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HIGHER ALGEBRA

BY
S.

BARNARD, M.A.

FORMERLY ASSISTANT MASTER AT RUGBY SCHOOL, LATE FELLOW AND LECTURER AT


EMMANUEL COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

AND
J.

M. CHILD,

B.A., B.Sc.

FORMERLY LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF' MANCHESTER


LATE HEAD OF MATHEMATICAL DEPARTMENT, TECHNICAL COLLEGE, DERBY
FORMERLY SCHOLAR AT JESUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

LON-DON

MACMILLAN

fcf'CO

LTD

*v

NEW YORK

ST MARTIN *S PRESS

1959

This book

is copyright in all countries which


are signatories to the Berne Convention

First Edition 1936

Reprinted 1947, ^949> I952> *955, 1959

MACMILLAN AND COMPANY LIMITED


London Bombay Calcutta Madras Melbourne

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OF CANADA LIMITED


Toronto
ST MARTIN'S PRESS INC

New York

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY

LOWE AND BRYDONE (PRINTERS) LIMITED, LONDON, N.W.IO

CONTENTS

ix

IjHAPTER

EXEKCISE

XV

(128).

Minors, Expansion in Terms of Second Minors (132, 133). Product


of Two Iteterminants (134). Rectangular Arrays (135). Reciprocal
Two Methods of Expansion (136, 137). Use of Double
Deteyrrtlilnts,

Symmetric and Skew-symmetric Determinants, Pfaffian (138-

Suffix,

143),

ExERtad XVI

(143)

X. SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS.
Systems (149, 150). Linear Equations in
Line at Infinity (150-152). Linear Equations in
Three Unknowns, Equation to a Plane, Plane at Infinity (153-157).
Definitions, Equivalent

Two Unknowns,
EXEKCISE XVII

(158).

Systems of Equations of any Degree, Methods of Solution for


Special Types (160-164).

EXERCISE XVIII

XL

(164).

RECIPROCAL AND BINOMIAL EQUATIONS.


The Equation
Reduction of Reciprocal Equations (168-170).
xn - 1=0, Special Roots (170, 171). The Equation xn -A =0 (172).
The Equation a 17 - 1 ==0, Regular 17-sided Polygon (173-176).
EXERCISE

XIX

(177).

AND BIQUADRATIC EQUATIONS.


The Cubic Equation

(roots a, jS, y), Equation whose Roots are


Value of J, Character of Roots (179, 180). Cardan's
Solution, Trigonometrical Solution, the Functions a -f eo/? -f-\>V>
a-f a> 2 4- a>y (180, 181). Cubic as Sum of Two Cubes, the Hessftfh
(182, 183). Tschirnhausen's Transformation (186).
(

-y)

etc.,

EXERCISE XX (184).
The Biquadratic Equation

A=y + aS,

(roots a,

y, 8) (186).

The Functions

the Functions /, J, J, Reducing Cubic, Character


of Roots (187-189).
Ferrari's Solution and Deductions (189-191).
Descartes' Solution (191). Conditions for Four Real Roots (192-ty).
Transformation into Reciprocal Form (194). Tschirnhausen's Transetc.,

formation (195).

EXERCISE

XXI

(197).

OP IRRATIONALS.
Sections of the System of Rationals, Dedekind's Definition (200,
201). Equality and Inequality (202). Use of Sequences in defining

a Real Number, Endless Decimals (203, 204). The Fundamental


Operations of Arithmetic, Powers, Roots and Surds (204-209).
Irrational Indices, Logarithms (209, 210).
Definitions, Interval,
Steadily Increasing Functions (210). Sections of the System of^Real
Numbers, the Continuum (211, 212). Ratio and Proportion, Euclid's
Definition (212, 213).

EXERCISE XXII

(214).

CONTENTS

x
CHAPTER

XIV/INEQUALITIES.
Elementary Methods (210, 217)

Weierstrass' Inequalities (216).

For n Numbers a l9 a 2
a

n
(a* -!)/*

(a" -I)/*,,

xa x ~ l (a-b)$a x -b x

(l+x)

^l+nx,

\*JACJJ

>

(219).

^ xb x

~l

(a

- 6),

(219).

(220).

Arithmetic and Geometric Means (221, 222).


-

n
and Extension

(223, 224).

(224).

XV. SEQUENCES AND


Definitions,

Maxima and Minima

(223).

EXERCISE XXIII

LIMITS.

Monotone

Theorems,

Sequences

(228-232).

E*

ponential Inequalities and Limits,


/

l\m

i\n

and

1) >(!+-)
m/
n/
\
/

1 \

lim (1-fnj
n_ >00 V

EXERCISE

XXIV

l\-m
/

=e,

nj

(1)

if

m>n,

(232,233).

(233).

General Principle of Convergence (235-237).


Limits of Inde termination (237-240).

Theorems

~n

l\"w

=lim(l--)
\

1 \

<(l--)
nj
\

(1--)
mj
\

Bounds of a Sequent

Increasing Sequence (u n ), where

u n -u n ^ l <k(u n _^\^ n _ z

u n >0 and u n+l lu n -*l, then u nn -*L


u n l, then lim
If lim
(Ui+u 2 + ...

(2) If
(3)

n
(4) If

lim

+u n )jn

a n ~a, and lim

n-~>oo

lim (a n 6 1
n >ao

fe

= 6,

then

n~>oo

+ a w _ 1 6 1 + ...H-a 1 6 n )/n=o6,

(240-243).

Complex Sequences, General Principle of Convergence


EXERCISE

XXV

I.

n->oo

>oo

(244).

(243, 244).

CONTENTS
XVI. \CONVERGENCE OP SERIES

xi

(1).

Definitions, Elementary Theorems, Geometric Series (247, 248).


Introduction and Removal of Brackets,
Series of Positive Terms.
p D'Alembert's
of
Order
Terms,
Comparison Tests, 271 /w
Changing
,

and Cauchy's Tests

XXVI

EXERCISE

(248-254).

(254).

Terms alternately Positive and Negative (256).


Absolute Convergence,
with Terms Positive or Negative.

Series with
Series

General Condition for Convergence, Pringsheim's Theorem, Introduction and Removal of Brackets, Rearrangement of Terms, Approximate Sum, Rapidity of Convergence or Divergence (256-261).
Series of Complex Terms. Condition of Convergence, Absolute Conn
n
vergence, Geometric Series, Zr cos nd, Sr sin n6.
If u n /u n+l = l+a n /n, where a n ->a>0, then u n -*Q.
Convergence of Binomial Series (261-263).

XXVII

EXERCISE

(264).

XVII^CoNTiNuous VARIABLE.

<*>
Theorems
Meaning of Continuous Variation, Limit, Tending to
on Limits and Polynomials (266-268) Continuous and Discontinuous
Functions (269, 270). Continuity of Sums, Products, etc., Function
Fundaof a Function, lirn <f>{f(x)}, Rational Functions, xn (271).
,

mental Theorems

Derivatives, Tangent to a Curve, Notation


(272).
of the Calculus, Rules of Differentiation (273-277). Continuity of
of <f>{f(x)} and xn (278, 279). Meaning of Sign
<f>{f(x)}, Derivatives
of J'(x) (279).
Complex Functions, Higher Derivatives (2*9, 280).
Maxima and Minima, Points of Inflexion (280-282).

EXERCISE XXVIII

(282).

Inverse Functions, Bounds of a Function, Rolle's Theorem, MeanValue Theorem (284-288). Integration (289). Taylor's Theorem,
Lagrange's Form of Remainder (290, 291). Function of a Complex
Variable, Continuity (291, 292).

XXIX

EXEBCISE

(293).

XVIIL, THEORY OF EQUATIONS


TIONS

(2),

POLYNOMIALS

RATIONAL FRAC-

(2),

(1).

Multiple Roots, Rolle's Theorem, Position of Real Roots of/(&)=0


Newton's Theorem on Sums of Powers of the Roots of
f(x) =0 (297). Order and Weight of Symmetric Functions (298, 299).
(296, 296).

Partial Derivatives, Taylor's


x, y,

...

Euler's

(299-302).

Theorem

for Polynomials in

for Polynomials,
J

A Theorem on Partial Fractions (302).


lf

EXERCISE

Theorem

XXX

(304).

+ ...=0,

(303).

dx

+y

x and in

+ ...~nu
dy

The Equation

CONTENTS

xii

CHAPTER

XIX. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS AND

SERIES.

The Exponential
Continuity, Inequalities and Limits (306, 307).
x
Theorem, Series for a (307, 308). Meaning of an Irrational Index,
Derivatives of a x log x and x n (309). Inequalities and Limits, the
x
way in which e and log x tend to oo Euler's Constant y, Series for
2
The Exponential Function E(z), Complex Index
(310-312).
log
,

(312, 313).

Series for sinx, cos x arid Exponential Values (313).


in Summing Series (314).

Use of Exponential Theorem

EXERCISE

XXXI

(315).

Logarithmic Series and their Use in Summation of Series, Calculation of Logarithms (315-319). The Hyperbolic Functions (319-321).

EXERCISE

XXXII

XX. CONVERGENCE

(321).

(2).

Series of Positive Terms.

'

Cauchy's Condensation Test, Test Series

Rummer's, Raabc's and Gauss's Tests

(325).

Binomial and Hyper-geometric Series (328, 329).


%

(326-328).

De Morgan and

Bertrand's Tests (330).

Terms Positive or Negative. Theorem, Abel's Inequality,


and Abel's Tests (330, 331). Power Series, Interval and
Radius of Convergence, Criterion for Identity of Power Series (332Binomial Series l-f?iz4-... when z is complex (334). Multi334).
plication of Series, Merten's and Abel's Theorems (335-338).
Series with

Dirichlct's

EXERCISE XXXIII

(338).

XXI. JBlNOMIAL AND MULTINOMIAL THEOREMS.


Statement,

Vandermonde's Theorem

Binomial Theorem.

(340).

Euler's Proof, Second Proof, Particular Ins tancesj 34 1-345).

Num-

";

1 + x (345-348).
erically Greatest Term, Approximate Values of
EXERCISE XXXIV (349).
Use of Binomial Theorem in Summing Series, ^Multinomia^Theorem

(351-355).

EXERCISE

XXXV

(355).

XXII. RATIONAL FRACTIONS

(2),

PR,ECURRING)SERIES

AND DIFFERENCE

EQUATIONS.
Expansion of a Rational Fraction (357-359).

EXERCISE

XXXVI

(359).

Expansions of cos nd and sin nOjsin 9 in Powers of cos 6 (360).


Recurring Series, Scale of Relation, Convergence, Generating FuncLinear Difference Equations with Constant
tion, Sum (360-363).
Coefficients (363-365).

EXERCISE

XXXVII

(365).

Difference Equations, General

EXERCISE

XXXVIII

(370).

and Particular Solutions

(367-370).

CONTENTS

xiii

CHAPTER

XXIII. THE OPERATORS 4> E, D.


The Operators J, E,
Terms of u l9 Au^ A 2 u l9

INTERPOLATION.
A ru x u x+r

Series for
...

U1 + u2 + u3 +

...

in

and

Interpolation, Lagrange's

(373-379).

d \n
(uv)
( j- )
Vcte/
/

Bessel's

The Operator

Formulae (379-382).

f) 9

Value of

(382, 383).

EXERCISE

XXXIX

(384).

XXIV. CONTINUED FRACTIONS

(1).

Definitions, ForniationjoConvergents, Infinite Continued Fractions

(388-391).

EXERCISE

Simple and ^eeuTrirSg; Continued Fractions (391-394).

XL

(394).

Simple Continued Fractions, Properties of the Convergents, an


Irrational as a Simple Continued Fraction (396-401).
Approximations, Miscellaneous Theorems (402-406).
Symmetric Continued
Fractions, Application to Theory of Numbers (406-409).
Recurring Con tinned Fractions (409-411).

EXERCISE XLI

(411).

XXV. INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS

OF THE FIRST DEGREE.

axby
axbycz...=k

Solutions of
the Equation

EXERCISE XLII

Simple

c (414-417).

Two

Equations in

x, y, z

(417-419).

(419).

XXVI. THEORY OF NUMBERS

(2).

Congruence, Numbers less than and prime to n, Value of q)(n)


E<p(d r }n, where d r is any Divisor of n (421-424). ^ Fermat's
Theorem, Euler's Extension, Wilson's and Lagrange's theorems
;

'

(424-427).

EXERCISE XL1II

(427).

Roots of a Congruence, the Linear Congruence, Simultaneous


Congruences (428-431). Theorem on Fractions (431). The General
Congruence, Division (mod n) 9 Congruences to a Prime Modulus
(432-434).

EXERCISE

XLIV

(434).

XXVII. RESIDUES OF POWERS OF A NUMBER, RECURRING DECIMALS.


Residues of a, ag ag*
9

(436, 437).

...

n) the Congruence gr*s 1 (mod n) 9


Modulus, Primitive Roots (438, 439).

(mod

An Odd Prime

Decimal Equivalent of m/n Number of Figures in the Period,


Short Methods of Reckoning, Prime Factors of 10* - 1,
9

EXERCISE

XLV

= 1,2,...

10), (439-444).

(442).

The Congruence xn -sa (mod p) Methods of Solution (444


EXERCISE XLVI (445).
9

45).

CONTENTS

xiv
CHAPTER

EXERCISE XLVII

(447).

Separation of the Roots, Sturm's Theorem, Fourier's Theorem


(447-456).

EXERCISE XLVIII (456).


Newton's Method of Approximating to a Root, Fourier's Rule,
Nearly Equal Roots (456-460). Horner's Method (461-465).
EXERCISE XLIX (466).

FUNCTIONS, CURVE TRACING.


Implicit Functions, Rule for Approximations (467-469).
for Roots of a Cubic Equation (when all Real) (470).

EXERCISE

Series

(471).

Tangents, Asymptotes, Intersection of a; Straight Line and


Curve (473). Curve Tracing, Newton's Parallelogram (474-480).

EXERCISE LI

XXX.

(480).

INFINITE PRODUCTS.
Convergence, Absolute Convergence, Derangement of Factors,
Convergence discussed by Use of

Expansion as a Series (485-488).


Logarithms (490).
EXERCISE LII (491).

XXXI.yPERMUTATIONS, COMBINATIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONS.


Combinations with Repetitions, Things not all Different (493).
Arrangement in Groups, Distribution in Parcels
(494-497). Derangements, General Theorem (498, 499). Partition
of Numbers, Table of p Partitions of n, Euler's Use of Series (500Distributions,

504).

XXXII.

EXERCISE LI1I

(504).

EXERCISE TJV

(506).

^PROBABILITY.
First Principles, Exclusive Events, Independent and Interdependent Events (508-513). Probability estimated by Frequency,
Expectation, Successive Events (513-518). Probability of Causes,
Value of Testimony, Appli cation of Geometry (518-522).

EXERCISE

LV

(523).

XXXIII. CONTINUED FRACTIONS

(2).

Expression of a Quadratic Surd as a Simple Continued Fraction,


the Form
The form V~AjB, Cycle of
l )lr l
(527-530).
2
2
Quotients, the 6 and r Cycles, Solution in Integers of Bx -Ay
2=
z
x
The
Form
of
Solutions
9
^/N
~Ny
(530-534).
Integral
(534-538). The Cycle belonging to (^/N + 6)/r found by the G.C.M.
Process (538).

(VNb

=M

EXERCISE LVI

(540).

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES

(543),

(555).

HIGHER ALGEBRA
CHAPTER

THEORY OF NUMBERS
In
*

'

this section

number

we

discuss properties peculiar to whole numbers.

'

fs

(1)

taken to

mean

The word

whole number,' and, unless otherwise stated^

positive whole number*

Division.

1.

(1)

Let b be any positive whole number, and consider

the sequence
...-36,

-26, -6,

0, 6, 26, 36,...

continued indefinitely both ways. Any whole number a


(positive, negative
or zero) is either a term of this sequence, or it lies between two consecutive

Thus two numbers q and

terms.

can be determined uniquely so that

and

a-=bq + r

To

divide a

ditions

is

is

to find the

called the quotient

numbers

and

and

which satisfy these con-

the remainder.

= 0, we

say that a is divisible by 6 or is a multiple of 6, and that


a divisor or a factor of a. Among the divisors of a number we count

If r

6 is

by

0^r<6 ........................... (A)

number itself and 1.


Whatever 6 may be,

the

= 6.0 4-0; hence

(2) If r

= 6~/, we have
a = 6-fl-r'

if

and

then /<J6.
such that

>|6

Hence

and

it is

and
Ex.

0,

1.

For

if

1,

2,

must be regarded as

by every whole number.

divisible

also

zero

Every number

is

any number
5-2, 5-1.

is

always possible to find numbers

JR<6.

of one of the forms 5n, 5n

1,

5n

divided by 5, the remainder

2.
is

one of the numbers

DIVISION

2
Ex.

Every square number

2.

The square

these are divided by

and 5n -

l,

Ex.

For (2k +

by

l)

is of

one of the forms 5n,

odd number

form Sn + 1.
and either k or k + l must be even, so that k(k +

-4k(k + l) + l,

(1

// both a and b are divisible by

(2)If

of the

l) is

r is the

Division.

remainder when a

so also is

c,

divided by

is

ma
6,

nb.

then cr is the remainder

ca is divided by cb.

For

a = 6</ + r

if

then

ca

(3)

(cb)q

and

+ cr

and

// both a and b are divisible by

divided by b, then
is divided by b/c.

For
also

is

2.

Theorems on

when

2.
)

5wL

is

1.

Tlte square of every

3.

divisible

number

of one of the forms (5w) 2 (Sw^l) 2 , (5m 2) 2


If
5, the remainders are 0, 1, 4 ; and, since 4 = 5-1, the forms are

of every

if

is r,

(i)

r is divisible

c, and r is the remainder when a is


and (ii) r/c is the remainder when a/c

a~bq + r and 0^r<&, then


which

is

equal to a
a/c

3.

by

bq.

since a and
Thus we have

= (b/c)q + r/c where

6 are divisible

by

c,

so

O^r/c <6/c.

Theorems on the Greatest Common

Divisor.

is divided by b, the common divisors of


(1) If
a and b are the same as those of b and r.
For, since a = bq + r, every common divisor of b and r is a divisor of a

r is the

remainder when a

and, since r

= a-bq,

common

divisor of a

every
This proves the statement in question.

and

is

a divisor of

r.

(2) If a and b are any two numbers, there exists a number g, and one only,
such that the common divisors of a and b are the same as the divisors of g.

For numbers (q v rx ),
and uniquely, so that

(q 2 , r 2 ), etc.,

a = 6y 1 -f-r1

can always be found in succession,

6=r1 ? 2 + r2

6>r1 >r2 >r3

where

rx
...

= r2

+ r3

etc., ............... (A)

^0.

number of positive integers less than b


remainder must occur and, supposing that rn ^ =0, the
Since the

r -2

= r n-l?n + rn>

rn-l

is

limited, a zero

process terminates

GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR


divisors

numbers have the same common

(A), the following pairs of

Hence, by

(a, 6)

(6,

rj,

(r

r2 ) y

...

(rn ^ v r n )

e common divisors of r n _ 1 and r n are the divisors


and, since fn-i VZn+i*
Hence the number g exists, and its value is r n
of r n
.

Since g

common

is

divisible

numbers and

divisor of these

as the greatest
(3)

by any common

common measure

divisor of a

known

is

(G.C.M.) of a

and

the greatest
in elementary arithmetic

and

it is

ft,

ft.*

If a and b are each multiplied by any number m, or are divided by a


divisor m, then g, the greatest common divisor of a and ft, is multiplied

common

or divided by m.

For each
(4) If a,

of the r's in the proof of (2)


...

c,

ft,

and

divisor of a

ft,

is

multiplied or divided by m.

and g l

are several numbers,

g 2 that of g 1 and

c,

ft,

d,

c,

. . .

),

(gv

ft,

c,

d,

. . .

common
(# 2 ,

),

c, d,

Hence we arrive eventually at a number g, whose


divisors of a,

the greatest
4.

ft,

and

d,

divisors
. . .

),

common

so on, then
:

etc.

divisors are the

common

uniquely determined. This number g is


divisor , or the greatest common measure of a, 6, c, ...

c, ...

common

the greatest

g3 that of g 2 and

the following sets of numbers have the same


(a,

is

also g

is

Numbers Prime

Two numbers,

to each other.

a and

6,

are

said to be prime to each other when their greatest common divisor is 1,


so that they have no common divisor except 1.
This is often expressed

by saying that a is prime to


theorems are fundamental.

ft,

or that

ft

is

prime to

// the product ab is divisible by a number m, and


factor a, then m is a divisor of the other factor ft.
(1)

a.

