The
cofactors of x 9 y,
if (x, y, z) is
be
are yz  x", zx ~ y 2 , xy  z 2
z,
/.
Hence
3  3  3
z
3xyz  x
y
y
x
z 2
)
^Ax.
a solution,
a 2
b 2 =Ay
a, b, c, and adding,
3abc  a 3  6 s  c8 = A (ax
+ by+cz)
ab
c 2 ~Az.
Multiplying these by
 A2
in
which there
(3)
Ex. 3.
is
no solution unless
+ 6s f c3  3a6c)
x(xa)=yz,
Let x
*J (a
l/X, y
1/7, z
= l/Z,
X YZ
2
z(ze)=xy.
y(yb)=zx,
Y*2
o
Therefore, as in Ex. 2,
where
the
first
a 2 be,
and k
is
to be determined.
Substituting in
equation
\
k_(k__ a
&_
A\A
therefore, either
or
k (BC
~A
8
)= a ABC, giving k (a
y, z.
(0, 0, 0),
+ 63 f c 8  3a6c) =  A EC
SOLUTION BY SUBSTITUTION
162
In
(4)
In equations involving
useful.
Ex.
4.
x, y, z,
we may
solution
t'x.
is
+ bt + c2) . x {i + mj),
x^Q,
if
by
+ mt)/(a + bt + d 2 ),
(l
2
(a + bt + ct
where
(V
tx,
2
m't) = (' + 6'e + c'J (Z + mi).
=
become cy* my, c'y 2 m'y,
f
solution
7/a
(5)
sometimes
x *( a
Hence
write
is
Solve
ax*
One
y = tx
=
y tz, z
the substitution
x = x 1 ,y = y l
/.
cm'c /m =
and
...
is
"V
x ~~~ Ju\
*&r. 5.
One
A
"V
y ~~ y\
/S'o/ve
solution
is (6 tc, c fa,
ar
+ 6), and
if
we
write
Hence
if
none of the
three,
1
X, F, Z,
+ __1
Z""
I
9
i# zero,
+ !___!
X~
Special cases.
If
This
JT=0,
gi ^es
7=0
L_^I
X+Y~~
2_1_1
X~a b
'
we have
c'
and
Z^O,
then a=0,
have any
value.
If
JC=0, 7^,0,
Z^Q,
then 6=0,
c=Q and
7,
^ may
7Z + a(7+Z)=0.
Ex.
6.
The
eight solutions of
x*
+ 2yz=a,
y*
+ 2zx=b,
z*+2xy=c,
.......................... (A)
are given by
where
X"
and
By
k=>J(a + b+c).
addition,
From
where
(+i/ + z) 2 =a + 6+c,
/.
x + y + zk.
X~k~Zx.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATICS
Adding the second and third
163
of equations (A)
first,
we
easily
find that
^V
A/

and solving
for
z
,
Another solution.
=6+ca;
A
(say),
2
2
2
(x + w y + ojz) ~ a + o>6 + co c = B,
o> is
of
1.
x+w zy+a)Z=*/B,
root of A and so for *JB,
x + y + z=JA,
where *JA
From
is
either square
x+a)y+a) z=,JC
............... (B)
*JC.
Also,
(B),
%c
and
These
Ex.
7.
^^
results agree
Show
that, if the
if
equations
(A)
are consistent, then
abc
From
6V + c z = (4/
2 4
Also
 26c) y*z2
with two similar equations. Substituting in (C) and dividing by x*y*z* (assumed not
to be zero), the result (B) follows.
Special cases.
(i)
If
then
C2 a =0,
it will
be seen that
and c=0;
=0, y=0 and 2^0, the equations reduce to the single equation c 8 =0;
(ii)
and thus do not constitute a system of equations.
Thus, if the equations (A) form a system of equations with a solution other than
(0, 0, 0), then the condition (B) holds.
If
164
Ex.
Prove
8.
that, if
and
no two of
x
then, if
(bc)
a, b, c are equal,
z
xyz
"
(c a)
(a~b
a^x 2
'
ax + by + cz)
x(
+y
Multiplying these by (x
find that
by + cz)
\y(ax
+ by  cz)
(ax
z),
f
+ by cz)=Q,
z(ax
respectively
and subtracting, wo
xy{y(ab)+z(ca)}=xy{z(bc)+x(ab)};
similar equations can be obtained.
is zero, we may write
and two
z, y, z,
y(ab)+z(c
Hence,
if
a)k,
no two of a,
+x(ab)=k,
z(b c)
x~
are equal,
b, c
Hence, assuming
~
a) (a
~
2
none of
the three,
x(
k(b c)
(c
whence also
that
j~
0)
ax by  cz
(b+c)(ca)(a~b)'
2
2
2
Zax(axbycz)^X (bc)(ca)(ab) 2a(b c
.
A 2 (6c)2(ca) 2 (a6
and the result in question follows.
The consideration of special cases
is left
to the reader.
EXERCISE XVIII
1.
If (a,
u
prove that
a^^^^^
and consequently
common
root is
the necessary
E=0,
and
R = (ac' a c)
f
2.
Eliminate
x,
ax 2 + bx + c0,
Show
have a
where
a'x 2
where
+ b'x + c'Q.
is
f
a 2a' zz*  aa'bb'z* + (b z a'c + b /2ac  2ocaV) z 2  bcb'c'z + c 2c /2 = 0.
a//T,
/a
//T is
obtained
SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS
165
* 3 + 3^ = 8,
4.
X 2y + xy 2 + x + y^3,
5.
x(ly*)=2y,
6.
x + y + z = $,
7. (y
*2
8
'
xy+(x + y)=2.
+y
l)
y(Ix*)=:2x.
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ^ 29,
[Put
2(x  l)(y 
(x
a; 1
25
8
"
'
9.
10.
=l6xy,
^^Qxy.
x
12
l^
^ 
15.
[(
a>
a z y~
4.
i
y
. _
a z x a
?
2 2 ==a
+ 2/"f z,
2
2:
4a;
6i
 x 2 = 6 s  7/ 2
yz + zx {xy= a
2
+ y)(a? + 2)=o
[Put
18, ayz
X(ab) + ab
zf re,
 22
etc.]
1_ d
A2
16.
a;lA, y
[Put
i/
/,
13. (l~rr) 2
14.
4. y2
a y a a?
1

<2
11
C
~~
x=
+ by + cz= bzx + cz f ax ~
19.
20.
= _ = ..2
+ 0;
X47/1
21.
22.
x(bcxy)=y(xy~ac),
xy(ay+bx  xy) ~abc(x + y  c).
x)=by (zx)(zy)=cz.
2
xy(cz)cz 2
zx(by)=by
23. (xi/)(2:2)=aa;,
24.
yz(ax)=ax
2
,
(y ~z)(y
25.
26.
27.
28.
'
'
x+y=x' + y'=r,
112
112
=
.
y'
,
x'
and
ELIMINATIONS
166
29. If
5a?
5t/
2
pr0ve
y+\=x,
that
and
solve
the
equations.
30. If
}^
o
=~+
x
=a + b, show
that either
+ y=a + b.
or x
4^41=0
b
2)
from

and ax + by + czQ.
CL
x3 y*~ y*x*=a* and aMy= a, and a:, y are unequal, prove that
2
8
2
2
2
~
(iii) 3a (s 4t/ )=
(ii) 3a 3a + 3a 1 =0,
xy = a*(al)l(2al),
4
4
2
3
3 =
and (v) 3a(a; + t/ 4 l) = 2+4a
3a(z 4y ) 2a,
32. If
(i)
(iv)
1,
yV + (y + z)
33. If
2 2
a: !/ 4
then will
(zfir)
(x
Ayz 
+
+
+ i/) 2
+ A,
f
x^y,
= 1 f A.
111111111
__
__
__
__
__
y\~z
__
y
_,
_._
__
+x
x\y
36. If a
f
that
2
2
[Use the identities (6y + cz ax) = (bz + cy) ,
37.
Given that
a 2o: 2
and
Sh
etc.]
f
b 2y 2
W
38. Eliminate x, y, z
from
(
(x
+ yz)(y+z~x)~bzx,
(y
+ zx)(z+xy)=;cxy,
is
abc~(a + b + c4)
39. Eliminate x, y, z
41. If
a;
a?
4t/ f2
from
x + yz=a,
40. Eliminate
a:
a
t/
2 2 ==6 2
x8 + y8 2 3 =c 3
xyzd*.
and y from
2
= l,
+ 2y 432=3,
a;
3o;
+ y42 = 3,
8yf52=
3.
prove that
CONSISTENT EQUATIONS
Show
42.
167
are consistent,
and
x y
find
z.
and
x 2  ayz ~y 2  bzx = z 2  on/ f (a; 2 + 1/ 2 + z 2 ),
a 2 f & 2 4c 2 = 2a&c + l and z a /(l a 2 )^2/ 2 /(l 6 2 )=z 2 /(l c 2 ).
prove that
Show
44.
that
z=c is a solution of
3
3
px* + #y f rz = &M/Z,
if
a, ?/=&,
then
xa(qb* ~rc 3 ),
is
i/
another solution.
45. If
3/
7V
(y + zx)
*
+ xy) = 
(z
(x
that
y)=c
2
.
u2 +
xz+zu),
are equal, prove that each
48. If x lt x 2 ,
... Xf,
2
2
z
2
equal to %(x + y + z + u ).
is
and
2
prove that
49.
(i)
x1 2 + xs 2 ~(k* 4k 2 + 2) a:^.
from the equations
x
ax + by + cz + eft = 0,
a a; 6'y I c'z f rf^ =0,
Eliminate
x, y, z,
I
x
showing that the result
&
f
c
f
 + 6'
 + c d'
T =0,
x
y z
+ =0,
a'
f
is
m = (ca
where
l(bc
)9
L = (ad'),
(ii)
Use
n = (ab'),
),
N=(cd').
M=^(bd'),
XVI,
25,
(iii).
[(i)
LV }
Prove that
...
...
(x*t )yz
the unwritten fractions being obtained
2
t/
z\
for x, y, z 9
...
v. ,
(y z*)xt
by the
1
Let # = cos aftsina, y = cos f t sin j5, etc., where a, j8, y, 8 are the
angles which the sides a, 6, c, d make with a fixed line. By projecting along
and perpendicular to this line, prove that the four given equations hold.]
(ii)
CHAPTER XI
RECIPROCAL AND BINOMIAL EQUATIONS
Reciprocal Equations.
1.
reciprocal equation
a,
a xn
then
+ a^"1 4
a nx n
. . .
+ art^x*" 1 +
a reciprocal equation
is
(A)
any
+ a n _yX + a n = 0,
.....................
(A)
...
I/a, l/)3,
Hence
is
an equation
be the roots of
...
/J,
a.
If
is
Denoting each
of these fractions
+ a x x + a = 0.
. .
if
by
and only
if
we have
k,
an a
so that
We
&=
1.
=
/or r 0, 1, 2,
Theorem
...
n.
TAe
Let f(x)
=a
x n + ajX**" 1
xnf (
\3//J
f
Therefore/(z)
(z
is
2m + 1
f
an =
be a reciprocal equation.
that of
// this
2m + 1. Then
+ 1) 4a 1 x(a;
divisible
by x h
2m ~ 1
1,
+ 1) +
and
if
may be
m
+a mx (x + 1) = 0.
the equation
...
</>(x)
+x
=
is
is
is
written
the quotient,
x+
X
hence $(x)
=/()
=
f(x) a
solution of
first
Let n = 2w +
xn
is
/( x/
169
/(#)
1.
2m (} =
by x 1, and that, if <(x) is the quotient, then x
with the same result as before.
= ~a m
Again, if n = 2m, since a r ~ a 2 mr> ^ follows that a m
therefore a m = Q.
Hence the equation may be written
divisible
<
/(x)
=a
(x
Therefore /(x)
1)
+ a 1 x(x 2  2 
divisible
is
equation
We
the
of the first
if
<f>(x);
and
+a m _ 1 m 1 (x 2  1) = 0.
tf
<^(x) is
the quotient,
=
</>(x)
...
2
by x !, and
Thus
1)
is
type and
of
of the standard
is
form when
it is of
first
Theorem
The
2.
and of
2m
degree
depends on that of an equation of degree m.
Let the equation be
1
a x2m 4 fljX 2
4 ax + a = 0.
4. . .
Dividing by
xm
this
may
be written
1 \
Let x f
^=z
and x r +
xr
=t/ r so that
,
1\2
u*=z
+ ) 2 =
,
A
.(A)
.
then
2.
x/
x+
Also
= 3,
and so on.
Thus equation
z 1 is
= ^ + r ) + (x*~* f iA
+ ^
^xv V
x 1 /) f\
xr 2 /
7
"
wr = 2w
therefore
Putting
} (x'~
x/\
4,
...
in succession,
a?
m in z, and
if
 z^x + 1=0.
170
verify that
#*.
Solve 6s5
1.
One
root
is
 7z,
14z 3
4 1
Dividing by x +
1.
+ 1 1* + 6 = 0.
we have 6x4 + 5z3  38x2 + 5x + 6 =0.
1,
2
Dividing by # and grouping the terms,
If 2
= 3; + ,
this
.".
Whence we
becomes
find
a;
2"
6(z
an d x
or ~^sr
= 2,
,
3
that
2)+5z38=0,
i8
gi y ^ n
hy
x\
(1)
If a
(2)
//
common
For
is
root of
xn 
prime
to n,
ar
so aZso is
=0,
= or
or ~J.
2.
is
is
i^Aere r is
2, ,
any
3,
integer.
the equations
root except 1.
if
is
common
positive integers.
root,
Therefore
(x.
pmqn=
(See Ch.
1.
is
1, a,
2
,
...
a*
is
I, 4, (3).)
any imaginary
Hence a = l.
root of
xn 
=0, $e
"" 1
.
For every one of this set is a root and no two of them are equal. For
a
a~ =
l, and the
suppose that the two a and of (a>b) are equal. Then a
n
b
=
=0
and
x
1
o^~
l
have
a
common
This is
root.
equations
imaginary
 6.
is a
for
and
n
is
thus
n
to
a
l<a 6<w,
impossible
prime
prime
fe
If
(4)
of
xn
n=pqr
1 =
...
are the
wAere p, q,r,
...
where a
is
cases.
Any term
(a
and
similarly
(/J )
=* 1
and (y )*
= 1.
/?}/ , is
= (a*) a *r = l,
a n
5
a root.
For
all
SPECIAL ROOTS
any two terms are equal,
If
w hich
=0
and
since
aj8 y
htsin 
where
xn 
of
prime to
is
if
instance,
=a
&/
'^9
c/
is
^ftftyc'^a'a^
and oca '~ a is a root of x p
for
171
6
= 0,
/x
qr,
=0
>
l=0
these equations
are
w1.
i
1, 2, ...
2r7T
cos
2riT
sin
= l,
.,
where
is
<f>(x)
or
...
2,
is
r = l, 2,
If r is less
(1)
v
'
= 0,
same
but
to
than n and prime
r
i
.
I or,
1
is not
type.
TH
.
&
&
n
,,
sm
2rn\ m
cos
Therefore
divisible
by
rm
is
n.
This
where
1,
2rm7T
2rm?r
sm  = 1
h
Definition.
is
by
and since n
n,
of
xn 
The
roots of
special
r
prime to
number
#w 
1=0
is
and of
degree,
the
m<n,
is
prime to
r,
must be
is
are cos
hi sin
n
where
r<n and
n
Thus, x
is
the
of
r<w
2f7T
cos
db
sin
2r7T
a root of
m<n.
=0 which
2rir
is
.
sin
impossible, for
Any root
divisible
then
2rrr
then cos
n,
root of
2r7r
cos
if
If
or
...
z are
n
Special Roots of x 1 0.
3.
xn 
10
v
where
M
711
rt
fj8,
^J,
^
etc.,
B.C.A.
172
If QL
(2)
is
>
c, ...
=0.
xn 
I =0, the
complete set of special roots is
are the numbers less than n and prime to it,
root of
(3)
than xn 
of lower degree
is
including unity.
a is any number less than n arid prime to it, the remainders when
3a
... (nl)a are divided
a, 2a,
by n are the numbers 1,2,3, ... w1,
taken in some order or other (Oh. I, 10). And since a n 1, it follows
~
that every number in the set oc a a 2a a 3a ... a (n 1)a occurs somewhere
in the set a, a 2 a 3 ... a n1
Therefore a a is a special root.
For
if
4.
(1)
Let
A =a(cos a +
(
\
are
^/a
For by De
its n values are
2r7rl
h
where
J,
,
ft sin
where a =
sin a),
a + 2r7i
cos
= 0,
_
1, 2, ...
o,.
it
cos
1.

4 i

sin
cos
n values of
^A may
a\
f i
sm 
cos
n/
n
r?r
sin
h t
he found by multiplying
roots of xn
+ 1 =0
are
This
is
iivsm
Solve x 5 
Ex.
1.
real root is 1.
~0.
Deduce
where
The
= A(),
cos
The values
of
then
a;
22
fz1^0,
are
#2
is,
54
TT
.'.
cos 
=coa 0JO
36
s/5
^ +
1.
,+aif
f

+ 1 =0.
a:
2(ls/5).
giving
cos  o
n ~
or
2=3 + 
1, 2, ...
1,
in (J).
77
Dividing by x
sin
=1
2)

5
l
and 2 cos
,
and
Now
55
54
.
2?r
cos 
72
=cos ,,^0
cos
V "!
= ^
),
any value of
The
and
r,
all different.
(2)
bmce
^4
 cos ;
SOLUTION BY QUADRATICS
Ex.
2.
the roots.
173
What are the special roots of a; 15 1=0. Find the equation of which these are
Show that this can be reduced to an equation of the fourth degree. What are its
roots?
The numbers
The
2, 4, 7,
cos
15 are
~
sin
(r
ID
15
roots of z 3 is
4
(x
x+
= 1,
1
5
(x
2, 4, 7).
and xb 1) and
x  x1 + ar  x*
8
+#
 a; +
0.
is
=0,
thatis,
If
ZX + , this becomes
that
z*
is,
2f7T
(r
r^
15
5.
 z3  4z 2 + 4z + 1 =0,
= l,
2, 4, 7).
this equation
the solution of
This can be
proved as follows.
of
2f7T
cos
=y
x17 .
=0
2f77
sm y=,
are
= 1,
^
where
rk
2, 3,
...
8.
Let yr = cos
then we have
y
,
ynr = yr
Also the
sum
of the
and
imaginary roots
is
1,
therefore
On
trial, it will
like result.
Let
then
t/j,
will lead to a
174
It follows that
relation connecting a,
any
j8,
Such
By
a + j3 + y +
(B)
8= i ................................... (E)
ay i
to* 2/1^8+
2/42/2
+w^^
ay =  ^ ...................................... (F)
therefore
Consequently
j88
we can show
Similarly
^
...................................... (G)
that
Then by
a + y = 2A,
Finally let
A+^= ~i
(E)
Also
4A/x,
2/2>2/8
+ j3 =
y ~2fy + y 0
2
+ 8 0
2/ ~2yy
2/6,2/7
^/*
2/
Thus
this
by the
cyclic sub
2ocy
2/3.2/5
Since cos
quadratic
(K)
+ 82/iV =
is that
which
to
77,
is stated first.
Thus, starting with the last equation and working upwards, the values
of y l9 y 2 ... ys can be found, and then the roots of x 17  1 =0 are given by
,
2^3 + 1=0,
Ex.
1.
etc.
Express cos
as a surd.
and
=
Also
and by
(I),
(34 2^17),
g^
REGULAR
therefor.
cos 
17GON
175
NOTE,
The
(i)
cosines of
~,
...
^=
surd values of the sines of these angles involve one more radical sign.
(ii)
It
is
(Ex.
XIX,
22.)
Any
construction.
To
Let the vertices of a regular inscribed 17gon be marked 0, 1, 2, ... 17, the
The ordinates y l9 y 2 ... ys of the points
point
coinciding with B.
,
marked
The
t/ 3 ,
y5 in Fig.
27),
we have
to
draw the
marked
o>,
A,
/z,
The
To draw the
j9,
y, 8.
(i)
The
circles a,
j3,
y, S meet
y=0
at the
as diameters, respectively.
For, since the equation to the circle on
By,
same points as
the circles
on
J5jS,
J58, J5a
_
2
which
is satisfied
by
x=
*J
 f$,
J5j8
as diameter
is
~
/
.y=0,
we can draw
the circles
j8
und
y.
REGULAR
176
(ii)
to the circles
j8,
circles a,
/3,
17GON
y, S are equal to the tangents
from
y, 8, a, respectively.
For (diameter of
tangent from JB to
Q a) = 4 (a
Q = 2
j8
of
8.
14,
Construction.
With centre co
With
p.
centre A and radius A J draw a circle cutting yOy in a, y. With centre ft
and radius /i7 draw a circle cutting yOy' in jS, 8. Draw the circle on By
as diameter cutting Ox in G. With centre jS and radius $6 draw a circle
f
cutting yOy' in
t/3 , j/ 5 .
Through y 3 y 5 draw parallels to x'Ox. These lines meet the given circle
and 5, 12 of the required 17gon, which can be comthe
arc 35 at 4 and setting off arcs equal to 34.
pleted by bisecting
Or we may draw the circles a, y, 8 as explained above.
,
in the vertices 3, 14
177
EXERCISE XIX
1.
2. x*
3.
2# 4 + 3z 3 + 5* 2 + 3a; + 2=0.
4.
2x* + x* I7x*
5.
2x* +
5x*5x2=0.
6.
7.
2z 6
8.
9.
f
l+(s + l) =2(* + :r +
2
1
[Write this x* + x* + (x + x~
+ Qx*5x* + 6x + l=Q.
+ x + 2^0.
4
.
I)
to
10. If sn
~l+u + u + ...+un
where u n
un+l Un
and
*n=T92
*j
xn +x n and
z=x + x~
prove that
+sn = 1
[1
11. If a is
2
n=
xn
+ a5
as
12. If
13.
15 the
JL
10 depends.
and
(1 ar)(l
ar')=2z.]
+ a4
is
The
special roots of
2T7T
The
sin
special roots of
values are
d
x9
1=0
2f7T
n+ l
equation on which the solution of x*
x~ n
cos 
sin 
where
x 12
)
by
12
[To find the equation, divide a; 6 L.C.M.
of
a;
the
x*
i.e. by
1,
L]
\
15. If a,
/?,
~ 1,
1=0
that
1^0
+ x* + 1~0, and
=0.
their
2, 4.
is,
f 1
g(N/3
by the
# 4 a; a f
t).
L.C.M. of
x2 
1,
#3 
1,
x*
1,
x9 
1,
3
2
y are the roots of o# f bx + cx + d=0, prove that the equation
1
l
l
*
whose roots are af, 5
+ , yf a
^
y
is
x*
4
Show
is
divisible
by
kx f
a/?
= l. Then
178
17.
all real
if,
(ii)
least
(iii)
x + x~
[If z
l
t
then
z*
f
real
pz + q 2 = 0.
Let
z l9 z 2
or
i(z 2
&=i(i>/z7^4)
if (fgf
I)*<p
2
.
4).
any value of a: is real, one and therefore both values of z must be real, and so
p*>4(q2). The conditions in question can now be obtained by considering
the equation whose roots are z^  4, z a 2  4.]
If
18.
// in
the last
example
l)*=a(x* 
1)
and
etc.]
x^ 1, prove that
'
x~
2(1 a)'
Also if 0<a> 16, the given equation has three real and two imaginary roots,
if a <0 or a> 16, the only real root is 1.
but
20.
Show
that, if r
is
any
(4r+l)7r
2fTT
21. If
for
inscribing
regular
in the
pentagon in
circle.
In the figure
OH=\QA, and
and
^^
and
(I
1,
+ N/(342 x/17) + 2
sin=V(i~iy2) and
{!
+A
CHAPTER
XII
TheCubic Equation.
1.
is
If
where
= ay = ax + 6,
becomes
= ac6 2
//
If 2
If a,
j8,
2.
is
+ 3//z +
6'
................................... (C)
a ft/a,
fl
+ b/a, y + ft/a,
a/3 + 6, ay + b.
+ 6,
(B).
(y) 2
is
G=^a*d
the equation
z
obtained by putting
The
(y) 2
>
= 3H{a 2
q
resulting equation
r = G/a*
(<*)
for
2
,
is
aV + 18a4^
...............
(D)
.................................. (F)
where
.................... (0)
so that
The function A
is
+ 4#3 = a 2J,
is
and
roots.
its
t/
vanishing
should
CARDAN'S SOLUTION
180
3.
may
and then by
be real,
(H),
in pairs, the
J<0.
be real
Hence if J<0, all the roots are real and unequal ; ifA>0, one root is real
and two are imaginary.
Also it follows from equation (D) that J7 = 0, 6r=0 are the necessary and
sufficient conditions for three equal roots.
Cardan's Solution.
4.
z=az + 6,
If
the equation
az + 3&z h3czhd =
3
becomes
z
z = w*~
Let
Comparing
(B)
+ w*; then
and
(C),
.............................. (A)
 3rwn*z  (m + n) =
m*n* = H, m + n=
G.
................ (C)
........................
(D)
If
m*
are Q, ajQ,
<*)
Q, where
CD is
of unity.
Also, because
H/Q,
Hence the values
of
z,
that
is
ri*
are
<*HIQ,
of
ax 4 6, are
NOTE. If C? 2
of the cubic are real, but Cardan's solution
them in an imaginary form, which is very unsuitable for practical purposes.*
In this case a solution can be easily obtained as follows.
gives
5.
G 2 +4H 3 <0.
Taking the
equation
z3
when
6r
+ 4Jff <0, a
+ 3Hz 40=0,
This
is
................................. (A)
irreducible cote.
30
is
known, cos
determined by
is
0i cos 30 =
Let
181
(B)
so that
cos 3
3ff
q*
+ ^cos0+
2
^
(C)
'
v
ff
2>//P
Now
G?2
<If
equation.
ifif
is
3
,
and so a
(D)
,___..
real value of
jcosl
^x.
1.
reduced
+ 3&# 2 + 3cx + d =0
3
// all the roots of ax
tJiat
the equation
can be
to
3jf^=0,
where
27/x
<4,
xp
A= 3#=3(6 2 oc).
where
aj
real.
+4# 3 <0,
/.
#<0
and
h>0.
Writing
z=*Jh.t,
substitution
x~
NOTE.
reduction.
The
XXIX,
M =af
co y,
a> is
~ .t.
+ >Jh
=1,
of unity,
+ CO + C0 = 0,
2
CO
(0
^=1^3.
letters a,
/J,
y transforms
either of the
+ coa +
a>
y)
3 ==
(cua
i3 into
3
co ^8
co y)
= coW 3 = M3
the
3.)
.L=ahco/Jf
CU
(1)
= GI*Jh\ and
Let
where
jj.
(See Ch.
Two
6.
where
t*~t+p.~
is
L and
M are functions of
the differences
1f cof
j8
a>
o/a>
j8,
y.
For since
=0,
+ h, y + h
for
a,
j3,
y.
makes
182
(3)
We
wM = 2j8 ~ y  a,
orL +
a>
cu
M = 2y  a  0,
by Ex. XII,
Also,
a>
L  wM =
a>L 
'
cu
a>
co
a>
oj
2
)
(y
 a)
 j8)
) (a
9,
Z 3 + M 3 = 27/a 3
Therefore
..............................
(A)
Moreover,
(4)
From
it
Ae
roofs of
which
7.
is
The Cubic
Sum
as the
of
Two
3
2
// u == ax h 36x f 3cx + rf, ^Aew constants
Cubes.
,
B,
A, p,
u^A(x\Y + B(xtf\
provided that u has no square factor
s=
(ac
Also
Eliminating A,
from the
equations,
\A + ^.B^
first
a( A
Assume that
A+B = a
(A)holdsif
A, /x
........................... (A)
 6 2 x 2 + (acZ  be) x + (M  c2 ) = 0.
of
A/u
jit
three
Eliminating
neither A nor
/u,
is
zero
first
/^,
which
is
the same as
H(ac~62 )x
Also A,
are given
by
THE HESSIAN
183
// A
jit,
two equal
the reasoning
roots.
i
and
c
o<Z&c
 = ^ = //,=
^
ocos2
6 v c
Ex.
w=
if
and only
H=
UG the preceding
1.
if,
Let
2x*
to solve the
2x*
equation
A+B = 2,
and
A+2B=;l,
2
(#7) =0,
so that
vice versa.
giving
= l,/i=2;
has
are given
=1
w=0
Since ^3
if,
Hence,
H = 0.
of
fails.
/75 4/45),
The Hessian.
8.
is
The roots
of
H=
will
hQ =
where
(1)
and
is
of great
H = ac 6
2
,
A,
ft,
and we
h^ad be,
shall write
h2 = bd
c2 ,
~18H = a
(3)
be denoted by
so that
(2)
The function
We
A, p, in
4, 5, 6,
we
find that
2
terms of a,
/J,
y as
} .......
follows.
(B)
Let
M =a + eo j8 + coy,
y,
2
=
Z/ j8y + coya 4 a> aj8, M' = /Jy f co 2 ya 4 a>aj8.
L =<x H co/J + o>
Then,
and
if
we have
AUXILIARY QUADRATIC
184
It follows
that
2
A(> 
is,
(4) It is
by
so that
which
<*>)L
H=0 is given
of
+ hfl + h2 =
to
EXERCISE
XX
THE CUBIC
(i)
2.
Find to
1.
five places of
(i)
3.
x* 3a;Hl=0,
(ii)
 3qx +r =0 and k =
y are the roots of a:
(0;
3
If a, 0,
(i)
>/3(4g
r 2 ), show
tl
08 ;
(ii)
(iii)
roots are
j9
 y, y  a, a  j3
is
(iv)
4. If a, 0,
(i)
j8
y,
 a, a  jS
)
(ii)
is
is
In &e following examples ike letters L, M, L', M' 9 h , h l9 h 2 have the meanings
assigned in Art. 8, and unless otherwise stated a, j9, y are the roots of
.5.
Show
that
L t + "Jf=3.M', and M* +
a
L=3L'.
TYPES OF SUBSTITUTIONS
If
6.
A (x  A)
A)
f
B(x 
l
jB
A/B=
k=
s/(
;[
^=
),
(1, o>
w),
(A)
5.]
+ i )>
^(*i
and
a 2 y + j3 2 a + y 2
3^
(/Hfc)^
2^0^^ + ^,
proving that
That
is
to say,
'
homographic
^ ^
which
jS,
A =  L'/L,
 L 9 /M\
9.
a,
+ /8V4V + 8 =
8.
and
If
/x)
185
'
yoc
mh
2h
+ Jy + mafn0,
(a,
k,
a/?
n=h
+ Za + w/? + tt=0
where &
29
j8)
u =0
iV( JJ).
relation
u=Q into
itself,
and these
are
[This
is
merely another
way
8.]
* = (2y3)/(yl)
11.
and
* = (y
Find substitutions of the form x~(ly + m)l(l'y + m') which will transform
2 60; f 1 ^0 into itself, showing that these are
4 3#
the equation z 3
13. If a,
j3,
proving that,
where
+ ma 4 ft
if a,
j8,
y are
I,
m, n such that
n = y, Z
/j9 + mj5 +
real and a> > y, then
2
/?,
jfc
+ r=Q
hi to
itself.
1S6
BIQUADRATIC EQUATION
14. If
either
2
y are the roots of a?21a; + 35=0, show that a + 2a 14
jS,
15. If a,
y=x* + 2x~
or y.
equation into
ft
is equal to
14 transforms the
itself.)
w=0 and
=
=
k,
<**+p<z + q
p +pp + q a>k, y
/?,
*
prove that
where A
p=
36
A=
if
Further,
^=
tt=0
16.
3i=Jf(A,*) =
Jf'/Jf, then
2
8
(1, 1, 1), (1, <o, o> ), (1, to , o>),
by
[Multiply
L'/A
g= a hAa
H =0.
is
2c
fA,
27/2
and add.]
transformed into
is
36
.,
p= a
if
where A
is
H=0
a root of
2c
N
g= a + A,
a
+A,
and k
determined as in Ex.
is
17.
by the
y*=k?
substitution *
15.
will
transform
=0
into the form y 3 = ^ 3 , giving the value of k in each case.
3
 3 =0 and ( L) 3 ,
[A, p, are the roote of x* + 2x
(JJif ) are the roots of
i.e.
of
t*
=4 3
If
we take A = 1,
fi
 3, we must take
In Ex.
Explain
9.
J^^S
why it is not to
x = y  6/a,
If 2= ay = ax + 6,
have
6/a,
j5,
f
i/
= 8,
giving
ic
f
6H
4G
.OA
+_
_^
!f+?
* This is
is
(A)
iC
G =a2d~3a6o + 26s
=a3e4a26d + 6a62c364
(B)
+ &Hz* + Gz + K=Q
(C)
and those
4x + 3=0.
z*
>
It
becomes
this
iTac~62
where
If
will
f
thus
6.
t
ay +
is
y=# 2 f7,
.]
u=*ax* + 46x
If
M=
and
17, if
L =  6,
y~x + 4a;f 11
2
+ 6,
a/J 4 6,
ay
f 6,
a + 6/a,
/?
+ &/#, y + 6/a,
aS + 6.
REDUCING CUBIC
10.
A = /Jyfa8,
Any rearrangement
(1)
functions
A,
/i,
of the Roots.
= yaf/JS,
/A
of the letters a,
187
j8,
Let
i>=a/JfyS.
y, 8 transforms
any one
of the
(2)
We
The
have
A to
/it,
/z
to
v,
v to A.
(j8y)(aS)=i>/z
(ya)(j3SHAv
Hence if two
of a,
/J,
three of a,
j8,
y, 8 are equal,
then two of
........................... (D)
A,
//,,
v are equal,
and vice
versa.
Also
(3)
if
The functions
A,
y, 8 are equal,
/x,
v are Ae roote
o/*
For
ZajSy
+ aj3y 827a
a2
of this equation
4^3_/^ + j = o,
=
/ ae 4bd + Sc2
(G)
(H)
Expressed as a determinant
a
&
bed
It will be
is
on equation
(G),
which
biquadratic.
B.C.A.
THE DISCRIMINANT
188
(4)
(Q) corresponding to A,
Let t^t 2
^a = A^Ai(A+
a
Then by
v respectively.
/x,
(F)
+ v)=i{A /t (vA)};
/?,
and
of the three
or
if
A,
a,
Also
/z,
jS,
t% is real,
a,
y, 8 are real
and
t%
v,
and therefore
y, 8 are of the
if
j8
are real
3,
2,
lim,
forms
and y = / f ^m,
are
V
8
all real if a,
im'
The Functions
/?,
2,
are all
I,
Since
J.
l9
t%,
jS,
m,
== /
imaginary.
statements are true.
(5)
conversely.
also
of a,
conversely.
For
.................... (L)
a,
............. (K)
then v
arise,
y, 8, so also are /, J.
/ and
It follows that
same
are the
and
(I)
6 = 0, cH/a,
a I=
z
giving
K + 3H*
and
(B),
and
we may put
d=
/a
= #/a 3
a*J^HKG*H*>
and
identities
= a 2/3ff2
Another important equality
is
8y)2(a8)2 + (ya)
()
2
88) + (aj3)2(y3)2 = 24//a2 ....... (N)
2
(j
For
and
(6)
The Discriminant.
By
equations (D),
 <3 ) 2 (<3 
= 256J by
where
^ft 
< )
2
by equation (K)
Art. 2,
............................................ (0)
J =/
REDUCING CUBIC
The function A
ing
is
and
is
its
vanish
w=
may
roots.
J = 0.
this
case
Excluding
imaginary roots, then these occur in
(1)
189
may
be real,
Two roots may be real and two imaginary. Denoting the roots by a, /?,
im, it is easily shown that the product of the squares of the differences
of the roots is 4w 2 (a0) 2 {(a  1)* + !*}*{ (0  1) + 8 }*, and so J<0.
(2)
(3)
may
Denoting them by
be imaginary.
lim, /'iw',
we
find that the product of the squares of the differences of the roots
is
(4)
12.
 m') 2
+ (w + m')*}*{(l + Z') 2 +
and so
A>0.
(5) If
For the
2
Z')
J>0,
Solution
Ferrari's
two cases
of the
Biquadratic.
Writing
the
equation
u=ax* +
we assume
bx*
(A)
that
coefficients,
2w = as + 262 ~3ac,
2
(B)
we have
wn = &sad, n2 = s 2 ae
(C)
Eliminating m, n,
2
(s
which reduces to
53
(D)
= 2t + c
(E)
&3 ~/* + J = 0,
(F)
is
the
reducing cubic.'
= 2bt + bcad
Equations
(C)
become
(G)
FERRARI'S SOLUTION
190
Thus, if fj
a root of
is
m
the equation
its
n t = (26^ + 6c  ad)/m v
b 2  ac),
l =\/ (at v +
u^=0 can
(ax
and
and
(F)
ax 2 + 2bx + c + 2^ =
(2m1x + 14).
It should be noticed tha^ the three roots of (F) correspond to the three
of expressing
ways
u as the product
of
two quadratic
=x* + 3x 3 + x*  2 = 0.
u = (x 2 +px + s) 2  (mx + n) 2
and
equating coefficients, wo have
Expanding
Ex.
Solve n
1.
Let
The
may
last
equation
is
and
[x*
if s ~
satisfied
take
and then
J,
+ (p
f
77^) a;
?yr
1+4, inn
4.
Thus we
+ 5 f n} {a; 2 + (p  ?/i) a; + s  n}
^(x*+2x2)(x*+x + l).
1 >/3, w, a> 2 \vhero w
,
is
1.
13.
then
=,
=i,
=j,
Let
factors.
]8,
y be the
roots of
ax + 26x + c +
Further,
/?)
2/ x
(2^0; + n x =
)
...........
(H)
............. (I)
= c + 2t l + n v
a(3y
Now
a (/?y 4 aS)
therefore
a(j8ya8) = 2w
Also
= 2c + 4^,
a(]8f
ya8)== 4m 1}
................ (J)
(a,
j8,
y)
and
Hence
(i)
the values of
m are
Ex.
3, (iii), p.
it
96,
............ (K)
DESCARTES' SOLUTION
by
Also,
This
(F)
and
(ii)
The values
(iii)
is
of
J^ZY^
___
and from
y + oc ~ p
Of.
 yS).
r(
ya)8S
3+y
la(oc^
are
2m 92
in Art. 15.
way
 j8S),
a(ya
~ 2
>
2ml
another
in
\a(fiy aS),
~
191
ot
+p
eliminating tfrom
Z
+ bc~ad
2bt
1
__ _
~
,,
(M)
and
~2' 7
14.
Let u
Descartes method.
ax*
4
4foe 3
u = a (x + 2Zx f
2
+l =2

?/i
2
)
(x
coefficients,
m+m =6
~ 4a
f
6cx 2
!
4c?o; f e,
we have
k
m?w
=e
Now
1
m'
m'
row by
If
we
a/2,
f
m
1
m + m'