The following

is

to

prime

one

For, if a is prime to m, the greatest common divisor of a and m is 1


hence the greatest common divisor of aft and mb is ft. But, by hypothesis,
m is a divisor of aft, and is therefore a common divisor of aft and mb
;

hence

m is equal to,

// a is prime
a divisor of N.

(2)
is

or

to 6,

is

a divisor

of,

ft.

and each of these numbers

is

a divisor of

2V,

then ab

Suppose that N = aq, then ft is a divisor of aq, and since ft is prime to


one factor a, it must be a divisor of the other factor q. Let q = wft, then

N = waft, and
*

The

aft is

a divisor of N.

process, here stated algebraically,

is

that used in Elementary Arithmetic.

PRIME NUMBERS

4
If a

(3)

is

prime

to b, positive integers x,

ax-by
For

it

y can be found such

that

1.

follows from equations (A) of Art. 3, (2), that


TI

= a - bq v

r2 -

aq z + b (1

+ qfa),

Continuing thus, every remainder can be expressed in the form


where x, y are positive integers.
If

prime to

is

6,

the last remainder

and the theorem

is 1,

Theorems on Prime Numbers.

5.

A number

(ax-~by),

follows.

which has no

divisors except itself and 1 is called a prime number, or simply a prime.


Numbers which are not prime are said to be composite.

(1)

prime number, p,

is

prime

to

every

number which

not a multiple

is

For, if a is any such number, q and r can be found such that a~pq + r
where 0<r<Cp. Now p and 1 are the only divisors of p, and as r<,p
the only common divisor of p and r is 1, that is to say, p is prime to r and
9

therefore to a.
(2)

least

If a prime p is a divisor of a product abed


one of the factors a, 6, ... k.

...

hk,

it is

a divisor of at

the prime p is not a divisor of a, by Theorem (1) it is prime to a,


hence it is a divisor of bed ... k. If, in addition, p is not a divisor of 6, it
must be a divisor of cd ... k. Continuing thus, it can be shown that if p is

For

if

not a divisor of any of the numbers

a, b, c,

...

h, it

must be a

6.

Theorems on Numbers, Prime or Composite.

(1)

Every composite number

divisor of k.

N has at least one prime divisor.


N

not a prime, it has a divisor, n, different from


and
from 1, which is not greater than any other divisor. Further, this divisor
must be a prime for, otherwise, it would have a divisor less than itself
and greater than 1 and this latter would be a divisor of N. This contraFor, since

is

dicts the hypothesis that


It follows that every

not greater than any ot,her divisor.


composite number, N, can be expressed as the
is

product of prime factors.


has at least one prime factor, p, we have N~pa,
For, since
where l<.p<N.
If a is not a prime, it has at least one prime

factor, q

Thus,

and a = qb, where l<w<.a.


and so on.

N =*papqb

COMPOSITE NUMBERS
But the numbers

the set

pressed in the form,

N are limited

than

must

...

a, b,

less

finally

N=pqr

...

and N>a>b>...

end in a prime. Hence,


where p, q, r, ... u are

u,

therefore

can be ex-

all

primes, not

all different.

necessarily
That is to say,

any composite number, N, can be expressed

N=p
where p,

q, r, ...

u are

.q .r

all different

as

s
,

primes.

(2) A composite number can be expressed as the product of prime factors in


one way only.
a b c
= P A Q B R C where p, g, r,
For suppose that
P, Q, R,
^=p q r
a b c
are primes
then, since the prime P is a divisor of the product p q r ...

. .

. . .

. . .

. . .

a divisor of one of the factors p, q,r, ... and is therefore equal to one
of them. In the same way each of the set P, Q, R, ... is equal to one of
it is

and no prime factor can occur in one of the expressions


q, r, ...
which does not occur in the other. Suppose then that
N^p a qr c ...^p A q Br c ...

the set p,
for

a --A one of them must be the greater. Let A>a> and suppose that
+ e, then q b r c .... t m ^p c qB r .... t M but this is impossible,

If

Aa

as the left-hand side of the equality


right-hand side is divisible by p.

Hence, a must be equal to


thus the two expressions for

a number prime to p, and the

is

and

similarly, 6

= B,

. . .

m~M

and

N are identical.

The' above theorem

is

one of the most important in the Theory of

Numbers, and the following propositions are immediately deducible.


(3)

//

product ab
(4)

// a

is
...

is

each of the numbers, a,

i,

...

k, it is

prime

to the

then a n is prime to b n , where

is

any

integer

and

*-*""*'

number

greater than 1

For, if 2V

to

to b,

prime

conversely.
(5)

prime
k.

and

is

a prime, if

less than, or

it

is

equal

to,

= a&, where b^a, then

not divisible by

any prime number

v^V.

N^a

2
;

that

The sequence of primes is endless.


For, if p is any prime, the number p 4-

is,

a^.*jN.

(6)

1 is

divisible

or by any smaller prime.

by p
must have a prime

than

exists.

divisor greater than p,

If

greater than

then

and in

p+1

is

p and

is

not

not a prime,

either case a

it

prime greater

NUMBER

DIVISORS OF A

which are

...

N-

than

less

problem of discovering whether a large number


one of great difficulty.
Ex.

If n

1.

is

any number, prove

that

n(n + I)(n + 2)

Of the two consecutive numbers, n and n +

be obtained in order by

The process consists in writing


1
and erasing all multiples

a process called tlie(Sieve of Eratosthenes).


down in order all the numbers from 1 to
of the primes 2, 3, 5, 7,

N can

number

All the primes less than a given

1,

one

%/JV.

Nevertheless, the

prime or composite

is

is divisible

by

6.

by 2

divisible

is

is

and one of

the three consecutive numbers, n, n + 1, n + 2, is divisible by 3. Hence the product


and, since 2 is prime to 3, n(/i-f-l)(n + 2) is
n(tt + l)(tt-f-2) is divisible by 2 and by 3
;

divisible

Ex.

We

G.

by

Prove that 3 2n+1

2.

have

+1

2r2

=3

+ 2"+ 2

is

divisible

7.

by

= 3 (7 + 2) n = Ik + 3

9W

2 n,

by the Binomial theorem,

and

7.

The

where p,

q,

the divisors

Then,

Divisors of a Given Number N. Let N=p a


are primes ; and let n be the number, and s
r, ...
N,
including 1 and N.
of

n = (a +
_1

(1)

pa+l

l)(6
yft+l

p-l
For the divisors of

+ l)(c + l)
_ l r c+l _

...

For,

if

the

rc

...

sum, of

r-l

q-l

N are the terms in the expansion of

and

1, is

%(n +

the product of

l) or %n, according as

a perfect square, each of the numbers, a,

is

and the expressions for n and s follow immediately.


(2) The number of ways in which N can be expressed as
two factors, including
not, a perfect square.

6, c, ...

is,

is

or is

even,

and therefore n is odd but if N is not a perfect square, at least one of


these numbers is odd, and therefore n is even.
Further, if ^( = 1), d2 rf 3 ... d n _ 2 d n _ v d n (=N), are the divisors of A'
'

in ascending order, the different

two

and

factors are

did n

d^dn

ways

of expressing

as the product of

d 2d n _ v

c^ n _

d 2dn , l9

dsd n _ 2

is,

or

is

...

2>

Hence, the number of ways


according as

d xd x

d yd y+l

is

either

when

x or

not, a perfect square.

when

y,-i.e.

n=*2a?-l,

= 2y.

either |(w

+ l)

or \n,

PRODUCT OF CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS

The number of ways in which N can be expressed as the product of two


m ~ 1 where m is the number
mctors, which are prime to one another, is 2
of
N.
Different prime factors of
(3)

For, such factors are the terms in the expansion of

~~
and their number is 2 W Hence the number of pairs is 2 m 1
For example, if # = 2 2 3 3 5 = 540, n = (2 + l)(3 + l)(l + 1) = 24,
.

8.

The Symbol

l[x/y].

If

is

m==3

and

'

a fraction or an irrational number, the

symbol / (a) will be used to denote the integral part of


where 0<r<y, then I(x/y) q.
(1)

// n v n 2 n 3
,

...

are

any

>

integers,

and

Thus

a.

s is their

if

x = qy + r

sum and a

is

any

number, then

= aq^ + r l9 n 2 = aq% + r2 w 3 = ay3 -f r3

Let n

Hence,

etc.

then

/[/a]

and, since Ji^/f^i/a],

The

(2)

highest

52

==

^[ n 2/a ]>

>

^e resu

power of a prime p which

is

lt

follows.

contained in

is

For, of the numbers from 1 to n inclusive, there are I[n/p] which are
2
2
and so on hence the
by p of these I[n/p ] are divisible by p

divisible

result follows.

9.

by

Theorems.

(1)

The product of any n consecutive

integers is divisible

\-n.

For (m + l)(w + 2)
last expression is

occurs in

[m

n^

...

(m-f n)/\ n =

m + nj\ m

w,

and to show that the

it is sufficient to show that any prime p which


Thus we
occurs to at least as high a power in
-f n.

an integer

have to show that


/[ (m

+ n)/p] -f /[ (m + n)/p*] + 1[ (m -f n)/p 3] +

Now

/[(m + n)/p]>/[w/p]-f /[n/p], and the same is true


by p p*, ... in succession hence the result in question.
2

ft

. . .

if

we

replace

NUMBERS IN ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION

8
(2)

is

Ifn

a prime,

is divisible

C?

by n.

n(n - l)(n 2)

For by the preceding


since n is a prime and r
r is

Hence,

...

-r+

(n

1) is divisible

supposed to be less than n, r


a divisor of (rc-l)(n-2) ... (n-r + 1)
is

is

by

[/% aijid

prime to

;n.

and
Thus

a prime,

t*

ft

t/

except the first

and

last,

text-books about

'

divisible

is

l)/[r

by

n.

in the expansion of (l+x)

all the coefficients

n
,

are divisible by n.

supposed to be acquainted with what is said in elementary


for
permutations and combinations and the binomial theorem

The reader

NOTE.

(n-r +

...

^(ft-l)

is

'

a positive integral index.' In what follows, F$ denotes the number of permutations,


and C the number of combinations, of n things taken r at a time.
Ex.

Find

1.

We have

the highest

power of 5 contained in

7[158/5]-31,

158.
|

/[158/5 ]=/[31/5J-:6,

therefore the required power has an index

/|158/f>J=y|<$/5J

= 31 +6 + 1 =38.

an odd prime, the integral part of (x/5 +2) n -2 W+1 is divisible by 20n.
Let (V5 + 2)
#+/ where 0</<1; and let (>/5 - 2)n =/'. Then, since
0< V5 -2< 1, we have also 0</'< 1.
n
w
-2V
+/ -/' = (</5 + 2) - (v/5 - 2) =an integer
Again, since n is odd,
and
thus
than
and
and
are
less
since
1, / /',
hence,
/
/'
positive
Ex.

If n

2.

is

n=

N =2(Cf
Moreover, since n

by 20w

which

is

is

Sty- 1 ) + C%

a prime,

C^

is

23

5*( n

divisible

~3

by

+ ... + C
n,

2n

~z
.

and therefore

+ 2n ).

N -2 n +

is

divisible

the required result.

10.

Numbers

(1)

Let a be prime

in
to

Arithmetical Progression.
n, then if the first n terms of the arithmetical

+ a, x + 2a, ... are divided by n,


...
n - 1, taken in a certain order.

sion x, x
0, 1, 2,

the

progres-

remainders are the numbers

we suppose

that two of the terms as x + ma, x

+ m'a leave equal


remainders, then their difference (m~m')a would be divisible by n. This
is impossible, for a is
prime to n and m-m' \<n.
Therefore the remainders are all different, and as each is less than ^,
they must be the numbers 0, 1, 2, ... n 1, taken in some order or other.
If

//

the progression is continued

beyond the n-th term the remainders recur in


>

same order.
For the terms x + ma, x + m'a leave the same remainder

the

If a and n are not prime to one another and g is


divisor, the remainders recur in a cycle of n/g numbers.
(2)

For

let

a~ga', n=gri, so that

a' is

prime to

n'.

if

m = m' + qn\.

their greatest

The terms

common

METHOD OF INDUCTION

if, and only if, a(w-w') is divisible by


a! (m
m') is divisible by ri. Since o! is prime to w', this can
when m - m' is divisible by n'. Thus the first ri terms leave

x f m'a leave the same remainder


that

is, if

o ly happen
different remainders and, after that, they recur in order.

Method of Induction.

11.

Many theorems

to whole

relating

numbers can be proved by a process known as mathematical induction.


In some cases this is the only method available. The method may be
described as follows.

'

Let/(w) be a function of an integral variable n. Suppose that a certain


statement S, relating to/(w), is true when na.
Further, suppose we can prove that,
true when n =
+ 1.

if

is

true

when n = m,

it is

also

Then

since

in succession, that

Ex.

is,

- 3w -

that 2 2n

Show

1.

2n
-3n-l,
Let/(tt) = 2
for n = l.

Also 2 2n

Hence

/(n)

if

=(3 + l)

divisible

is

-f(n)

1)

=2 2 w +1
(

= 3fc, where
9, so

by

fc

by

1)

so the theorem

9,

- 2 2W - 3 =
3(2^ -

an

is

is/(n +

divisible

is

a-f 3,

...

9.

by

=0 and

when n = a + l, a + 2,

true

it is

1 is divisible

then /(I)

f(n +
n-1

Again,
1

when n = a,
when

true

is

is

true

1).

integer,

and, since /(I) is so divisible, it follows


that is, the theorem holds for
;

in succession that /(2), /(3), /(4), etc., are so divisible


all values of n.

Or more
Ex.

2.

using the method of (9) Ex. 2,

easily,

If

is

~Zi

n+2

n+1

1,111
__
2n-l
23

111

7^

i*

^|*

1_

n
Again,

= (3 + l) n - 3n - 1,

etc.

positive integer, prove that

11
___T__

f(ri)

vn~^

if

t^en

Vti ^ f

1
-_

2n

= i>l + l

"
...+

23

1
I

~T~

2n -

1
-J_

2n + 1

"*

'

~~

"""rki"**

2n-l

2n

2n + l

^n+i-^wHence

if

succession,

un -vn then
,

it is

true

t*

n+ i=t;n+l

forn=2,

3, 4,

Now

...

that

the statement holds for n = l


is,

for

any value of

n.

hence, in

ELEMENTARY THEORY OF NUMBERS

10

EXERCISE
q

is

the quotient and r the remainder when a is divided by


the quotient when a is divided by b + 1> provided that r^q.

1.

If q

2. If

is

a and b are prime to each other, show that


- 6 have no common factor other than 2
(i) a + b and a
2
a*
ab
a +6 have no common factor other than
b
and
+
(ii)

6,

show

th*|

id

3.

and b are prime to each

If a

(a

have no
4. If
5.

If

common
a

is

a+b

factor, unless

prime to b and

y,

and n is a prime, prove


+
)l(a
b) and a + 6

that

other,

n + bn

and

is

is

3.

a multiple of n.

prime to

x,

then ax + by

ab' -a'b = l,

X=ax + by and 7 a'z-H&'t/, where


X and y is the same as that of x and y.

prime to

is

ab.

common

the greatest

divisor of

If 2>

is

7.

a prime, and j9=a 2 -6 2 then a=%(p +


2 b 2 in two ways.
Express 55 in the form a

8.

If

takes the values

6.

a;

(i)

1, 2, 3, ...

z 2 + x+

17,

(ii)

l) 9 b

\(p-

1).

in the expressions

2z 2 + 29,

(iii)

x*

+ a; + 41,

the resulting values of the expressions are primes, provided that in

(i)

#<16,

in

x<29, and in (iii) #<40.


Verify for x = 15, 28, 39 respectively.

(ii)

9. Iff(x) is a polynomial, it cannot represent primes only.


[Let uf(x) and v~f(x + ku), where k is any integer. Prove that u
factor of v.]

is

10. For the values 2, 3, 4, ... 10 of x, the number 2 3 5 7 + x is composite.


Hence write down nine consecutive numbers none of which is a prime.
11. If n is any odd number, then n(n 2 - 1) is divisible by 24
and if n is an
odd prime greater than 3, then n 2 - 1 is divisible by 24.
.

'

12.

that 2 n

Show

13. If

is

of the form

+1

prime to

or 2 n -

5,

1 is divisible

then n

+1

or

n z

by

3,

according as

1 is divisible

5m -f 1.

by

5,

is

and

odd or even.

therefore

n4

is

14. If n is prime to 5, then n 6 - n is divisible by 30


hence the fifth power of
any number has the same right-hand digit as the number itself.
15. Show that 2
-f 1 or 2^ - 1 is divisible by 5, according as n is odd or even.
2n
2n
16. Show that 5
1 is divisible by 13, according as n is odd or
-f 1 or 5
;

even.

- 1 is divided
by 13, show that the remainder is either 0, 2, or 8,
as
n is of the form 3m, 3m -f 1, or 3m - 1 ; hence prove that 3 W - 1 or
according
3 2n -f 3 n + 1 is divisible by 13, according as n is, or is not, a multiple of 3.
18. If 2n -f 1 is a prime, then n must be a power of 2.
17v If 3 n

19.

Show

that 7 2n - 48n -

1 is divisible by 2304.
20. Show that 7*" + 16n
1 is divisible by 64.
21. Prove that 2 2W + 1 - 9?i 2 -f 3n - 2 is divisible by 54.
22. Find the number of divisors of 2000, and their sum.

1*

DIVISORS
Let

23.
is

s be the

called

perfect
Show that, if 2 n
*nd the three least
'

24. If

<

8 the products, of the divisors of


L and M are prime to one another,

numbers, and F, R,

a are the

r,

ft,

sum of the divisors of N, excluding


itself; if s=N, then
number.
n~1
n - 1 is a
and
1) is a perfect number
(2
prime, then 2
numbers given by this formula.

NLM, and

L,
respectively, where
rove that (i)n=r.0, (ii)P=R s

''J7,

$ 25. If

the number, and

is

11

.Sr

the product, of the divisors of

prove that

=lfn.

26. If the product of the divisors of


is

9 excluding
the product of two primes or the cube of a prime.

itself, is

equal to

then

27. If N has 16 divisors, it cannot have more than 4 prime factors, a, 6, c, d,


and it must be of one of the forms abed, a 36 3 a 36c, 7 6, a 15 Hence find the smallest
number having 16 divisors.
.

28.

Find the smallest number with 24

29.

Prove by induction that w(n + l)(w + 2)

30.

Find the highest power of the prime p


(i)p

31. If
less

is

divisors.

-l<N<pr +p;

...

in

(u)p

+r -

(n
JV,

1) is divisible

by

\r.

when

-p<N<pr

expressed as a polynomial in a prime p, with each of the coefficients


s is the sum of these coefficients, prove that the power of p con-

than p, and

tained in
|

32.

when
33.

is

(N - s)i(p -

1)

Show

is

that the index of the highest power of 2 contained in


f
- r when
a power of 2, and
is equal to 2 - 1.

Show

that

|2tt-l/(|n|w-l)is odd or even according

as

is

N-1

or

is

not,

is,

power of 2.
34.

Prove that

2n

is

divisible

35.

Prove that,

is divisible

by

by n

if g is

the greatest

1.

common divisor of m and n -f 1, then g

m 4- n

.
\

n -f 1.

.
\

Prove that the power of 2 in


2 in
n + 2.
n+1
[n
36.

n -f

3n

is

greater than or equal to the power Jf

37.

Prove that, ifn

38. If a, 6,

is

an integer
39.

c, ...

are

divisible

41
4f 2.

greater than 2, then

numbers whose sum

by

The

-f

is

by|n.|n + l.|n-t-2.

a prime, p then
9

that

wn

is

integer next greater than (3

integer next greater than (s/7

If 2"

3nis divisible
|

p.

If tt n = (3 + v^5) n + (3 - V5) n show

Hence prove that the


40.

is

=&2/ prove that x

+ \^3) an

and y

-*

an

integer,

+ */5) n

is

is

divisible

and that

divisible
2n
by 2

are divisible

n
by 2

by the same power


B.C.A.

CHAPTER

II

RATIONALS AND IRRATIONALS


1. Rational Numbers.
number system is enlarged by

the introduction of fractions,

(i)

possible

in.

order that division

may be

always

the introduction of negative numbers and zero, so that subtraction

(ii)

may

Starting with the natural numbers, the

be always possible.

We

thus obtain the system of rational numbers or rationale, consisting of


positive and negative integers and fractions, with the number zero.
This system can be arranged in a definite order so as to form the rational
scale.

With
c

reference to

equal to

'

and

any two

'

less

than

'

rationals x

and

y,

the terms

greater than/

are defined as referring to their relative

positions on the rational scale.


'

To say that x>y or y<x is to say that x follows y on the scale.


that x = y is to say that x and y stand for the same number.