211'
m + m' lm +l'm
m + m', etc., and
+
1',
0.
+ I'm
2mm'
lm'
multiplying each
we have
a
3c2all
all'
3c2all'
=0.
write
I,
+ 2t
ct
+ 2t
0,
is
of
192
2
=
given in the form u^ofl + px + qx + r Q, we
proceed as in Art. 15, using I instead of 2Z, to obtain the cubic in the form
2
2=
2
irl 2
0, which reduces to an equation lacking the second
P(l +p)
y
Again,
if
the equation
term on substituting
is
 2p/3
for
2
.
In numerical work, unless this cubic has rational roots, the solution becomes
by the methods described in this chapter the student can convince
NOTE.
very laborious
himself of this
15.
In Art.
11, it
is
required, since
factors.
J>0 is a
also, by De Gua's
must be imaginary.
all
The complete
later.
Theorem.
aw
all real i*
(i)
or their equivalents
Let
z = ax
+b
v = z*
(ii)
J>0,
J>(),
then by Art.
//<0,
and
12# 2 >
H<(),
and
2Hl>3uJ.
9, (C),
and Art.
+ 6Hz* + 4:Gz + K = O
/,
K = a I3H
2
where
by
2
.
v=
has the same number of real roots as w = 0.
For v = 0, using the method of Descartes, and supposing that
 2lz +
v 55 2 + 2lz + m)
m')
Now,
(z*
(z
we
get,
by equating
Eliminating
Hence, since
coefficients,
(2Z f
3HI)
 G2 = 1 2K, or
W + l2Hl* + (9H*K)l*G*=Q.
K=a*I 3H2
the values of
H = at,
=0;
reduces to 4J
..................... (A)
and
the roots of v =
If
(i)
i.e.
positive,
are
all real,
Hence,
the roots of v =
If
(ii)
193
must be
all real
all positive.
all
4(/4+/z')
positive
If
(iii)
>
and conversely.
two
of the roots of v
are real
them by
and only
if,
Now, the
is
the case
and only
if,
negative and
theorem.
if
12H 2 a 2I
is
I2H
J=/ 27/
is
p + pq + q
but /
is
hence,
so that
J>0,
/>0
hence, since
//<0,
if
p and
<?
q are
q according as
2HI\>\ 3aJ\;
any
2HI<3aJ.
and
real
hence, since
i.e.
2HI<3aJ.
2
3
3
2
p q = (p q) (p + pq + q ),
it
p g q*
G 2 + I2H*<a 2 HI
addition,
dividing by H, which
Thus, the two sets of conditions are equivalent.
therefore
suppose
4# 2/ 2 >9a 2 </ 2
ff<0,
positive,
by
we have
>0,
= (p + %q) 2 + f 2 >0
follows that p*
Then, since
this
and
negative, therefore
and
HI<0
P>a P>27a J
HI
and, since
are real
//<0>
3
Then, since
all real,
all real
positive
that
Also,
and positive.
those of 4 3  It + J =
u = 0, are
follows that
it
therefore those of
A = / 3 27e/ 2 >0
= 0, and
is
negative,
12H 2 >a 2 I.
~l
* In
1
general, if n is odd,
=*(p~q)(pn +pn*q+ ... +gn ), where the last factor is the
qn according
product of pairs of complex conjugate factors, and is therefore positive hence p n
pnqn
&spr^q.
But,
if
is
even,
and not as p :g q.
pnqn^ty
pn^^n
as
p<ff,
EECIPEOCAL TRANSFORMATION
194
AH
the roots of u =
and
may be imaginary
=
/?
A<fc,
y = A' 4
(iii)
Two
take a,
j8
I/JL',
of (A) are
iaVfO
all
u=
a = A + i/z,
are
be real
positive.
may
of the roots of
8 = A'
iW)
I/A'
>
we may take
;
(A
A')
which
is positive.
w=
in that case
may
and y = A + t/i,
we may
Another method
Exercise
XXI,
due to Euler,
is
given in
17.
=
if
ap* E, Bp*==Dp,
2 =
2^, p* = D/B .......................... (B)
by aZ>
is, if q,
are given
Suppose that the conditions (B) are satisfied, and that the roots of (A)
where J/22/3 == J/iJ/4 :== l* Let a, j8, y, S be the corresponding
!/i> 2/2> J/3> 2/4
are
roots of
w = 0, so that
It follows that
? H~?)(y?) = (a~?)(S?),
2
and
...................... (C)
therefore
Hence by
Art. 13,
(iii),
by eliminating tfrom
S'
2
LO
an d
TSCHIRNHAUSEN'S TRANSFORMATION
qp
"p/
as given
COtfl
Find a
1.
substitution of the
form
x*
Use
o = l,
Here
4* 3
The equation
One
and by
solution
is
(C), are
fi"
+ x*2xl=Q
equation
....................................... (A)
= J,
/* + Jr=0
$=J,
by
FIG 29
195
and by
is
= 0,
4e 3
d=
c=l;
^,
f^^=0,
that
is
(4*)
+2 (40 3=0.
is
i + ~_
2
1
Also
y #s
/.
17.
+ l=0,
 3* + 1 = 0,
giving
=  (3
/5).
.*.
or
i( 1
^^^2 6^6).
Tschirnhausen's Transformation.
If
we
eliminate
between
~
+ a^1 + a2x n 2 + + a n =
r "" 2
1
y=xr + p^" + ^2^ + + Pr
/(x)
and
we
shall obtain
=a
o;
an equation
. . .
of the
form
Thus
for a single value of y corresponds to each of the n values of x.
can be chosen so that r of the
... p r
theoretically, in general p v p 2 ,
^n are z ^ro.
Transformation
it
This process
is
called Tschirrihausen's
XX,
16,
TSCHIRNHAUSEN'S TRANSFORMATION
196
Let
a,
y, 8
j8,
be the roots of
We shall
such that
u=
sets
of values of
p and
q can be
found
2
y = x + pz + q,
and
and
is
+ =
.................................. (A)
<7
q are given by
ap=Ab +
where z
+/</
2/
aq = 3c + 2bz,
2az,
......................... (B)
affyS
a + jSyS
ya/3S
j8y~<xS
'
'
y+ajS^
J3TyaS
One value
of y.
+ ?=
~2/2
and
where
sl
= 2oL,
sz
= Z<x?. Hence we
Now
therefore
(j3Hy)
(
where
p^s.Zz,
*
we
a/
j8ya8
p=
Hence
Substituting in (E),
46
+ 2z ..................................... (F)
find that
3c
a
2
giving
Moreover,
is
of the
if
form
p, q
(A).
it is
SUBSTITUTIONS
As
197
be seen in the next example, each value of y gives one and only
will
Find a
to the
form y
Here a = 1,
we have
+/?/
b
substitution of the
+ g ~0. Find
=0,
=0, d = 3,
of
is
1,
5, so
that
where
4* 3
z~f and
giving
y=xz +px + q
z^
One value
form
which
and use
13,
(iii),
+5*9=0.
then
One such
p=3, q=0.
substitution
is
therefore
To
and
(B),
x2
flH\
\D j
H~ oiC.
we have
y(x*
xz + 43#
But
frcttn
(A)
which reduces to
 2000.
The
values of y are
Hence we
10*,
\/2,
lN/2,
EXERCISE XXI
THE BIQUADRATIC
Unless otherwise stated
1.
If
2.
If
+ y = a + 8,
( j8
H
If
j8,
a,
f
2d 3  3edc = 0.
1.]
2
2
0y=a8, show that od =6 e.
4. If
a,
j8,
and
thus,
y, 8
changes
L3
into J/ 8
y**&+px+q,
the
method
for
FERRARI'S METHOD
198
5.
Show
 a8
ya
/94yao'
a/?
/?S
yS
/
is
where
Baz + b, D(a,
ft,
b, c,
u~Q by
I)
#(a, 6,
and use Ex. 3.]
d$z,
2
of w==o; 4 fg# 2
f
d, e$z, I)
c,
raf s ~0,
4
.
is
and that
if 2 X is
<jz
 4sz f 4g#  r 2 = 0,
A^Az^s^O.
7,
Show
[Use equations
8.
Solve x*
23
 2x* \a(2x 
1)
^0 by
it
3, (Hi).]
form
in the
and choosing
* 4 + 12:r5=0.
11. x*
 3z 2  4x ~ 3 ~0.
13.
14.
4 4x 3 + lx z Express #
6a: h
x*~2x 1 ^0.
10.
a4
12.
x 4  4* 3
4 5.u
4 2
= 0.
different ways.
15. If a,
jS,
y, S are
the roots of x*
\
3x 3 4# 2
20,
(j34yaS)
z
is
Show
and two
2
,
(y 4a
ft
 S) 2
(a
+ j8yS) 2
13.]
similar expressions
is
3
2
4(*4L) e /(z4L)4eV=0
where L=ced*.
[This follows from equation
reciprocals.]
(L) of Art. 13
by changing
a, 0, y, 8 into their
EULER'S SOLUTION
If
and
(i)
(ii)
then
Z,
which
(iii)
 223
z2
Jl,
is
.z
the same as
The complete
4(sf//)
and(K)
6//z 2
4
4s
f
+ 4Gz + A" = 0,
127/s 2
~K)s G
4
(9//
is
given by
 0,
aa f b = 
ay + 6 =
^Z + Jin 
18.
z4
identical with
a8
v/Z
h
s/w
m, n are i\a
I,
af3 + b~
*Jn,
(L)
m, n
/,
prove that
 &*Jl*Jm*/n
If this equation
199
*Jl *Jm
Jl~
*Jm 
(j3
>/n,
same
+ s/n,
+ ya8)
2
,
sign as G.
etc., see
equations
of Art. 13.
x=py + q
which
transform the
will
equation
into the reciprocal form.
to solve the equation.
19, In
Ex.
Show
of Art. 17,
if
is
substituted for y in y
is
satisfies
x = 2y 
1.
Use
this
the equation
+ 9%  200^0
2
x,
Without solving any equations, show that the other four values of x are the
roots of
x* f 12.r 3
+ 54x 2 + 96x
40 = 0.
(Cf.
Ex.
13.)
is
will
reduce the
Show
to
21.
y=x 2 +px + q
which
equation
to the form
2
y*+fy + g=Q, showing that one such substitution
4(1
is
will reduce
the
CHAPTER
XIII
Lower
class
Upper
class
P
FIG. 30.
The system
two
parts,
which
will
be
and
left
the
rational number.
class
3 belongs to A,
number
For
it is
the greatest
number
of this class,
and there
is
no
least
in A'.
if a' is
is
the least
number
of this class,
and
Thus corresponding
the
dass
to
has a greatest
either
DEDEKIND'S DEFINITION
ticcond caw.
number.
201
For example,
let
OP
square units.
Classify the rationale according to the following rule
The lower class A is to contain all the negative numbers, zero and every
7
is
positive
The upper
greater than
The
A'
is
is less
than
7.
is
7.
such that
classification is
Every
(i)
class
For
A, A'.
no rational
a<a'.
so
The
(iii)
number.
and we
class
has no least
2
For, suppose that a is the greatest number of A, then a <7,
2
can find a rational b such that 6>a and 6 <7. To do this, we
that & 2
a), so
if
a 2 <7
 <s
a 2
6flKr
a2
a 2
.
2a
b fa
by
is
s/7,
is
and we assign
it
to follow or to precede
any
iJJKDedekind's Definition.
<7
or
us to divide the whole system of rationals into two classes, a lower class
A and an upper class A', so that any number in is less than any num
ber in A'
Two
cases arise
least
(ii)
If
'
number
or the
If there is
classification
in
in
classifica
A and to
precede
all
those in
A.
number
Any
rational or irrational
202
The
zero is defined
contains
all
If
If
real
number.
We
we
'
'
'
'
number until
and the fundadefinitions must be in
equal
If
a and
precede
/J,
// a and
/J
we say that a
j8
is less
to be
rationals
which follow a
is greater
than a.
many
them.
For
(B,
let
a and
jS.
ex
B
Fio. 31.
a and
then r
Art. 2,
is
the least
by
number r,
Thus at least two, and
andjS.
(ii)
in
therefore infinitely
(J5,
Hence,
many,
Each
Let
A and A'
Any number in
same
is
Theorem.
(i)
number
number.
1
.
ENDLESS DECIMALS
203
.
(iii)
a'
**
and A'
respectively, so
that
a'
a<,
where
is
a<a<a'
that
where a
Proof.
following rule
number a' in
any number a
It will be
tion.
small.
For
A.
in
proved that not more than one rational can escape classificatwo rationals Z and V (l<l ) so escape, then for every a and a'
f
if
a! so
that
a<V I,
I
and
I'.
This theorem
may
and
(ii) it
a 1 <a 2
is possible to
<
3 ...
<a n
e is
number
5.
<a,/
...
where
...
<**<>
real
'
a,
Endless Decimals.
let
some
Let
definite rule.
dn = a
a^
We
o
. . .
aw
and
dn
'
= d n + 1/10W
number
is
number
S.
B.O.A.
FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS
204
suffix n,
to any
That
'.
to say,
is
represents
we can
calculate
S.
may
Since
any
recurs, it follows
In what
Roman
letter
represents a rational.
of Art. 4, and when
we say that a
number a
real
is
defined
by a^a^a',
it is
(1)
Addition.
then a f j8
is
If a,
j3
numbers defined by
a<a<a' and &<<&',
are real
defined
(ii)
(iii)
There
Any
We
is
at least one a
f
can choose
e is
and one
a'
+ b'.
b'.
that
a, a', 6, b' so
a<^e
a'
where
f
and
b'
6<i
f
We
define
a f /? + y as meaning
(a
f jS)
+ y, and
it is
It
is
Show
1.
obvious that a
and
j3
= a.
b< 0<
defined
by
positive rational.
Let a be defined
by
is
a< a<
&',
a',
since every 6
where
f
6<
classification of rationals.
is
is
defined
+ 0<
a'
b' is
any
by
f 6',
is
a + 6<
Thus a +
then a +
a
and
by the same
Prove that a +
x. 2.
Zero
f ft
classification of rationals
MULTIPLICATION OF IRRATIONALS
If
3.
is
Prove that
defined
by
205
a + (  a) =0.
then a +
a  a'< a
 a)
4 (
defined
is
by
 a)< a'  a.
Now
We
(2) Subtraction.
If a,
(3) Multiplication.
/?
and
a^oc^a'
aj3 is
Whence
follows that
it
for
(aj8)+j8=a,
then
are equal.
defined
numbers defined by
6</3<6',
by afe<a/3<a'6'.
for
(i)
(ii)
(i\\)
There
is
at least one ab
Every a6<any
a'b'
We can choose a,
6, a', &'
For
positive number.
and one
a'b'
a'b'
so that a'b'
ab<,
6'
>
/}
where
is
any assigned
a).
a'
'//
FIG. 32.
Choose rationals
a'6'
We
can
now
choose
For
a'6'
zero
 ab<h(b' 
a, 6, a', 6', so
6'
and then
^/7
Show
4.
that
a'
a<e/2k,
= = 0. a,
that
defined by
that the
^1.^1 = 7.
a< N/7<
a',
where
rt,
a2
a'<A,
commutative, distributive
is
if
b)
and
b</2h
a.
^ Ex.
 ab<.
and
Further, a/Sy
A>a
that
h, k, so
a' 2 ,
a' are
any
and this
2
.
number
7,
206
(4) Division.
If
is
a^a^a', then
is defined by l/a'<l/a<l/a.
These conditions define a real number, for
I/a
There
(i)
We
(iii)
and one
is
can choose
a, a'
I/a.
(ii)
positive number.
To prove
this,
we have
show that
to
"i
a, a'
7*
p IG
f
a<aa
0<A<a. Next
.
choose a, a
"~~l
'
so that a>/i
and
a</re.
Since
h<a<a',
NOTE.
Tliis
Consequently
JSfo.
it
5.
meaning
is
follows that
// a,
and
a'a<aa'e.
rio
j9
l/(
(a/j3)
less
than
a.
to 1/0.
assigned
whence
h 2 <aa'
we have
jB)
=a.
<Aen a/j9 is
a/<
a' ft.
defined by a/6'<
This follows from the definition of
7.
and multiplication.
l/j3
If
n
ber, the nth power of a (written a )
is
is
. . .
If
of
m and n,
Theorem
(i)
// a
is
such that
<a<x' n
xl9 #/
For
if
We
x<x<x',
then
x x w  xn <a  xn
The existence
of a
number x
xx
,
so that
such that
~l
:
and then
x^ <a.
a<x 1 n <x /n
'
can be proved in a
similar way.
(ii)
//
is
any
~x1 w <(x1
ajj)
n
n
x/ ~x 1 <, provided
nx^ 1
PRINCIPAL ROOTS
Theorem
number
207
//a
If a = z n where #
is
is
is
is
x,
class
',
that x n =a.
(ii)
Every #<every
(iii)
There
is
x',
for
sc
<Ca<J?'
no greatest x and no
n
.
least
f
.
theorem.
Therefore the classification defines a real number
Again, for every
x and every
x'',
xn <oL<x' n
xn <gn <x' n
and
that x'
<,
n are defined
by the same
classification of rationals,
therefore
=a.
is
is
If
is
is
Thus
(;/a)
a..
=a.
It follows that
ya.y]8y(aj8)
If
is
odd,
we have
(
When n
is
WH^a^ y(.
and
an odd
n==
(
1 )n
w== a.
integer,
root, of
(^a
even, the 7^th power of every real number is positive, and therefore
no real number exists which is the nth root of a negative number.
If
is
SURDS
208
Indices
aq
is
p
defined as *]a* or (!ja)
This definition assigns no meaning to a x
is
considered in Art.
Surds.
8.
If
when x
is
This case
irrational.
9.
is
is
nth order.
Two
rational
when
their quotient is
Theorem
1.
If
x+Jy^a + jb
where
x=a
Jb,
and by squaring,
is
Jb
rational.
On
Ex.
1.
// a
+ b^/p + c*jq
where
a, 6, c are rationals
and Jp
If
ab^Q, the lefthand side would be irrational and the righthand side would
be rational ; which
is
impossible.
or
6~0.
so
that
7/6 =
Ex.
2.
then a
// a
{
~
c^q ~ 0, and therefore a
+ 6^/p + c^ 2 =0
wAere
a, 6, c,
and
= 0.
is
not
a perfect cube,
cp +a?Jp
is irrational, it
therefore
fy
= ac and c 2p
3
2
2 2
c*p = a 6 = a c.
)
\ c/
+ 6Ap 2 =0,
follows that
b2
If
we have
therefore also
so that ^/p 2
a=0
ab,
would be
and 6=0.
rational,
which
is
IRRATIONAL INDICES
Theorem
2.
Suppose
square, then if
p + *Jq
is
For we have
Since
Jq
is
Putting
a polynomial with
2
&ndf(x) = Q{(xp) q}
9.
Irrational Indices.
if
f(x)
is
x=p + Jq, we
a perfect
a root off(x)
we obtain an
are rationals.
is
is also
divided by (xp)*q,
root
that q is not
= 0.
p*Jq
2
=
+
{x(p Jq)}{x(pJq)} (xp) q, and
rational coefficients,
where R,
and
209
have
Rp f S = and R = 0.
pJq
therefore
The theorems
Consequently
a root of/(z)
is
of Art. 7 hold
= 0.
when a
is
positive real
irrational defined
by x<g<x' where
x,
Then
a*
is
defined
by
there
at least one a x
is
'
x
every a*<every a ',
(ii)
'
x' so that a x
ax
<
where
is
any assigned
positive
To prove
this,
ax
Next, by Ch.
'
&>,
choose a number
n such that
an
NOTE.
The
'
a x <ah (a n ~
At present
7/0<a<l,
a*
is
defined
show that
ax .
hold for
all real
it
by the
ax
l</ah
if
classification
We
ax '<af<a x
define 1* as
when a
is
1.
negative.
ay
= a*+* and
values of x and y.
(a
x y
)
= axy
At
Or
present,
it
we
may
be
are not
210
10.
and
a^l,
there exists
If a and
Theorem.
Logarithms.
such that a*
= N.
N
<N<a
x
and first let
Suppose that no rational x exists such that a =
x
x '.
n>l. Then, by Art. 7, rationals x, x' exist such that a
Divide the system of rationals into a lower class A and an upper class A'
Proof.
There
(iii)
is
no greatest x
a*<jy.
The
we can
Similarly
for
find x2
if
>x
ly
a^
it
x and every
is
no
least x'.
number
#',
a x <N<a*'
and
a*<af<a*'
'
a classification which
If
a<l, we
satisfies
= l/N, and
4,
and so
a^
= 2V.
then a* = N.
1 1
lie
(ii)
The
real values of
or the range
(iii)
If
closed at
'
a^x^b form
(x)
which
a<x<b.
(a, 6)
(a, 6)
open
at
a and
'
Interval
Any
x such that
(i)
a<x<6.
a<x<6,
6,
'
'
If
of
case/(x)
is
DEDEKIND'S THEOREM
)
when x^x^
then
211
/(a?) is
stricter sense.
If
if
f(x 1 )>f(x^)
'
is the set of
a real number, the
neighbourhood of a
real numbers in the interval (ae, a + e), where e is as small as we like.
If
(v)
is
Dedekind's Theorem.
vx(i)
is
divided into
and A' such that (i) each class contains at least one number,
number belongs to one or other of the classes, (iii) any number
(ii) every real
in A is less than any number in A' then there is a single real number a, such
that all numbers less than a belong to' A and all numbers greater than a belong
The number a may be regarded as belonging to either of the classes.
to A'
two classes
Proof.
number
If
(1)
Two
a.
is
of the
and A.
system
and define a
of rationals
real
cases arise.
rational,
it is
the greatest
number
in
Al
number
in A. For
Between a and /?
there are rationals greater than a which therefore belong to A and also
to A'. Hence j8 must belong to A', which is not the case.
Similarly if a is the least number in A^, it is also the least in A.
If
is
If
(ii)
is irrational, it is
greater than
all
the numbers in
Al
and
less
than
all
those in A^.
The theorem
just proved
is
of great importance.
numbers
defines
It
a real number.
classes
and
For
if
we take with
A
1
all
all
of real
numbers.
we obtain a
x^a
ARITHMETIC CONTINUUM
212
The Continuum.
13.
from Art.
It follows
By
numbers
If
that
p
p
is
complete.
the real number corresponding to the point P of the line, we say
Hence the system of real
is the measure of the length of OP.
is
numbers
This
real
is
an instance of what
is
The aggregate
of real
is
known
numbers
as a continuous magnitude.
called the arithmetic continuum,
is
the aggregate
line.
and
continuum.
In
letters will
Equality and
J5,'
'A
is
kind.
of straight lines
if
A<B
velocities,
We
15. Ratio.
number
said to contain
This
is
able,
exactly
Definition.
(that
nth part of
a and
we denote
C = ^B.
this
If.
by writing
A
A
contains the
B.
A~j BJ,
and the
times,
or
If
b exist
is, if
B^nC
ratio of
the magnitudes
to
(written
and
:
B)
B
is
defined as the
number
a/b.
no integers a and
213
and
Axiom
of Archimedes.
If
A may
mA>B
kind,
16.
Two
Ratio of
same
m can
and
or
^B<A.
Incommensurables.
If
and
are incom
entire
the
the
system of rationals
Lower
Class
Class
Upper
is
is
every rational
hypothesis, there
(2)
(3)
every a/6
there
is
hypothesis
is
falls
than any
no greatest a/6
bl
A>a
because
no rational a/b
is less
number
for
a'/6'
which bA
for
bA>aB,
which b'A<a'B.
two
= aB
classes;
for,
by
^B<A<^B
by
B.
Now by
^a
r(6 1
a'/6'
Theorem.
If
A, B, C,
exist,
then
is
two
ratios,
214
EXERCISE XXII
IRRATIONALS
is
1. Show that no rational exists whose nth power is equal to ajb, where a/6
a positive fraction in its lowest terms unless a and 6 are perfect nth powers.
/x \** a
 where
x/y is a positive fraction in its lowest terms.
[Suppose that ( j =
is
Therefore
Since y
prime to
a whole number. Then
.
is
that
is
x,
to say,
then either
2. If
9
Ja, */b are all rational or all like surds.
Hence
a and b are
.
xa, y=b
[Squaring, x + y=a + b,
3.
n must be a divisor of
akxn
^fa
where
a, b are
in terms of
= kyn
for
b,
Va6 are
y=a,
6.
or *Jx, *Jy,
rational.]
b.
[Proceed as in Ex.
4. If
is
Let
x, y may
+ ^/b = *Jx + *Jy,
a and
6.
a is prime to
perfect nth powers.]
Jk
or
*fxy,
= l,
2,
a
\(a dbVa 6).]
then
a, 6, c,
[We have
Hence by
Art. 8, Ex.
1,
ac=bdp,
and consequently,
if c
^0 and a ^0,
bc=ad, c*=dp,
then p=c*.]
[Put
z= a; a.
rational.
Show
Now use
that 2 8 Hy~6
+ 32\/6y =
and neither of
7.
cients,
j? ^, j?^
_+ _
3
z
2
[Show that C*q*a*p b pq = 3db(ap\/pq
is
.*.
y, b are
not perfect
$y=mg/b 2 where
is
6. If
in brackets
and
is
bq\/p
q),
is
not a cube.]
Show
that *J2 and v/3 are cubic functions of J2 f *J3 with rational
and that ^2^/6 + 3 is the ratio of two linear functions of *J2 f \/3
coeffi
8
[For the first part, let y s/2 + \^3 ; find t/ , and eliminate \^3 and V2 in turn :
for the second part, find the value of the product ( \/2  V6 + 3) (V2 f N/3 + a:), and
show that this is equal to y + 5 when x 1.]
8.
root
is
(ii)
[(i)
(ii)
(iii)
If * =
&2 + 3^/4;
(iii)
2
N^ + %/SL a: l=2\a;, etc.
8
if y=#2 + 3#4, i/ = 110 + 18(4/2 +
8
=5 + 34/6.2, and (28 5) 8 =
if z=4/2 + 4/3,
;
coefficients of
4/2 + 4/3.
which one
RATIONAL COEFFICIENTS
9.
as 2 + 2hxy + 6t/ 2 = 1,
and
are rational
(oft'
215
[Let (a lf j8i), {a 2 ,
are the roots of
j8 2 ), (
i,
ft) (
2>
^2)
,.
/
z 2 { (oft') f
aiaa
/
.
prove that
i
)
4(aA
)(A6
result follows.]
eiJAer
a;
a,
yb,
[Put*a = S:,y&==r;
If
(o6
or I
.'.
ab and
X
X and 7 are not zero, solve for ~
is
ab
is
a perfect square.
CHAPTEK XIV
INEQUALITIES
IN
Many
fundamental importance.
Weierstrass' Inequalities.
1.
less
methods
than
whose sum
Ij a v a 2
denoted by s n then
is
...
+sn ),
s n ),
where, in the last inequality,
For
(1
and continuing
a
x ) (1
thus,
it
is
 a2 ) = 1 
(a l
+ a 2 + a x a 2 > \(a l + a 2 ),
)
way
and
a,)(l o.)
if s n
(1
2.
a^,
...
(1
...
(1
Ho n )<l/(l
) ...
Many
inequalities
depend on
00(1 o,)
...
Ex.
2.
For
Using
+a n )<l/(l +*n ),
// a,
6, c
(a
then
are positive
and
(a
(1
)<!/(! *)
positive.
1.
0<a 1 <l.
<l,
+ 0l )(l +az)
Ex.
(1
for
+ b)>*Jab.
number
is
TYPICAL METHODS
3.
Ex.
1.
We
have
217
Show
that
[n>w
(^)
8==1
if
r2
2
.
n 2(nl) 3(n2)
...
r(n + l) + n<0
that
r(nr + l)
is if
...
1,
~n)<0
(rl)(r
or
if
l<r<n.
Therefore
j&e. 2.
6, c
// a,
third, then
Now,
since
a(c
if
which
the case.
is
greater than
4. If a,
Similarly, l/(a
x are
6,
For since
6 (6
according as ab
+ x)/(b + x)^a/b,
that
+ c  a) + l/(c f a  6),
l/(6
result is obtained
(a f x)/( b
positive,
+ bx^ab + ax,
o 2 >a 2 (6c) 2 ;
or
is,
by
are
addition.
according as
a$b.
+ x)^ a/b
according as
ax^bx
or a $6.
Prove that
r. 1.
positive, then (a
f x) is
+ 6c)
+ 6  c) + 1/(6 f c  a),
and the
l/(c
..
(2*D
A
then
'
/o
AI
Also
(2*
4 6
> .
+ ix
!)^....
^<r
Therefore
*^
and
'
6, c, ... A, k,
there is
Ex.
"
1.
6, c
// a,
and
n^O or n^
1,
then
an
let
w>0.
^b ^c
therefore
whence the
//
On
Hence,
result in question.
2;a n (a6)(ac)=Z(a6)(ac)=27a2
n=0,
27a 2
and
l,
let
n= w1,
.
2:6c
<
276c
so that
Ean (a  6) (a  c) = r
m^O.
2?a
m (a 
j8)
(a
y)
= l/y,
then
by the preceding.
it is
218
6.
//!, a2
((!&!
f
a n and bl9 62
...
let
a 2 b2 +
A=
...
f a n ) (6 X
#tA) 2:^( a i + a 2 +
=
=
occurring only when a^Jb^ a^jb^
f
. . .
For
. . .
B = 2arbr C = 2b rz then
2
Z(ar + A6 r  A + 2 A
a r2 ,
have a r h \br =
for every
is
the
7. If a 19 a 2
. . .
= a n/b n
. . .
f
6n2 ),
+ A2 C.
we must
so
of
also follows
sum
\n(n 
of the
1)
...
all
equal
the numbers
f
f
The theorem
where S
and
62 2
r,
If
f
1, 2,
negative or zero.
...
n,
Hence
a
(a r
x+v
to
 a 2 ^i) 2
r, s
be any two of
a/
a8x )(ar y a8 v )^0, and
x y
v
v
h a*+ ^*a r*a 8 + a s a r
consequently
all equalities.
Also a rx + v
Hence by addition
(n \)Za r
Therefore
nEa
x +v
x +v
> Sa x +v + Safa* = Za x
r
2a rv
< must
>
n
Hence
to
it
follows that if
a^ a 2
...
...
a n are n
27a r +y++...
Ea
^
Zgv Zaf
^
FUNDAMENTAL INEQUALITIES
**
we have
(a
l)/p
(aP
= (a  l){pa~ l  (a p
V)/(p
If
1}
4a*~ 2
x,
x>y.
if
x~p, y = q where
_i
and
1,
219
... 4
l)}/p(p
 1).
Hence,
that
p,
(a
is,
l)/p decreases as
if
y are fractions, we
may
one or both of
q,
TT~
d
P/
p>q.
(al)/p>(a<*l)/q
If
cc,
and therefore
decreases,
j>
> TT~~
d
x,
We
A
>
that, is
?/
where b = a d
NOTE.
6>0 and
It has
a>0
and ^1,
as
a;
Ifx for x,
decreases
~
Ex.
I.
n(a
and x(l ~ a x )
1
l)>l
__ji
If
w>l, n(an 
If
1)
 a~ 1 )>l  a 1
1)
> a1,
unless
1,
then
<x < 1
Proof.
6)>a _
^i (a
,
in which case
xa
x ~l
6x
>x6
xi
(ab) <a
(a
is
any
i.e.
2
(al) >0.
rational
number
_ 6)f
 bx <x6x ~ 1 (a ~ 6)
increases as x increases.
this is true
when
x,
v are positive
Thus,
real
if
numbers.
(See Ex.
XXIII,
and
3739.)
B.CJU
FUNDAMENTAL INEQUALITIES
220
x ~l
x
x
we may interchange
(a~b)>a b
unequal values of a and 6, xa
l
x  a x and therefore a x b x
a and 6, so that xb*~ (b a)>b
>xb x ~ l (ab).
Thus it is only necessary to prove one inequality in each case.
,
',
(i) if
according as
(ii) if
is
x
positive a
is
negative and
equal to
y then xa
x ~l
 b) ^a x  b x according
(a
l
as
l
,
or
that
is
y + l^l, or t/^0.
xa* l (ab)>a x
so
bf*.
When
= 1,
ax
I>x(a~I)
l<x(al)
ax
and
1,
1 f
x for
0<z<l.
>l+nx
if
n<0
(l+x) <lfnx
if
0<n<l.
x)
(lx)
Ex.
or
>l nx
if
n<0
<l~nx
if
0<n<l.
1.
>1,
any
rational except
that
m<n,
>1,
it
or
is possible to
>1,
(l+x)<
this inequality holds
Now
(1
if
or
follows that, if n is
it
For
x<0
JAen
(l+x)
Or
if
(1
+7ix)(l
~mx)>l,
Ex.
// sn = a + a 2 +
2.
if
if
x>0
and
x{(nm) mnx}>0,
. . .
side
+ an
where a v a 2
by un then
,
r=n4 5
HHUn^^j*
if
or
...
if
if
mx>l/(l +nx),
0<x<(n m)/mn.
an are
all positive t
n>l,
*_
^(l+aja+o.)...
then
or
if
s r
^ n Li> ra n ^n r^Tl
1
>
when r>l
and when
(Art. 10),
221
= l,
this
becomes
an equality, therefore
un  u n _ l >an u n ^
therefore
Now
M!
>0
and
n=2,
for
n >(l
+an )u n _ >u n ,
1
3, 4, etc.
12.
are
0, therefore w n
If
(1)
a,
c, ...
6,
n numbers and
A^
then
^4
and
+ c+...h)
arithmetic
n
G= J
(abc
...
&),
of
&.
Theorem.
13.
For
the
called
is
...
a, 6, c,
(a + 6
let
to
numbers
positive
a, 6, c, d,
Suppose that
a^any
other
number
...
A* ..................................
(A)
of the set
number, then
Let
&'
obtained by substituting A,
Thus
A + b' =a
f
b'
for a, 6 in (A).
and Ab'>ab.
mean
.................................
We
(B)
have
have
mean.
the numbers in (B) are not all equal, then A is neither the
the least of the set. By repeating the process we can therenor
greatest
fore obtain a set of n positive numbers containing two A's, with the same
Again,
if
mean
arithmetic
Continuing thus,
to
geometric
Thus
mean
for the
of these equal
numbers
10, 1, 2,
7;
numbers,
it
follows that
A>G.
of the
6,
2,
7;
numbers
5,
6, 4,
5,
5,
5,
5.
mean
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM
222
Taking the
Alternative proof.
set (A),
we have
k^
...
(1
(a
f
6+
is
k)
}*
>
if
...
a power of
2,
then
'/
so that
is
where
If
not a power of
2,
occurs r times
and nf r
a b
a power of
c9
...
By
2.
A A A
9
...
the preceding,
abc
The righthand
G^A,
...
n +r
A n+r
side is equal to
Gn A r ^A n + r
and therefore
when
the numbers
all
so that
a, 6,
...
are equal.
Shoiv that n n >l
J&r. 1.
We have
(1
Now
AV
>\
1.3.5...
...
For
...
(2n
1).
(2w !)}/>
+2n  1 =
&{!
(2l)
and
.3.5
a^ (n
 a 2 ) + (0  a 8 ) +
 a 2 ) (5 1) ^ {(5
. . .
...
(2
(2*l).
2
1)} r/
n n >l .3 5
.
(*
therefore
+3 +5 f ...
// a x , a 2 , a 3
2.
3 5
+ 3 f 5 + ... +
1
.'.
...
^+a
(2 1).
+ ...
f
an
+ (*  a w = a lf
)
8 ) ...
(a
a
n )}
l /(
n~ l \
and the
result follo^a
by
multiplication.
14.
Theorem,
//a,
6, ...
k and
x, y,
...
positive
+
ku
For in Art. 13 we may take x^x'lg, y = y'lg, ... w = w'/g, where x' y
... w' and
g are positive integers, and then it is sufficient to prove that
9
+
''
ax'
Now
is
fy'
+ ...*M/
'
the geometric
mean
...
is
...
'" k
the arithmetic
of a, a,
6, 6, ... k,
mean and
k
...
result follows
by
Theorem.
to
equal
// a, 6,
one another, and
c, ...
.,
let
or 1, then
according as
For
223
and
1.
a + 6f cf
...
+&
then
1
fl
m ^ la
m m m
a
(a + & + c + ...+ k )^
l(a + + c + .:.+
and
xm + ym f zm +
according as
If
xm + y m +
Hence
...
and therefore
If
0<m<l,
and
between
f
wn) = Q,
. . .
>
must be replaced by
+wn <n.
xm + i/m + ...
inequalities, so that
Art. 11,
+ wm n>m(x4yh ...
rw
xm f m f
f t^ > n.
y
by
+ wm $ n.
. . .
by
1,
<
in all these
6.
Theorem
sets
...
+wk m
ofn
rationals
and
those of the first set are not all equal to one another, then,
.
conclusions
Suppose that
then:
(1) If
x, y, z,
x+y+z+
...
. . .
+w = c,
...
is (c/n)
...
...
+ y+
... f
is
is
greatest
when
n.
w
i
ncn
is
least
when x = y=...
=w?,
APPLICATIONS
224
if
Again,
ra is
rational except
any
or
1,
between
when x
y...w,
(3) If
~m
cm
m
m
m = c, then
f w
(4) If x + y +
according as m does not or does lie
between
and 1, the greatest or the least value of x + y + ...+w occurs
when x = y=...=w, the value in question being n 1 " 1 /. c1 /.
. . .
Ex.
1.
Find
dition
is
Ex.
2.
// the
sum of the
sides of
a triangle
when
Let
If
a, b, c
is
(s
Now
(.?
of (s
Ex.
3.
Since
Find the
x 2 y3 6.
o%3 = 6,
Therefore A#
if
f (s
 a) (s  b)
condition
a)
is
/x
are
6)
(s
I
 c)
(s
is
(s
f
+ c ~2s.
a constant,
greatest
b
 c).
c)
when a
greatest
when
= c.
least value of
A,
+ Xx+^y f/xy+^y
is
least
when
2
A#=/u,?/
= (6A 2/z 3
+ 4t/
of 3z
+ y~ l + z' 1
is
SV" 1
4.
value of x~ l
= 6A 2/x 3
Ex.
y, subject to the
is
y, z
which satisfy
and
1,
the least
or 9/c.
EXERCISE XXIII
In
marked with an
the inequalities
*, all the
to
be
positive.
... a
1. If
,, cr 2
n and b 19 b 2 ... b n are two sets of numbers and
the second set are positive, then (a l f a a +
f a n )/(6 1 f 6 2 +
+ bn)
lies between the greatest and least of a^/b^
an lb n
...,
2 /6 2
,
. . .
2.
If a,
6, c
are
(b
any
4
real
a)
f (c f
. .
f
ca
f
ab.
all
those in
TYPICAL EXAMPLES
225
a>0
If
6.
a, 6, c are
+ y + 2=0,
7.* If a, 6,
integral values.
9. If a, 6, c,
[2(ab
m*
10.*
4
dareall >1,
1)> (a +
+ 1),
!)(&
then
etc.]
 +
^ a + b + c.
c+a
2
2
[For, (& + c )/(& + c)^(& + c), etc.]
11. If x>0 or <l, then
r
zn ' r
^ I +x
[Show that x + + x
r
&4c
12.*
(i)
(ii)
a(ab)(ac)+b(ba 3 f 6 3 + c 3 + 3a5c ^ a 2 (6 + c)
> 27a
15. If
[If
a>6, then
16. If
n>0
Za Ella^n*
.
and not
p>l
Za 3
(ii)
all
El'.a'&nZa*.
equal, then
#,
\*
(^
l<x(?l
a?
+ y = l,
then
.]
anda?>l, then
> ~nx
x n ~x~ n
17. If
first.]
JEb"
a 9^6 and
+ a) f c 2 (a 4 b).
is
6 2 (c
... fc
(i)
[327a
I
and
r is
(p
any
4.
[Use Art.
ni
9.]
l)f+i
(l
+ 2 a + 3 r 4
...
)/w
r4
'
lies
HARMONIC SERIES
226
19.* a*b
+ b*c + c*a^3abc.
21. If
x> I
22. If
any two of a,
and n
is
20.
a positive integer,
(#
1)1 (x
6, c
abc^TI(b+ca)
(i)
24.
The
and
25. If
x+y+z
of,
is
a, 6, c,
(ii)
provided that
d are given positive numbers.
is
<Z
/4 o&c,
all
the
and x + yf z
then
1,
8xt/z
<( 1 z)(l
i/)(l
z)<2
*=!+A + +.
..+_
n
o
^04:
...
!L^
and ?, ?,
1ZO
71
...
!tl
.]
71
29.
(i)
(ii)
an
a harmonical progression,
nH<a 1 + a 2 + ...+an <nA and H n <a la 2
,
<A
If a x a 2
...
is
n
IfzjX&t ...xn =a where a
is
...
an <(? n
a constant, then
r
The sum of the products of every r of the x's >
CJ?a
The least value of (x l f (a?a + k) ...(xn + k) is (a 4 k) n
.
ifc)
30. If a is
are equal
31.
32. If
a l9 a 2
...
(a 1
w = ?, aa^, etc.]
p>q
30.
then
333
IMPORTANT GENERALISATIONS
f
16
af b
227
+ c + d'
fora, etc.
34.*
a" 1 + b~ lc + cr l a
a+b+c
*)
35.*
a2
!,
...
OK and b l9 b 2 ,
then
...
two
bn are
sets of positive
numbers arranged
in descending order,
(a l
~na b
[Let u n
that w n >wn _!.]
37.
If a>
and p, q are
a*
).
positive integers,
aa
I
p
[Let
~l
pq, a
2
show
tfiat
to
2
I) when p>q.
then by Art.
9,
... f
show
1)};
~.
p(pL)
a p l aq ~l
and
p
38. If
a>l and
q
x,
y are
"
q,
d are positive
Let a lld
integers.
then, using
and by
Art. 9, Ex.
39. //
a> 1
ami
1,
x,
d(a
y are
 1)> 1 a 1 .]
(a*l)lx>(avl)ly
if
x>y.
[Let x' y' be rational approximations to x, y such that x'>x, y' <y, and there7
x  1
fore x'  y > x  1/. Let /( # )
)/, and suppose that
(a
9
then
We
/(*)
c' <l(xt/)(l