To say

The Fundamental Laws of Order are as follows (l)Ifa=6


= 6 and 6 = c, then a = c. (3) If a^b and 6>c, or if
(2) If a
a>6 and 6^c, then a>c, (4) If a>b then -a< - 6.
2.

then 6 = a.

Hence we deduce the following rules for


where it is assumed that zero is not used as a
(5) If

+ x,

a-x = b-x

(6) If

a = b and x = y, then

(7) If

a>b

inequalities,

ax

bx

a/x

b/x.

then

and

ax^bx and a/x>b/x

(8) If

divisor

and

a=
a+x

Also

equalities

a>b and x>y,

according as x

then a + x>b

both positive, then ax>by.

a-x>b-x.
is

positive or negative.

+ y, and

if

a and y or b and x

ai!

REPRESENTATION OF NUMBERS BY POINTS


Fundamental Laws of Arithmetic.

3.

Any two

13

rationals can

of addition, subtraction, multiplication and


the
result
in
each
case
/jvision,
being a definite rational number, excepting
lat zero cannot be used as a divisor.
This is what is meant when it is

combined by the operations

j8

iid that the

system of rationals

The fundamental laws

(1)

(3)

4.

an

and multiplication are

+ 6 = 6 + a,
ab = ba,

+ 6) + c = a + (6 + c),
- ac + be,
(a + b)c
(a

(2)

(4)

(5)

The

closed for these operations.

a nd

fifth

is

of addition

= a(bc).
(ab)c

and third constitute the Commutative Law, the second and

first

the Associative Law, the fourth the Distributive Law.

Theorem

integer

of Eudoxus.*

If a and b are any two positive rationals,


nb>a. This simply amounts to saying that an
greater than a/6.

exists such that

integer exists which

is

Representation of Numbers by Points on a Line. Take a

5.

OX

take a point 1 so that the segment 01


X'OX as axis in
contains the unit of length. To find the point a which is to represent any
Divide the segment 01 into n equal parts
positive rational a, let a = m/n.

straight line

and

set off a length Oa, along

which represents - a

is

OX, equal

OX', at the

in

FIG.

The point

of these parts.

Ola

-a

X'

to

same distance from

as the point a.

1.

Points constructed thus represent the rational numbers in the following


and one only.
respects
(i) For every number there is one point
:

(ii)

The point
point a

is
generally taken to the right of
to the right of the point 6.

Absolute Values.

6.

- a,

is

The points occur in the order in which the corresponding


numbers stand on the rational scale.

according as a

|a-6|=|6-a|.

is

It

The

positive
is

i
is

or negative, and

x>a

is

denoted by

a>6, the

is

-fa or

Thus

a
|

obvious that

positive, to say that

x |>a, then

if

absolute or numerical value of

+ 6,
j

so that,

or

x<

x |<a
-a.

is

a+6

>

a - 6

the same as saying that

Sometimes ascribed to Archimedes,

-a<#<a.

NOMENCLATURE

14

Large and Small Numbers.

Whether a number is regarded


small depends on the purpose to which numbers are applied. A

7.

large or
error of 6 inches

would be large in measuring a

but small in

table,

settir

out a mile course.


If for purposes of comparison we choose some positive number c whuih
we regard as small, then any number x is said to be small if x <.
Any number x is said to be large if x >N where N is some previously
\

chosen positive number, which is regarded as large.


We say that x is large or small compared with y when x/y is large or
small. If x/y is neither large nor small, x and y are said to be large or small

numbers of

We

the

same

order.
'

use the abbreviation

order as
If

'

is

0(x)

to indicate that y

is

same

of the

x.

is

small,

numbers which are

same order

of the

as

e,

...

are

orders respectively.
called small numbers of the first, second, third,
2
2V 3 , ... are called
If JV is large, numbers of the same order as N,
,
. . .

large
If

orders respectively.
numbers of the first, second, third,
x - y is small, we say that x and y are nearly equal.
. . .

Meaning of

8.

'

that x varies in such a


less

To say that x

Tends.'

way

that

its

small.

is

If

from
If

expressed by writing x-> 0.


zero, where a is constant,

we say

or/rom the
x tends to a and

above,

is

left,

always

less

than

a,

we say that x tends

is

great that number may be.


In this case we also say that

from above, l/x tends to

oo

Any

we may

- x tends to - 00
Thus,
and - l/x tends to - oo

collection of

number

as x tends to zero

numbers

is

the numbers themselves are the elements of the


the

have what

is

called

an aggregate or

set.

of

called

to a

x becomes and
choose, however

elements exceeds any positive integer


however
choose,
great, we say that their number is infinite^ &
If

and

to say that

remains greater than any positive number that

set

to a,

and we write x-> a -0.

tends to infinity (x -> oo

Aggregate.

that x tends

is

below, or from the

9.

how

always greater than a, we say that x tends to a


This is expressed by writing x -> a -f 0.
right.

x tends to a and

from
To say that x

to say

choose, no matter

may

x - a tends to
we write x -> a.
If

is

numerical value becomes and remains

than any positive number that we


This

tends to zero

an

infinite set.

^^

APPROXIMATE VALUES
10.

System Everywhere Dense.

system of rationals

many

infinitely

For

if

is

An

important property of the


that between any two rationals a and b there are

is

rationals.

a<b and

This fact

15

is

any

positive rational,

it is

sometimes expressed by saying that

easily seen that

the system of rationals is

everywhere dense.
1 1

Sequence.

according. to

some

succession of

definite rule,

Such a

denoted by (u n ).

numbers u ly u 2 u 3
,

called a sequence,

is

rule defines

...

un

...

which

is

u n as a function of

formed

generally

the positive

integral variable n.

The rule may be quite arbitrary, and it is unnecessary that we should


be able to express u n in terms of n by an algebraical formula. For instance,
u n may denote the nth prime number, or the integral part of Jn.

sequence in which each term

is

followed by another term

is

called

an

infinite sequence.

12. Approximate Values. Suppose that the object of an experiment is to determine a certain number represented by A. No matter
what care may be taken to ensure accuracy, it is unlikely that the exact
value of A can be found. All that can be done in most cases is to find two
numbers a and a' between which A must lie.
If we find that a<A<a', we call a a Lower Limit and a' an Upper Limit
to the value of A
a and a' are also called approximate values of A.
;

is an approximate value of A, A -a is called the


and
Error,
(A a)/A the Relative Error, in taking a to

Definition.
(Absolute)

If

represent A.
If

a<A<a', we

in defect

and

say that a and

a!

are approximate values of A, the first

the second in excess with errors numerically less than a'

Observe that the error

A - a cannot exceed a' - a

therefore a

upper limit to the error in taking a to represent A.


Again, if a is positive, we have l/A<l/a and A -a<a'

-a

- a.

-a

is

an

hence

(A-a)/A<( a'- a )/a;


and

(a'

a)/a

is

an upper limit to the

We

relative error.

estimate the comparative accuracy of different experiments by comthe smaller the relative error, the greater is the
paring the relative errors
:

(degree

of accuracy.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS

16

In writing down decimal approximations of a number, we adopt the


followinjg

scheme
(i)

If

we

write

7r

= 3-1416

(approx.),

we

mean

shall

that

between 3-14155 and 3-14165, and we say that 3-1416


significant figures, or to

than 0-00005, or 2i

(ii)

If

we

write

10

TT

by 3-1416

is

numerically

3-14159

-n

lyinig

correct to 15

TT

4 places of decimals.

Since 3-14155<7r< 3-14165, the error in representing


less

some number

is

TT

the value of

is.

...

we

shall

mean

that the figures

3, 1, 4,

...

9 are those

which actually occur in the decimal representation of TT, and that TT is some number
lying between 3-14159 and 3-14160. The error in representing TT by 3*14159 is positive
and is less than 1/105
.

Fundamental Theorems.

In theoretical and practical work,


the following theorems are of fundamental importance.
If a, a', b b' are given numbers and A, B are any numbers such that
13.

a<A<a'
then

and

(i)

b<B<b

and

a + b<A + B<a' + b'

if all the letters denote positive numbers,

ab<AB< a'V

(iii)

The truth
Proof of

of

(a

Similarly

Proof of

(i)

and

Since

(ii).

Subtracting

B+V

(iii)

(iv) a/6'

follows from Art, 2,

a<A

and 5<6',

a+

.*.

from each member

it

can be shown that


Since

(iv).

a<A

b'.

a~b'<A-B.

/.

);

and B<b', and

Ab'

oJB

Similarly

B<A +

a,

A, B,

are positive,

aB<Ab'

Bo

1.

(8).

A - B<a' - b.
(A)

Dividing each side of (A) by Bb', which

Ex.

< A/B < a'/b.

of the last inequality,

+ B)-(B + b')<(A+b')-(B + b

therefore

lir

a - V<A - B<a' - b

(ii)

it

Show

Wehave

12

35

f<

.
'

Bb''

is

positive,

a
b

f< B

can be shown that A/B<a'/b.


that the error in representing

1234567

13

< 3456789 < 34'

.,
Also

12

is less

than 0-05.

12

by oO

-.

^=0-34...

^|-^< 0-39
therefore the error

1234567

,0400709

- is less

and

13

00

^=0-38

-0-34 =0-05;

than 0-05.

....

Hence,

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS
Ex.

7/0< x<

2.

division

By

we

find that

an approximate value of

is

- 2x + -

//" .4

---

an

is

by hypothesis, x cannot be an integer.


Then (p/q) n

For,

so

Need for New Numbers.

15.

with an error in

<

- 2x + 5z 2

integer which is not a perfect

= A.

is

p/q,

whore

a fraction in lowest terms,

cannot be equal to the integer A.

it

rational

I/ (I -fa:)

If possible, let

a fraction in lowest terms.

is

~-

exists such that x n

no rational x

n-th power, then

and

-2x

Non-perfect 'Powers.

14.

p/q

then I

1,

5a? 2 .

than

defect less

17
2

numbers are inadequate

There are

for

purposes for which


there is no rational

many

(i)
example
whose square equals 7
(ii) if the diameter of a circle is 1 inch and we
denote the length of the circumference by x inches, it can be shown that
x is not a rational number.
;

We

extend our number-system by inventing a new

class of

numbers

called Irrationals.

An

defined by some rule which gives


the rational numbers. Such a rule is the following.
irrational

Meaning of

is

We

"/A.

number

consider a positive

ordinal rank with

it

which

is

not a

perfect nth power, so that no rational exists whose nth power is A.


The symbol *IA (the nth root of A) is used to denote the irrational

whose place among the numbers on the rational scale is determined by


the following rule
\IA is to follow every positive rational whose n-th power
is less than A, and to precede every rational whose n-th power is greater than
:

Thus

A.

if a, a'

are positive ratio rials such that

a n <A<a' n

then

and

a, a'

are approximate values of ^JA with errors, respectively in defect

excess, less

than

a'

- a.

16. Representation of a Number by an Endless Decimal.


Take the following instance. No rational exists whose square is 7. Hence
7 lies between two consecutive terms of the sequence I 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 ....
,

Now

22

<7<32

(2-1)

2
,

(2-2)

...

therefore 7
2

(3-0)

We

between consecutive terms


2

between two consecutive terms of

(2-0)

find that (2-6) 2 <7<(2-7) 2 , therefore 7 lies

of (2-60) 2

2
,

(2-61)

...

(2-70)

and we

find that

<7<(2-65)
However far this

(2-64)

otherwise

lies

it

process

is

carried on,

would be possible to

it

can be continued further

find a rational

whose square

is 7.

for

IRRATIONALS IN PRACTICAL RECKONING

18

The process
such that 7
22

and

an endless decimal 2-6457


between the two classes of numbers

therefore gives rise to

lies

(2-6)

,J1 lies

and

...

^.(2-646)2, (2 .65)

is

which

2
,

(2-7)

32

is

numbers

classes of

and

...2-646, 2-65, 2-7, 3.

meant when we write /7 = 2-6457

is

Observe that ^/7


2/3

2-6, 2-64, 2-645...

what

is

(2-645)

between the two


2,

This

(2-64)

...

related to the decimal 2-6457

....

...

in the

same way that

related to 0-6666 ....

is

For if we say that 2/3 is equal to the endless decimal 0-6666 ... this is
only an abbreviation for saying that 2/3 lies between the two classes of
numbers
,

0-6, 0-66, 0-666,

and

...

...

0-667, 0-67, 0-7.

It should further be noticed that the decimal equivalent of


recur, for

if it

did, ^/7

^7 cannot

would be a rational number.

a process similar to that just described we can find the decimal


but, of course, in practice
representation of any root of a given number

By

other methods would be used.

Real Numbers.

17.

The

form the system of Real Numbers.


and inequalities and the definitions
tion

to

and

extended so as to apply

numbers.

Theoretically

it is essential

to

make

for purposes of practical reckoning,

Ex.

of addition, subtraction, multiplica-

division, already given for rationals, are

all real

may

and irrational numbers together


In Ch. XIII the rules for equalities

rational

this extension,

but

where we replace any

occur by a sufficiently close rational approximation.


1.

where dn

Given that

is the

$2 = 1-259921

decimal continued

Letd' n =dw + l/10


therefore

n
,

then
2 -rf

to

prove that

places.

d%<2<d'l;
-<** = (d' n -dn )(d* +
rf'J

<

Now

w rf'

rf

dn <d'n <l-3;
'

It follows that

...

*l +

Wn + *l<
2

Hence we are justified in writing

- d* --*
(

%/2 )

as

=2

(1'3)

n->

oc

.3<C;

it is

unnecessary

irrational

which

EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
Ex.

We

^5 =2-236 ... , ^8 = 1-817


an upper limit to the error.

Given that

2.

Find

s/5 / x/6.

also

have

2-236 / 1-818<

Now 2-236/1-818 = 1-229

...

and

...

^5 f /6<

find

19

a decimal approximation

to

2-237/ 1-817.

2-237/1-817 = 1-231

...

l-229< N/5/^/8< 1-232.


an approximate value of <s/5/*2/6 with an error in defect
/.

/.

1-229

is

3.
If a is positive and less than 1, show that 1 -a/2
2
-a) with an error in excess less than a /2.
Applying the square root process to 1 a, we have

Ex.

less

than 0-003.

an approximate value of

is

-a
-a-f^a

fa

fa

\a* =

N-

\a

|a

Now |a -|a -ia =^a (3-2a-a )=4a (3+a)(l-a); and


/. a*(3 +
)(!- a) >0
3

2 2
)

since

0<a<l,

and

The Function

18.

a*.

(1)

Ifa>l and n

is

a positive

integer, then

a n >l-f-n(a-l).
For,

if

a=

n
by the Binomial theorem, a = (1

I -h 6,

-f

n
6)

>l 4- nb.

n
n
7/a>0, ^en a ^l and a ^l according as a^l.
For if a>l, then a n >l. If a<l, let a = l/i; then 6>1

(2)

Again,
Similarly,
(3)

if
if

a>l, then a n >l

x=p/q,
(4) //a>0 and
For a /a y = a ~
(5)

ax

if

a?

for otherwise

we should have a = (an ) w <l.

a<l, then a n <l.

//a>0 and

For

and

aj

Ifa>l and

>l

<Aen ax

>a y according as agl.

according as

a>l.

N is any positive number,

can be found such that

For we can choose

according as

>y,
I/

>l

x
positive rational, then a
p
1, according as a^.1.
%Ja

ts

an

>N

for

however great, a positive integer

n^m.

m so that m(a - 1)>N - 1,

and then by

(1),

APPROXIMATE VALUES

20
// a

(6)

is

If

a<l,

and not equal

positive

awarding as a>\.
First let a>l.

Then

in (5),

if

an is

any

a>l,

If

positive

as in

(5),

ax >am >N, and so ax -+<x>.

z>w,

|<

oo

6*

~>

oo

and a = 1/6* -> 0.


35

n^m,

for

number, however small.


can be chosen so that

and

a<l, assuming that 0<e<l,

If

as

or

m can be found such that

where

a^-xx)

then

1,

a = 1/6. Then 6>1, and as x ->

let

//"a>0, a positive integer

(7)

to

(1 -f e)

m >a. Hence

a"-l<.
can be chosen so that

f-

>

that

m
(l-c) <a.

is,

Hence,

if

n>m,

(1

-e) <(l -e)

if

JL

m <, and

\m
1

'1

>-,
d

therefore

l-a n <.
If a = 1,

then a7 -

If a

is positive

(8)

First, let #-->

part of
If

(7)

=0

and x > 0, ZAen ax >

then

if

x<l/m,

m as
x
1 -a <l -a m <.
in

values, let

If a>l, choose
I<a
l<e.

through positive values.

a<l, choose

and
Thus

for all values of n.

ax

in the second part of (7)

both cases, ax 1->0 and a*->l. If


a = 1/6 and x = - y. Then ax = 1 /6 V ->1

then

if

m as in the first
x
nt
#<l/w, a >a

x->0 through

negative

EXERCISE

II

APPROXIMATE VALUES

a<A <a',

a, a are known numbers, and any number c lying


chosen as an approximate value of A, the numerical value
of the error in representing A by c cannot exceed the greater of the numbers
1.

If

between a and

where

of is

(c-^a), (a'-c).

Hence show that, if J(a-f-a') is chosen as an approximate value of A, the


greatest numerical value of the error is less than it would be for any other
approximation.
2. If

f(x)

= 2 + 3x - 4x 2 - 5x 3 + 8x* and x

is

small, find

an upper

numerical value of the error in representing f(x) by 2 -f- 3x.


-4x*-5x* + 8x* < 4* 2 -f 5x 3
[If e is the error, \e\ =
\

when

<

41

limit to the

8* 4

<

17* 2 ,

1.]

The length of a man's step is approximately 30 in., this value being correct
to the nearest inch. If the number of steps which he takes per mile is calculated
on the assumption that he steps exactly 30 in., show that the error in the result
3.

may

be as

much

as 35, but cannot exceed 36.

APPROXIMATE VALUES
4. If

21

0-2<cc<0-3 and -0-6<y<0-7, show that

(i)0-3<2/-z<0-5;

2<

(ii)

are all positive

y-x

<4

(iii)

and x<y<z, show that


x* x 2 + y* + z z z z
z
x+y+z x'

5.

If

6.

cannot
If the numerical value of the error in taking a to represent
a, and the numerical value of the error in taking a' to represent a cannot
a', then a -fa' is an upper limit of the error in taking a! for A.
[i.e. given

y, z

exceed
exceed
that

a-a<A<a +

(x.

and a'-a'<a<a'4-a',

it is

required to show that

+ (a + a').]

:a'

and J5, subject to errors


7. If a, b are observed values of two numbers
(positive or negative), whose numerical values cannot exceed a and j3 respectively,
show that an upper limit to the numerical value of the error in taking
(i)
(ii)

a-f /?

a -f ft

(iii)

(iv)

ajb

to

represent

is

small,

less

0<x<l

If

is afc-f

i/(

!/(!

+ a) 3

is

0<a<0-01, then the

less

than

error in taking ---h -

x> 100,

is

if

By

the error in taking - as the value of


-f

3 in descending powers of

show that

(i)
~r~

is

OX

o j,
-

-h

x.]

nearly equal to

+ (a - b)x - b (a - b) x 2
is less

than 0-01.

R = (b + c -

By means of Ex.
1+ (a~b-c)x.

13.

Show
is less

than 0-0007.

is less

4#

the division transformation, show that

I+ax

to

is

o -f" Q.X

small,

(1

where

Also show

x as the value of -

a = 5, b = 2 and #<0*1, the error in this approximation

12.

positive

A
(ii)

any

[Divide 3# + 2 by 4#
11. If

is

o
10. If

6'

nearly equal to l-3a.


error < 0-0007.

numerically

where

~l~)"0K

ft.

show that the

(a-f a)

is

yl/7?

than b

show that
if

that,
9.

is

A - B is

a& to represent ^4J5

number
8. If

A +B

a + b to represent
a - b to represent

also that if

12,

show that

a = 2, 6^3,

if

is

small,

=4 and x < 0-01,

r~r/l
+ ox)(l+cx)
"\

(l

^ nearly equal

the error in this approximation

than 0003.

The focal length (/) of a lens is given by the formula l//=l/t> - l/u. The
values of u and v may be in error by as much as 2 per cent, of the corresponding
true values. If the true values of u and v are 20 and 13, show that the value of/
'

14.

as calculated from the observed values


of its true value.

may

be in error as

much

as 9-9 per cent,

APPROXIMATE VALUES

22

The weight (w grammes) of water displaced by a solid is given by the


w=w l -w 2 where w l9 w 2 are the weights (in grammes) of the solid (i) in

15.

formula

In determining the values of w i9 w 2 the error in each case


per cent, of the true value. If the true values of w lf w 2 are
13 and 10, show that the value of w calculated from the observed values of w ti> a
may be in error by as much as 7 per cent, of its true value.
[The greatest and least possible values of w 1 are 13-13 and 12-87, those of w z
are 10-1 and 9-9, hence those of w l -to* are 3-23 and 2-77.]

vacuo,

may

in water.

(ii)

be as

much

as

l<t

16. Given that the endless decimal corresponding to


/123 is 2-618060
6
prove that 123 -(2-618060) < 0-0003.
[Proceed as in Ex. 1 of Art. 17, using the identity
a' 6 - a 5 = (a' - a) (a' 4 + a' 3a -f a' 2 a 2 -f a'a 3 + a 4 ).]
17. If x and y are positive and x>y, then x-y*j(2x)
of s/(# 2 - i/ 2 ) with an error in excess less than t/ 4 /(2a; 3 ).
2
[In Ex. 3 of Art. 17, put a = y /x*.]

a and b are nearly equal, show that - (a + 6)

18. If

_
value of Va6 with an error in excess

less

than

an approximate value

is
-j~

_M4
r

is

...

4(d -}- uj

an approximate

[Use Ex.

17.]

19. Given that ^14 = 3-741..., 4/3-1-442..., for each of the following
obtain a decimal approximation with an error in defect, finding also an upper
limit to the error
:

(i)

20. If

^14

0<a -A <e,
3

x 4/3

s/14/4/3

(ii)

then a -

(iii)

V A <---.

14 4- 4/3.

o(^JA)

[Put

y-ZJA

21. If

is

in the identity

a 8 - y 3 = (a - y) (a 2 + ay + 1/ 2 ).]

small, prove that

N/T

(i)

+x

nearly equal to 1-f rr/3

is

positive, the error in taking 1 +a:/3 to represent Z/l

cally less

+ xis negative, and

(ii)

is

if

a;

is

numeri-

than # 2 /8.
10# 2

(x\*
o/
1 H-

1 4-

and use the


x)<---2tl
,

last example.]

Approximate values of A, B are a = 3083, 6 = 8377, each correct to the


Using Ex. 7, show that an upper limit to the error in taking
4
i
a/6 for A IB is Ii 10
1
22.

nearest digit.

[The error

<

(0-5

+ 04 xO5)<

.]

23. In the last example, suppose a/b expressed as a decimal to n places, to the
nearest digit. Show that the numerical value of the error in taking this as the
value of A /B is less than

111

W*2 "iO"'
Hence show that

it is

useless to carry

on the division to more than four places

of decimals.

B = 1 -414213
by using Ex. 7 find how many
B to find an approximate value of AB with an error

24. If
figures

^=3-141592,..,
must be kept in A,

...

numerically less than I/ 10


[Choose a, b so that a6-|-/3(a
.

take

a,

We may

such that

2<x-f

therefore take

+ a)<l/108

4<1/103

This

Now 6<2
is

a = 3- 1416, 6 = 1-4142.]

and a + a<4,

satisfied if

a<^6

1(

/.

we may

<-

^.
1U
^

CHAPTER

III

POLYNOMIALS
1

An

Definitions.

a xn

where a

a 1?

expression of the form

+ a^"- 1 4- a 2z n ~ 2 +

a n are independent of

...

(1)

. . .

+ aw

x, is called

a polynomial in x of the

n-th degree.

A
ax m

polynomial in x and y
n
,

where a

any number

sometimes called a rational

y,

and m, n are

of terms of "the

form

positive integers.

and

is

degree

is

of variables is similarly defined,

integral function of the variables

its

its

the

sum

instance,

atfP
is

number

of a

highest term.
of the indices of the variables in each term of a polynomial
a constant number, the polynomial is said to be homogeneous. For

If
is

sum

the

independent of x

is

polynomial in

that of

is

+ a^-^y + a2 x n ~ 2y 2 +

. . .

+ a nyn

a homogeneous polynomial in x, y of degree n.


constant may be regarded as a polynomial of degree zero.
Polynomials of the first, second, third, fourth,
degrees are

. . .

linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic,

...

homogeneous polynomial

as

functions respectively.

In some parts of Algebra, a homogeneous polynomial

known

in x, y of degree

is

is

called a quantic.

often written in the

form
n
atfc

where binomial

+ na^-iy 4-

*!

a 2x n

~2

2
y +

. . .

+ a nyn

coefficients are introduced for convenience.

denoted by
(00,^,02,

..,

a n \x,y) n

d$x,

I)

d e\x,

I)

(a, 6, c,
(a, 6, c,

may

=aa?3

= ax4 + 4&z3 4- 6cx2 4- idx 4- e.

-h

This

is

shortly

Using this notation, cubic and quartic functions of x

be denoted by

36x2 4- 3cx + d,

If A, 5, C are polynomials and A=BC, then JB and C are called factors


ol divisors of 4, and .4 is said to be (exactly) divisible by J? of by C.

SYNTHETIC DIVISION

24
Let

Division.

2.

and

be polynomials in

x,

being of higher

degree than J5, or of the same degree.


To divide A by B is to find an identity of the form
'

'

are polynomials (or in special cases constants) and R is of


the result is
Such division is always possible
lower degree than B.
and is called the division transformation, Q being the quotient and

where

Q and R

unique
R the remainder.

In dividing ax3

Synthetic Division.

3.

reckoning

be arranged as on the

may

+p + q + r

fcz

ex-}-

z
d(ax +px + q

+ cx
px *-phx

>

>

= qh
+d
2

the quotient = ax 2

the

ax* - akx 2

where rp = ah + b, cr=ph
r + c,
2

and then

+ ex -f d by x-A,

ah + yA + g

bx 2

x-h)ax* +

+d

a +b + c
7

left

-f

-f

qx-qn

px + q,

the remainder = r.

and

This process is known as synthetic division.


parison with the reckoning on the right.

It is justified

by a com-

evident that the method can be used to divide any polynomia 1 in


x by x-h. If any powers of x are missing, these must be supplied with
zero coefficients.
It

is

Ex.

We

Divide 3* 4 - x* f 2x 2 - 2x x- divide
as follows
1.

by

2)

l-(-2)

.'.

Quotient

by x +

2.

-1

+2

- 2

-0
-7

+14
+16

-32
-34

+68
+67

= 3z 3 - 7z 2 + Ux - 34

remainder

= 67.

To divide a polynomial A by ax- 6, we may use the following rule


Find the quotient Q and the remainder R in the division of A by x- b/a,
*

then Q/a

by

and

ax- b.

are respectively the quotient

and remainder in

the division of

APPLICATIONS

25

Dividex* + 2x ~3x~4:by2x-l.
as on the
it is
Dividing by x Ex.

2.

right,

J,

seen that

+2

-3

- 4

+t

+4

the quotient = a; 2

+ # -J
and the remainder =

/.

the required quotient = J (a; 2

7/ the divisor
to divide 4#4

+ fa; - J)

y-

^.
;

remainder = - ^.

of the second or higher degree, the process is as follows


3# + x-l by 2 -2z + 3, write the divisor in the form
is

x 2 - (2x - 3) and proceed thus,


4

+3 +0 +1 -1
-12-33-30
8

+ 22 + 20

(b)

10-12-31
The quotient
term in

line

in (a);

is

(c)

llo;

where

the remainder

-12z-31.

The

will

be understood

+ 3#3 + x - I

if it is

in the

e are independent of x.
a, 6,
Divide f(x) by x*-2x + 3 as above.
2
quotient 4# + 1 Ix + 10.

compared with ordinary

division.

form

. . .

The remainder

is

-12rc-31 and the


4

Divide 4z 2
is 19a;

+ 1 Ix + 10 by x 2 - 2x + 3.

- 2 and the
quotient

4.

The remainder

+ 11 + 10
-12

Hence

~ 2

- 12* -31.

4. Applications of Synthetic Division.


formations are often required.

Let/(x) be a polynomial in
(I)

first

Express f(x)= 4x*

3.

+ 10 and

(c)

4; 4 (2 -3) = 8 -12; put 8 in line (6) and -12


ll(2-3) = 22-33
put 22 in (6) and -33 in (a);

+ 3 = 11;

and so on.
The reckoning
Ex.

4z 2 +

is

(a)

To

f(x)=a (x-h) +a l (x-h)


is

an _ 2

is

x-h.

n -l

Suppose that

+ ...+a n _l (x-h) + an

the remainder when/(#) is divided by x - h. ItQ is the


quotient,
the remainder when Q is divided by x - h. If Q' is the
quotient,
the remainder when Q' is divided by x-h.
Continuing thus, we

Then ar
an-1

trans-

x.

express f(x) as a polynomial in


n

The following

can find

is

all

the coefficients.

The reckoning

is

arranged as in Ex.

1, overleaf.

REMAINDER THEOREM

26
Ex.

1.

Express 2x + x

5x - 3 as a polynomial in x-2.

+13

(2) To expand f(x + h) in powers of x, we express f(x) as a polynomial


x - h, and then change x into x + h.

Ex.

in

2.

Proceed as in Ex.

and substitute x + 2

for

in the result, thus

2
f(x + 2) = 2x* + 13* + 23* + 7.

(3)

Iff(n)

is

a polynomial in n of degree

aQ + a^n + a 2n(n +

1)

r, to

+ a%n(n + 1) (n + 2) +

This can be done by dividing by w, w-hl, n


2fo. 3.

4
Express n

Divide n4

and

+ 3n 2 + 2

+3n 2 + 2 by

+ 2,

...

in succession.

in the form

by n + 1, the quotient thus obtained by n + 2,


by n + 3. The reckoning is shown below, and the required

numbers in thick type.

1+1

1+0+3+0

1+2

1+3

-1+1-4
_i +4-4
-2+6

1
/.

. . .

w, the quotient

finally the last quotient

coefficients are the

express f(n) in the form

-3
-3

+10

-6

n4 + 3n 2 + 2 = 2 - 4n + 10( + 1) - n(n + !)( + 2)

The Remainder Theorem. Iff(x) is a polynomial, then f(h)


remainder when f(x) is divided by x - h.
This follows on substituting J^ fof xirTtfre* identity

5.

is the

where
of f(x)

Q and J? are respectively the quotient and


by x-h; for R is independent of #.

remainder in the division

IMPORTANT THEOREMS
Corollary. Iff(h) = 0, then
For, in the preceding,

x~h

is

27

a factor off(x).

Ex.

Show

1.

Since

is

that, if

odd,

l)

is odd,

= - 1,
an

hence

2.

///(a;)
is

f(0-2)

a factor of xn + 1.
- 1,
x

1 is
if

+ x = ( _ ! jn f ! _ _ X + X _

.*.

##.

x+

x 4-

1 is

a factor of x n

= 3** + 2** - 6x - 4, ./md

*fce

-+

w/we off (0-2).

the remainder in the division of f(x) by

a;

- 0-2.

Performing the division

1-0-2

Theorem.

6.
values

a 1? a 3

...

// f(x) is a polynomial which vanishes when x has


a n no two of which are equal, then the product
(x-oc 1 )(x-(x 2 )(x-oc 3 )

is

the

...

(z-a w

a factor off(x).
For since /(a^^O,

by the Remainder theorem f(x) = (x~oc l ) .fl (x)


where /x (x) is a polynomial. Therefore /(a 2 ) = (a 2 - aj)^ (a 2 ).
Now /(a 2 ) = and aa-aj^O, therefore /i(a 2 )=0, and consequently
x-oe. 2 is a factor oif^x).
Hence

where /2 (x)

is

and

(x^-(x-^)(x

a polynomial.

Proceeding in this way, we can show that (x-oc 1 )(x-oc 2 )...(x-oc n )

is

factor oif(x).

7.

Theorem.

polynomial f(x) of the n-th degree cannot vanish for

more than n values of x unless all its coefficients are zero.


For otherwise (by Art. 6) the product of more than n expressions of the
form x-cx. would be a factor of the polynomial. That is to say, a polynomial of the nih degree would have a factor of degree higher than n,

which

is

Thus
it is

impossible.

the coefficients of f(x) are zero, f(x)

If all

is

said to vanish identically.

-a)(b-c) + (x- b) (c - a) -f (x c) (a - b) vanishes identically


the first degree in x, and it vanishes for the values a, 6, c of

(x

of

Corollary.

An

equation of the n-th degree cannot have more than

for
x.

roots.

it will be shown that every equation of the nth degree has


n
not
exactly roots,
necessarily all different, which may be real or imaginary.

NOTE. Later
c

B.C.A.

UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS

28

Theorem.

8.

ax n
then a

= a',

If for more than n values of x,


~
"
bx n 1 -t+ hx + k = a'x n + b'x n l -f

-f

= 6',

...

. .

h = h', & = &'

-f

. . .

h'x

that is to say the

+ k',

polynomials are

identically equal.

For by the given conditions the polynomial


n
- 6> n ~ 1 + ... -f (h - h')x +
(a
a')x -h (6
vanishes for more than n values of x

k')

by the preceding

hence,

(k

article, it

follows that
6

a^a',
9.

Polynomials

(1)

///(x, y)

is

= 6',

Two

in

...

=h

k^=k'.

More Variables.

or

a polynomial in x and y which vanishes for

all

values

ofx

and y then all the coefficients off(x, y) are zero.


The following method applies in all cases. Let the polynomial be
y

u = ax 2 + bxy
which

is

supposed to vanish for

all

-f

+ dx + ey -h/,

cy

values of x and y

u = ax 2 + y(by + d) +

and

for

any given value

vanishes for

all

a = 0,

/.

(2)

If for

all

ey +f)

by

6 = 0,

values of x

is

then

a polynomial in x, which

+ d = Q,

Also the relations (A) hold for

a = 0,

-f

of y, the last expression

values of x

hence

(cy

all

rf

and y

cy

+ e?/+/=0

values of y

= 0,

c = 0,

(A)

e-0,

/=0.

the 'polynomials f(x, y)

and F(x,

y)

have

equal values, then the coefficients of like terms in the polynomials are equal.
This follows immediately from (1).

The fact that two polynomials,


-writing u^v.

NOTE.

by

10.

The Method of Undetermined

necessary to enquire
specified
4

u, v, are identically equal is often expressed

farm.

Undetermined

In

Coefficients.

It is

often

a given function can be expressed in a certain


cases of this kind we may use the method of
if

Coefficients/

which

may

be described as follows.

Assume that the function is expressed in the given form, where some of
the coefficients are unknown. In order that the identity involved in this
assumption may be true, the. unknown coefficients must satisfy certain
equations. If these equations have a solution, the function can be expressed
in the specified form.

QUADRATIC FUNCTION
Ex.

Show

1.

that values of a,

c exist

6,

23

such that

and find these values.


The right-hand side ^ a (a; 2 -x -2) + b(x 2 ~ 3z + 2) +c(z 2 This

equal to the left-hand side for

is

such that

~ b-~<- ~'2,

-3A"5.

values of x,

all

-a -

- c

2/y

if

1)

values for

a, 6, c

These equations have one solution, namely, a~2, 6 = 1, c= -1.


In a question of this kind, i/ t has been shown that an identity of the
exists, the values of the constants

may

be

can be found

1.

found by giving special valuer

specified

Thus, assuming that an identity of the specified form exists, wo can find

by putting a:!, -1,2


2.

a
ti^(2x + y+p)(x ~3?/-f q) =2x~ - 5xy 3y + a?(^

Equating

coefficients,

we have

From

the

iirst

two,

er,

b, c,

in succession.

Search for factors of #=3 2x~ - 5r// - 3?/ 2 -x + 10// Since 2x 2 - 5xy - 3?/ 2 (2x + y) (x - 3y) we assume that

Ex.

form

to the variables.

2q

-\-

y>-^

tluj three

--

-3,

(/

1,

conditions
3/> 4

= !, and

.---

3.

+y(q -3^) +y^.

-i-2q)

pq

10,

:--

3.

these values hajtpcii to satisfy the third

condition.

11.

Quadratic Functions of x and

function of x,

y, z of

the second degree

ax 2

When z^l

-f 6//

is

of the

Every homogeneous

y.

form

+ cz* 4- 2///2 -f 2(jzx + 2hxy ...................... (A)

this reduces to

az*

+ 2hxy + by z + 2gx + 2fy + c,

........................ (B)

the general form of a quadratic function of x and y.


2 of Art. 10 it appears that the cases in which an expression
of the form (B) can be resolved into factors are exceptional. The condition

which

is

From Ex.

that this

12.

may

he possible

Theorem.

is

investigated in the next article.

The necessary and

sufficient condition that the quadratic

s ^ aj? + 2hxy + by* + 2gx + 2fy + c

faction
can be expressed as

the product of two linear factors

-=

abc

+ 2fgh

af

Itf

- ch* - 0.

Assume that S = (px + qy + r) (p'x -f q'y -f r')


S=^0 this can be written

and consider the equation

ax 2 + 2x (hy +g) +
giving

(hy+g)

(bif

+ 2fy -f c) - 0,

(hy+gf-a(by* + 2fy + c)

............ (C)

DISCRIMINANT

30

These values of x must be the same as


are therefore rational functions of

root sign in (C)

is

this

may

+ r) and

be a perfect square

The following cases must now be considered


// a

(i)

not zero,

is

//a =

(iii)

// both

fails

r ')

they

is

= 0.

but, except

solving for

by

-f

2
2fgh-af-bg*-ch =0 ......................... (D)

the reasoning

to the condition (D)

(q'y

follows that

it

abc +
(ii)

Hence the expression under the

y.

a (abc + 2fyh - a/2 - bg 2 - ch?)

or

Now

a perfect square.

and the condition that

(qy

a and b are

zero,

when

6 = 0,

y and proceeding as

we

shall be led

before.

and A^O, then

S = 2hxy + 2gx + 2fy + c

A = 2fgh-ch 2
and only if, A =0.

for in this case

factors

//a = 6 = A = 0, S

Hence S can be resolved

not a quadratic function.


can be resolved into linear factors, then J=0.

(iv)
if

if,

is

into linear

Hence, in

all cases,

Conversely, if A 0, then S can be resolved into linear factors.


This is evident in all cases, from the preceding.

NOTE.

The expression abc + 2fgh-afz

called the discriminant of S.

Ex.

1.

//,

Observe that p,

in the above, p, q,

r,

The square

and

real

if,

root of (hy

and only

ca-g\

+ g) 2 - a (by 2 + 2fy + c),

denoted by J, and is

are not necessarily all real.

prove that

ab-h\

or

-ab)+2y(hg-af)+g*-ac,

if

h - ab
2

Similarly,

is generally

q, r, p', q' 9 r' t

vice versa.

y2(h
is

p', q' t r' are all real,

6c-/
are all negative

bg*-ch

by solving

S =0

and

-ac

as a quadratic in y t

are positive.

we find that/ 2 - be must

be positive.

DIVISION

AND FACTORS

EXERCISE
DIVISION

31

III

AND FACTORS

In Exx. 1-6 find by synthetic division the quotient and remainder


expression is divided by the second.

when the

first

3.

+ 6x + 2; x + 4.
x*-4x* + 6x z -4x + I

5.

3x*-5x*-llx* + x-I; x*-2x~2.

6.

3z 5 + 6z 4 ~2o; 3 -:e 2

5x*

1.

3x-2.

4.

a;

- 5x* -f Ix* -

-2;*; + 4; x* + 2x-I.
3
2 If 4z
6x + 1 is divisible by 2x - 1,
(a
l)x -f ax
3
Express x + 2x* + x + 80 as a polynomial in (i) x + 5

8.

If

9.

giving

*/

given by the equation


3#~- 1
i/- a; -2
(ii) y

is

when

(i)

x-2.

-!; 2x + l.

7.

10.

2. x*

find the value of a.


(ii)

# - a 2 - 8# + 3 = 0,
= 3x + 4.
(iii) y
3

x -f

find

(iii)

the

x 4- J.

equation

4
Express n in the form

a + bn + cn(n +
11. Iff(x)---Gx*

l)

+ dn(n + l)(n + 2) + en(n + l)(n + 2)(n + 3).

+ 4x* + 3x + 2,

find the values of /(

-!),/(-f), /(J).

Factorise the expressions in Exx. 12, 13.


12.

x*-2x*-lx* + 8x+l2.

13.

2z 4 - 3x 3 2/ - 6z 2 */ 2 -

8xi/

- 3y 4

14. Find a polynomial in x of the third degree which shall vanish when x = 1
and when x -2, and shall have the values 4 and 28 when x~ -1 and # = 2
[The polynomial is of the form (x - 1) (x 2) (ax + b).]
respectively.
-f-

15. Find a quadratic function of x which shall vanish


the values 24 and 62 when x = 3 and x ~ 4 respectively.
[The function is of the form (7x + 3)(ax + b).]

when x

-f and have

16. Find a homogeneous function of x and y of the second degree which shall
vanish when x~y and also when # 4 and y~3, and have the value 2 when
x 2 and y = 1
[The function is of the form (x y)(ax + by).]
.