a" 1
2
)
and so
/(a?)
f(y)>0,
CHAPTER XV
SEQUENCES AND LIMITS
(Continued from Art. 11 on p. 15)
When
is
large,
1 4
n tends to
infinity.
further,
by making n large
as nearly equal to
1 f
roughly what
is
nearly equal to
is
n.
is
as
we
like.
1 is
the limit of
+
'
large
enough/
'
limit of
u n as
'
that we
(1) If corresponding to any positive number
no
matter
how
a
there
is
m
such
that
small,
positive integer
may choose,
for every integer n greater than or equal to m
Definitions.
where
is
is
expressed by writing
This
lim u n
is
tends to infinity.
lim u n = L
or simply
/,
ofu n as n
n>oc
un
tends to
as n tends
u n ~>l
as
to infinity
n+vo
then u n
this
by
that
we may
choose,
said to tend
to infinity
wn
>
as n tends
or
oo
to
lim u n
and express
(2) If,
integer
infinity)
= oo
v n tends to
is
and we write
convergent,
sequence (un )
is
said to bo divergent*
THEOREMS ON LIMITS
u n does not tend to a
If
oscillate
un
If
limit,
It
ifa<l, a^^O;
a n >
is
u 2 ),
or
oo
a=l,
if
according as n
oo
an
is
This
u3 ),
(3,
...
=r
even or odd,
graphically.
(2,
it is
that, for
first
a n ~> oo if a  1, a n = 1 for
and a n oscillates finitely; if
and so a n oscillates
1,
infinitely.
few terms
of a
sequence (u n )
is
It
said to
\<M,
How
1.
1,
is
every n;

oo
n,
Referring to Ch.
a<
nor to 
\u n
Ex.
then u n
+ oo
nor to
229
(1,
),
is
terms.
Ex.
2.
un = ( 
//
n
l)
+
represent
(un ),
as
n>
oo
2.
1.
FIG. 34.
(1)
v n *l\
then
u n + v n >l + l',
(i)
(iv)
Proof.
(i)
and
un
(ii)
v n >ll',
= 0,
(v)
By
w n ^ n >Zr,
(iii)
u n \v n >l\l' unless
,
I'
= 0.
so
that
\u n l\<.l
and
If
\v n
we denote
l'\<\t
the greater of
n^m, and
and

Wn
mv m2
for
n^m
for
n^m%.
by m, then each
n we have
_ Vn _
(J
_ J')
sg

Mn
limit,
u + v>l + l'
and
of these inequalities
MONOTONE SEQUENCES
u n = I + a and vn = T +
Then
230
Let
(iii)
j9.
greater than
V + j8
then
1,
\u nv n ll'\<\fll\+\\.L.
the definition of a limit
By
n^m. Hence
Let
tt n
= Z+a,
is ftoJ zero
we can choose a
Now by
IV
\
<.
(iii)
number L
positive
and
than
+a
,
and
ifX'
we can choose
m so
that
also
*
and therefore
11
i_
c,
less
<

n>m. Hence
<
(v)
then
A
//
then
u nvn 
also
u nvn +ll'.
Therefore
(iv)
m so that
we can choose
>T
for
(iv),
when r
Ifu n >l and v n ~w n >0, <Aen v n >l.
For Vn Z = Vn  Wn ) + (w n Z), therefore
(2)
Now we
can choose
w n
Hence
J<
vn
un
+\ u n l
\.
and
^ n
w n <i.
3.
n^m both
so that for
Z<ic
f>

vn
1
1
<
c,
Monotone Sequences.
and therefore
w n +i^ M
If
is
un
v n > Z.
for a11 values of n,
un
is
and
(w n )
is
EXISTENCE OF A LIMIT
Theorem
less
231
less than, k.
Proof.
follows
:
of
The lower class is to contain every rational a such that, for some value
n (and therefore for all greater values), w n >a.
The upper class is to contain every rational a! such that u n <a' for all
values of n.
We
shall
is less
every rational
which
than any
a'.
Hence
as a limit.
how
small,
and
let
a be a
A<a<A.
Then a belongs to the lower class, and
sequence and by all succeeding terms
0<Aun <
therefore
is
if
limu = A.
Hence
k^A,
Again
for otherwise k
of the
sequence, thus
It follows that
or to
For
u n <k
f
oo
if
if
un
increases steadily as
n>oo
oo
number k
a positive
to oo
EXPONENTIAL INEQUALITIES
232
i
Ex.
If
1.
un
//
~0
un
1,
ii(x
n 
1)
where
for every n,
#>0, show
that
un tends
to
a limit as n^&
Hence un tends
as n increases.
to a
If
0<#<1,
Theorems.
4.
where k
is
y>\ and
x~l/y, then
let
all
Iffor
>k
...
values of n,
un
n ~l
u1
Now &>1,
therefore u n +co
is positive
is
a positive
The proof
(3)
// u n
For
if
is
similar to that of
is positive
Theorem
(1).
of a limit
Theorem
(1), w n >oo
l<] we can choose k so that l<k<I, and then we can
u n+l ju n <k, for n>w. Hence, by Theorem (2), w n >0.
If
Ex.
1.
If p
is
a given
*
(i)
un =
If
and the
5.
(1)
results follow
xn
^
>oo
if
x>l
u
then
=(
~>0
(ii)
sJww
\v
_
if
find
m so that
that
*<1.
'X>x
as
rt> oo
from Theorem
(3).
For,
is
a positive
integer,
+
<3.
to
n f
12 '(3
Or,
it'
^ m where M
is
a fixed number,
i.e.
terms
EXPONENTIAL LIMITS
(2)
//
1+
>
w/
\n
+m/
>
and
n/
ml
m>n,
/
m.
11,
and therefore
then
1
and
233
1 \
1
m/
l\ n
>lfj.
\
n/
n
therefore
Moreover,
0<w/m<l,
Hence
l<l
'
'
by
J XIV,
1\*
f
1
11,

<1
n/
and
n/
(3)
The number
andu n = (l)
\
n
Ifu n = (l+)
n/
e.
'
and
the
same for
,thenasn+oo
'
71
This limit
both.
is
denoted by
and
e,
is
un
'
one of
For
(i)
every n.
has been shown that u n increases with n and that u n <3 for
Therefore u n
as n>co where e is a fixed number less than 3.
it
e
\~ n
(f\
~
'
'
(ii)
Again,
Wfl
*  u = u fu
n (
n
\u n
\
1
= un
0<w n
therefore
'
 un <
u n 'u n +Q
therefore
(by
n 2 /)
{\
l<l<l+nn*
n /
Nowifn>l,
<. Now
>0,
and
u n '+e.
u n <e<u n
It
f
.
....
EXERCISE XXIV
1.
State
how
(ii)
n + (l) n
(v)
n 2 f(
>
as n>
(i)
+ (l) n
(iv)
+ (~l) n .
xn
2.
Prove that
QO
(iii)
XIV,
\
j
11),
EXAMPLES ON LIMITS
234
3.
say
<l,
n>oo
%n
un ~
If
6.
A*
[The limit
~~
Show
is 1, if
and 
> 1,
otherwise.]
then
^.fl
Find lim
5.
first
*
(Os.i.
2 o
4. If
as tt~>oo
that
n< ^ + o + 4 f
vr<n.
/i
... f
,4
and that un
1 H
4
. . .
><
n
/I
1\
^+
as ?i>oo.
/I
1\
4 4
... .]
^4
8.
If lim
71(0;^
prove that
1) =/(a;),
z>0 and
if
Ex.
llli
[See Art.
xn y n 
3,
=yn (xn 
For the
1.
1)
lim yn ^
and
Q
9
T
If
tt
^v
[If
/>0, then 
5
2
vn >oo
n >0,
/v
10. If
wn 
_^_^
and
i<
w n i' n
<
according as x
2n
"
^^'ssrn:'
4
Now
_____
1).
1) f (y
last part
5 y,
1
hence
v< 2^n
and
2w
46
''*
2n + 2
lies
wn
"
/2"
has shown that this limit = A/  .]
' 7T
9,
wn *=un vn and
<wn <l.
Wallis
GENERAL PRINCIPLE
n ^ 3,
11. If
n+
prove that
\/(n +
1)
[For the
first
also
steadily;
w>4
(r + 1)^
(i)
between
lies
7J
71
and
1 f
+ l>0,
lim u n ^\l(r f
f
2r
I
rfi
nj
\
(ii)
that
lim {(a
n
3 r f
r,l
Corresponding
small,
decreases
. .
f
4
l
,
n +
(a
f
2)
f ... 4
(a
The
and add.
^00
to
any
positive
must be possible
it
n r )/ti r
how
oo
1).
6.
n >
Show
as
s'w
12. If r is
If r
Thus
<3.
4 I
^n>L and
should have
show that
235
to
number
find
we may
choose, no matter
\u m + ,u m
1(
that
suffi
as follows.
is
\<
(A)
That
is to
sented graphically, all the terms beginning with u m lie in a strip of width 2e.
This statement, called the general principle of convergence, is of the
greatest importance,
(i)
The condition
is necessary.
um + p  u m
<
\
The condition is
points Wj, u 2 ... on the
(ii)
so that
all
um + P 
I
\
un
we can
>l,
find
u m+p  u m  (u m
Now
Hence
if
follows.
+ u m l\
]1t
and

l)
um
+ (l u m ).
^ um \<
e.
sufficient.
xaxis.
so that
the points,
on a segment of length
with its middle point at um
lie
2e
FlG
35
By
like.
B.C. A.
we
un
is
23G
Given
integer
e,
that,
un  um
for every integer n greater than m,
a positive
<e
is
it
there exists
is convergent.
Proof.
('U mi
Denote
this interval
by
,
U mv
+).
(a v b^.
w >w2
W 3 >m
^Hi.2
is
of length
The
(w ?Wo
Je,
of these intervals
lies
e,
of
entirely within
um^ +
um ^
is
for
(c^, 6 T ),
within (a v
b^).
and contains u n
tor
\t)
is
(a 2 6 2 ).
by
/^),
(c/ 1?
FIG. 36.
By
(a 2
6 2 ),
(ii)
(iii)
a n <J<b n
.>, t >
tl
b^),
1,
there
is
and
for every n,
ns
uu
H
is
~~*
'
and one
only, such
it
must be possible
to
find
\
if
>w,/w
so that
",
"
<e
.................................
(B)
The condition (B), though apparently more general than (A), is equiTo prove this, we have only to show that if (A) is possible,
valent to it.
then (B) is possible when n]>m.
BOUNDS OF A SEQUENCE
we can
By
all
m so that
U^^Un
and then
find
<ic,
um+z>
m+z
wf 2
.
237
He in the interval
than
is less
w n + p tt n <
H>w.
if
Therefore the conditions (A) and (B) are one and the same.
Bounds
7.
of a Sequence.
If
(1)
there exists a
number
such
the sequence (u n ), and also the function u w are said to be bounded above (or
on
the right).
If
number
there exists a
JV
all
values of n,
then (w n ), and also w n are said to be bounded below (or on the left).
A sequence (u n ), or a function w n which is bounded above and below,
,
is
said to be bounded.
Examples.
Here
namely w 2 ="2
^ has
namely
 2.
37).
1
FIG. 38.
FIG. 37.
2.
Although there
wn
is
(ii)
No term
of (u n ) exceeds
Infinitely
many terms
is
1.
1 is
less
than
1,
for
u.in
+
1.
238
// u n
Theorem.
no term of (u n ) exceeds h
(i)
at least
(ii)
This
bounded above
is
number
function u n
a number h such
there exists
is
that
less
than
h.
Proof.
of
n
u n ^a.
The upper
of
class is to contain
every rational
a'
values
all
u n <a.
Since u n
is
classification,
defines a real
number
exist.
a'.
No
rational escapes
Hence the
classification
h.
Also
if e
is
any
positive
h<a<h.
Now a belongs to the lower class and is exceeded by some term of (u n ).
Hence at least one term of (u n ) exceeds h  e.
Hence the number h satisfies the conditions stated above.
This theorem is often stated as follows
// u n is founded above, then it
has an upper bound.
In a similar way we can show that
// u n is bounded below there exists a
number I such that
:
(i)
(ii)
no term of (u n )
at least
The number
function u n
NOTE.
h and
is less
than
one term of (u n )
I
is
any number
is less tJian
bound
of the
greater than
I.
sequence (u n ) or of the
many
lie
between
h.
For every term is less than h, and at least one term u m is greater than h  e. Since
ia no greatest term, infinitely
many terms are greater than u m and therefore also
greater than h e.
there
and
many
lie beticc.cn
LIMITS OF INDETERMINATION
Terms selected from u l9 u 2
said to form a subsequence.
Ex.
Explain how
1.
to select
t/
3,
...
239
to the
upper bound h
Lower Limits
Upper and
8.
(of
Indetermination) of a
Sequence.
Let (u n ) be a hounded sequence and let h l9 h 29 A 3 ... and l v J2 ^>
the upper and lower bounds of the sequences u 19 u 2 u% ..., u 2 u 3 w 4
(1)
u39 w4 u 5
,
If
fi
...
...
etc., respectively.
then u v
l=sUl9
* >e
h^u
h^h^.
If
hl = h 2
Thus, in
not
is
ly
less
then Aj
is
t/
2,
^h
%, ^4
...
u 2 u3 w4
>A
therefore
...,
and so
and so on.
4
Similarly A 2 ^/fc 3 A 3
any case, h l
2
and
Hence h l9 h 2 A3 ... is a steadily decreasing sequence
every term is
greater than or
greater than l v Therefore this sequence tends to a limit
.
equal to l v
Similarly
than h v
l9
2,
3,
Therefore this
The numbers
H and
...
and lower
lim u n = //
It is usual to write
(2)
and
lim u n ~L.
Examples.
Here h 1
= h 2 =h3 = ...=H.
(Fig. 39.)
FIG. 40.
FIG. 39.
1\
Here
^ = ^3
h^h^u^;
=l z ~Uq,
etc.
etc.
.',
/.
L~tim w 8n+1 =
1.
(Fig. 40.)
240
(3) It is
all
terms of u lt w 2
...,
wn _1
(i)
that
if
arise
all
7>
/>
/>
~ "'m+2
~
n
m ~ Mrn+l
m exists
to say,
is
h n \ are
...
so
H
"
In this case, (u n ) has no greatest term. None of the terms from u m onwards
 e.
can exceed H, but infinitely many terms exceed
There
(ii)
is
m may
how
great
Therefore every h
is
a term of (u n ), and in
cases //
all
is
In a similar
+ e.
that infinitely
many
terms of
un
are less
L+e
than
and, after a certain stage, all the terms are greater than L~e; in
other words, only a finite number of terms are less than Lc.
It follows that, if
H=L=
l,
f
that
is
between I 
and
lie
to
as a limit.
between
Le
and
+ e.
can be found so
that
\u n
u m \<e
nl>m,
for
it
is
u n cannot tend to
f
co
or to
oo
Therefore
and since
L
 u n + um
<
L + u n  um
<
<
<c.
H and L is
H = L and
That
is
(u n )
9.
is
convergent.
Theorems.
(1)
certain stage,
where k
is
But
un
if
In
// (u n )
a positive constant
u n ^ ;>w n  u n
}
is
if,
after
u
less
^.
is convergent.
Then
if
therefore
IMPORTANT THEOREMS
w>s, u m+l um <k(um um ^) ... <ten 9 (u u8 ),
um+l  um <km c where c = (us+l  us }jks
241
Also
Hence by addition
tWn
 um
<c
for every n.
Now
(2)
us
w s+1
is
~ w 6
// M M >0 /or a^
m^.9
w n >oo
is
a fixed
n
number, then u n ~+L
Because Z>0, we can choose a positive number
like.
Then we can find m so that
e< and
as small as
we
and by multiplication,
Since
Ze>0,
it
follows that
^u n
^u n
therefore
(Z)
<
J m <(Z + e) n
'
and
i
(t
')
(I
)<u nn <\
j
V
m
1
Now
u m fl m
is
>]
and
?/
n
n
>i!.
NOTE.
/,
it
does not
2, 1, 2,
...
in
and
2.
Here w n n >
1,
but n n
fl /^ n
IMPORTANT THEOREMS
242
(3)
We
//
,<?
= u + uz +
can find
f
u n and Urn u n = I,
so that for
any
Urn
then
n*x
positive
>
oc
sn
/.
c,
Hence by addition,
 m)(l  e)<s n  s m <(n  m)(l + e)
(n
for
and
(For example,
.)
We
r,
so that
<
.v
Thus
(4)
//
Let
like,
and
P n = a n & +a n _ 1 6 2 + a n _ 2
1
and
bn
';
= + f3 ni
l>