17. If

18.
[It

19.

is

m
odd, show that x

+1

is

a factor of xmn

-f-

1.

15
Express # + 1 as the product of four factors.
follows from Ex. 17 that cc 3 + 1 and x 5 + 1 are factors.]

Prove that the condition that ax 2 + bx + c and a'x 2 + b'x + c'

common

linear factor

may have

is

(ca'

- c'a) 2 = (be' - b'c) (aV - a'b).


x

be a common factor if a 2 -f6a + c=0 and a a 2 -i-6'a-hc'=0.


Eliminating a between these equations, we obtain the required condition.]
[x-<x.

20.

will

Find the condition that ax3 + bx -f c and a'x3 + b'x -f c'

may have

linear factor.
21. If

ft

is

z
any number, show that n can be expressed

rt(rc-l

and

find the values of a, 6,

c.

in the

form

common

DIVISION

32

AND FACTORS

22. If p, q, r, s are four consecutive numbers, show that p 2 q 2 ,


nected by a linear equation, and find this equation.
[This follows from Ex. 21.]
,

r 2, s 2

are con-

23. If x y, z, w are four consecutive terms of an arithmetical progression,


2
2
2
2
prove that x t/ z w are connected by a linear equation with constant coefficients.
Find this equation.
+ q, ivp + 3q, and find 6, c, d such that
[Write x p-3q, y~p-q,
t

zp

Show

24.

and

that constants a,

find the values of a, 6,

6, c

can be found such that

c.

In Exx. 25, 26 show that values of a, b can be found for which the
sion

is

25.

divisible

by the second, and

x 5 + 2x 3 + ax 2 + b

a?

expres-

l.

[Find the remainder in the division of the

make

first

find these values.

first

expression by the second, and

this identically zero.]

+ bx*-l2x 2 + 21x-5; 2x 2 + 3x-l.


[Arrange in ascending powers of x before dividing.]

26. ax*

Resolve the expressions in Exx. 27, 28 into factors.


27.

29.

2
28. 3x 2 + 2xy - Sy 2 - 1x
IGy 6.
3x~i-xy~4y + 8x + 13?/-3.
Show that x 6 ~ 6z 5 -f 24z 4 - 56z 3 -f 96x 2 - 96x + 64 is a perfect cube, and
f-

find

the cube root.


30. If x3

show that

-f

3x 2 - 9x -h c

c is either

is the product of three factors, two of which are identical,


5 or - 27 and resolve the given expression into factors in
;

each case.
31.

(i)

Find the remainder in the division of


x 3 + 3px-fg

(ii)

(iii)

32. If

by

x 2 -2ax + a 2

+ 3px + q has a factor of the form (x-a) 2 show that # a + 4/> 3 = 0.


If the equation x 3 +3px + q
has two equal roots, what is the relation
connecting p and q ?

If

atP

x*+px* + qx + r can be expressed in the form


3 -:
2
8^p
-21q* and p = 12r.

(x

3
-a) (x -b), show that

In Exx. 33-34 find the value, or the values, of A for which the given expression
can be resolved into factors, and for each value of A resolve the expression into
factors.

33.

x z -xy + 3y-2 + \(x 2 -y 2 ).

34.

x z + y 2 -6y + 4 + \(x 2 -3

ax 2 -f 2Lxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c

is a perfect square, show that /=


*Jbc,
h=
that
not
the
does
an
odd
Va6,
Vca,
g
provided
negative sign
precede
number of the radicals.

35. If

36. If 5x 2
4xy -f y* - 24x - Wy -f 24 = 0, where x and y are real numbers, show
that x must lie between 2 - ^5 and 2+^5 inclusive, and y between - 4 and
-h 6 inclusive.
[Solve for x and y in succession.]
-f-

EXPANSION OF PRODUCTS
2

-f

2
xy-y + 2x~y+ 1

real,

show that x

lie

38. If
lie

33

2# -f 4xy + y - I2x -8?/-f 15 = 0, where x and y are


between I
Jl and y cannot lie between 1 and 3.

37. If

cannot

a;

and -

between

|, biit

0, where x and y are real, show "that y cannot


x can have any real value whatever.

39. If f(x) is a rational integral function of a; and


the remainder in the division of /(#) by (x - a)(x -- b)

6 are unequal,

show that

is

[(x-a)f(b)-(x-b)f(a)]/(b-a).
[The remainder

is

a linear function of

x,

and may therefore be assumed

to be

A(x-a)+B(x-b).]
40.

(i)

(ii)

If ax 5

+ bx + c has a

factor of the form x 2

In this case, prove that ax 3


quadratic factor.

[For (ii), in the identity ax*


3
multiply each side by # .]
41.

(i)

If ax*

+ bx 2 -\-c has

(a

13.

+ bx + c -(x*+ px +

2
)

In this case, prove that


quadratic factor.

(a
<7#

-f

show that a 2 - c*=ab.

l)(ax

and

+ a have a common

+ c) put

+px + 1,

I/a;

for

x and

prove that

8
.

ca;

4-

6x 3

+ a have

common

To expand the product

Expansion of Products.
(a

+ 6c)=a

2
4 6x

1,

ex* i-bx 2

+ c and

a factor of the form x 2


2

(ii)

bx

+ px -f

+ b)(p + q + r)(x + y + z + w),

........................

(A)

we then
by each term of (p + q + r)
the products so formed by each term of (x + y + z + w),

we multiply each term

of (a

-f

b)

multiply each of
and add the results.

Hence the expression (A) is equal to the sum of all the products which
can be formed by choosing any terra out of each of the factors and multiplying them together.
In general, the product of any number of polynomials is equal to the sum of
all the

products which can be formed by choosing any term out of each poly-

nomial and multiplying them

14.
i>

Theorem.

#2 a s>

For

(x

+ ax

//

an> token

(x

together.

p l9 p z p 39
,

one, two, three,

+ a 2 ) (x + a 3 )

...

(x

4-

denote the

...

at

...

an )

sums of

the products of

a time, respectively, then

equal to the

products which can be formed by choosing a term out


factors and multiplying these terms together,

sum
of

of all

the

each of the

BINOMIAL THEOREM

34

n
Choosing x out of each factor, we obtain the term x of the expansion.
Choosing x out of any (n 1) of the factors and the a out of the remain-

we obtain

ing factor,

xn

~l

+ a 2 + d3 +

(a l

...

f an )

or

p^x*-

1
.

Choosing x out of any (n 2) of the factors and an a from each of the


two remaining factors, we obtain
xn

<L

(a^i -h a^ 3

-f

4-

. . .

a 2a 3

-f

. .

p 2x

or

n ~2
.

Choosing x out of any (n r) of the factors and an a from each


~
the r remaining factors, we obtain,,jo r x n r

of

Finally, choosing

+ aj (x 4- a 2

(x

.'.

In particular,
(x

which

a)

-f-

if

(x

4-

a3 )

. . .

a 2 = a3

(x

+ a n =x n + p^" 1 + p 2x n ~ 2 -f
)

Use

1.

.C"xn

-f

x)

2n

= (l +2x+x 2

~r

ar

4-

4-

. . .

an

n to
prove that

---3)

|2?

UH

TUT
have

coefficient of

x n in

(1

+ x) zn

is

w
<7^

n
the coefficient of x n in (x z +2x) n
is 2 ,
~1
n
n
2
the coefficient of x in C^(a: + 2a;)
is
CJ
n
n
2
-*
the coefficient of z in
is
+

C"(x
A

The

so on.

The use

result follows

by equating

Here

Hence,

C J" 1

(7J

(7^~

2
.

2n

the coefficient of

+ Sa^

= (1 +a? + x* + x*)

= 2m,

if

if

r=

x r in

then

(l

coefficients in the identity.

2.

x + x 2 4- x3 ) 11
n
n
+x) (l +x*)

(1 -f

n=

~2

~
2W 4

of the Multinomial theorem, explained in Art. 16

Find

2.

22

2x)

page, can sometimes be avoided, as in Ex.

and,

pn

an

can be obtained by expanding a function of x in two

the identity (1

The

Ex.

-f

. . .

...

ways by the Binomial theorem and equating coefficients.


-

and

a^a^a^

= a n = a, we have

. . .

- z n -f C%x n - la + C%x n - 2a* 4-

identities

Many

We

we obtain

of each of the factors,

the Binomial Theorem for a positive integral index.

is

different

Ex.

an a out

on the opposite

MULTINOMIAL THEOREM
Expansion of f (x + h)

15.

in

Powers of x. Here /(x)

to be a polynomial in x.
When the coefficients in f(x) are
division, as in Art. 3.

The following general theorem


in Art. 1 of this chapter.

is

f(x)

f(x + h)

then

=a

supposed
synthetic

the notation is explained

r\

xn

= a^c n + nA^ ' 1 + ----'- A^n ^ + ...+A n


1

A = aQh + a

where

is

known numbers, we use

required later
Ai

//

35

A 2 ^ a h 2 + 2%/fc -f a 2 A 3 = a h 3 + Sa^h 2 + 3a 2 h + a 3
a \h, l) r
^ r -(a ,a ,a 2

ly

...

For by the Binomial theorem,

ft

'YW

\JvfvJU

~L*

r*n\

~T~ A/-J i*/

j/>

/y7t

"T~ /i'o*/

I
i

~ n/y nffl~~T
_1

jf

. I

"^

<^

{/

tt

^"
*" 1
r
A;r = a C J?A -f
+ agC^^Y^^ 2 +
a!^ iC^-Ti A

where

to r +

terms.

Now

C*!>C*rI%

|r-j)|n-r

Thus

kr ^C^(aQ

which proves the theorem.

Multinomial Theorem for a Positive Integral Index.


n
The product
-f k)
Expansion of (a + 6 -f c +

16.
(1)

. . .

(a
is

the

sum

+ 6 + c + ... +k)(a + b + c + ...

-f

k)

...

to

factors

which can be formed by choosing a term out


and multiplying these terms together.
therefore the sum of a number of terms of the form

of all the products

of each of the

factors

The expansion is
... k, where each index may have any

aab^cy

of the values 0,

1, 2, ...

w,

subject to the condition


...-fic

= tt

(A)

MULTINOMIAL THEOREM

36

Choose any positive integral or zero values for

To obtain the

satisfy this condition.

a,

coefficient of the

...

y,

jS,

term a

K which

b^cv

...

k" y

K factors, respecdivide the n factors into groups containing a, )S, y,


of
of
factor
the
first
a
out
each
b
out
of each factor of
Take
group,
tively.
. . .

the second group, and so on.

The number

of

ways

in

which

this

can be done

is

In

and

which

of times

a a b^cy

this is the coefficient of

term

this particular

(B)

a
...

k" in the expansion

.aWcv
where a,

from

y,

jS,

...

K are

numbers

the

to

have
...

0, 1, 2,

all possible sets

n,

subject to the

Jt,

(C)

of values which can be chosen


condition

Theorem

called the Multinomial

is

...

+K = n.

a + j8-f y-f...
This result

number

the

(i.e.

Hence

occurs).

for a positive integral

index.

Thus

(2)

in the expansion of (a

If there are

m numbers a,

+ b 4- c -f

sion of (a

. . .

-f

- b - c -f d) 6 the

b, c, ... k,

coefficient of a*b 2 c is

the greatest coefficient in the

expan-

n
k) is

and r the remainder when n is divided by m.


n
I
a ^ y
The coefficient
\K has its greatest value when a j8
has its least value. Denote this value by v, then v is the least value
* if a and j3 alone vary and y,
K are constant.
a j8
where q

is the quotient

. . .

. . .

l/c

Thus

j8

must have

value subject to the condition a

its least

where

is

4-

j8= C,

a constant.

Let wa =|a|/J = |a|C-a, then


ing as

of

. . .

. . .

a^C~a + l,

when a=j8=4<7

if

^~

and w a

agKC-fl). Hence ua
even, and when a = i(C + l),

i.e.

is

^~

as

has

t/

a _1

accord-

its least

= i(C-l)
j8

value

if

is

odd.

Thus a and /? must be equal or


pair of the numbers a, 6, ... k.

differ

by

1,

and the same

is

true for

any

EXAMPLES

37

We

conclude that some (possibly all) of the set a,


certain number q, each of the rest being equal to q +

Let r of the numbers be equal to q +

0<r<w

and

Hence

is

r(q

and

+ (m-r)q = n, that

l)

are equal to a

6, ...
1.

m - r of them equal to j, then

qm + r = n.

is

when n

the quotient and r the remainder

divided by m,

is

which proves the theorem.


// there are

(3)

numbers

k, the coefficient

...

a, 6, c,

+ bx + ex 2 +

. . .

+ kx m

is

sion of (a

ro~f^

r
of x in the expan-

&*&&

r~~

. .

k",

where

a,

j8,

.../<:

y,

Aave any o/^Ae values

This follows from

by putting

(1)

w subject

...

0, 1, 2,

2
6x, ex ,

...

to the

&x m for

conditions

6, c, ...

A in equation

(C).
j^o:.

Find

1.

the coefficient of x* in the

The
where

a,

jS,

coefficient

y have any of the values

expansion of

=2

0, 1, 2,

=5

la

20 3v,

-^

j_a

j8

...

5 such that

y
a

and

The solutions of the second equation are (4, 0), (2, 1), (0,
and the possible values of a, /?, y are shown in the margin

2),

'

the coefficient

/.

|
'

24

5
|

|4|J)

+ ^- L rr-r 2 2 3 + <--:
|3
|2 2 1
'

'

= 80 + 360 + 90 = 530.
Ex.

2.

Find

the greatest coefficient in the

expansion of

7
(a + 6+c)

Here

m=3

and 7^-2

3
.'.

1,

so that

q^2, r~l

greatest coefficient

2
|

7/(| 2)

3.

.
|

EXERCISE IV

BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS
If (1 +ic)

~c + c

1 o;

+ c 2x 2 +...

x" prove the statements in Exx. 1-12.


9

COEFFICIENTS IN EXPANSIONS

38

+ 2c 1 x + 3c 2x z + ...+(n + l)c n xn = {I + (n +

3. c

+ 3c 2 -...+(-l

4. c (>-2c l
5. c a

+ 2c 3 + 3c4 + ...+(ri-l)cn =
1271

.-.^

6. C

7. c c r -f C!C
r+1 -f c 2 c r+2

. . .

|2n

+ c w _ rc n =

n-r

...

"

c n-i
9.

is

that

c!5

c?

1 ) <5

of the products of

+ c^ -

. . .

-f

~
,

or

according

zero,

Show

sum

that the

2n
equal to 2

11.

c l9 c 2 ,

...

cn

taken two together

\2n

~1 -

[The required sum^JffCo + ^-HCjj-f

Using the result of Ex.

...

H-cn ) -(c^-f c^-f Cg-f-...

-f

c^)

show that

1,

2n ~ l
n ~ l in the
equal to the coefficient of x
expansion of n(l +x)
that the sum of this series is 2n n- 2

is

l/(

12.

is

as

even or odd.

10.

is

Show

Using the result of Ex.

3,

I)

Hence show

show that

n
equal to the coefficient of x in the expansion of

(n

Hence show that the sum of this

+ 2) 2n-l

series is

13.

Prove that

n- I

n
I

n> 1,

if

'

n-l|l
14. If the

terms of the

are expanded
of xr

L-

is
,

\L\^l.

series

and the whole

In
r

(3

w ~r

[n

is

arranged in powers of

x,

show that the

coefficient

15.

Show thatZ ;

[Using Ex. 11, the


2
2n ~ 2

sion of

n (l^-x)

sum of the series

.]

is

n
equal to the coefficient of x in the expan-

THEOREM

IDENTITIES BY BINOMIAL
In Ex. 16-18 find the

coefficients of the

products stated

expansion of (a + b + c+d + e)

16. abcde in the

39

5
.

17. a 6 c in the expansion of (bc + ca + ab)*.


x
z
5
[Write a*b'c = (bc) (ca)v(ab) and find x, y, z.]
3

4 5

18. a*b 2 cd in the expansion of (ab


19. If (l+x + x ) n =c
(i)

(iii)
/.

= C 2n

CQ

-f

(iv)c

C2

-f

c4 4-

Cr

C 2n-i>

. . .

4-

c 2w

n(n-l)
v

|0

c2

-~

tt(n-l)(rc-2)-7

r^

l-.

term of

last

(i)

20. If

put

(i)

nc

is

or

is

is

to

equal

not a multiple of

- -

'

C tC z

I/a;

when n

this series

+ C 2C4

...

3.

write

down

the

is

even and when n

is

odd.

+ C 2n _2c 2n ~ cn+l

x and multiply by x m

for

2
3 n
(l+# + a; + ;r ) :=c

(ii)

-l)

P~l2*

(vi) C C 2

[In

... -f (

= l + n(n~l) + n(n-l)(n-2)(n-3) +..., and


,

(v)c n

,.

c 3 -f

!-

In
""-- or zero,
according as n

that

ci

-nc 1 +

+ ac + a d + bc + bd + cd)*.

+ c l x + c< x + ...+CrXr +...+c 2nx 2n prove

In

(ii)

put

-x

for

a:,

and observe that

c^ -f c 2a: 2 4- + C 3nx 3n
Find the value of c -f Cj 4- c 2 +
-f c 3n
Prove that C + c 2 + c4 -f c e + ...= Ci + Ca + Cs +
Prove that C = c 3n Ci^Cg^.j, C 2 =c 8n _ 2 etc.
-f

. . .

. . .

(iii)

21.

In the expansion of

(i)
(ii)

What

is

the term containing the highest power of x

Find the sum of the

coefficients.

that the sum of the coefficients of the even terms


that of the odd terms.

(iii)

Show

(iv)

Show

is

equal to

that the coefficients of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end are equal.

22. In the expansion of

(l+z) (l+ y) (l+ z)

n
,

show that the sum of the

371

==

coefficients of the

terms of degree r

is

-.

|r

23.

By

3n-r

expanding the two sides of the identity

and equating the

coefficients of

xn show that
,

Also write down the last term of the series on the


is odd.

when n

left (i)

when n

is

even,

(ii)

HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR

40
24.

By expanding

{(1 4-z)

fi2m

~^9

- 2x} m in two different


ways, prove that,

/->m/nr2w-2
L

L/

"^92

/-TfW/t2

-~
4

__/nfW
----

if

m>n,

25. If

prove that

(i)

a r = 2 r n {C* n

+ CjCj n
C"r

the last term in the bracket being


or odd.

"2

or (^

+ C^Cf

at

(iii)

=4n

= \V-

[We have

17.

(1

l
l
ii(l+3C- + 5C%- + ...

--2

n(n -]){!. 3

4-2x4- 2x

Highest

4-3

5C?"

accorc^ n g as r

4-5

7f7>

is

cven

n terms).

to

~2
4- ...

to (n - 1) terms}.

)^

Common

in a single variable x.

+ ...},

+ l)^7(H-i)

In particular, show that


2
2-n
(ii)a 2

~4

Factor (H.C.F.).
These will be denoted by

We consider polynomials
capital letters.

where A, B, Q, R are polynomials, the common factors


B are the same as those of B and R.
For since A BQ 4- R, every common factor of B and R is a factor of
A and, since R~A BQ, every common factor of A and B is a factor
(1)

of A

of

// A = BQ + R,

and

7?.

(2)

(Q 2

If

R2

),

is

not of higher degree than A, polynomials or constants (Q }9 Rj),


... can be
found such that

($ 3 J? 3 )
,

where the degree of any one of the

set

B,

R R2
l

is less

...

than that of the

preceding.

from the

It follows
(a) if

factor, this is a
(h) if

theorem that

last

R2

one of the pairs (A, B), (B, RJ, (R v

common

one pair have no

factor of every pair

common

),

(R2

R3

have a

common

factor, the same

true for every pair.

is

Moreover, the process must terminate and that in one of two ways
the last remainder, say R n must vanish identically, or be independent of x.
:

Rn

If

Q,

then

R n _ 2 = Rnnl Q n

so that

Rn ^

is

a .common factor of

(7?n _ 2 ^n-i)> an d therefore also of (A, B).


Moreover, every common
factor of (A, B) is a factor of J? n _j, which is therefore the H.C.F. of A, B.

If

Rn is independent of x, then

the same
(3)

is

(J? n _ 2 ,

Rn -i)

have no

common

factor,

and

true of (A, B).

The H.C.F. Process.

by successive

Equations

(1)

of the last section are

divisions, as represented below.

found

H.C.F.

In practice, the reckoning

B) A

is

PROCESS

41

generally arranged as on the right.

(Q,

BQi

(Q 2

Qi

BQ,
etc.

etc.

The process may often be shortened by noticing that

multiply or divide any of the set A, J5, R l9 R 2 ... by any


constant or by any polynomial which is not a factor of the preceding
member of the set.
(i)

We may

(ii)

If

we

arrive at a remainder

Rn

which can be completely factorised,

the process need not be continued. For


factors is a factor of R n __ v we can write

(iii)

we find which, if any, of these


down all the common factors of

if

We may use the following theorem


X^lA + mB and Y ^I'A + m'B, where
:

m, I', m' are constants


Z,
the H.C.F. of X and Y
and
such
that
then
Im'-l'm^Q,
different from
is the same as that of A and B.
For every common factor of A and B is a common factor of X and Y.
//

zero

Moreover,

A(lm'-Vm) = m'X-mY
therefore every
Ex.

is

1.

Find

common factor

the H.C.F. of

Paying attention to the


as follows

of

and

(i)

X and Y is a common factor of A and B.

A = 3#3 +# + 4

remark

B(lm -l'm) = lY ~-VX,

and

B = 2x*

and using detached

coefficients, the

reckoning

3+0+ 1+

(a)

Hence the H.C.F. =x + l. But it is unnecessary to go beyond the step marked (a),
which shows that E t = 3x 2 + 2x - 1 = (3z - 1 (x + 1 ).
Now x + 1 is, and 3x - 1 is not, a factor of B. Therefore x + 1 is the H.C.F. of B, R 19
and consequently that of A and B.
)

PRIME AND COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS

42
Ex.

Find

2.

A and B where,
^8*5 + 5* + 12.
A = 12x5 + 5x* + S and
2 A - 3B = 10*3 - 15z 2 - 20 - 5 (2* 3 - 3* 2 - 4),
3 A -2B = 20x 5 + 15*3 - Wx* = 5x*(4:X* -f 3x - 2).

the H.C.F. of

We have

is

3
2
3
Putting C = 2x -So; -4 and Z> = 4#
the same as that of C and D.

2, it

A and B

follows that the H.C.F. of

C - 2D - 6z 2 + 3z + 6 = 3 (2z 2 + # + 2),
2(7 - D = 6x* + 3* 2 + 6z = 3a? (2x 2 + x -f 2).

Further,

of

+ 3x

Hence the H.C.F. of C -2D and 2C


C and D and also that of A and 5.

-D

is

2x 2 + x + 2

this is therefore the H.C.F.

Prime and Composite Functions.

18.

factors except itself (and constants)

it is

a polynomial has no
said to be prime
otherwise it is
If

said to be composite.

Thus x 2 + 3x -f 2 is a composite function whose prime factors are x 4- 1


and x + 2.
Polynomials which have no common factor (except constants) are said
to be prime to each other. Such expressions have no H.C.F.
Thus 2(x + 1) and 4(cc 2 -f 1) are prime to each other.

We

can prove theorems for polynomials analogous to those of Ch.


and 5, relating to whole numbers.

I,

Arts. 3, 4

Remembering the

between arithmetical and algebraical

distinction

primeness, the reader should have no difficulty in making the necessary


verbal alterations. Thus, the theorem corresponding to that of 4 (i) is as
follows

are polynomials and


If A, JB,
is a factor of B.

For

if

H.C.F. of

common

is

prime

is

a factor of AB and prime

prime to A, these two have no

common

to

A, then

Hence the

factor.

MB and AB B. But M a factor of AB, and therefore a


MB and AB. Hence M equal to, or a factor of, B.
is

is

is

factor of

is

is

and
are polynomials in x, then polynomials
If
each other, can be found such that

Theorem.
to

AX + BY = l
according as

is or is not

prime

to

or

AX + BY = G,

B G
9

X, Y,

being the H.CJF. of

and

in the

latter case.

For

if

Q 19 Q2

...

are the quotients

process of searching for the H.C.F. of

and B l9 J?2
A and B,

...

the remainders in the

etc.

IMPORTANT USE OF
we obtain

Therefore

where

in succession the following equations

we can

Continuing thus,

the last remainder

Hence we can

express any remainder in the form

find

X,

AX + BY,

is

either G, the H.C.F.

In either case

X+

-f,

common

Y = 1 and G

factor of

or

it is

a constant

c.

or

prime to Y, for the

is

such that

AX+BY^G
.

X and Y are polynomials.

Now

-^

43

H.C.F.

is

a factor of

X and Y would

and

first

of

equation

J3.;

may

be written

thus in either case any

be a factor of a constant.

In the second case, the polynomials in question are X/c and Y/c.
NOTE.

This theorem

is

fundamental

in the

Theory of Partial Fractions, which

are dealt with in Ch. VII.

EXERCISE V
H.C.F.

Find the

AND

H.C.F. of the functions in

ITS

Exx.

USE

1-6.

2.
3.

2z 4 - 13z 2 + x +
5

15,

3z 4 - 2z 3 - 11 x 2 + I2x + 9.

4.

z -f5* -2, 2# -5o; 3 -fl.

6.

12z 3 + 2* 2

In Exx.

5.

2x*-5x 2 + 3, 3z 5 - 5x3 -f 2.

-2LK-4, 6*3 -t-7* 2 -14a;-8, 2Lr 4 -28a; 3 -f 9* 2 -

7-9, find

16.

polynomials X and Y for which the statements are identically

true.
7.

(*-l)

Z-(* + l) 2 F=:l.

8.

9.

10.

Use the

and hence

find

H.C.F. process to obtain

A, B, C, D, such that

Ax + B

Cx + D

[Multiply the first identity by A, the second by /*, and add


that (7A + 10 Li)/(llA + 28^)=2/(-3); and thus obtain

find A

and

p,

such

B.C.A.

CHAPTER

IV

SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING FUNCTIONS, SUBSTITUTIONS

Symmetric Functions.

1.

any two

interchange of

symmetric with regard

function which

of the variables

which

it

is

unaltered by the
is said to be

contains

to these variables.

2
2
2
2
2
y + y z 4- z x) (x z -f y x + z y) are symmetric with
regard to x, y, z. (In the second expression, the interchange of any two
letters transforms one factor into the other.)

Thus yz + zx + xy and

(x

The interchange of any two letters, x, y, is called the transposition (xy).


Terms of an expression which are such that one can be changed into
the other by one or more transpositions are said to be of the same type.
Thus all the terms of x 2y -f x 2 z -f y 2z + y2 x + z2 x -h z2 y are of the same
type, and the expression is symmetric with regard to x, y, z.
symmetric function which is the sum of a number of terms of the

same type

is

often written in an abbreviated form thus

of the terms and place the

-f

Again, (x
It

y+z

is

letter

Z (sigma)

Hx and

represented by

For instance,

it.

before

yz

Choose any one

+ zx + xy by Zxy.

+ y -f z) 2 = x 2 + f + z 2 + 2yz + 2zx + Zxy = Zx2 + 2Zyz.

obvious that

is

If a term of some particular type occurs in a symmetric function, then

(i)

terms of this type occur.

all the

The sum,

(ii)

difference, product

and

quotient of two symmetric functions

are also symmetric functions.

Considerations of

symmetry greatly facilitate many algebraical

processes,

as in the following examples.


Ex.

Expand

(y

-f

- x)

(z

+x

y) (x

-f

- z).

symmetric, homogeneous, and of the third degree in


- x) + x - (x + ~ = a Zx3 + b
therefore assume that
(y + z
y)
y z)
(z

This expression

may

is

where

a, 6, c, are independent of
In this assumed identity,

x,

>

z.

We

2x zy + cxyz,

x, y, z.

then -1 a;
0, z
(i) put x~ 1, y
= 2a + 26, .'.
(ii)puts = l y = l,z = 0; then
a? = l,
z
1
then
l=3a
+ 66+c,
;
2/-1,
(iii) put
;

Hence the required product

is

- a:3 - y3 -

-f

y-z

6^1;
/.
-f

-2.

yz-

-f

z~x

-f

zx 1

-f

x 2y

4-

xy

2xyz.

ALTERNATING FUNCTIONS
Ex.

Expand

2.

(a

+ b+c+d)(ab + ac+ad + bc + bd + cd).

45
Test the result by putting

a~b=c~d = \.
The product is the sum of all the products which can be obtained by multiplying
any term of the first expression by any term of the second. Hence the terms in the
product are of one of the types a?b abc.
The coefficient of a z b in the product is
t

and ab, and in no other way.


The coefficient of abc is 3 for this term

for this

term

is

obtained as the product

of a

is

obtained in each of the three ways a(bc),

b(ac) 9 c(ab).

a 2 b + 32abc.
Hence, the required product is
The number of terms of the type a-b is

Test.

type abc

is

hence,

if

Ea Sab ^ 4
.

so that the test

Ex. 3

= 24

12,

and the number of terms of the

and

Za-b

\-

%abc = 12 + 3

4 - 24,

is satisfied.

Factor ise

~d = 1

(x

-f

-f

- x5 - 5 - 2 5
y

z)

Denote the given expression by E. Since E-0 when x - - y, it follows that x + y


The remaining factor is a
is a factor of E; similarly, y + z and z + x are factors.
homogeneous symmetric function of #, y, z, of the second degree. We therefore assume
that

where a and

b arc

independent of
put x~l,

?/--!,

put x^\, y

2.

and proceed thus


then 2a + b = 15.
z-0

x,

//,

z,

= l, z^l

Alternating Functions.

/.

a ^-5

6=5

a + b^-lQ.i

then

If a function

of x, y,

z, ... is

trans-

formed into - E by the interchange of any two of the set x, y, z, ... then
E is called an alternating function of x, y, z, ...
n
for the interchange of
z n (x Such a function is x n
,

(y-z)+ y (z-x)+

any two

letters,

say x and

y,

transforms
n

y)

it

y (x~z)+x (z-y)+z (y-x)

Observe that

the product

and

into

= -E.

the quotient of two alternating functions are

symmetric functions.
2

Thus

{x

3
~
(y-z) + y (z-x)+ z* (x y)}/ (y -z)(z- x} (x y)

with regard to

is

symmetric

x, y, z.

Ex.

1.
Factorisex*(y-z)+y*(z-x)+ z*(x-y).
Denote the expression by E. Since E ~0 when x = y,
Similarly y -z and z -x are factors, thus

it

follows that x

-y

is

factor.

E = (y-z)(z-x)(x-y).F,
where

where k

is

symmetric, homogeneous and of the

is

independent of
- 1, thus

find that k

x, y, z.

E=

first

Equating the

degree in x,

y, z.

coefficients of x*y

-(y-z)(z-x)(x-y)(x+y + z).

Hence

on each

side,

we

IMPORTANT IDENTITIES

46
3.

An

expression is said to be cyclic with


k, arranged in this order, when it is un-

Cyclic Expressions.

regard to the letters a, 6, c, of, ... h,


altered by changing a into b, b into

c into d,

c,

. . .

h into

k,

and k into

a.

This interchange of the letters is called the cyclic substitution (abc ... k).
Thus a 2 b + 62 c -h c2d -f d2 a is cyclic with regard to a, b, c, c? (in this order),
for the cyclic substitution (abed) changes the first term into the second,
the second into the third,
It is obvious that

. . .

and the

last into the first.

If a term of some particular type occurs in a cyclic expression, then the


term which can be derived from this by the cyclic interchange, must also occur ;
(i)

and

the coefficients of these terms

(ii)

The sum,

must be

difference, product,

and

equal.

quotient, of two cyclic expressions are

also cyclic.

In writing a cyclic expression,


Thus X2 (y-z) + y2 (z-x)+z 2 (x-y)

unnecessary to write the whole.


2
is often denoted by Zx (y-z), where
the meaning of 27 must not be confused with that in Art. 1.
2
2
2
Again, we sometimes denote x (y -z) + y (z-x)+z (x-y) by
is

it

x2 (y-z)

..

...,

being understood that the second term is to be obtained from the


and the third from the second by cyclic interchange.

it

The student should be

familiar with the following important identities.

2.

a(&-

3.

a 2 (b-c)+b 2 (c-a) + c2 (a-b)= -(b-c)(c-a)(a-b).

4.

bc(b-c)-\- ca(c-a)

5.
6.

a(b

-c ) + b(c

a (i-c)

first

+ ab(a-b) = -(b-c)(c-a)(a-b).
-a + c(a 2 -b 2 = (b-c)(c-a)(a-b).
2

+ 6 3 (c-a) + c 3 (a-6)= -(b-c)(c~a)(a-b)(a + b + c).

7.

8.
9.

10.
11.

a+&+

It will be
(i)

(ii)

Any

c& + c-ac + a-ba + b-c)=

proved later

that

symmetric function of a,

Any symmetric

27a, Za/J,

(pp. 95, 96)

Za/?y and

aj

-a* -b* -

function of a,

j8,

j8,

y can be expressed
y, 8

in terms of

can be expressed in terms of

SUBSTITUTIONS
mode

This

functions,

of expression is

and

47

extremely useful in factorising symmetric

in proving identities.

-6 2 )(1 -c 2 )+ 6(1 -c 2 )(l -a 2 )+ c(l -a 2 )(l -6 2 )-4a6c.


Denoting the given expression by E we have
Ex.

1.

Factorise

a(l

= Sa - Zab* + abcZab - 4abc.


Za6 2 = Za Zab - 3abc
E Za - Za Zab - abc + abcZab

Now

4. Substitutions.

ment

.*.

= (1

-be -ca-a&)(a + b+c-abc).

(1)

We

of a set of elements

may

consider processes

by which one arrange-

be transformed into another.

Taking the permutations cdba, bdac of a, 6, c, d, the first is changed into


the second by replacing a by c, 6 by a, c by 6 and leaving d unaltered.
This process

is

represented by the operator

/abc\

fabcd\
,
\cabdJ
f

or

(abc\Icaoa = bdac.
,
\cabj

and we write

\cab/

Such a process and

As previously

also the operator

which

stated, the interchange of

effects it is called a substitution.

two elements

a, 6 is called the

transposition (ab).

Also a substitution such as

fabcd\
_

in

),

which each

the one immediately following it and the last by the


substitution or cycle, and is denoted by (abed).
If
is

letter is replaced
first, is

called a cyclic

two operators are connected by the sign = the meaning


,

equivalent to the other, thus (abcd)

is

Let

that one

= (bcda).

Two

or more substitutions may be applied successively.


as
indicated
follows, the order of operations being from right to left.
(2)

by

This

is

S = (a&), T = (6c), then


^ Sacbd = bcad, and
om = fabcd\
ST

mi

Thus

(bcad)>

This process
substitution

is

is

TS = (abcd
,

called multiplication of substitutions,

and the

resulting

called the product.

Multiplication of this kind


substitutions have

no common

is

not necessarily commutative, but if the

letter, it is

commutative.

The operation indicated by (aft) (aft), in which (ab) is performed twice,


produces no change in the order of the letters, and is called an identical
substitution.

SUBSTITUTIONS

48

substitution is cyclic, or is the product of two or

Any

(3)

cyclic sub-

which have no common element.

stitutions

As an

more

instance, consider the substitution

fabcdefghk\

\chfbgaedk/

Here a

c, c to /, / to a, thus completing the cycle (ac/).


to
h
to d, d to 6, making the cycle (bhd). Next, e is
h,
changed
to
and
to
The element k is unchanged,
e> giving the cycle (eg).
g
changed
g
and we write

Also b

is

changed to

is

S = (acf)(bhd)(eg).

or

S~(acf)(bhd)(eg)(k)

This expression for S is unique, and the order of the factors is indifMoreover, the method applies universally, for in effecting any
substitution we must arrive at a stage where some letter is replaced by the
ferent.

thus completing a cycle. The same argument applies to the set of


not contained in this cycle.

first,

letters
(4)

cyclic substitution of

product

ofn-1

transpositions.

(abo)

have equalities such as

also

(ae) (ad) (ac) (ab)


(5)

is the

= (ab) (be),
= (abc) (cd) = (ab) (be) (cd),
(abed)
= (abed) (de) = (ab) (be) (cd) (de), and so on.
(abcde)

For

We

n elements

= (abcde)

(ab) (ac) (ad) (ae)

substitution which deranges

cycles is equivalent to

n-r

letters

= (edcba)

and which

is the

product of r

transpositions.

This follows at once from

(3)

and

(4)

Thus

if

S=(

ef^ h

\chfbgaed/

S = (ac/) (bhd) (eg) = (ac) (c/) (bh) (hd) (eg)

then

we

introduce the product (a6)(a&),


transpositions is increased by 2.
If

Thus,

a given substitution

if

number j

is

not unique.

j=n
This

(6)

and

unaltered and the

number

of

equivalent to j transpositions, the


prove that

is

shall

- r + 2s where

is

s is

a positive integer or

a very important theorem, and to prove

is

notion of

We

zero.

it

we introduce the

inversions.'

Taking the elements a, 6, c, d,


the normal arrangement.

e,

choose some arrangement, as abcde,

call it

Consider the arrangement bdeac. Here 6 precedes a, but follows it in


the normal arrangement. On this account we say that the pair ba con-

INVERSIONS
stitutes

an

inversion.

Thus bdeac contains


ba,

da,

dc,

49

five inversions,

ea,

namely,

ec.

Theorem 1. If i is the number of inversions which are introduced or


removed by a substitution which is equivalent to j transpositions, then i and j
are both even or both odd.

For consider the

a single transposition (fg).


If f, g are consecutive elements, the transposition (fg) does not alter the
position of/ or of g relative to the other elements. It therefore introduces
effect of

or removes a single inversion due to the interchange of /, g.


Iff, g are separated by n elements p, q, r, ... #,- then/ can be

the place occupied by g by n + 1 interchanges


of consecutive elements, and then g can be
moved to the place originally occupied by / by

n such

interchanges.

moved

to

fpq - x <?
...pq

(The steps are shown in

...xgf...
...

...gpq...xf

the margin.)
Thus the transposition (fg) can be effected by 2n + 1 interchanges of
consecutive elements. Therefore any transposition introduces or removes

an odd number

of inversions,

and the theorem

ever value j may have, it


odd. Hence the following.

Theorem

2.

into another

follows.

a fixed number, and therefore whatmust be even or odd, according as i is even or

Again, for a given substitution,

i is

of a given set of elements is changed


then
j is always even or always odd.
by j transpositions,

If one arrangement

In other words

The number of transpositions which are equivalent


is not

to

a given substitution

unique, but is always even or always odd.

Keferring to (5), the minimum value of j


theorem stated at the end of that section.

is

Thus substitutions may be divided into two


that a substitution

is

even or odd according as

n-r, and

so

we have the

distinct classes.

it is

equivalent

to

We

say

an even or

an odd number of transpositions.


Rule.
To determine the class of a substitution S we may express it as
the product of cycles, and count the number of cycles with an even number
then S is even or odd according as this number is even or
of elements
:

odd.

Or we can

settle the question

by counting the number

of inversions, but

this generally takes longer.

Thus we
inversions.

see at once that the substitution in (5)

is

odd.

Also

it

has 17

EXPANSIONS AND IDENTITIES

50

EXERCISE VI

SYMMETRIC AND CYCLIC FUNCTIONS


1.

Show

that (be -ad)(ca - bd)(ab-cd)

2.

Show

that the following expressions are cyclic with regard to a,

taken in this order

symmetric with regard to

(ii)

the expressions in Exx.

3, 4.

+ z-2x)(z + x-2y)(x + y-2z).

4. (x

+ y + z)* + (y + z~x)* + (z + x-y)* + (x+y-z) 3

5.

(ft

6.

(a

6, c, d,

(a-b)(c-d) + (b-c)(d-a).

3. (y

Prove the

a, 6, c, d.

-d)

Expand

is

Exx. 5-14.

identities in

+ y 2" 2 +

+ ft + y) =

2
) (

7.

8.
9.

10.

2
( j3

2
2
2
2
y -f 0y + y a + ya -f <x

-f

a0

2
)

(a

4-

+ y) =27a3 + 227a 2

+ 2ajSyZ'a.

a3

11.

12. (a 2
13. (6

-f

6 2 -f c 2 ) (x*

+ y 2 + z 2 ) = (ax + by + cz) 2 + (bz - cy) 2 + (ex - az) 2 + (ay -

- ca) (c - ab) + (c 2 - aft) (a 2 - 6c) -f (a 2 - 6c) (6 2 - ca)


2

=
14. (a

6 8c 3

-f

6, c is

the geometric

c 8a 8 -f a 36 8

16. If the numbers x 9 y, z, taken in


progression, use Ex. 3 to show that

(i)

-6c~ca

- 6c) (6 2 - ca) (c 2 - ab) = a6c (a 8 + 6 3 + c 3 ) - (6 3c 3 + c 3a s + a 3 6 3 ).

15. If one of the numbers a,


use Ex. 14 to show that

17.