+a
(3),
We
shall
l(a 1
can betaken
j8 n
>0, then
4a^).
i(j8 1+
j8 a
...
+j8 n )^0,
Te
have

jS n
as
Am
Q n < ~n T
r =i
We
and
to zero
so that a n ~>0,
?Z
and we
n>(>.
Q = ~(^i+nift +
where
by
for every
therefore s n jn>l.
nfy^^afay,
Now
<k
we
A:
7i
as small as
and
<*
fixed
ft<t.
so that
<
/k
and

f38
< c/A
for
Hence
a r ]9 n _ r+]
and
COMPLEX SEQUENCES
for nr + l>m,
<* j8 nr+1 <
* r
n>2w,
10.
zn
If
(1)
i.e.
= xn +
z\<t
\z n
where
we
z is
zn = z
lim
write
said
(z n ) is
is
a positive
n^m,
for
is
limz n = z
or
e,
r^m,
where x n and y n
iy n
for
B)
P n~>ab.
Complex Sequences.
l^r^n.
Therefore
(A)
r>m
f^>r r<m + I,
r0nr+l<* a r<
243
or
ofz n as n>oo
and
z n >z.
n>oo
(z n ) is
z.
In order
lim z n
that
=x+
it is
ty
limx n = x
and
limy n ~y.
2
KH=y{(zz) + (2/?/) 2
For
Therefore

zn
z
\
and
xn
By
l^n" !"^^?
z
\
# n #
therefore
~z\> 0,
points z n
and
yn
and
(A)
.
\
definition,
therefore
zn
z\
\y n ~y\
it
follows that
zn
> z.
is
z.
The theorems of Ch. XV, 2, regarding the limits of the sum, difference,
product and quotient of two functions of n, continue to hold when the
(2)
Limit of
zn
as n>oo
For
let z
(i) if
(ii) if
= r(cos 6+ i
=l
to a limit.
then z n
z is
complex.
a limit except
then z n = r ri
sin 0),
z=r<l, then
z
when
r n >0
= l, and
and
z
if

zn
>0;
then
>
7/z[<l,
then z n >0.
r n >oo
and
zn
244
11. General
sufficient
as follows
so that
\
to
(z n ) is
Art. 6,
any
e,
positive
z m \<e for
zm + p
If
Proof.
and by
(z n )
is
Corresponding
Principle of Convergence.
however small,
convergent, then (x n )
N W
X
^m+y
__
Jr'm
it
must be possible
to
find
<1<:
^ 2 fc
and
(y n ) are
convergent sequences
MTU]
*iui
< 2f
e
Mm \^l
lay

__,,/
.7^40
>.
htn + p^ml
therefore
that
\
Therefore (x m )
(y n )
is
As
any
^  z m \<t,
then

convergent (Art.
(z n )
is
6),
however small,
e,
and
x w +p  x m
it
similarly
<
z

it
may
be stated thus.
must be possible
to
find
positive
if
necessary.
Hence
convergent.
NtfTE.
to
is
is
zm
is
sufficient.
Corresponding
so that
EXERCISE XXV
1. If u n is a
decreasing function of n, then, after a certain stage, all the terms
of u n have the same sign.
 QO
First let u n > I. If / ^ 0, u n is positive
f Kithor u n tends to a limit or to
for all values of T?, for un tends to / from above. If I <0, we can choose
so that
.
l<un <0
n^m.
for
2.
If u n
is
n^m.]
in
Ex.
1 is
true.
;
'
2'
3'
4'
5'
5' 5'
lines.]
5'
6'
arc indicated
by the
Q
FIQ. 41.
GEOMETRICAL CONVERGENCE
4.
un >0
If
[See Ex.
5.
6.
XXIV,
and Art.
11,
\+1+
2
n (\+
V
3
un ^
n +l.
9, (2).]
If
245
. . .
0.
[Art. 9, (3).]
n/
show that
>
and consequently
e,
(n
e.
4
"nl
7.
 .^
z~
"~l.n
5
71
~w
7i
prove that
oo
[Show that
r(7i
k>0
prove that
(ii) if
>
where
for
and
(j) if
+ ^T;,
zr*+
prove that un *
If
If
9.
i
.
+l
8.
...
3(712)
a,
= l,
2, 3,
...
n.
= */ (k + u^)
vn = */
vn
un
__ l )
(A:
xk
rt
Illustrate geometrically.
[(i)
Here
t*
= ^ + w n i ^n
~&+w
'
f22
wn 2 ~ wn  1
~ u n~i Unzi
i/,
^n > Z ^ a.
The
Thus wn
case in which
i^ n_!
and
>
follows that
of y x and
(ii) Draw graphs
meeting at A. In Fig. 42, we have
in the
same way.
y~
PrPr ~ u r ~ u r+\*
and thus
The
it
which
Ui = ON = N p > a,
l
Hence
tends to
as a limiting position
NN r N 2
FIG. 42.
N,
246
increases with x,
11.
Show
number
that as the
=0
if
*>0,
positive
f(x)
root a,
(ii)
as limits.
un ^
\7V7f \/7N/7T...
%, w 3 u5
u Z9 u^ u$
then
to
if
2n
roots,
a decreasing sequence,
... is
... is an
increasing sequence,
and that both sequences converge to 2 as a limit.
\7fv7 V 7 WT"^"...
13. If
to oo ^3.
n^^
for
(i)
>
.'
Thus v^^
Hence u.n tends
t;
Vn
t*
and so does vn
Also lim vn = lim n_ 1 = lim (2un  Mn^) = lim
to a limit,
and
n .j
CHAPTEK XVI
CONVERGENCE OF SERIES
1
Definitions.
An
in
is
R Ui v
by
sn
n terms by
The sum
(1)
or
by
is
27w n
called
an
infinite series.
of its first
of the
p terms immediately
is
denoted
so that
**n, v
As n tends
~ w nf 1 + u n+2
~^~
~^~
u n+j> ~ s n+v~~ s n
minus
infinity, or it
sn
may
may do none
tend
of these
things.
If s n
tends to a
called its
sum
finite limit s,
to infinity.
Thus
lim
s n = s,
the series
is
is
defined by
s is
or briefly,
lim s n
= s.
n>oo
This
is
also expressed
w t + w 2 + w3 +
If s n
tends to
oo
by writing
=s
to oo
...
or to 
oo
or
the series
27fw n = s,
is
or
2u n = s.
said to be divergent.
Series
which diverge or
The sum
not a
sum
be nonconvergent.
essentially a limit, and
(to infinity) of a
convergent series
is
We
is
are
removal of brackets.
In fact, changes of this kind
may
alter the
sum, or they
may
but the
series 1
+ 11 + ..
oscillates.
transform
its
sum
is
ADDITION OF SERIES
248
The Geometric
2.
converges
l^l^l and
if
5 n~>oo
If
x^l,
If
x<  1,
s n>oo
If
x=
or
Theorems.
3.
Uj
The
Series.
series
its
sum
and
oscillates infinitely if
If z<l, z n >0
is
It
l/(lx).
diverges if
x<  1.
x^l.
1, sn = l
and
or 0, according as n
oo according as n is odd or even.
(1)
If
+ Wg + tiaf
is
...
is
* n>l/(l
x).
odd or even.
series
um+l
and
6<tfA
For
let
Then
5n
n = sm 4. n Sfn
(i) if
(ii) if
(2)
= w 1 + w 2 f...+w n
sm+n
an d
tends to a
is
*n
finite limit or to
oo
so also will t n
If k
is
convergent and
oo
For
$n
If
4.
converge and
(i)
(ii)
(Wj
4
(MJ
their
Vj)
Vj)
+ (u 2 f v 2 ) +
f
(ii)
v2 )
(u 2
f
NOTE.
f
sums are
w2 f
In the proof,
The proof
is
f
. . .
all
w2 +
s
. . .
. . .
and
 . .
and
vl
+ v2 +
If the
series
. . .
respectively, then
converges,
and
its
sum
is s
converges,
and
its
sum
is s
+ w n ) + Iim(v 1 f v 2 4
. . .
+1
t.
+ v n ) = s 4 1.
finite.
We
first
heading we
consider series in which all the terms are positive. Under this
include series in which all the terms are positive beginning with
of positive terms,
their prder.
(i)
// Su n
For
converges
to
a sum
let
Then
m tends
where
Now
lim
n we can
so does
s,
2v n
for every
of the
find
m and p,
to infinity with n.
therefore
m = lim sm + 9 = s,
so that
lim t n = s.
so that
lim s n = s.
therefore
6.
249
sum
is unaltered.
Proof.
manner.
is
Let
Eu n be
Denote the
first
n terms
(n +p) terms of
Zu n
of
first
Zu n
are,
among
the
first
n^m^n+p,
Also
n.
sn
Now
NOTE.
The argument
fails for
MI
Zu n
such a derangement as
+ wa 4 u6 f
..
+ uz + w4 + w e +
. . .
where Zun is broken up into two (or any finite number of) infix
For here we cannot find m so that the first n terms of Zun
m terms of Zvn Thus u2 does not occur till infinitely many of ti
have been placed.
The rule for the addition of aeries applies in cases of this kind, but
Sun is broken up into infinitely many infinite series.
Derangements of the last sort are considered in another volume.
.
tsrms of
Thus
and
Let
u.
Zv n
new
first
COMPARISON TESTS
250
Theorem.
7.
series
and
oscillate,
less
always
if s n is
sum
its
is less
than k.
For
XV,
(Ch.
increases with n,
sn
Hence the
3).
every n, then
s n ~>s,
s is
Comparison Tests.
Ua n is known to be
8.
terms and
*
(i)
(ii)
u n ^a n for
* or
if
or if
(iii)
Proof,
u n/a n
to
...
a + a2
If
(i)
u l + uz
and since
For
(ii)
is
less
to oo
r ...
be
Eu n and Za n are
divergent, then Uu n will
(ii)
(iii)
3).
we have
...
a n <t
un
follows that
it
is
convergent.
Now
ka n
is
convergent,
convergent.
//
(i)
for
limit.
+ u n ^.a 1 +a 2 f
XV,
for
(ii),
if
lira
<k
we have u n <ka n
values of n,
all
than k (Ch.
//
a finite
a fixed number,
is
un
therefore
(iii)
sn
if
Further,
less
<x>
always
u n/a n tends
oscillate.
a fixed number
values of
all
is
cannot
series
where
finite limit or to
u n /a n
all
we can
is finite,
find
values of n.
Za n
is
known
to
be divergent if
^a
un
n for all values of n ;
* or
if u n /a n is always greater than some fixed positive
or if
u n/a n tends
to
/.
:
zero.
how
great.
a l + a2 +
. . .
f
>N
provided that
n> m
t^f w 2 +
...
+w n >JV
provided that
n>m,
an
number k
Since
divergent.
values of n,
u n >ka n
% therefore Eun
is
Now Ea n
is
divergent
therefore
divergent.
all
values of
greater than
some
METHOD OF COMPARISON
Theorem.
9.
The
series
any way we
in
First
let
is
+ H^ + O +
TJ
is
Now
the
(B)
unity, for
Next, if
thus:
as follows
2, 4, 8,
and the
terms, respectively.
than the corresponding term in
is
/ 1
1 \
!+_+_ +
same as
!+_+
or
...,
common
+ ....... (B)
is less
than
last
Each term
brackets contain
Now
etc.,
is
convergent if
where the
which
^s
is
...
which
brackets contain
Each term
S.
first
.+
please.
p>l.
where the
251
2, 4, 8,
of (C)
...
3
,
1/2
1/2
and the
etc.,
terms, respectively.
is
the same as
+i + f + f + ...,
l+ + i + J + .......... (D)
or
is
divergent,
fore
is
10.
divergent.
1.
Is the series
 f
=
.
Ex.
j.*>.4:
let
+ o~~l
an
r
o 4 o
.
+ ~*
converge^ or divergent
Then we have
Now Zan
is
convergent
un
therefore
is
convergent.
The nth tenn a w of a suitable test series is found thus Keeping only the highest powers of
n in the numerator and denominator of u n we obtain 2n/n8 or 2/n*. Disregarding the numerical
factor 2, we take !/
for e*
n
:
B.C.A.
D'ALEMBERT'S TEST
252
Ex.
2.
<1,
If
a;
l+#2
l+o: 3
>
a:~
n >
and
w^
71
#n
=1
1
a:
= 1, u n = ^ and
If
the series
is
+
...
l+zn
Now Zxn ~
1.
convergent.
If a;>l,
4.
1+z
+ xn
=1
...
where x>0.
convergent, therefore
is
1

x x~ n +
>
Hence
ZV,
n
is
divergent.
divergent.
D'Alembert's Test.
11.
u n+l ju n <Jc<\
vergent if
where k
Zu n
series
is
value.
The
series is divergent if
For
if
u n+} fu n ^l for
71
2^7/j
all
values of n.
n, then
"1
A
convergent, therefore
is
27w n
ii
convergent.
Again,
if
u n+l/'u n ^l for
+u n ^nu
w t f w 2 +
therefore
values of n, then
all
*cc
l<\ and
to
Hence Su n
a limit
is
divergent.
Z,
when />!.
divergent
of a limit
Wi +
is
Again,
if
/>!, then
um+2 + NOTE,
(i)
is
Zu n
tt
is
m+2 +...
convergent.
un
is
n>m.
Henc<
divergent.
all
values of
greate
Nothing is said as to the ease in which Urn un+l lun ~l. In this case the
be
convergent or it may be divergent, and we say that the test fails.
may
For example, consider the series
(ii)
1111
+ + + +
The
If,
first is
the series
is
divergent.
The
"'
series
and
2i
1
i
4*
is
as a limit
from
1+2+3 + 4 +
...
seriei

CAUCHY'S TEST
12.
Cauchy's Test.
Eu n
series
253
of positive terms
is
convergent if
w n n <&<! where k
is
The
series is divergent if
u n n ^l for
many
infinitely
values of n.
if
series
Zk n
many
values of n,
con
is
w n w >l,
If
Zu n
then
is
for infinitely
obviously divergent,
i
In particular, if u n n tends
and divergent when l>l.
The proof
Zu n
a limit L then
to
is
is
n>m,
where
is
number.
fixed
but
Also nothing
the limit
if
is
Zu n
Comparing these
13.
is
concerned, u n+l ju n
is
is
divergent.
more generally
with which we are
For
most
in
the series
of
\,
is
On
(i)
is
and
this
is
For
by
all
values of
(ii)
It
XV,
9, (2),
that
if
But
if
u nn >l,
So we
may
D'Alembert's
fails,
as in Ex. 3 below.
2
Ex.
Show
1.
ic
#3
yA
+ ...
is
convergent if
0<#<1
gent if
un =
Here
Hence,
If
and
is
if
1,
xn

un
n+1 =
0<:r<l, the
~;
n+1
.*.
lim
n
w n41
=lim
T
un
nfl
series is convergent,
D'Alembert's test
divergent.
xn+l
fails,
and
if
x>l,
series
xx.
it is
divergent.
becomes
and
diver
254
Ex.
Show
2.
that
series
the.
+x + x2 /
+ x* f
12
+ ...
is
(3
"~~
values of x.
/>.ni
TT
~n
7?
lim
II
= 1'
lim
iv
=i
series is convergent.
+ 6 + a 2 4 6 2 + a 3 H 63 f
3.
,,,
'
Hence the
Ex.
Horo
. . .
^
Here
according as n
divergent
is
a^l,
if
test
is
series is
0<a<l
if
convergent
w n n >a a or 6 2
and 0<6<1, and
test, since
Using Cauchy's
inapplicable.
and D'Alerabert's
EXERCISE XXVI
1.
showing that
for the
2.
Show
3.
Show
that,
if
ci
l \
?>
+ x ^ + x2
+ 3
+ a t ) 4
a2
(a,
ft
...
\
is
5 2n _
x~ 2 + x + x~* +
}
4^4)
i
Jf.)
which
5.
(iii)
is
absurd, for
If
is
11
<1,
^i*li
+ l+J +
<,
'
(ii);
v
>
some
fixed
number m.
=(i + 4 +4 +
...)
+ (* + ! + i +
= ni+4 + ...,
,..11111
first
. .
that
(m +
The sum
lies
(iii)
is
....
4
Show
never convergent.
and so on.
6.
..
...
is
...
=i+
..
2.
convergent, so also
J (a 2 + a 3 +
.

between
Hence show
4
mfl
and
m+1
,
. .
.,
must be taken.
with an error
~
(mfl)
f(ra
^ + 4~r +
to infinity
J of the series
less
/rr2 + :
~^r2 +
(wf2)
(ml3)
rri.
+ 1) 2
sum to
than
CONVERGENCE OF SERIES
Determine whether the
n
9.
a+6
+ 26
a + 36
3.4
.2
series in
o.lll
10
. .
255
5.6
_5_
~
13.
J_ + __ + _?_ + ....
A
H.
Test for convergence or divergence the series whose nth terms are
15.
19.
^_.
is.
JL_.
17.
/t
.
+a
20.
n
21.
N/rc
2n
/_4.
is.
_______
2
+ ln.
22.
V^fls/n 8
25
'
29.
32.
terms

30.
31.
Zun
is
34. If
Hun
is
35. If
Eun
is
2! ^ ^t
convergent and
convergent, so
un
vn
^t1 ^ ^=^
vn
un
divergent and
un z
is
un <l,
for
37. If
2un
is
convergent, so
ww >0
2.5.6
then Zt'
is
is
convergent.
divergent.
un 2 <un .]
/.
).
+ ~~^~ f ...
5.7.9
4
3
i
1.4.5
n ^ m, then Zvn
3.5.7
for
A
41)
Explain why D' Alembert's test cannot be stated thus A series of positive
convergent if the ratio of each term to the preceding is less than unity.
33. If
a;
is
Exx. 3337
38.
.....
26
3a
2a
7.8.9
+ */2 2 4 x 2 /
24. 1
4.5.6
1.2.3
series in
_i
3.6.7
Exx. 3841.
39. 
1.4
f :r~
2.5
3.6""
.,12
41
i
.3
3 .6

11
256
Theorem.
14.
alternately positive
The
and
u^u^ + u^
series
negative, is
...
is
numerically
less
We
Proof.
and
have
this
*2n
Now
Wji/a, w 2 i/ 3?
From
(A)
it
w 4
...
are
all
positive, for
is
positive
n,
(B)
always less than the fixed number u v
Hence, s.2n tends to a limit which is less than MJ (XV, 3).
and from
it is
seen that
2n is
$.
therefore
tends to the
s 2n+l
Ex.
Show
1.
^ 4 3"
...
is
positive
and
less
than u v
is convergent.
Here the terms arc alternately positive and negative, each term is numerically
than the preceding and lim l/0
hence the series is convergent.
less
un
is
convergent.
Hu n
convergent and
u n divergent, then
or
conditionally convergent
semiconvergent.
If
is
Thus the
series 1
f
series
f+
An
Theorem.
Zu n
Let
it
is
is
Su n
said to be
is
is
But, 1^4
convergent.
convergent and
1 4
3 4
3
$+...
4
. . .
is
is
condition
divergent.
be absolutely convergent
then by definition
un
is
con
vergent.
Now
i/
4j
un
=2u n
or 0, according as u n
positive or negative.
is
>0
and
is
< the
Hence Z(u n + u n
\
convergent.
\)
is
4,
Zu n
is
PRINGSHEIM'S THEOREM
NOTE.
if
we say
is
absolutely convergent,
and not that of 2u n itself.
Zu n
that
another series,
un
From Arts. 11 and 12,
\
it
is
absolutely convergent
<k
less
than unity.
Since s n
Zu n
Corresponding
it
to
must be possible
//j/7/
HUM
any
to
jo
to,
Thus
Zu n
if
is
positive
find
7?
it
n>
Ex.
is
p
1.
to
tend
if
4^
convergent and
allowed
Apply
Mftfi
so that
4
'*n~f 2
is
'
in
to oo
U II
* *
'
<^~
~
Hu n
11
4
+ '"~
2 "3
7f w
'
p ~
n+
f "'
4
n+2
+...+
n+p
>
n~\p
But
is
Pringsheim's Theorem.
'
lp
/i'
Here
tive
nf j?
17.
and
any integer,
sufficient to
'not
a function
e that
?/
as follows
is
is
number
'}/
j,
after
uj<*,
or if
16.
if,
i_
?p
is
Zu n
certain stage,
where k
note that,
257
// Su n
if
ri
then p/(n
f
p) ~>
not convergent.
is
For
if
is
any
positive integer
as W>OQ
P u m+v< u m+l+ u m+2+ + u m+jT>
=
Let p m, therefore mu 2m >0 and 2mu 2m>0 i.e. nu n *Q, when n = 2m.
and
Let p = m 4 1 therefore m + 1 u 2m +l~>
;
(2m +
1)
u 2m+l
1.
Use
Hero nun
and, since
this
n
it is
theorem
to
show
nu n
when n = 2m f
i.e.
>Q,
odd or even.
is
27
zero.
is divergent.
must be divergent.
REARRANGEMENT OF TERMS
258
of
Zu n
sum
Removal of Brackets.
Introduction and
18.
Denote the
of the
2u n
If
(1)
is convergent, so also is
Sv n and
same
sum.
For
Then
= !*! +
let
for
any value
sn
of
= m
+ ...+M n
n we can find
or
sn
= v l +v% + ...+vn
m so that either
= tm + (ww4l + w m+2 +
..u m + 9 ),
where the terms in the bracket are included in the group vm+1
If
Zu n
is
convergent,
fi
n,p
:=s
m~> QO
also
J>
(2)
Sv n
is convergent,
Zv n
Denote
(3)
as in
Ev^
un
is
Eu n
is
convergent,
Rnjtf>Q
are grouped
'
Then, if
'
Therefore, as in
(1),
Zv n
Rearrangement
19.
converges to the
of Terms.
same sum as Zu n
it
which
Ex.
is
1.
divergent.
With regard
t
1
sum
Lft's be Ihe
to the, series
I
54*35
1 + 5
/ri
^r^rr^r
........... (B)
......... (C)
obtained by rearranging the terms and the tigns of (A) respectively, prove thai (B) is convergent with a
(i)Let
then
sum
 1 5
{s
and
(C)
divergent.
or
= l ~ H  ~ + ...
to
n terms
SUM ALTERED BY
*.
1
lim9 2n =*.
Hence, the second
(ii)^t
*>(
then
converges and
series
<
Also
= i + l_l + l + l_l
+
}+( + O
I/,
Now
the series
+ +
sn +%
&U tend to
oo
f
is
. . .
2i
Hence the
divergent
series (C) is
Theorem.
the series
We
And
(u n
have un
since E\
un
f