2
2
a
-(6c-f ca-f a6)(a -h6 4-c

=a6c(a

4-

mean between

the other two,

6 3 -f c 8 ).

some order or

other,

form an arithmetical

Express 2(a-6)(a~c)-f2(6-c)(6-a)4-2(c-a)(c-6) as the

sum

of

three squares.
(ii)

- c) (c - a) + (c - a) (a - b) 4- (a - b) (b - c)
except when a 6 = c.

Hence show that

all real

[Put

values of a,

6, c,

b-cx, c-a

18. If

a?

(6

a-b

+ y+z=0, show
2

(i)2yz=o; ~i/

(in)

negative for

and notice that

that

-2 2

2
2
2 - 2
z ) + Sx*y*z* = ;
y ) (x -ft/
ax 2 + by 2 + cz 2 + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy can be expressed in the form
2
2
2
px + qy +rz ; and find p, q, r in terms of o, 6, c,/, g, h.

(ii)

z,

is

(y

-f

z2

- x 2 ) (z 2 -f x 2 -

FACTORS OP CYCLIC EXPRESSIONS

51

Prove the identities in Exx. 19-23, where 27a, 27aj9, etc., denote symmetric
functions of a, 0, y, 8 : also verify each by putting a =/3 = y = 8 = l.
19.

+ y + 8) 0y8 -f y 8a -f 8a + ay) =27a 20y + 4aj3y8.


2 2 2
2
()9y8 + y8a + 8aj3 -f ajSy) =:Za j8 y + 2ajSy827aj8.

20. (a 421.

22. (aj8 + ay

+ a8 + jSy -f j88 + y8) 2 =27a 2 jS 2 -f 227a20y -f 6aj8y8.

23.

Simplify the expressions in Exx. 24-28.


24. (6- 1

+ c- 1

(6

+ c - a) + (c^ 1 + a" 1

(c

+ a - b) -f (cr 1 4- ft- 1

(a

+ b - c).

(x-a)(x-b)
(a-6)(a-c)

(6-c)(6-a)

(a-b)(a-c)

(b-c)(b-a)

c-a

ft-c

14-ca

(c-a)(c~b)

-6
l+a6

a(6~c) ""
*

1+ca

l+bc

Factorise the expressions in Exx, 29-35.

(6-c) (64-c-2a) + (c~a) (c+a-26)-f(a-6) (a + 6-2c).


[Put 6-c=a;, c-a=y, a-bz, noting that b + c-2a=y-z.]
2

29.

30.

(6~

31. (6[Put 6-f

c-a=, c + a -&=i/, a + 6-c=z.]

32.

[Put
33.

34.

[Put 64-

cx

c+a=y, a + bz.}

35.

(l-

36.

Express the following substitutions as the product of transpositions

^
<

l>

/123456X

....
;

(654321 J

(U)

/123456X

.....
;

(246135J

(m)

/123456X
'

( 641235J

CHAPTER V
COMPLEX NUMBERS
1.

Preliminary. In order that the operation of taking the square


number may be always possible, we extend the number system
to include numbers of a new class known as imaginary numbers.

root of a
so as

Consider the equation

x*-2x 4-5 = 0.
Proceeding in the usual way,

we obtain the formal

a?=l%/^T,

x=

or

solution,

l2j~^l,

which at present has no meaning.


Suppose
(i)

the

symbol

possess the following properties

to

It combines with itself

and with

real

numbers according

to the

laws of

algebra.
(ii)

We may substitute

-I) for

2
,

wherever this occurs.

The reader can

verify for himself that (at any rate so far as addition,


subtraction, multiplication and division are concerned) reckoning. under

these rules will not lead to results which are mutually inconsistent.
Ex.

We

1.

Show

that if

x = l+2i, then x* x a = l + 4t + 4i a = l + 4i-4 = -3+4i;

have
.*.

x 2 -2z + 5=

Immediate consequences

-3 + 4t-2(l+2t)+5=0.

of the supposition are

(i)

(x

+ ly) + (x + iy') = (x + x

(ii)

(x

+ itf

(x

+ iy') = (x-x') + i(y-y ).


+ iy') = xx' -yy' + i (xy + x'y).
f

iy)-(x'

(x

(iii)

4-

iy) (x

iy') (x

'
f

iy

x'*

+ y'*

x'*

+ y'*

This reckoning is at present meaningless, and can only be justified by


of the number system.

an extension

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

A Complex Number

2.

53

represented by an expression of the form

is

The sign + does not indicate addition


iy, where x, y are real numbers.
as hitherto understood, nor does the symbol i (at present) denote a number.
These things are parts of the scheme used to express numbers of a new
x+

class,

and they

signify that the pair of real

single complex

The complex number x +


number x, and we write

and

numbers

(x, y)

are united to form

number.
be regarded as identical with the real

lO is to

iQ = x

x+

in particular

(A.)

tQ

-f

(B)

Thus the system of complex numbers includes all the


together with new numbers which are said to be imaginary.
For shortness we write
_
Q

real

numbers,

and

in particular

tl

/QX

= *,

(D)

an abbreviation for + il, the symbol i denotes a complex number.


Thus two real numbers are required to express a single complex number.
This may be compared with the fact that two whole numbers are required

so that as

to express a fraction.
In order that expressions of the form x

numbers, we have

to say

what

+ ly may be regarded as denoting


meant by equality and to define the
*

is

'

fundamental operations.

We

3. Definition of Equality.

x+

ly

= x' + iy'

if

say that

and only

if

x = x' and y = y'.

In applying this definition, we are said to equate real and imaginary parts.
It should be noticed that the terms greater than and
less than -have
no significance in connection with imaginary numbers.
'

4.

by

The Fundamental Operations.

as defining

'

'

In defining these we are guided

and the equations (i)-(iv) are taken


addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

the formal reckoning of Art.

5.

'

The sum

Addition.

1,

of the

complex numbers x-f

iy

and

x'

+ iy'

is

defined as
(x

')

i(y

+ y')

and we write
(x

iy)

+ (v' + iy') = (x+x') + i(y+y')

(E)

It follows that

x+ iy = (x + 40) -f (0+ iy),


so that x

+ iy

is

the

sum

of the

numbers denoted by x and

(P)
iy.

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

54

Subtraction

6.

is

defined by the equation

Hence subtraction is the inverse of addition, for x-x' + i(y-y')


number to which, if x' + iy is added, the result is x + ly.
The meaning of - (x + ty) is defined by the equation

is

the

Hence

= (0 - a + i (0-y) aB (- a? + 4(-y) ................ (H)


= 0, we have

In particular, putting

.)

-y=*(-y)
7. Multiplication

is

by the equation

defined

x'y) .................. (J)

It follows that multiplication

Putting

#'

= &,

2/'

is

commutative.

in the last equation,

number,

we

see that

if

is

a real

+ iy)k = xk + iyk = k(x + iy) ......................... (K)

(x

we put x=x = and y = y' = l, we have


2
or i 2 =-l .......................... (L)
(0 + il) =-l
f

if

Again,

8.

Division

is

the inverse of multiplication, that

is

to say, the

equations

x +

mean

and
ly

From

the same thing.

Equating

real

and imaginary

the last equation

parts,

Xx'-Yy' = x
mi

and

we have

and

Xy'+Yx' = y.

v x
*-

Therefore
unless x'

we have

y'

are both zero.

Thus

the equation defining division is

x + iy _xx' + yy'
x'

+ iy'

excepting the case in which x'

Putting x'=k, y' =0, we

x'*

yx'-xy'

+ y'*

x'*

+ y'*

'

...................... (

'

+ iy' =0.

see that

if A; is

,)=

a real number different from zero,

+i

................................. (N)

ZERO PRODUCTS

55

It is easy to see that addition, subtraction, multiplication


(as defined

and

division

above) are subject to the same laws as the corresponding opera-

tions for real numbers.

We have therefore justified, and attached a definite meaning


of reckoning described in Art.

to,

the process

1.

Zero Products.

9.

is zero, then

where

For complex, as for real numbers, if a product


one of the factors of the product is zero. For let?

Then

numbers.

x, y, x' , y' are real

xx -yy'

+ i (xy + x'y) = 0.
f

Hence, by the rule of equality,

.\
2

xx'-yy'~Q and
2
2
and
z(*' + 2/' ) =

a;'

If x' 2

10.
Ex.

1.

y(x'*

+ x'y

Q;

+ y'*)=Q.

x = 0,

y = 0, and therefore x + ty = 0.

real

they must both vanish, and

+ y' is not zero, it follows that


+ ?/' 2 = 0, then, since x', y' are
therefore z' + 4j/' = 0.
If

zy'

Examples.
Express

(1

+ 24) 2 /(2 +

(2+4)

in the farm

=
=
~4+4i-l""

X + iY.

3+4i~~ (3+40(3~4t)
24
7

-9 + 16 + 244
Ex.

If

2.

Solve the equation

x3 = 1

The equation can be written (#-l)(a; 2 + a; + l)=0, giving # = 1 or


2
a; + a; + 1 =0, we have in the usual way
x=

Hence
Ex.

3.

the

numbers

Fen/y

that

1,

J(

J(

11.

V3)

- 1 + K/3)

are ca//ed JAe ^reg cw6e roofe of unity.

M a roo
CD,

3
o/ x

= 1.

we have

= |{ - 1 +34^3 -3(tN/3) 2 + (^3) 3} = |( - 1+34^3 + 9-34^3) =

Geometrical

+ a: + 1=0.

Denoting the given number by


to 8

a;

Representation

of

1.

Complex Numbers.

In naming line-segments and angles the order of the letters will


denote the direction of measurement. Thus AB denotes the distance
travelled by a point in moving from A to B, and we write
(1)

AB + BA-0,

and

EA--AB.

ARGAND DIAGRAMS

56
Again, we use L BAG
must turn in order that it
'

'

to denote the least angle through which

may lie along AC.


Thus L CAB = - L BACy and we shall suppose

AB

that

-7T<

= x + iy, we

say that the number z is represented by the point


whose coordinates referred to rectangular axes are x, y.
(2) If z

When

there

is

no

risk of confusion, this will be called the point

z.

diagram showing points which represent


complex numbers is called an Argand
diagram.

Let
point

be the polar coordinates of the

6)

(r,

then

z,

= x + iy = r(cos + 1 sin 5),


z = rcos#,
y = rsin0,
tan = y/x.
r = J (x 2 + y 2)

where

and hence
Here

r,

FIG. 2.

which

denoted by

is

or

z
\

is

essentially positive,

called the

by mod z. Thus
modz = z\ = r = J(x 2 + y 2
|

It follows that if

The angle 6

is

then z

= 0,

z,

and

is

and

is

= 0.

denoted by

values differing by multiples of

many

).

y = 0, and consequently

called the amplitude of

angle has infinitely


of 6 such that

is

z
\

modulus of

2rr.

am z.

This

The value

called the principal value of the amplitude.

With the convention


is L XOz.

of

(1), it will

be seen that the principal value of

am z

Unless otherwise stated,

amplitude of

amz

will

mean

the principal value of the

z.

and Subtraction.
=
z
x + ty, z' = x' + iy'
Draw

12. Addition
(1)

Let

'.

parallelogram Ozsz', then

For
then

if

s represents z

(X, Y) are the coordinates of

the

+ z'.
5,

X ==sum of projections of Oz, zs on OX


= sum of
= + X'.
05

projections of Oz, Oz' on

OX

FIG. 3.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Y = y + y',

Similarly
that

therefore s represents z

+ z' = the

length Os,

Now Os<0z + 0z', the sign


Therefore
i.e. if am z = am z'.
To prove

this algebraically,

where each root


(x

is

and

+ z'.

am (z +

')

57

It is to be observed

= L XOs.

of equality occurring

we have

to

if

LXOz =

L.XOz'

show that

to have its positive value.

This will be the case

+ z') 2 + (y + y')*<x* + y 2 + x' 2 + y' 2 + 2>/(x2 + y2

2
)

(x'

if

+ j/ /2 ),

i.e. if

or

if

(x

or

if

(xy'

(2)

Draw

the

- x'j/) 2 >0, which


parallelogram

^en

is

the case.

Oz'zd

d represents z-z'

(Fig.

4),

by the last construction, the number


=
represented by d + z' z.
For,

Observe that

= the length
am (z - z') = z. Jf Od.
- 2'

and
(3)
it is

=
// s n Zt

+ z2 -f ...

4-z w ,

FIG. 4.

wAere zl5

required to find the point s n

~O

z'z,

2J

2>

z n are given complex numbers,

FIG. 5.

Draw in succession z^,


sense as 022 Oz3
,

2j

+ 22 + 23,
This

is

Oz4

...

s 2s3 , 5 35 4>

then

s 2 , s3 ,

equal to, parallel to, and in the same


... are the
points representing 2 1 + 2a ,

etc.

a continued application of the

first

construction of this article.

PRODUCTS AND QUOTIENTS

58

The modulus of the sum of any number of complex numbers

(4)

or equal to the

sum

For in the
Ozl9 21$2> S2S29

an(^

the moduli of z v z 2

^at

Osn
Therefore
|

f sn

< Oz
*n

1s

Os n

|<K|

z2

+|

eng^s

Also

+ 2^2 + s2s3 +

^e

are

2s

>

. . .

4-...
|

+ sn _ r
*n

+|

|.

The sign of equality is to be taken if, and only if, che points O,
the same straight line and occur in this order, that is, if z l9 z t ...

XOTE.
are in

than

of the moduli of the numbers.

last figure,
>

is less

z l9 * 2

zn

tS

have the

same amplitude.

To prove

this algebraically,
|

and

sn

sn

+
|

we have by

\z n

<

(1) of this article,

s n _2

z n _i

-h
1

-h
I

\z n

,
I

so on.

13.
(1)

Products and Quotients.


Let
z = x + iy =r(cos^H-tsin0),
z'

By

= x' + iy' =r'(cos 0' + 1 sin 0').

the definition of multiplication,

==

rr'{cos

cos

0'

- sin

sin

& + t(cos

sin 0'

+ cos 0' sin 0)}

^^rr'tcos^ + ^-ftsin^ + fl')} ........................................ (A)

/.

Since division

is

the inverse of multiplication,

4 = ^{cos(0-0') + 'sin(0-0')} ........................ (B)


For

this last is the

number which when

multiplied

by

z'

produces

z.

Hence

also
)

z l *=x l

If

with similar notation for z2


(A)

+ iy^ = fj (cos
23 ,

...

zn ,

l -h i

.............. (C)

sin 0j),

by continued application

of equation

we have

---n = ^2---M COS (^l^^+---+^n)

In (D) put

Z1

+ ^sin(01 4-02 +...+0n )}.


=
=
=z2 ==...~2 w z r(cos0 + tsin0), then
zn

where n

rn (cos

n0 +

sin n0),

...(D)

........................... (E)

is

any positive integer.


Similarly, from (C) it follows that
) ........................... (P)

DE MOIVRE'S THEOREM
Show

Ex.

1.

We

have

few 1 -

that

is

nearly equal to

59

+ i)=*/26(cos0 + i sin 0), where tan = 1/5,


4 =
+
i)
676(cos 40 + 1 sin 40), by (E).
(5
2 =
4 =
476 + 480* hence we have
(5 + 1)
(24 + 10t)
cos 40 = 476/676, sin 40 = 480/676, and tan 40 = 1,
(5

and therefore

But

(2)

Modulus and Amplitude. From (D) we


complex numbers zl9 z2 ... zw

of the

see that

|Z|=V2 ...rw = KN*2 |...|*n|,


axnZ

but note that the

---

last

if

the product

is

and

nearly.

40=rr/4 approximately.

.*.

..................... (0)

+ amz n

(H)

equation does not give the principal value of

unless

am Z

-7T<01 +02 +. ..+0n < 77.

Again, from (B)

we have

M
am =

and

am

0'

21

.(I)

am z'

(J)

although the last equation does not give the principal value of amz/s'
unless

-7r<0-0'<7T.

important to notice that the amplitude of z/z'


through which Oz' must be turned in order that it may
and that, with the convention of Art. 11, (1),
It

is

is

the angle

lie

along Oz;

ft

the principal value of

Again,

if z,

a, a' are

am - = L z'Oz.
any numbers,

z-a

am

and

(3)

the length az
the length a'z

z-a =
L aza.
z-a
,

De Moivre's Theorem.

FIQ. 6.

From

(E)

and

(F) it follows that if

is

positive or negative integer


(cos

This, with

+ i sin

n
0)

an extension to be given

= cos n9 + 1 sin n0.


later (Art. 16), is

known

as

De

Moivre's

Theorem.
B.C.A.

COMPLEX ROOTS OF EQUATIONS

60
14.

Conjugate Numbers.

z=x + iy and

//

(1)

= x-iy

z'

then

are called conjugate numbers.

z, z'

Their product is a? 2 + y2 and


polar coordinates of the point
,

point

z'

are r

- 0.

6 are the

if

r,

z,

those of the

Hence

am(x + ty) = = -am(x-iy).


(2)

a polynomial in

is

// /(z)

with

real

= X + 1 F, where
f(z) =f(x + iy)
then f(x - iy) = X - 4 Y.

and

coefficients,

Y are real,
We have /(# 4- iy) = a + a

X,

(x

+ iy) + a 2 (x + iy) 2 -f

FIG.

. . .

where a

7.

ax

are

. . .

real.

We

can therefore obtain expansions of the form


f(x +

iy)

= 2axm (iy) n

f(x

ty)

= Zaxm - iy) n
(

is real and m, n are


positive integers or zero.
Every term of f(x + iy) in which n is even or zero is real, and occurs with
the same sign in/(x - iy).
Every term of f(x + iy) in which n is odd is imaginary, and occurs with

where every a

the opposite sign inf(x-ty).


Hence the result follows.
(3) // an equation with real coefficients has complex roots, then these occur
in conjugate pairs.

Let a +

tjS

be a root of f(x)

the polynomial /(x), are

Let /(a +

ij8)

A = 0, B = 0.

= A + iB,

= 0, where

a,

j8,

as well as the coefficients of

real.

where

A B
9

are real.

Since /(a +

1/?)

==

0,

we have

Hence

Therefore a -

ijS

is

also a root of f(x)

= 0.

EXERCISE VII

COMPLEX NUMBERS
1.

Find the modulus and amplitude of

2.

The condition that

3.

Find

4.

Express in the form JC

2 so that 2(3

(i)

(a + t6)/(a'

+ 1 7,
iJ

+ 1, V3 - 1, - <s/3 -f *, - \/3 ~

may

-f i4) =2 -f 3*.

2~+3i

4- ib')

s/3

(iii)

be real

is

ofe'-a'6=0.

COMPLEX NUMBEEb
x 4- iy> express

If 2

5.

form

in the

X + iY
9

Find the moduli of

7.

What
(i)

If

(ii)

If

8.

2
|

(i)

if

(ii)

if

(2

+ 3i) 2 (3-40 3

=
=

z'
|

= 1 and am z =

- am 2', then

am 2, am z'

and

z'
|

x + ty where

differ

by

z'

z describes

11.

Prove that

12.

22 cos a 4-2*
|

22 cos a

4-

|<1
22

<2

z
|

cos a

4-

Given that

+ 24

is

14.

the formula cos nO +


deduce that
cos w0 = cosn
sin

< 2r 4- r < 1
2

2
|

if

___

one root of the equation, x 4 - 3a;3 -h 8x 2 -7a? + 5=0,


.^

From

integer,

that

..

13.

2
|

z
1

then ,,,

|2|<O41.

if

Ifz=x + iy and Z = Jf + 1 7, show

find the other three roots.

'

circle.

Prove that |24-2'| 2 4-|2-2'| 2 =2|2| 2 4-2|2

[Let

-C\ cos

n0=(7?
cos*- 1
1

sin

n^ = (cos 9 + 1 sin

n ~ 2 ^ sin 2

sin

-C?" cos

cos n

+ <7
n~3

tf

0)

~4

n where
,

^ sin 4

+ ...

sin 3 ^

a positive

ri is

...

tannf.

15.

By

putting

2=r (cos

-f i

sin 0) in the identity

prove that
1 -f t

coM+r

cos 26 +

2
r sin 04- r sin 26

10.

Thus, in either case, the point

=r, then

50)

|,

sin

then z'= -z.

TT,

2|z-l| = |z-2|, then 3 (z -f y ) = 4z


22- 1 = 2-2 then # 2 4- y 2 = 1
|

=-

4-

+ 4t) 3

Prove that

y are variables.

x,

(2-f 3t) /(3

(ii)

the principal value of the amplitude of (cos 50

is

Let

9.

(i)

2~ 1

Z
6.

61

...