Let
E\u n
),
f
un
v n) so tha
series by
u n = 2u n or 0, accor
is
a convergent se
<
the c
27(^ + 1^1) =
2\v n \=s>
Ex.
Find a range
1.
series of ascendi
Now,
if
However, by Arts.
convergent
where
a?
and, by Art.
= x
,
is
convergent
is
NOTE.
be the case
that
x'<\(*J$l)
which
each of these
5, this will
or
is,
if x'
tON/5
What
ERROR
and
>,ries
approximate value of
Rn
sum, denoted by
Thus we have
(A).
its
called
is
It should be
5.
s.
)er
number which
o find a
Rn
cannot
\
t series
w
4...+(l) W w +...
Here
ive terms.
n+ 3
Brackets
Hence
lij less
is
positive
the
than w n
less
than u n ^
error in taking s n as
_ _
i
ror in taking x
an
 x2
/2 as the
sum
of the
than x 3/3.
3ss
.n
and
which
erms are
all
all of
n often proceed as
3
K"H
3
xn
+... where
follows.
0<^<1.
The
series is
n +1
numerically less than x
/ (n
le of s is
;ence or Divergence,
lue of
Rn
+1
) (
 x).
For a con
more
ge.
ilue of r y the
. . .
is
SERIES OF
v"
series
is less
1 f

than 20
(st
find that
22. Series of
Complex
Zx n and Sy n c
r n be the sums to n
cr n ,
Ch.XV,10,
tei.
lim Sn
= lu
is
as follows
must be possible
\s n+v s n
(3)
to
Definition of
As
zn
find
tha
\<,
terms and 2\
Corrcs
is
\
convergent.
then 2\
zn
is c
\
Consequently
(4) It is
impo.
2x n and Zy n9 an
The
first
Hence
if
part
Z
\
xn
The theorems c
brackets and the c
(5)
of
complex
series.
This
'
FOR SERIES
is
..+zn
~l
and when
convergent,
if

+ ...
>
0, (3),
3
sum
is
1, z
its
n does
sum
is 1/(1 z).
not converge to
*>0 and
s n *l/(lz),
1/(1 0).
0<r<l, we have
>s2tf + tsin2fi) + ... to oo
re
 r cos
ir sin
 r cos 6
15
FIG. 43.
then
w n>0.
Now
m m+I m+2 +
+
the series
. . .
The Binomial

is
~ 7
~
+ n(nl)(n2)
When n
sum
is (1
which we denote by
+ x)
In
+ ti 1 +
tt
all
...
'
if
+ t< r +
...
1).
which
1, 2, ...
Denote the
Proof.
nr
r+1
ur
and the
<
n = 1 and
finitely if
oscillates infinitely if
is
.x,
r>oo
as
series is absolutely
convergent
x = l.
. . .
is absolutely
n>  1,
con
oscillates
then
therefore lim
if
greater than n,
negative, or all
w<  1.
by UQ h u + u2 4
series
a certain
and
Hence
of n, the series
+ 1)
(nr
*
...
is
From
(1)
w n>0.
Series.
9
+ nx + n(nl)
Vs ' ^ +
minates and
divergent, therefore
and
uju n><x>
25.
is
263
<
*r+l
1.
rn
(i)
Also

n>l,
If
u r+ i
<
ur
(ii)
//
n=  1
(iii)
//
n<l,
as
.
si
r~>oo,
a,,.>n
Hence, by
the series
let
is
n + l=
+T where a r =
Hence, by Art. 24, w r0.
+ l>0.
11 + 11 +
m
so that
..
is
and
w>0,
convergent.
oscillates finitely,
then
considered in Ch.
XX,
6.
CONVERGENCE OF SERIES
264
EXERCISE XXVII
RANGE OF CONVERGENCE
Show
.
K
_J___
a+
,

a+2 a+3
L__JL
1
1
L
_____
__ ____ __
22 32 42 52
I
6.
7.
Show
V'2.4
3
"
+4
'
2.4.6
'
62
series
X
l+x
#2
1 4
x + x2
+4
X^
...
^3/ 3
4
. . .
is
convergent
6
is
if
<x< 1.
all
values
a divergent
series.
convergent for
of x t real or complex.
8.
9.
Show
Show
that  +
a+2
 f
af1
+3
+
af5

a+4
;
...
is
is
convergent if /n <4/27.
[Consider separately the
10.
is
(i)
sum
of the
for
which the
series
convergent.
(ii) Find a range for which the series can be arranged as a convergent series of
ascending powers of x.
11. If
0<z ^
04,
cos 6
 a: 2 ) 2 f
. . .
4
x 2 < L]
12. Let the terms of Su n be arranged in groups, without altering their order,
and denote the sum of the terms of the nth group by v n
Given that 2vn is convergent, prove that Eun converges to the same sum as
.
Evn
(i)
(ii)
If the
number of terms
in every bracket
In case
is finite
same
(ii),
and w n>0.
sign.
v n +Q
SUMMATION OF SERIES
Show that the series
l/(l+i), and find its sum.
l+z + z~ + ...
13.
2
14. If z n
+~i
n
L>
is
is
265
convergent
absolutely
when
vergent.
Rn
is
15.
For the
series 1
16.
For the
series
+ry
+ 75   +
. . .
\R n \<r ft provided
that
X
17.
For the
series
Q<x<n + l.
18
AnL
27
+J +
.
20. If
2L
l_
1^:
Exx. 1823
in
X^
i
that
~ x provided

tOQ0
^
]
or
!^
as
TI~> ^cording
x \$l.
then
a(a
62>a>0,
Show
n
+ l)
a(af l)(a
+ 2)
61
^ ^^
f "
"
'
then
___ __
24.
r
""'
i
6l>a>0,
+1
19
ii/
/
tl/
n+
L
i + l + _i + ...to*= T
?
Ix*
xl
*>1,
23. If
Rn <
li + li4 + ri~;8 +
22. If
X^
!_
IJ
X^
+ r^ +  +...,
+r
6(6
that the
6(6
1)
sum
l)(6
cos
I
^(6"al)(6a2)'
n terms of the
to
is
+ 2)
{sin
series
finitely
except
when
is
an even multiple
[2 cos r6 sin
25.
of
TT,
26.
Show
in
(r
when
is
a multiple
which case
Show
convergent,
onvergent,
by
sin
when
= cos +

+ 2 2 +
sin 
4
...
$7
+ ...
is
on an Argand diagram.
CHAPTER XVII
CONTINUOUS VARIABLE
1
it
We
Definitions.
cumstances x
is
all
Limit of f(x).
When x = Q,f(x)
f(x)
= {(1
3
f
x)
l}/x.
Thus, if x
is
nearly equal
to zero,
what
f(x)
Thus, as x tends
positive
number
3
1
<e
as follows
therefore
is
< 1,
is the
then
provided that
<
\<L.
to zero,
that
what
is
any
where
to
corresponding
how
matter
~
f( x ) 1
is
<
positive
a number
number
rj
which we
may
choose,
no
such that
xa

<
TJ,
off(x) as x tends
to a.
This
is
I.
z+a
it.
THEOREMS ON POLYNOMIALS
corresponding
(2) If,
exists
to
any
number
c,
there
N such that
 <
provided only that x> N,
f(x)
a positive number
where
positive
267
This
c,
off(x) as x tends
is
is
to infinity.
.
'x+<x>
,(3)
If
a positive
or
no matter how
(less
oo
x>N,
f(x)>M,
we say
M,
to
as
x>oo
3>oo
definitions
'
.'
Fundamental Theorems.
2.
lim (u v) = I + V,
liml/w = l/Z unless
(iv)
infinity,
lim (u  v) = I  1',
(ii)
(v)
Z=0,
(iii)
Two Theorems
(1)
= aQ + ax f a 2 x 2 4
is
If
number
17
any
. . .
f(x)
a
1
<c
and the
how
small,
Z'
make
for
we can find a
positive
'<!,
f(x) a Q
then
kx'f(I
<
al
/(k+*)
is
f(x)
,
f

\a n
a
1
),
<
that
c,
<
77.
that
is if
if
a suitable value of
a 2 x' 2
x')<, provided
kx'<(lx
Therefore
a 2
x'
...
x
\
let
(a^,
then
= x' and
let
numbers
so
is
easily
= IV,
= 0.
a n xn , then
For shortness,
Proof.
and
f
lim uv
so that
If
What
on Polynomials.
Let f(x)
then
x which
u, v be functions of
V as x tends to a or as x tends to
I,
f
(i)
Let
<
/(k
+ e)
77.
B.C. A.
QUOTIENT OF POLYNOMIALS
268
(2)
//
number
is
m so that
\f( x )
The
letters
\>M,
/(*) !=*">.
great,
n l
+n2
we can find a
positive
\x\
we have
(1),
^2
1
and a n
between
of
x we have
= ia w
if
theorem
#'>
is if
f(x)
> x' n
{e&
 e}.
then
,
/(x)>ta B
Hence
last
<
that
In particular, put
Then by the
< K+
if
.
\
if
x':
then
f(x)>M
From Theorem
if
\x\>m.
lim f(x)
= aQ *
a;>0
=
Again, if x y fa, then y>0 as x^a and /(a)
Hence
of y in the polynomial f(y + a).

lim /(x)
1.
// f(x)
_3
Km /(a;)
3
is
(i)
0,
(ii)
(iii)
cw
a?
^5'
(ii)
Let
a;
= 1/y,
then y >
*~
lim
>
as
lim /(X)
(iii)
Let x = 1
f y,
then
as x +
t/
a?
oo
>
and
and
this is not
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
4.
269
We
confine
is
a continuous function of
where
xa and x =
yf(x)
is
is
or
6.
the pencil to leave the paper, and we say that it is continuous. In Fig. 45,
the curve cannot be so drawn near the points where x = x and x~x 2> and
we say that
the curve
is
FIG. 44.
We
curve
FIG. 45.
(This
More
precisely thus
Further,
X~XQ
PQ (xQ
let
on
it
,
is
point on it.
Thus the curve
AB is
(1)
XQ
continuous
is
if it is
continuous at every
x=xt
and
x=x2
it is
discon
The
\yyQ \<
if
said to be continuous at
in the
is
either side
Then
the curve
all)
77
exists
such
that
\
TYPES OF DISCONTINUITY
270
It
is
is
implied in
definite value
when
x~x
finite
i x =/(# =
(iii)
."#. 1.
A simple case, in which f(xQ ),
given by Goursat.
If f(x)
zero,
= x2 +
x2
...
^f
1 ~}X"
and so
f(x)0
x2
+7
4
(1
,^i
T*
ar)
...
L 19
to oo
L%
all
equal,
is
of f(x)
is
all exist,
then,
2.
# = 0.
*>0
(2)
is
f(x)
as x+bQ.
continuous at
x>a + Q and
continuous at a if f(x)~>f(a) as
is
it is
at b if f(x)>f(b)
b X
FIG. 45.
Types of Discontinuities,
7
C,
as
right,
lim
JC
(ii)
(i)
^
7
'^^
7 JL
^ fl/j
and
lim
X
Thus y
This
as x^a^hO.
2
example, 1/x and 1/x
expressed by writing
^ 3/1 ~H
is
a discontinuous function of x at
is
is
v = Vo.
7a
,"
It
may happen
=
point x x
Taking
x,
we
see
(as usual)
Jx
that v x  x
discontinuous at x
number
FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION
5.
(1) It follows
x=x
from the
called
a,
// f(x) tends
lim
tinuous at x^lythen
y=
If
function of a function of
Theorem.
and
x,
is
is
</>{f(x)}.
and
as x>a,
then y
w=/(x),
denoted by
= cf>{lim
<f>{f(x)}
if
where
(f>(u)
a finite limit
to
=
lim/(x) = Z, then /(z) Z
=
continuous at x I, therefore
For
are continuous at
<f>(x)
Function of a Function.
(2)
and
The same
is
271
con
is
<f>(x)
f(x)}.
+ 7?, where
77
>0 as
x>a;
also
<f>(x)
lim
6.
then,
x >a
continuous for
is
values of x.
a polynomial or the quotient of
all
The Function x n
7.
// n
is
rational,
xn
is
continuous for
all
Suppose
(i)
that
x>0.
If
is
any
positive
a, b
0<a<x <6.
Let x be any number other than x in the interval (a, 6)
then by
~
~
Ch. XIV, 10, x n x n lies between nxn 1 (x~x ) and wx n 1 (x~x ).
so that
Now
~
both x" 1 and x n 1
then
c is
(ii)
7/x<0,
At
<,
and
bn
let
~l
,
hence
<&.w.x~rX
provided that
continuous at x = x
xx

is
the
.
small,
<k
=.
if
n
I
~1
is
xn
two numbers,
Hence xn
between an
lie
the point
negative values of
x = 0.
If
is
x.
positive,
limx n = 0.
If
is
negative,
s~>0
xw >oo or to
tinuous at
x=
Hence xw
is
con
CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION
272
8.
Fundamental Theorems.
the
(1)
is
continuous at x=*a
that is to say,
a;
If f(x)
if
values of
all
ar]<x<a +
r]
where
x in
77
is
arbitrarily small.
For since /(a)^0, we can choose e so that f(a)e and f(a)+e have
and since f(x) is continuous at x a, we can find
<f(x) <f(a)
provided that
f e,
<
77.
and
xa

a^x^b,
f(b).
From
is
obvious.
Let A,
6,
and
We
let
assume
that
any
straight line
varies
=k
Hence as x
least once.
yk
a XQ
FIG. 46.
Proof.
Suppose that
f(b).
because f(x)
(a, 6) for
is
a<b and
which f(x)>k.
DERIVATIVES
Divide the real numbers in the interval
is
to contain every
273
(a, b)
into
two
classes as follows
any number
(#!<#' <#2
some
)
belongs to class A', for although f(x')<k, yet
values of in the range a <<#'.)
It has been
(a, b) is
included,
in
for
classes exist.
number
f()>k
or the least
number
in
and every x
which
is
is less
either the
greatest
It remains to prove that /(# ) = k.
we can find
If f(x )k<0, by reason of the continuity of f(x) at x
so that f(x)k<.0 if #
Thus f()<k when
f.
ie.
'.
<<#
<
Hence x +
^X^X
It
is
If f(x) is
of
x in tho interval
(a, b),
is
and
by the equation
denoted byf'(x).
o:
deter
then
Thus/'(x)
is
defined
discontinuous at X = XQ
Ex.
1.
Wo
have
// f(x)
=xn
where n
f'(x)= lim
is
a positive
integer,
may
GRADIENT OF TANGENT
274
10.
to a Curve.
Tangent
be a point which
from either
Let
supposed to move
is
is
to
as
we
side.
like.
T'PT
If a straight line
approaches
PQ
from either
we may
any angle
T'PT is
called
47.
This
at
is
is the limiting
PQ
as
tangent to a
the
curve
tends to coincidence
with P.
Notice that
P,
PQ
The curve
(ii)
is
(i)
would cease
direction
at B,
supposed
a chord,
in Fig. 48
thrown from A,
is not
to be
is
to
reach P, for if
were
to
coincide with
strikes the
ground,
BT'
namely
'.
This
at
is
an instance
no
definite tangent
one point.
B
FIG. 48.
Gradient of Tangent.
on the curve whose equation
1 1
PT
Let
+ A,
yf k).
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT
Draw
R.
Then
and
since
P and
($ are
Now,
as
PT and h
y + k =/(x 4 h)
gradient of chord
.'.
Q tends
PQ = n\
J^^M
gradient of
is the
Pr =
lim^4^W'(*)^~>;o
OX to meet QM in
k =/(* + h) f(x)
/.
to coincidence with P,
tends to zero
/.
parallel to
and
y =f(x)
275
fl
fey).
PT
tends to
is nearly parallel to OY, f'(x) will be large, and if
If
coincide with a point where the tangent is parallel to the yaxis, we may
expect that/' (x) will tend to infinity.
Ex.
1.
Find
whose equation
y = x?,
at the
is a.
is
is
(a,
a3 )
12.
Any number
by
responding to x
thus we have
+ Sx
is
denoted by y + 8y
2/
This limit
is
denoted by
In finding
We
often write
=^.
is
of differentiating f(x)
is
=
we
called differentiation.
~ in
dx
and
ctx j
it is
<r
dx
ax
DIFFERENTIATION
276
Rules of Differentiation.
13.
(1) If u,
v are functions of
,..
(l)
.....
(Ill)
dx
'
(.
and
in (v)
Proof.
dv
iP\
dx
dx
dx
and
=
ax
have
(i)
(iii)
and
du dv
T"""T">
dx dx
'
I du
5 Tu ax
d /1\
>
Let
5
ax
(ii).
8 (uv)
Su.,
^~ are not
ax
These are
= (u + Sw)
be the increments in w,
x.
infinite,
left to
v, wv, etc.,
the student,
( v + Sv)
^+
lim(fF
dw
dx
dv
dx
+ fc)lim
'
l^___Sw_^
du
dx
A^V
^ v ^
dx\v/ dx
dx
1
1N
.
dx v/
du
v dx
u dv
dv_l1 / du
2
v dx~^v*\ dx
fo J3 + l)2(2l)8_
'da:
d /^N
/u\
dx\v/
(i)
(
rf
(Sar+l)"
l
dvN
dv\
dx/
~(3a: + l)*'
du
wlim(ufSw)
u(wfSu)
We have
v^Q.
responding to an increment 8x in
Because
dx
axu/
du
=
..
T""
'
(iV) y
assumed that
.
,.. %
^
dx
dx\v/
dv
J
d
dv
du
T (UV) = U 7 + V 7dx
dx
dx
d /wN
It is
du
Tdx
then
x,
_*._
cor
POWER OF A FUNCTION
Ex.
Slww
2.
277
du
dv
dp
/!)___+_
p dx u dx v ax
...
where
(iii)
1 dq
= 1 du1 dv
u \_^
qdx u ax v ax
....
/
an<i
q = ujv.
p = uv and
Deduce
that
if
= (u1 w2
un )l(vt v2
...
wtare
v m ),
...
u 29
t> ,
2
..., t^,
...
\ Z
zdx
(i)
,
If
uv,
then
VT + u=
~f
ax
dx
and,
dx
each side
if
divided by
is
p(=uv) the
t
result follows.
(ii)
(iii)
Let
UjU2
...
^n V
v^
...
__...
/
Z_ \J
'
= !^+! du*
u 3 u^
= Z ~ m(~};
^^
V dx
^\v dx
8
i ssc
Prove
that,
dx
rr
U
*j^
j:
V dx
dx
un)
w3
55"
dx
... i*
and the
a function of
is
rs=1
dx
\ur
result follows.
3.
I dV
dz
_
_ dU
~_
_
_
'
dx
Ex.
dU _ 1 d%
1
rf(w
U dx ~u dx u2 uB ... un
1
SimUarly
J
then
onH
cHlU.
[/
r
/ /
vm
and ~
if
let
n be a positive integer
x,
then for
exists,
all
rational
values of n,
Let
n
\
and
.
f t
(ii)
Let n
(i)
Idw == 1 dy 1 dy
_.
_^__^.
w dx y dx y dx
m, where
is
<
Hence, by^
wy = 1
and
m dy
1 ^w
~
y + dx =
w dx
y
,r
(i),
dy
__j____
y dx
a positive integer
_
/.
,.
then
w~y
y^
n terms) = ndy
T

...
y (n factors)
y dx
then w=y~~ m ,
m
Idw ~
1 dy
+ m ~ =0.
w dx y dx
 =
~1 rfw
r =
or
w dx
y dx
then
wy*
P
(iii)
cr
Hence, by
J
That
is,
we have
/\
(i)
w or
/v
(11),
'
v
in all cases
d2
^ c?y
i^^fl^
wdx zdx ydx
rft^
=
=
*f
oo?
NOTB.
*
(
oo;
and
and
t)
say.
 dw ndy
.
1
dx
y dx
^ )=ny
wQ =y =z
side
by w(=y
n
),
i.*
00;
is
always a factor
y,
unless
y=s.
FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION
278
Function of a Function.
14.
is
If w=/(x)
(1)
and y~<f>(u)
a singlevalued function of
x, continuous for
u and
values of
y.
for
e,
and consequently
\u~UQ\<r),
\yyo\<e
if

xx
]<?}'
If the derivatives
(2)
values of u,
and
if
f (x) and
<f>'
then
ttati,,
=.g.
Sw^0,
if
8y^8y Su
Sx
du
ax
8u
> and
As o#>0,
fi
oo;
~8u'
du
r~
dx
since
and therefore
ou
Sx
is
a
finite,
Sw>0
+.
du
Consequently
dy = .. 8y _. 8w dv dw
r
ax lim/lira^^ow
ox du dx
,^ v
(B)
It
may happen
that Su =
for
some value
= 0.
hence
of Sx,
Also
^
= 0,
8w = 0.
for
~ would not be
finite
U/U
dy ^dy du
dx du dx
is
/Y
(11)
Find
Let
u=ax + b,
Let
ti
(i)
then
70.1
f
when y =
(ax
y=u n
ox% then y =u
and
i
n
fc)
and
dx
<^V

dx
(ii)
=~
du
/
=(
\
when y =
.
dx
1
=nu n~ l .a=na(ax+b} n~ l
\
)
u*J
'
~,
26x =
26a;
(a+bx*)
//+,!,
a
6
&.*.
We
279
'
2k 2y dy
~ + 7? 5? =0.
a j cr eta
15. Derivative of
xn
// y = x
n wfore
is
any
rational, then
<fy
dx
x
If
Proof.
of h,
is
positive, x
Also
a;
71
"1
is
is
is
nh(x + A)*
a continuous function of
dy
ax
If
+h
+ h) n  xn
10, (x
Therefore
x.

..
(x
hm
+ h) n xn
'
h+Q
 u, then = ( y
=
negative, let x
l)
n wn
and
r~
n
n l when n is a
Or,* having proved that the derivative of x is nx
positive
integer, we can prove that this is also true when n=p/q as follows.
therefore
16.
qtf^
.dy
1
1
/ = px*>dx ^
Now
_
and
~Ty
~
dy = px p l = pdx qy 1 q
/
xp ~l
Z^v
xq
Iff(x )>0
f'(x).
*
= p x ^
q
x
of x in the neighbourhood of x /(x) </(x ) according as x
For {f(xQ^h)f(xQ )}/h tends to a positive limit as A>0.
,
Similarly
t//
(x
A,
Hence
/(x + A) ~/(x
JAe
a5
for
A.
5x
NOTE. If /'(a;)>0 only for the single value # of #, it does not follow that f(x)
increases steadily as x increases through XQ
For if x t <a;2 <a; where x l9 x2 are in the neighbourhood of a? , it has pnly been proved
.
that f(Xi)<f(x
17.
)t
3.
+ i<(x),
+
i<f>'(x).
f'(x)
x. If y=/(x)
then y
The
is
280
Higher Derivatives.
18.
this is written in
y =/(#)>
If
of the forms
any
forms
If
(ii)
If
t/
= zn
t = nxn  1
a 2xn ~* +
f(x)
4
. . .
a n)
L?
=n
a^f
+ (n  l)a^ 2 + (n
= n(a
f'(x)
then
and by successive
a l9 a 2
...
2)
1)
^"
f(x)
a 2^~ 3 +
= (a Qy a v
a n _Jx, I)*
a2
...
. . .
+ an
a n $x,
w
l)
...3.2. (a^f a x ),
that/(z) has a
maximum
at X
then /(x
replaced
is
by
<
maximum
,
differentiation
Hnfn 1)
19.
1, if
"
value
of
>
is
or turning values.
may
be a
maximum
or a
value of f(x)
is that
f'(xQ ) =0.
This follows from Art. 16 but the condition
;
is
not
sufficient.
minimum
a maximum
is
281
value,
A,
Similarly
sign of f'(x)
be
is
if
positive.
If the sign of
(x)
is
f(x)
neither a
OX.
FIG. 51.
The
has
f(x)
maximum values
C and
graph of
t/
minimum
= x3 f 1. Here
as indicated,
Thus y
1.
Here
Thus
=^
= 3z2
dx
is
neither, a
Search for
maximum
nor a
so that
~=0
ax
/'(*)=6*
6*12=6
/'()=0
if
*=l
or
2.
to
Or
and
value at B.
dy
=0, but as x passes through 0, the sign of ~ does not change.
ax
when
Ex.
at A,
is
thus,
f"(x) = 12s
 6 =6(2* 
to the
1),
same
results as before.
and as x
CALCULATION OF LIMITS
282
APE
In Fig. 53
is
supposed to be part
of a curve represented
by y =/(#).
moves along the curve from A to B, the gradient
increases along the arc AP and then decreases.
If a point
Thus
maximum
has a
ax
of the tangent
value at P,
and therefore
~=
at P.
dx*
If
is
the secant
minimum
is
At such a
Q
FIG. 53.
close together.
point
(x, y)
on a curve at which j
is
maximum or
dty
~
point,
dx*
0,
EXERCISE XXVIII
Find the limits of the functions in Exx. 13
tends to oo .
1.
(i)
as x tends to zero
3.
'
(1
+*) (l
Prove that
(i)
10.
Prove that
sin
a;
8.
Iim
1;
a;
hm
,.
6.
(ii)
Iim 
a:
= 1.
x.
=2 sin^A cos
12.
Prove that
Iim
Iim cos
11.
5.
sin
9.
7
sin
is
tan x discontinuous
x = cos x 9
(ii)
=
cos x
,,
 sin x
=
tan x = sec 2
x.
as x
f(x)=z(xa)
Hence,
14.
m (xb) n
if
m, n are
prove that
283
x between a and
b.
(i)
dxj
dx
(m)
15.
(d
_1
/
jl
lx*2\"((l
(dx)
+ ~
'
l)
n
(iv) sin z.
16.
Find %
n
(v) cos #.
if (i)
(vi)
tan n tf.
(ii)
if
x 3 + y* =
(ZiC
,
17.
cZ o;
12 =
Prove that
rfy
 d*y //dy\*
^
/
aa: / \^/
2
18. If
y=A
19. If
y = cos x f
20.
cos
Prove that
if
Lia;
+ J5sin
sin
21.
is
r7 y
then TO
"
2/
then ~ = iv.
or,
dx
= tan
IJLX,
a/a:,
(x
then
I /
10)
(x
+ ia).]
Find the equation to the tangent at the origin to the curve whose equation
chord QQ'.
23.
24.
x(x25.
I)
and
x.
I)
(i)
If f(x)
=(xl)*(x 2),
for
x~
b/2a
bx f c according as a
^ 0.
gives
maximum
or
minimum
value
B.C. A.
of
INVERSE FUNCTIONS
284
27.
When
(i)
36a; 2
increase with
Find the turning values of the function, and state the character of each.
(ii)
Show
28.
038.
Four equal squares are cut off from the corners of a rectangular sheet of
8 inches long and 5 inches wide. The rest of the sheet is bent so as to form an
open box on a rectangular base. Find the volume of the box of greatest capacity
which can be formed in this way.
29.
tin,
30. The regulations for Parcel Post require that the sum of the length and
girth of a parcel must not exceed 6 feet. Prove that the right circular cylinder
of greatest volume which can be sent is 2 feet long and 4 feet in girth.
Show
31.
21.
Inverse Functions.
shall
prove that
(1)
function of y.
This function
x=/~
(y)
denoted
is
by/~
thing.
(j/),
singlevalued
is
continuous
y=f(x) and
of/.
is
a single value
For
x 
and
Let yQ k
X Q~6 X Q X^ X
and y + k be the corresponding values of y,
FIG. 54.
and let 77 be the smaller of the two k, k'.
As y varies from y 7? to y + 7?> x ^ es between # e and XQ + C, for a;
are within the interval
(a, 6).
increases with y.
x~x
Hence

1
and therefore x =/
<
(y) is
provided that
continuous at
j/
PRINCIPAL VALUES
285
(2)'
^
//
J
For
~ax
if
~ exists
dx
and
is
then ~
a<x<b,
dy
is finite,
as Sz>0,
8y
dx
T
dy
ox
,.
22.
and
by
Sv
/,.
Si"
~
dx
then, since
Therefore
vice versa.
Joi,
,.
^
y,
=1
lim^ = l
Idy

dx
The
value of
jy=s//i"
jr
FIG.
and that
of cos" 1
lies
of sin" 1
between
5^>.
x and tan" 1 x
and
lie
between   and
n.
sin*"
a;
positive
and negative
I.
Show
Let y = tan~ 1
that
=
dx
a;,
then
tan~ l x =
l+x*,
x=t*ny and
dx
==8
dy
'
dy
te
r+?'
BOUNDED FUNCTIONS
286
Bounds of a Function.
23.
is
(a, 6),
then/(x)
a number
a;
to be bounded below.
A function
which
is
said to be bounded.
is
By
we can
(i)
at least
(ii)
number h
This
is
than
h.
less
no value of f(x)
is less
than
number
exists
such that
Ex.
I.
lim
n^oo 1
If
+nx 2
3=0, f(x)=0.
If
I.
x^O.
Thus f(x) has a definite value for every value of x. But f(x) is not
any interval including zero, for by making x small enough, we can make
exceed any number we may choose.
f(x)~ljx.
bounded
I/a;
in
Theorem
bounded in
1.
If f(x)
is
(a, 6),
it
is
(a, b).
Suppose that f(x) is not bounded in (a, b). Because f(x) is continuous
at x = a, for sufficiently small values of x  a, f(x) lies between f(a)  c and
/(a)
x in
+ e, where
is
any small
(a, 6)
is
positive
bounded
A' as follows
f(x)
is
is
or
is
The number x
not bounded in
b)
is
number.
in (a, x)
to be placed in
and an upper
of
is
class
or in A' according as
(a, x).
number
a,
which
Now f(x)
is
the greatest
number
in
ROLLE'S
positive
belongs to A, which
Theorem
2.*
is
287
Hence f(x)
number.
THEOREM
// f(x)
is
is
continuous in
and
(a, 6)
and
h,
at least once as
are
its
x wries continuously
from atob.
For if c is an assigned positive number, however small, there
one value of x in (a, b) for which f(x)>h , so that
hf(x)<
and
1/{A
upper and
is
at least
/(*)}> 1/c.
24. Rolle's
interval (a, b)
If /(a)
a and 6.**
This theorem is of the greatest importance. A strict proof (as given on
the next page) depends on the rather difficult considerations of the last
article, but from the graphical point of view its truth is obvious.
Let the curve y=f(x) cut the xaxis at A, B. Suppose that it is conA to B, and that at every point it has a definite and finite
gradient. The theorem asserts that there is at least one point on the curve
tinuous from
between
and
FIG. 56.
FIG. 57.
f'(x)
is
* This
proof
is
and
taken from
** If
f'(x) exists for a<a;<&,/t)
sarily in the closed interval.
must be continuous
in the
open interval
(a, &),
MEANVALUE THEOREM
288
for every
or
some values
(ii)
is
which
is
25.
and f'(x)
where
exists for
is
a<#<6,
f(a)
= (ba)f (),
Proof.
<f>
then
(x)
=/(&) f(x)
<f,'(x)
is
Iff(x)
continuous for
a<x<6
then
........................... (A)
b.

= f(x)
/(a)},
{/(&) /(a)}.
Also ^(a) =
and <f>(b)=Q, hence by Rollers theorem <f>'(x) = Q for some
value f of x between a and 6, which proves the result in question.
and
B where the
If P(x, y)
parallel to AB.
the curve, and the ordinate
is
NP
duced) meets
AB in
Q,
it is
tangent
any point on
is
easily
(or
NP
pro
shown that
Fia. 58.
Corollary.
(i)
(ii)
//,
is
(ill)
if
(x)
two values
NOTE.
of
is
always
from equation
x in the
(A),
is
where
it is
supposed that
interval.
is
continuous.
a, b are
any
If
and
ntegration
an
and
<f>(x)
t/j(x)
differ
Hence
if
(x) are
is
that
<f>'(x)
any value
of
(iii),
<}>(x)
is
(f>(x)
i/f(z)
=a
+ C.
Thus
equations which
Ex.
NOTE.
mean
^
dx
Since
xn
denoted by
Integration
Ex.
2.
//
n>0,
+ 1)
j</>(x) =/(#),
and
<f>
(x)
f(x) dx
+ C,
are
two
^^
(
v
n+
)
'
x n , therefore (x n dx 
...
dx
is
*
n+1
+ C.
where
<f>(x)
j
then
The symbol
tion, just as
= $'(x),
constant C.
/i
f(x) dx
\l(n
and
by a constant.
r
is
or),
by
therefore,
iff
is
289
PN
is the
ONP
y)
on
bounded by ON,
NP
and
the arc
OP
by
y~kxn
is
equal to
ON, NP.
FIG. 59.
Denote the area by S and let #, y be the coordinates of P. Let Sy, 8/9 be the increments in y, S corresponding to the increment ox in x. If Q is the point (x f oxt y + Sy)
and QM its ordinate, then rect. PM<oS<Tect. QN, i.e.
O
therefore
y<
JO
Of
< y + Sy
!f
y rfa: =
a;
and
since Sy > 0,
.*.
y=
11 "1" 1
A:a;
<fo:
/b:
= 
j
(7,
^0 and 5=
where
is
a constant.
TAYLOR'S SERIES
290
27. Taylor's
Theorem.
is
If f(x)
tives f'(x),
Theorem,
known
also
as the General
the first
b,
f"(x) .../
(n)
(x) exist
for
all
f(b)
/" (a) +
i^
then
"
>*1
The proof
deriva
2
)
f/
is
and
(a, b)
where
Mean Value
b.
Let
and
then
F' (x)
and
f (x)=
Now
= 
(b
 x)"
= Q and
which
<f>(a)
is
Let b
</>'(#)
= a + h,
may
be written
..+
...(B)
/^
where
J2 B
pA /<
w
>(a
+ 0A)
and
i.
0<0<1.
For any number between a and ah/* may be written in the form
a + Oh where 0<0<1. In general, the value of depends on n.
Taylor's Series.
(ac, a + c),
and
the
a/wi /Aa<

h <c.
Then equation
(B) holds.
interval
Rn =
.
h"f
w (a
f
n> oo
as
9h)>Q
291
then
vL
"
For
sn
if
is
the
sum
/(a + h)
The
:he
to
n terms
...to*>.
of the series,
s n = 7? n >
so that
When
V(0) +
Rn
A) .
4
is
Lagrange's form of
0,
AT
s n >f(a
and
...(C)
(0)
...to
................
(D)
11
This expansion
is
known
as Maclaurin's Series.
The Quantity
28.
z, is
called the
com
29. Function of a
and
Complex Variable
are functions of x
and
y,
z.
If
we say that Z
is
Z=X+
iY, where
a complex function
But
it is
'
function of z
'
as
follows.
We
to indicate that
is the result
Thus 2x f 3iy
is
a function of z in the
first sense,
of definite
explicitly,
and
restric
ted sense.
For
if.
terms of
z is
known, so
z alone, i.e.
It follows that
is
2x + 3iy
but 2x
t
y.
if
292
way
and Continuity.
Thus, after a certain stage, the point z (on an Argand diagram) is within
which may be as small as we like.
with centre
and radius
circle
We
say that /(z) tends to a limit I as z tends to a if, for any posithat we may choose, however small, 77 can be found so that
tive
/(z)
1
1
<
e,
a
<
rj.
>
if
for
so that
the same as saying that as z tends to z along any path whatever, /(z) tends to /(z ) as a limit.
It is assumed that /(z) has a definite value at every point in the
This
is
The function
if it is continuous
/(z) is continuous in a region
of
the region.
at every point
Hence if z describes a continuous curve in the region of continuity of
the function /(z), the point /(z) will also describe a continuous curve.
(4)
said in Arts. 2
In particular
variable.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
lim (o
zo
+ az + a^
f
. . .
+ a wzn ) = a
of
rational function of z
those which
make
is
continuous for
all
z.
EXPANSIONS IN SERIES
293
EXERCISE X3TTX
1.
Prove that
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
sin
(lU,
ITT),....
(71,
TT),
to
TT.
2
3
2
1
2. If a, ax + b, ax + 2bx + c, ax + 3bx + 3cx + d and ax + 4bx* + bcx* + 4<fo 4 e
are denoted by w , u l9 u 2 U B respectively, show that, if C7 = w 2^s 3u u l u 2 + 2u l 9 9
,
=0
7
ax
and
ax
=0, so that
dent of a;.
3.
/
l
cos,
If
re 2
and
dun
dvn
^= 
xi_ x
prove that
^=
'
is
odd or
even.
[If
Now
= ~v >0,
.*.
= 0;
vn
is
also
= cos x 1<0,
an increasing function,
= sin x  x < 0.
%>0;
.*.
rfv
and
^=w
and so
4.
>0,
/.
(ii)
[(i)
Let
3, for
all
an increasing function,
t;
2 ),
(w a v3 ),
,
sina;
/.x
... .]
y*
3
X*
= x X + 
QO;
to oo
r^
x as
r > oo
+i
 s zn
sum
tzn+i
to r terms.
~>
as ?i > oo
Then by
.
There
.]
sin (x
rv
=sm x + hT
+ h)

cos
2i
(ii)
= cos  A sin a:  h
cos (# f h)
a;
2

cos x
2i
6.
^!>0;
[(i)
/.
values of x
COSX = l+r... tO
every
fore sr * cos
5.
is
X2
Ex.
vx
If f(x) = sin x,
^n
<^n >0as
+ ...
a; f ...
h3
sin
n*oo.]
in
CASES OF BINOMIAL
294
7.
tan" 1
;*;
=# 
x5 f
x'
Sr =x~ + ~...+(l) r ~i
{Let
/(0)=0, and/
(x)
0<a:^l, then
that, if
1,
x*
THEOREM
tooo.
4
^,
and
/(s^tan 1 *^;
JLf
so that
8. If f(x) is
a function whose
first
=
[Proceed as in Ex.
9. If
derivative
show
is I/a;,
then
as r >
> 0,
that, if
oo
0<a?< 1,
x3
x2
xj + ...
to QO.
7.]
+ i0 3 and
between
6 lies
+ f0 8
= + a03 tan
11. If
is
is
any
rational
number and 
n(nl)^ z 2
+
^
...+
 
<x< 1,
(i)
show that
.
,
IT
where
(ii)
If
0<a:< 1, prove
that
J r
>0 as
r > QO
If
n  r <l
and
"'
to oo ...................... (A)
xr >0 as r~>oo.]
ftr
+Q.
zero.
To deduce
4
CHAPTER XVIII
THEORY OF EQUATIONS
(2), POLYNOMIALS
RATIONAL FRACTIONS (1)
Multiple Roots.
1.
is
a polynomial, then
(x
<f>(x)
Let
Proof.
Theorem
2. Rolle's
at least
a,
j8
where
<f>(x)
is
a polynomial and
for Polynomials.
f (x) =
lies
// f(x) is a polynomial,
between any two real roots of f(x) = 0.
f(x)=(x*r(xp).<i>(x)
integers, and <f>(x) is not
Then
#/?.
(2),
is
<f>(x)
divisible
by xat or
and
/'() = (x a)
where
Now
0(a)
= m(aj8)<(a) and
Hence
\fj(x)
between a and
3.
(
1)
is
moreover,
ift(x)
is
every
/?.
=
// all the roots of f(x)
f (x) = 0,
and
the
For if f(x)
is
//
f" (x) = 0,
=
f'" (x) 0,
of f(x)
. . .
and
(1).
the roots of
296
(3)
(ii)
j8x , /J 2 , ... ]8 r
a x =a 2 then a x
,
If 0^:56 a 2 ,
Hence
by
if
(i)
if
(ii)
(iii) if
or
jS1
= 0, any
/'(o;)
<j8 2 <...<j3 r
Let
of which
o^,
may
a2 be
real
=
f(x) 0.
roots of
roots
off (x) = 0,
can
(iii)
let
(i) lie
For
root of f(x)
j8 r
is
j8 1? j3 2 ,
(Art. 1.)
j8 r .
between o^ and a2
cannot be consecutive
j31
a 1 <a 2 <j31
<a1 <a2
then
then
/J 2
then
and
j8 x
j8 r
can
lie
intervals
(4)
// /'(x)
+1
If /(#)
=0
which
(5)
If
(r
is
\x)
It follows
from
(4)
=
f(x)
that
true in
is
and
all cases.
(r)
derivative of f(x)
any
roots, then
imaginary
has at
/(#)=0
least
as/'(z)=0.
(6) If all
number of
...
j8j, j8 2 ,
f(x)=Q by
Ex.
and
1.
have opposite
/(/J 2 )
Find
*
/(*)
real root
f(x)
same
1
1,
j3 x
and
/? 2 ,
faw a4
2.
a // 6
tecw*
oc<
0,
are
one between
(uw imaginary
For
1, 1, 2.
00
+
+
1 and
oa; f26a;
= (a,
6, c,
/(>(*) = ?i(ttl)
2
f(x)
...3.(a
according as
sign.
1,
roots.
Ex.
....
roots of /'(*)=
00
<
between
lies
signs, or the
find the
f(Pi)
of
3i
f26
. . .
1.
+ c)
roots.
k $ #,
w
)
NEWTON'S THEOREM
Sums
Powers
Newton's Theorem.
4.
Let a,
j3,
of
let s r ==a r
+ j8r h... + K T
n ~l
(r
+pzxn
= 0,
2
...
1, 2, ...),
+p
(fi)
*r
+Pi*ri+Px*r*+ +Pn*rn=<>
(i)
sr _ 1
We
..................... (A)
= n,
(B)
2, p. 277),
synthetic division,
2
 a) = xn ~ l +
Atf" f
f(x) / (x
where the
by
=<x,+p v
in succession
If the
Q l  s l + np v
and so on
and
Q<z
 ^ 2 f p^ L f np2
Q n ^  * n1 f jvn _ 2 f
comparing
this
with (D),
*
"*
*
'
xn
*~ 2
^  (n 
on,
it will
be
. . .
+ ...+Q n
................. (D)
Q3 = s3 + p^ 2 + p^ f np3
+ ;v2*i + w ^n 1
h(n2)^2x
1
and so
~"
~*
seen that
where
.........
x~
xoc
By
then
sr
+;p n =0,
so that $
(i)
Proof,
Equation
be the roots of
... AC
f(x)^x +p lx
and
Roots of an
the
of
297
n 3
4...
+> w _!
^^ Q 2  (w  2)^2
. . .
and
Q n =p n  V
Therefore
(ii)
+ +^
)Pnl
a r h fta 7
+ p 2 a * 2 f
7
. . .
f
rw =
0,
^ a
rt
(E)
r
by a
~n
we have
298
Ex.
an
1.
If q, c 2 ,
(a
r
x)
= a  qxa
r
a,
/?,
...
y,
...
7"' 1
+ C 2z V~ ~...+x
2
is
then
r
.
(y~ z)
r
>
etc.
we have
hence, by addition,
5.
where r
....
s.2
...
27(a/?)
Leta,
/J,
...
be the roots of
xln
+p
xn
l
The
order of a
5
only, therefore a arises
also the index s is the
3.
is
defined
as the index of the highest power of any root which occurs in the function.
Thus the order of 27a 3/8 is 3, and that of Za/3y is 1.
From what
function of
the coefficients
If u
is
it
will
be clear that
p l9 p^
...
pn
+ al
xn l
of the roots of
+ ...+a n = Q,
The
in a,
is
of degree s
and Pi =
........................... (B)
...
is
of degree s.
a function ofp l9
i/a
>
...
a symmetric
in
the order of
is 4,
is 3.
?2 ==a 2/ a o
j8,
...
is its
j> 2 ,
e^ c
...
degree
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Theorem.
// a symmetric function
when
299
pv pz
sum
the
...
Proof.
x = yl A.
. . .
this are
Aa,
we multiply every
to multiply
root by
\w
u by
is
to multiply piSpz, p^
to multiply
A,
pfp^pz
by
...
A2 A 3
A,
...
respectively;
by
oc
1.
Write
is
>
2 2
2
Thus we have
27a j8 = ap\p$ 4 bp 2 f cp^,
where a, 6, c are independent of p lt p 2 p 3
.
6. Partial
Derivatives.
y, z, ...)
is
a func
by the symbol OX
^~
respect to x.
and ^~
CfX
is
u with
.
_
2
d u
___
is partial.
_3 fdu\
_
.
dxdy
is
We
also write
d*u
dy\dx/
For example,
if
u = xm y n
j.nereiore
(xx)
^ ^
ox oy
oy ox
when u
2>i j> 2
is
is
a polynomial in
x, y.
written PiPiPzPzPzB.C.A.
TAYLOR'S THEOREM
300
It is
'
when
'
A strict proof is difficult, and here we are only concerned with polynomials.
Again,
we
often regard
h^ + k^
as
du
da ( d
9 \
7
7
^
h~+k= = (hr+k^}u = Du,
ox
oyj
oy \ ox
^^=^^^5^
dx
if
h k are constants
y
a result which
dx 2
dyJ
dxdyj
we may
dxdy
express as follows
u.
dxdy
The value of
by the Binomial
theorem.
7.
Taylor's
Theorem
nomial of degree n in
for Polynomials.
//IN
r^r
av
...
a n are independent of
A,
+ TT. a n
'
\^
and
if
X=x+h
f (x + h) = aj + ha
The
result follows
by putting h =
+ : a3 +
(A)
[L
a poly
...+~fM(x)
n
f(x + h) a + hdi +
where a
is
x, then
~
f(x + h)=f(x) + hf'(x) +
f"(x) +
&
Proof.
// f(x)
(1)
. . .
h"
h,
1

^
we h&ve
an
in these equations
for
we
find that
EULER'S THEOREM
If u z=f(x, y)
(2)
is
a polynomial of degree n in
1
f(x f A, y + k)
For we
where a
may assume
301
x, y, then
_+*Dn u
u + Di
that
... are
independent of A, k.
=
k
A
we have a = u', and differentiating
0,
Putting
with regard to h and r times with regard to k, we find that
,
^T) /(# + A, y +
Then,
if
X = x + A, Y = y
m r
( d
f
yfc,
k)=pr + terms
mr
times
A,
(D)
equal to
is
\r
involving
=
\SV/ /(^ ^) /tnr,r(^
^3T/
(3)
y, 2, ...) is
^)> sa 7 ^ e fm~r

^ r =/m _ r
(x, y)
=^
a polynomial of degree n in
v^
x, y, z,
ZAen
...
(E)
n
where
The proof
is
8. Euler's
x,
B )*
dx
and, in general,
+ l~ +
...
oz
Theorem.
y and of degree
~
h  + k^ox
oy
Let
(1)
be a polynomial
homogeneous in
n, then
J ^~
dy
=,
^9
dx 2
^^
dxdy
+ y^) w = n(nl)(n~2),..(nr=f
(x^
\
ox
oy/
Proof.
Let u=f(x,
y),
du

>
and
since
is
homogeneous and
of degree
6.
........................... (B)
in x, y,
* See
/AX
(
right of
PARTIAL FRACTIONS
302
// u=f(x,
(2)
a polynomial homogeneous in
is
y, z, ...)
x, y, z,
...
and
of degree n, then
du
du
dn
z *x a" +y~*+
y
oz
ox
dy
D u = n(nl)(n2)
r
wAere
D r tfawdx for
J
(x
\
^dx
4
y
J
^~
dy
9. Partial Fractions.
. .
...
Let
in
form.
J
expanded
r
its
is
f(x)l(f>(x)
let
xa
<f>(x),
(f)'(a)
<f>(x)
rv
= (xa)^(x)
/r
'xa
and
is
xa
^>(x)
From
l)w,
is
factor of
For
4
(nr +
...
dz
=
Putting h = Xx, k Xy, /Az,
similar to the preceding.
which
2 5
4
+^nu>
4
first,
by
= At(x) + (x
differentiation,
and
f(a)=Aif>(a)
Ex.
and
If
1.
^(a)=0(a),
therefore
A=f(a)/<l>'(a).
m^n.
xa is any
factor of x n
xn ~
according as
Let
1,
then a n
na n ~ l
= 1 and
xa
xa'
are
sin^^ where r = l,
2,
...
i(wl)
*
or ^(n2),
odd or even.
is
a = cos
sin
then a" 1
= cos
fractions corresponding to x  a
sin
and x  a"
the preceding,
wr = 
# cos rmoL
/.
a;
r
2
tr
 2a:
cos
r(m  l)a
where a =
+1
,
cos ra
2?r
*
by u r then by
,
xl
r*i
Theorem.
10.
7/a,
...
j8,
are
is odd, or even,
+r =J(n
m l
l(x
n
equal to
is
1)
303
1..J .(zl)
n
xl
'
r'
!.
a;
41
1KV
T
ri
roote of
f/te
t;s^(a ,a 1 ,...a n )
is
...
j3,
dv
dv
dv
A l = a l + a^i J 2 = a 2 + 2a
where
are
a A, ]8
A,
...
Af a A 2
etc.,
into
and
we have
v = (f)(a^
a l9
= (f>(a^ A^
an )
...
... ^[
n ) ................... (B)
dv
dv
dv
a Qh
2
2
^ + (2a x A f a Qh ^~ + (3aji + 3a x A + ajh?) ^
)
dv
.'.
^or
J&x. 1.
dv
. . .
dv
a,Q^~ + 2a l ^~ + 3a 2 ^ +...=0.
^a x
ca 3
aa2
biquadratic (a
a lf a 2 a 3 a$x,
,
1)
the coefficients
the value of
This function
where p
of
a,
j8,
q, r
. . .
is
are independent of a
a lt
...
3.
We may
And
therefore
since v
is
assume that
we have
l
l5
+ 3a 2^
+ 4a 83 ^
4
2
This
is
true for
all
values of a
a 1$ a 2 therefore
,
= 0,
giving
q~3p,
r2p;
<x=0,
304
EXERCISE XXX
1.
Prove
ating
2.
equal roots
Show
that this
may
bx 2
and
by
elimin
+ 2cx + d~Q.
for
the
5. All
are real.
.
roots
Ii
!_?
Show
if
of
roots
case.
~
The equation xn qxn m + r=Q has two equal
14.]
(ii)
3.
6.
+ 3bx* + 3cx + d =
if
;
is
ax 2 + 2bx + c=Q
4.
ax*
roots
f'(x)
and 2
 4.
arid
~
~
the equation x n +p 1 x n l +p 2 x n 2
show that a is a root of
n~2 + n _
n txni + n _
+ ... +p n ~0 has
each
three roots,
equal to a,
n ~*
l)*p lX
2)
9.
positive,
one
if
8,
two
if
r> 19.
11.
as
12. The equation x 5 + 5o
(i) if a>0 ; (ii)
ing cases
:
+b
if
a<0
has one and only one real root in the followand 6 2 f 108a 5 >0.
14.
Show
and that
that
if
a>0
<
#=0
and
if
A2
Aj,,
jc*^ +
^A
prove that these are
all real
order, then
y
&2
z2
^+
^A ^A~
also, if
6,
'
and A lf A 2 A 3 are
...
ani
x n 2
ZV^O
show that
+ " +_____
for
_i
'
h*~~
2
j.
= 2,
3, 4,
...
n.
The sum
19. If s n
a,
the
is
sum
and a
y,
/?,
is
the
/?y.
that
x
is
4
x
zero.
1
~0,
show
H7r
s 2 tti^0,
a,
/?,
...
equation whose
m and n
according as n
is
* 2n =4cos
.
3
roots
where ^^a^x^a^,
21. If
descending
20. If
in
16. If a, 0, y,
18.
305
U.2 ~~a
x 2 + 2a 1 xy + a 2 y*,
odd
or even,
and
...
etc.
m^n,
prove that
where
__to
#cos(2rf l)wacos
_
__ ___
// ~ _ ___
"
r
j
rc*
^^
__
cos (2r
(2
\_
by the equation
A
J'^ afc
^
6 
f7
^, prove that
/,
&!
g,
is
zero.
= a and
(a
b)(a c)
is
zero, so also is
2
.
CHAPTER XIX
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS AND SERIFS
Continuity of a* and log a
1.
tinuous for
all real
XVII,
(Ch.
2.
Ch.
21.)
Exponential
XV,
(1)
The reader
log a x
and Limits.
where
and
(l}~**e.
xj
m is
11
+ ~<lf;
!+<!
m+
m
1,
therefore
If
z>oo
(l
<(
1 f
1+
/
/
XV,
5, (3),
in f1
"
=fl+
<(l +
xj
1\ m
1
A
7I1+
m + lj
'
m+l
1+1)
(\m
m/ .(l+j^
e;
therefore
Next
let
x=y +
l,
then as
x>x
?/>co
and
v
=(i+ii
.fi+h
V
\
y/
yj
It follows that
if
x>x
or
=
lim(l+^)*
and consequently
9.
(Continued
m<x<m +
lim
con
is
Inequalities
(l+)%c
\
xJ
let
is
is
5.*
As x>oc
For
If
values of x.
x.
1 f x)
(
6.
x.
x.
from
EXPONENTIAL THEOREM
If z
(2)
is
any
real
number,
z \x
= ez
lim (14)
X/
a^oo \
This
is
obviously true
or 
oo
if
= 0.
*Aew
a*_i
hm
is
=
obviously true jf a
Now by
Ch. XVII,
1/2;,
then as
a^l,
If
let
5, (2),
1
lim log a
a;
= loga.

x*Q
This
let
y/
(3)// a>0,
z^O,
If
according as z.50.
307
(1
y~>o
(1
+ y) y }  loga e = r
a*
lim
ic>0
Aoga
i/>o
therefore
= log a.

.,
if
x>0,
then
lo*

3.
<
<log
For
a*l
all real
values of x,
xn
'
Proof.
The
series (A) is
function of x which
x, n
we
shall denote
2
by E(x).
If
 
is
where
sum
is
its
a positive integer,
,
n(n~l)/x\ w(nl)(n2)/a\
~
=l+n.~
+
+
(1+)
f)
\
3
n Vo2 ^()
\n/
\n/
n/
/
and
+...
ton + 1 terms
IRRATIONALITY OF
308
Now
jo r
<l, and
since
E(x)
are positive
 1)
2, 3, ..., (n
of r
we
numbers
have, by Ch.
less
XIV,
1,
n
.;
Let
be the
sn
sum
n terms
to
<voj
^1(2 + ^"
^(x!)
is finite
let

x =^x 1
\
2.3
Now
and
of (A),
3 4
>D
,.
then
i.
TT a!l+  +
+
,
Xl
g
Xl
^.\
j
x ly therefore
x\
n '00^
>QO
71
but
W^OO
This result
is
In particular, when x =
6
we have
11
+
++
 ii
1+1+
[2
from which
Ex.
it
3
e
= 27182818284
...
1.
then
where
?
account of
4. //
(B).
a>0
Hence
and x
we should have
is
integer,
which
is
impossible on
is
any
real
a* = e*
that
R y=an
+2
number.
lo 8
= jE(zloga),
........................... (A)
to say
2
3
)
.................. (B)
An
6.
Irrational Index.
309
is irrational,
we take
ax
6.
(1)
ja
r
lim
ah l
lim a x
ax
In particular,
NOTE.
= a x log a.
x
.
Tx
be observed that,
It should
if
defined
y = logx, then
(2) If
^
therefore
and
dx
j~
= ev = x
,
=
is,
dx
=log
G x
(3) It
is
true for
_d
NOTE.
Since
is
y log a,
all real
d
y,n
dx
it
en log a;
_n
__
if
rational,
en log a?
instance,
the curve
TN
TN
i.e.
y=ax
until it
at B.
the gradient
OX
l,
A,/'
OY
To
sheet of ruled exercise paper and draw a line perpendicular to the ruling as the axis of x ; and
Aa
nx n
PN is the
xn = nxn ~' 1
= l/log a
ordinate of P, then
This fact gives a rapid construction for the graph of
y=ax , with considerable accuracy.
= ex where
For
for
take a
and
in T,
ax
we proceed thus
_n
_ xn
dx
follows that,
is
values of n,
it
ay
fy = 1
xi. *
; that
dx x
dyjdx
x = ev
da
O
FIG. 60.
fr6m
in Fig. 60,
Also,
if
'
fair curve.'
the paper
is
turned through 90 in
its
the curve
is
is
the graph of
310
7.
(1)
For
For
all real
let
f(x)
from
(2)
= ^1 x,
(3)
then
according as x 5:
//
 1 and ^0,
x>
//
t/
For
x>0,
then
0.
x>log
ix2/(l + x)<xlog
l<x<0, then
let f(x) = x  log
x
(1
<xlog
i
*
if
Hence
0(#)
+x)<s
/(l
+ &).
T2
increases
according as x
= a;~log(l + x)%
it
0.
x2
X
1 ~r
then
and
<f>(x)
I+x
Again,
(1
+ x)<x2
(1
 x 2 then
+ x)
f'(r\
Ji vv**'/'
+ x).
(1
by taking logarithms.
(1)
then
e*>l +x.
/(0)
and
Inequalities
since <(0)
= 0,
it
0.
according as x
<f>(x)
This proves all the inequalities in question.
follows that
(4)
//
x>
greater of the
"2
'1
^0
and
numbers
and
and
I,
1 f x,
x2
This
(5)
is
merely another
For any
x2
way
positive value of n*
(i)
lim
a;>oo
(i)
For
all
positive values of
logx
_2__
xn
Choose
m so
that
0<w<w,
x
(ii)
<
n  w >ao
we have by Art.
1
_1n x__m l__ ^ ______
x
mxn ~ m
m
and
(log x)/x
2, (3),
~>0.
and
lim (x n logx)
x >o
J/>QO
(ii)
then a^ x~>cx)
~ =0,
X
= 0.
EULER'S CONSTANT
(6)
For
This
is
all values
of
lim x
r,
/e
= 0.
r>0,
x
let e
If
311
= y,
then, putting 
=n,
'
e*
Now
lence
8.
>e
as
it
x^oo, y>oo;
and, by
follows that x r /e x +0.
The Manner
Now, by
n
;
in
Art. 7,
however great n
xn
(6),
since
(5),
may
then
e x >oo
Let n
to Infinity.
and logx>oo.
to infinity
faster than
be.
n
Again, by Art. 7, (5), (log x)/x ~>0, therefore Zo<7# tends
n
nore slowly than x
no matter how small n may be.
to infinity
n
If #>0, then logx>ao., and
by Art. 7, (5), (log x)/x~ >0; hence
n
log x tends to oo more slowly than l/x , no matter how small n may be.
9.
// M n = l+g + J
Theorem.
...H
w n>y
Tt'
is
Art. 7, (2),
By
Proof.
nl
1\
/i
log
1+
w/
log f
log(nf
,
,
that
n
<1
1,
n  2,
...
2, in
7, (2),
n+1
is,
log
<w
<log
i
and by addition,
Art.
& \
Substituting
Also
n _l
Again, by
1\
/,
< n <log& (1n/
1.
and
it
follows that
;
i.e.,
log (w
V>y
NOTE.
/
where y
is
a fixed
The number y
0577215
....
It
is
is
as
since
Euler's Constant.
w w <l, y<l.
It
where
>0 as n^oo
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
312
Let
i_
l_i
(ni!
,,11
.,
then
1 N
= (y + log 2n +
Therefore
2B )
(y + log
the
z2
 log 2 + e2n  en
s 2n+1 >log 2.
l+z +
series
r
+ +
jE
Proof.
It has
fv hen
T
...
is
is
sufficiently
is
z.
real,
first of
these equalities
z is
complex.
II
+ = 1 + M  =p(cos
n
n
n
For
sum
z n
3T
real
z,
Its
convergent.
Let
values of
x
(z)=lim (1+) =e (cosy + 1 siny).
z is real,
Z
all
Theorem.
For
and
(1)
z3
holds
w+
or complex,
(2)
1
+... to oo.
log2 = l + ... + (l)" 71
Thus,
11.
/I
Also s 2n+1
2n log2.
sum
be the
sr
<f>
sin
<f>),
where
cr
values
large
of
n,
1+>0;
n
P>0,
hence, since
^ = y/(n +
Also tan
x \2
)> 0, therefore
(n tan
x \2
n/ +^i=(l+)
nz \
( 1+)
n/
w
therefore p
r
/
and,
lim see"
since
we have
lim p n = e*
and
 lim
sin
+ tan 2
hence, JE(z)
jE (z)
(3) It follows
nor cos y +
<f>
\n
sec 2 <;
T
<f>)*
n = lim
x
= (lfj
+^
sec"^;
n/
w2\in
hence
JL
2n
(^
=1
>
z,
for neither e*
SINE
313
is
and
of cos y
unaltered by
A Complex
E(z)= the
z
principal value of e
We take this equation as defining the principal value ofe when z is complex.
z
For
the present,
Thus
e
if
z
z=x 4
we
iy,
= E(z) = ex
e
thus,
z
.
take e z as denoting
(cosyf
iy
e z is to
be
re
its
and
sin y),
z,
ez
'
= ex
'
(cos y'
tsint/')
z'
'
'.
Hence
the
Again,
if
In agreement with
E(z log
this, if
a) and, at present,
we
a>0, we
take a
a).
a z as
Equating
real
+i
sin
and imaginary
14.
mean
yE(iy)
parts,
we have,
t/
*y
3
?/
Using
therefore
+i
sin
cos
y = E(iy)
j/
(c
= &u
ty 4 e"~ l
*0,
cos ?/
sin ?/=
sin
y~E(  iy)~e~~ iy
(^ rJL~^li
""*"JWK*"
e*
to
314
15. Series
by the
Exponential
Theorem.
(1)
The
Zu n
series
xn
where u n
is
a polynomial in
n.
'
We
can find a
un = a
av
f
a 1n
...
ar
independent of n, so that
+ a 2n(n l)f
...
+a r n(n~ 1)
...
(nrf
1),
and then
s^n
/v>tt
spf*
n=rr
1.
Here
2
in
f
the value of
(n*
nr
a rx r ) e?.
5)/ n.
i
TAe
n
5en*65 2/M n x /(w
n and
a, 6,...
+ a)(nH6)...(rnA;)
f
f
hence,
putting
5,
= 3,
(2)
Find
. . .
T**
2..
Find
summed
n w;Aere
t/
n is
a polynomial
integers.
the value of
$, then
Now
where
a, 6, c,
d=l.
Thus
rf
XT
Now
=>'*)>
_
"' 6
a=
5, 6 = 5,
c=
2,
LOGARITHMIC THEOREM
315
EXERCISE XXXI
X
Show
1.
lim fl 
that
= 1.
Exx. 29
3579
0,234
3579
+
f
4
f
ji" [6 "L?"
1*1
23
1
Prove that
33
1+2
""
+ '
'
s
" 4 + ""
23
+2+3
ni~
38
4"
a;
48
4""
" "
""^"
2**
3a:
=t(4S16e).
11.
~ii"
12.
cos
6 ox
13. If
= tan" 1 
where
16.
f
//
Suppose
then
(i)
yn = log
rz^
 !<#<!,
+ x)  s n
^ 0,
0<x<l.
that
dx
n terms of
and
1hx*
" "
l
s n~>log (1
is
even or odd.
and s^^
1
/( w f i)"^

+x)
in
to
The case
sum
x = 0,
when
1+a;
a;
sn
which proves
be the
sn
__
1 f
according as
therefore
Let
yn =
then
Therefore y n
Theorem.
series,
(ii)
then
Proo/.
the
cosfea;=w
as
(Of.
for every n.
as W^QO,
n>oo
Ex.
XXIX,
8.)
10.
B.C.A.
LOGARITHMIC SERIES
316
(iii)
the sign of
x, it
3
Xn
X
~ X
+
x) = x + + +...+
2
0<x<l,
if
Let y n = log
therefore y n
>0
log
(1
x)s n9 where
(1
yn =
then
series;
then
sn
x = 0,
when
and
~r
n
_ x ~
=
(i
then
'
~5
xn
ix
~dx
x
)_
~
'
(T7*)
r^Ti
0<y w < n H 1
Logarithmic Series.
^i
and, since
0<x<l,
s n~>log (1
+# =
log (1
+ x)  log
 x),
(1
x3
./
1+x = nf
1
1x
,,
so that x
=^
4
(A)
follows that
it
x5
5
;
/nv
......................... (C)
7,
we nave
2nfl
7^
.....
//
0<x<l
o:
and sn ~x+ o
a;
4
If
the,
Rn
value of log
"
is
is less
1
~~
than
...(D)
 +... to
1fa;
2s n as
x),
have
/tv~,i**
71  1
3
.
of x,
1+x
Writing
&
...+ (I)
("rlo^
l<x<l, we
If
log

'
since
__
1x =
x n+1

and
this
x" +1
17.
n terms of
when x = 0, and
2n
x n+1
Hence
z n <0.
therefore
to
for every n.
n+i
x n+
ofe n
=^
cfx
Zn^yn"*
Let
sum
the
is
....
2ii\>
terms,

+1
show
CALCULATION OF LOGARITHMS
18. Series
317
Series.
Ex.
1.
Ex.2.
The
If k
If
is
\x\<l,
series is
< 1.
**
~~~
Let
*"
wehave
sum any
6e applied to
series of
is
where
is
a polynomial in n and
a, 6,
...
Logarithms.
The number
e is
rithms.
Napierian logarithms
Ex.
T
Let
1.
N;
is
i+*
..=;
=2;
rt
..log, 2
2
8
5
1/3=0333
3 8 ) =0012
333
345
679
3 5 ) =0000
823
045
=0000
065
321
=0000
3 11 ) =0000
005
645
000
513
=0037
037
037
l/(3
=0004
115
226
l/(5
=0000
457
247
I/ (7
=0000
050
805
I/ (9
=0000
18
1/3 =0000
005
645
1/(11
000
627
I/ (13
000
070
1/3
1/3
1/3
11
15
1/3
=0000
/.
log e 2
3')
3')
3 13 ) =0000
1/(15.3
15
)
333
000
048
=0000
OOP
005
=0346
573
589
0693
147
178
=0693147178 nearly.
BORDA'S METHOD
318
The
(i)
this
We
have taken 2S 8
account
is less
for log e 2.
JL
The
Ex.
the error on
1 of Art. 17,
than
17
(ii)
By
is
2SQ
is
numerically
than
less
008.
Adding the results of (i) and (ii), we see that 0693 147 178 is an approximate value of log,, 2 with an error numerically less than 0000 000 01.
V. 0693 147 168<log e 2<0693 147 188.
Hence, to seven figures, log e 2 = 06931472.
Having found log e 2, the Napierian logarithms of the natural numbers
and
z3
3z2
be seen that
(x
+ l) 2 (z  2)
"
x3  3x  2
~
1
 2/(z3  3z)
f ...
Putting z = 5,
6, 7, 8,
log

it will
+

+ log 5
log 7
Hence
it
log 3
+i
log 5
=00181838220
...
=00062112599
...
= 00040983836
....
= 00101013536
log 7
be found that
2f log 3
log 2
'
log 7
= 0693147 180
= 1609437912
log 5
log 2
The logarithms
= 1098612288
7 = 1945910149
...
log 3
...
log
....
now be obtained by
The method
of the
example which
follows, in
series, is of historical
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
Ex. 2. Obtain
5 decimal places.
319
to
In the reckoning below, when a squareroot has been obtained which is greater than
the squareroot of the product of it and the last squareroot obtained that was less
than 7 is found next and vice versa. Thus we have
7,
= log ,4 =05,
log */T6I=log 5623413 ... = log J5=:075,
=0875,
Jog ^105 = log 7498942 ... = log
log >/]&;= log 6493816 ... log D = 08 125,
^084375,
log s/'OD^log 6978305 ... = log
=
7233941
...
^
0859375,
log */(7JE=log
=log
log
and so on
until
we
VT6log 3162277
arrive at
= 0845100
= 0845096
log 7000032
log 6399968
thus, Iog 10
...
7=084510 to
five places,
and probably
Common
20. Calculation of
...
is
We
Logarithms.
have
logjo.Vlog.tf/log.10.
The expression
of logarithms and
is
l/(log e 10)
is
modulus of the
called the
denoted by /*.
It
common system
fifteen places
of decimals,
/*
21
tf
0434294481903251.
where
tf,
ju,
(1)
of x,
*
,
The
reciprocals
secant, cosecant
(2)
x
.
=
.
cosh x
cosech
WQViVAU.
x = ri
*/
7
ax
sinh x
T cosh x = sinh x,
and we write
of x,
of
and cotangent
sech x =
*~
A
tannx
sinh x
coth
VVVJLX
x
rf/

tanh x
 tanh 2 x = sech 2 x,
cosh
x,
7
ax
tanh x = sech 2 x.
ADDITION FORMULAE
320
first
this
61.
(3)
We
Addition Formulae.
2 cosh x cosh y
have
= \(ex + e~ x
f
(e
+ e~ y
2 sinh x sinh y
Therefore