+rn ~ l cos (n - 1)0


I-rco&O - rn cos n6 -f rn+1

+ ... -t-r - 1 sin


11

(rc

~ 1)0

cos

'

rsin0-rn 8inn0-f rn

" "
t

sin

(n~

(TI

ROOTS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

62

= cos

16. If z

and n

sin

4- 1

zn

is

+ z -n = 2

a positive integer, prove that

- z~n = 2i

zn

cos nd,

sin n0..

Hence show that


~
2n 1 cosn 6 = cos n0 + C%coa(n -2)6 + 0% cos(?i-4)04-

and

if

is

...

even
n

and

if

2"- 1 sinn

1)2

odd
n-l
n-l
(-1) 2 2

= cos ?i0 -Of cos (n -2)0 + 0% cos (n -4)0 -

is

Binn

0==8mn0-C%8w(n
similarly for

...;

17.

By

(*-ar

l
)

-l

the method of Ex. 16, prove that

16 cos 8
18. If cos a

+ cos

0= - cos

sin*

50 - cos 30 4- 2 cos

0.

+ cos y=0 and sin a 4- sin + sin y=0, prove


cos 3 + cos 3jS 4- cos 3y = 3 cos (a 4- ]8 4- y)

/?

that

8in34-sin3)54-8in3y = 3sin(aH-)S4-y).

and

[Put a = cosa4-t sin

and a 8 4- 6 8 + c3 = 3a6c,
(19)

From

a,

= cos j3 4-

sin

j5,

= cos y4-t sin y,

then

etc.]

the identity

(x-b)(x-c)

(x-c)(x-a)

"

(a-6)(a~c)"

(ft-cXft-a)"*"

(x-a)(x-b)
(c-a)(c-6)

deduce the identities

sin (0

sin (a

B) sin (0

j5)

sin (a

y)

y)

[Put x = cos 20 4- i sin 20, a = cos 2a 4- 1 sin 2a,

Roots of Complex Numbers.


number
whose nth power is equal to
any
15.

z = r (cos

Let

where

r>0 and

root of

r.

is

(1) If n is a positive integer,


z is called afc n-th root of z.

sin 0),

Let ^r denote the positive arithmetical nth

-7r<0<7r.

Consider the values of

>

where &

4- 1

etc.]

any integer or zero.


un = r {cos (0

from which

it

follows that

By
-I-

is

+ L sin

Art. 13

2for)

+ 1 sin

we have
(0 4- Zkn)}

an nth root of

z.

PRINCIPAL VALUES

63

and only if, the corresponding


That this may be the case, the
must
differ
a
and
of
2ir
the corresponding values of k
angles
by multiple
must differ by a multiple of n. Therefore u has n distinct values, namely
Again, two values of u will be equal
angles have the same sine and cosine.

if,

those given

Thus

by

& = 0, 1,2,

the n-th roots

cos-

ofz = r(cos 6 +
-

lvalue of

(2)

n
.

/n +
cos-

_
1, 2, ...,

,
where
&=A
0,

,
n-1.

0\
i

sin

~i

is

called

the

principal

^z,

To find

the points representing the

find the length represented

Find

1.

representing

where

%Jz,

we must be

able to

V#

into

Q lt Q2

the points
values of

the

n values of

by $r

and to divide the angle


n equal parts.
Ex.

n-1.

sin 6) are the values of


\

+ 1 sin

v^. v

,,^ v ^,,,

...,

Q^

/z,

Oz=r=\/5 + 3~=
^Oz =tan 8 ^=

Here
and

tan

Also fyr= */2* an(* so Ci ^2 ^3 are


and
points on the circle with centre
radius */2, such that

FIG. 8.

General Form of De Moivre's Theorem. If x


w one o/ the values of (cos 6 + isin 6) x
cos x0 + M*n

16.
then

The

is rational,

case in which

is

a positive or negative integer has been considered

in Art. 13.

Let x~p/q where p, q are integers and q


(cos 0/q

is

positive, then since

+ 1 sin 0/q) q = cosO + t sin 0,

therefore

cos 0/q
also, since

j? is

an

+ 1 sin 0fq

is

a value of

(cos

sin 0)*

integer,

(cos 0/q +

sin 0/q) p

= cos pO/q + 1 sin j?0/#

therefore

,,

cos p0/q 4-

sin jo0/j

is

a value of (cos

+ 1 sin 0)

ROOTS AND FACTORS

64

The n-th Roots

17.

+1

then since cos

of Unity.

= 1,

sin

2k-rr

r-1 and 0=0,

let

the n-th roots of unity are the values of

2kn
-hsm~
n
n

cos

In Art. 15,

where #7 = 0,

1, 2, ...

1.

The principal n-th root, given by A = 0, is 1.


w is even, the root
1 is given by k
\n.
-1
n
=
1 (x
1
Since x
+ x n ~ 2 + + 1 ), it follows that
(x
If

71

. . .

other than

of x"~-

1,

71

The

+1)77
(2*
VL-

sm

-ft

(2A

.n

If

n-th root of

odd, the root

is

+ 1)7T
T
where k = n
Q,
n
,

1) is

1) is

cos

root,

given by

1, 2,

...

1
n~l.

6 = 77.

l,

to k = 0.
n corresponding
& = -|(n - 1).

-+
n

Factors of x n -1 and x n +

19.

any

These are the values of

1 ).

This follows from Art. 15 by putting r =

The principal

is

+an ~ 2 +...+<* + 1=0.

n-th Roots of

cos

1=0, then
a -1

18.

if

sin

1.

(1)

The n factors ofx -l are


x - {cos 2r7r/n + 1 sin 2rrr/n} where

= 0,

1, 2, ...

n-1.

This follows from Art. 15.

= 0,
(i) If n is even, the factors x-1 J.nd x + 1 are given by r
The remaining (n - 2) factors can be grouped in pairs as follows

= n/2.

Since

2r7r/n

+ 2(n-r)7r/n = 27r,

the

factors

corresponding to r and

n - r are

x-

f
{

cos

2rn
--

And

f-

sm 2f7rl
.

the product of these

'/

x-

f
{

cos

2rn
-n

--

2f7T
- cos 2f7T\
= x^ - 2x cos 2f7T
+ sm^2
n
n /
n
.

a;

and

sm 2r<jr}/
n

is
2

/
\

h 1

therefore

where 77 denotes the product of the factors as indicated.


- 1 is
=
(ii) // n is oddy the factor x
given by r 0. The remaining
factors can be grouped in pairs, and

(A)

n-1

(B)

CUBE ROOTS OF UNITY

x-{cos
// n

(i)

15

(2r

//"

l)77/n

+ ism

+1

(2r

are

+ l)7r/n},

where

'r

= 0,

1, 2,

...(n-1).

even

x +
(ii)

factors of xn

the

(2) Similarly,

65

is

n^

n - 2)

C
(x*-2x
\

os&-^
+ l) .............
n

(0)

ocW,

(D)

20. The Imaginary Cube Roots of Unity.


of x 2 4- x -f 1 = 0. Their actual values are

.277

277

cos

cube roots of

1,

co,

the other

+w+

^3).
for (a> 2 ) 3

o> 2 ,

is

= (6t> 3 2 = l.
)

.................................. (A)

and

o>

2r

are the imaginary

so
l-f-o/4-

The following

co

/Q

-1,

r is a multiple of 3, co r

when
and

Denoting either of these by


Moreover,

Again, except

-,

or

sin

These are the roots

o> 2r

.................................. (B)

identities are important.

x*-y* = (x-y)(x-o)y)(x-aj

y) ....................... (C)

+ y* = (x + y)(x + ajy)(x + a> 2y) ....................... (D)


x2 + y2 + z 2 - yz - zx - xy = (x + coy 4- o> 2 z) (x + o> 2 y 4- ojz) ......... (E)
z?

x 3 + y3 + z3 - Sxyz =
Ex.

Prove *Aa*

1.

(x*

(x

-f-

y + z) (a; +

coy

+y* + z* -3xyz)* = X*+Y* + Z*

X=x

+2yz,

co z)

(x

co

-3XYZ,

y -h

coz) ....... (F)

where

Y=

This follows from (F) on observing that

and
Ex.

2.

If (l+x)

n =c

+ c 1x + ctf(;* + ...+cnxn and

o/ the series being continued as far as possible, show that the values of
are

|(2
\

+ 2 cos ~

Putting

1, o>, o>

) ,

where r = n,

n - 2, n + 2,

Slt #2

respectively.

for #, in succession,

(l-fl)

n -c

+ Cl -f...-fc r 4-...-fcn ..................................... (A)


n

...-hc n a>

4-...+c n cu

........................... (B)

2n ..........................

(C)

COMPLEX ROOTS

66

r
3, 1-f co

not a multiple of

If r is

we have

Now

-i

hence, adding (A), (B), (C) together,


n
2 n
+o>) + (l+o> )

+c3 +c 6 4-..0=2n + (l

3(c

XT

+ o>2r =0;

+co = l
i

2rr.27r

7r/7r.

TT\
+ cos -^- + 1 sin -5- =2 cos- cos^+tsmO /),
O
O
O
O
rt

and, since

AI

Also

cos ~

=i, we have

01l 4-cos 27T -i sin

+aj 2 =

Again, multiply (B) by

2-7T

co

a
,

by

(C)

1 -f o>

= cos - + 1 sin -

,,

and

Ttrr

+o> 2 ) n
,.,

(1

cos

-tsui

and add to (A)

co,

Al

a>

277
mn /
(l+eo) =( cos -^--4

2 /i

sm

27T\/

(n-2)ir
-

If

tJ

then

n
2 n
n
2
8(^+04+07 + ...)=2 +co (l4-a>) +o)(l+a> )

Also

nrr

TlTT

cos-

W7T\

+tsm-~

(n-2)ir
-^~

and
3

Finally, multiply (B)

by

o>,

(C)

by

o>

2
,

and add

EXERCISE

to (A)

it will

be found that

VIII

COMPLEX ROOTS
1.

Prove that the values of

^-1

are

~^(1

v^

2.

Find the values of ^(1 + 1) and *J(l-i).

3.

Use

Art. 19 to

t).

show that
1),

)
4.

Prove that

=a; 2 (a;

where

a,

j3

are the roots of z* + z- 1=0.]

'

(#-

2x

cos^-H

l).

COMPLEX ROOTS

67

Give a geometrical construction to find the points

5.

the values of

z l9 z 2 corresponding to

*Jz.

Oz l bisects the angle XOz, and is a mean proportional


z-f) produced, so that Oz a =2 1 O.]

[If 01 is the unit of length,

to

01 and Oz ; and

2 2 is

on

If a, b are complex numbers, show that

6.

a
[Let 2 1 =a + */a
2
I

*i

-6 2

2
I

*$J

a-*Ja*-b 2 then by Exercise VII, Ex. 10,


=i *!+** 2 + i *i -*2 2 =2 a )t + 2 a*-6>
z2

.
|

a -6

-f
|

a -6

2
|

= {|a + 6| + |a-6|}M
Solve the equation

7.

+ 2(l+2i)z -(11 + 20=0.

- (11 + 20.
Verify that the sum of the roots is -2(1 + 20 and the product
[Put z~x + iy, equate real and imaginary parts to zero and solve for x, y.]
Prove that, with regard to the quadratic

8.

z2
(i) if

(ii) if

+ (p + ip')z

the equation has one real root, then

the equation has two equal roots, then

and

p*-p'*=:4q
If a

[(i)

Eliminate

In

(ii)

is

real root,

by

a.

this case (p

+ ip')*=4:(q + i,q'),

If z ~x + ly =r (cos 6 +

9.

etc.]

sin 0), prove that

Jz=z--={'Jr + x + i*/r-x}
according as y

Also

if

is

y>Q

-f l

sin

then 0<^<?r, and

cos 6 = -

and

if

the roots of zn = (z +

them

{Vr -f x

or

- i\lr - x}

positive or negative.

*/r ( cos

[\/z

pp'ty'*

the rule of equality a 2

y<0 we

l)

n
,

have -7r<8<0

etc.]

and show that the points which represent

are collinear.

[The roots are -J(


points

lie

on the

line

+i

cot

x + i=0.]

J,

where r=0,

1, 2, ...

n-1. The corresponding

COMPLEX FACTORS

68

Show
r

= 0,

that the roots of (1-f 2) n = (l -z) n are the values of


n - \ but omitting n/2 if n is even.

1, 2, ...

12.

tan-^, where

Prove that

* 2W -2xn cos

(i)

194- 1

*n + ar* - 2 cos

(ii)

cos

(iii)

[(i)

1
2
/Trio" (* - 2x cos

"*

- cos nS = 2n - 1
77^o

rz<

~*

x m - 2#n cos 6 + 1 ~~ {xn - (cos 4 t sin


(iii) Put x =cos <f> + 1 sin ^, and for

is

odd and not a multiple of

+ l) n -xn -l.
- 1, co, where
[Put x=Q,

cos

(a?

cos

put

3,

- cos

<

n-

0)} {z

Art. 15.

13. If

+ ar * - 2

/T^I JJ

+
-1

(cos

sin 0)}.

Now

use

n0.]

prove that x(x + l)(x* + x +

1) is

factor of (x

14. If

+ x + x2

n=a

-f

a; is

an imaginary cube root of unity.]

a^ -f a 2 +
a:

. . .

-f

n^

2n
>

prove that

aQ + a 3 + a 6 +

15. If

v=x+y

+ z + a(z

w=x + y + z + a(x + y-2z),


2

prove thUt 21 a (x

(a

where

4-

-f

Sa^z)

= w 3 -f v 3

- Suvw.

a>

and w are the imaginary cube roots of unity, prove that

[IT] If 2^

4-

2 2 2 4- z 3 2

[For

18. If

o>=J(
then

2;

2 2;3

x 4- a>2:2

1 4-t\/3),

4-

x)~

-f (c 4-

z)-

4-

(d

4 x)- 1 = 2ar 1 .]

- Zfa - 2^2 = 0,
prove that
*-

^^s = 0,

/.

ZB

- zt =

being an imaginary cube root of unity, and

+ oA+ <o c)=


2
V(a 4- co 6 + we) =

a, 6, c

are

</(

where

1^

+ w')- 1 -f (6 -f co')- 1 + (c + co')" 1 + (d + w')- 1 - 2ft/- 1

1
[Consider the equation (a -f a)"" -f (6

real,

-f-

J{>

D = s/(

provided that 6>c. If 6<c, the sign of A must be changed.


[Use Ex. 9. For a positive number x 9 >Jx denotes the positive square root.]

PRODUCTS AND QUOTIENTS


21. Points representing the Product
Let z = r(cos0 + *sin0),
Given Numbers.
Construction for

(1)

the

point

69

and Quotient of
z' = r'

(cos 0'

Two

+ 1 sin 0').

representing

the product zz'.

be the point on OX which represents


Draw the triangle Oz'P
unity, so that 01 =1.
similar
to
the
directly
triangle Olz.
1

L^t

Then

represents the product zz'

For by similar triangles

FIG. 9.

OP

Oz
-,

OP

that

Lz'OP^ LlOz = 0,

also

But

zz'

Therefore

= rr

{cos (0

represents

Construction for

(2)

..OP = rr

r-,

IB,

-f i

LlOP =

:.

+ 0')

sin (0

+ 0')}.

zz'.

the

point

representing

the quotient z/z'.

Draw

the triangle

the triangle Oz'l

directly similar to

OzQ

Then

represents the quotient

by the

For,

FIG. 10.

z/z'.

last construction,

(number represented by Q)
// k

(3)

is constant,

z-a
z-a

and

.z'

z.

z varies so that

"k,

then the point z describes a circle of which


a, a! are inverse points; unless k~I, in

which case z describes the perpendicular


bisector of

For
at d,

let

f
.

aa

f
.

FIG. 11.

the bisectors of L aza' meet aa

Then, by Art. 13,

Therefore

ri,

(2),

az

d' divide aa' internally

a'z

=k

1.

and externally

and are fixed points.


Therefore z describes the circle on dd' as diameter.

>

in the ratio

1,

DISPLACEMENTS AND VECTORS

70
Also
a,

we have

ca.ca'

= cd2

hence

are inverse points with regard to

a'

the

the mid-point of dd

c is

if

circle.

If

&=

1,

then az = a'z\ and

on

z lies

the perpendicular bisector of aa'.


if

Conversely,

which

circle of

the point z describes a


a, a' are inverse points,
Z ~Q>

then

z-a

For, since ca

ca'

the same ratio, k to

Hence,

a'z

=cd 2 then
,

where

<f>

on

is

dd'

is

divided internally and externally in

say.

1,

=k

1 .*

If z varies so that

(4)

circle

az

FIG. 11.

K.

am

z-a

a constant angle, then the point

aa',

containing an angle

z describes

an arc of a segment of a

<f>.

\a

FIG. 12.

FIG. 13.

For by Art. 13, La'za =


on which the segment lies.

<f>.

The
Thus

sign of
<f>

is

<f>

determines the side of aa'

positive in Fig. 12

and negative

in Fig. 13.

22. Displacements

and Vectors.

(1) In connection with the geometrical representation of complex


numbers, we introduce the notions of displacement and directed length or

vector.

Displacements in a given Plane. Let P, Q be two points in the


plane OXY. The change of position which a point undergoes in moving
from P to Q is called the displacement PQ.
(2)

* See Elements
of Geometry,

Barnard and Child,

p.

316

'
:

Circle of Apollonius.'

ADDITION OP VECTORS
If

any

sense as

71

drawn equal to, parallel


PQ, the displacements PQ, P'Q' are
straight line P'Q'

is

and

to,

in the

same

said to be equal.

To

specify completely a

we must know
its

(i)

magnitude,
direction

(ii) its

its

(iii)

i.e.

denoted by the

sense,

we draw OL equal and

If

PQ

the length

the letters, and


arrow.

that L

PQ

displacement

if

order of

necessary by an

FIG. 14.

PQ and in the same


makes with OX.

parallel to

XOL is the angle which PQ

sense,

we say

This angle determines the direction and sense of

An

(3) Vectors.

with reference to
line

PQ) used to denote a line-segment


and sense, the actual position of the

expression (such as
length, direction

its

being indifferent,

is

called a vector.

Quantities which can be represented by lines used in this way are called
Velocities and accelerations are vector quantities.

vector quantities.

force can be represented


action of the force.

by a vector

'

'

localised

to

lie

in the line of

Quantities (such as mass) which do not involve the idea of direction are
called scalar.
(4)

Connection with Complex Number.

If

z=x + t,y and P

the point

is

(x, y), a one-to-one correspondence exists between the number z


of the following
(ii) the displacement OP
(i) the point P
:

and any

(iii)

the

vector (or directed length) OP.

Any
to be

one of these three things

represented by

may

therefore be said to

represent

%*

z.

23. Addition of Displacements

and of Vectors.

If
(1) Let P, Q 9 R be any three points.
a point moves from P to Q and then from
Q to R, the resulting change of position is the

same as
to

R.

if

We

it

had moved

therefore

displacements as follows
*

Some

from

addition

of

directly

define

the

Flo

writers use

an underline instead

of

an

overline.

15

z,

or

ZERO AND NEGATIVE VECTORS

72

The

result of

adding

QR

expressed by writing

This equation

PQ, QR,

If

to

PQ

is

defined to be

PR\ and

this is

PQ+QR=PR .................................. (A)

also taken as defining the addition of vectors.

is

RS

are

any three displacements or vectors

(Fig. 17),

Q
FIG.

FIG. 16.

17.

The Commutative and Associative Laws hold for


placements and vectors.
(2)

In Fig. 16, complete the parallelogram

(i)

and

PQRS\

the addition of dis-

then by Arts. 23,

(1),

22,

Hence the commutative law


(ii)

holds,

and

PR is called the sum of PQ and

QR.

In Fig. 17,

therefore

and the
NOTE.

associative law holds.

In Fig. 16,

placements and

PQ + PS = PR

vectors are

a fact which is expressed by saying that


t
added by the parallelogram law.

dis-

24. Zero and Negative Displacements and Vectors. If after


two or more displacements the moving point returns to its initial
position, we say that the resulting displacement is zero. Thus we write

This equation
the meaning

of

is

also written in the

form

-PQ = QP,

which

defines

- PQ.

These equations are also taken as defining the meaning of zero and
negative vectors.

DISTRIBUTIVE

LAW

73

For displacements and vectors the meaning of

25. Subtraction.

PQ-QR is defined by
PQ-QR - PQ + (-QR) = PQ + RQThus
OP-OQ -OP + QO = QO + OP = QP.

multiply a displacement or a vector PQ by a positive

Number. To
number k is to multiply

The

resulting displacement

26. Definition of Multiplication by a Real


its

length
or vector

by
is

A,

its

direction unaltered.

denoted by JcPQ or by

we

Further,

leaving

define

PQ

k.

- k)PQ by the
equation

In particular,
(

So that

to

multiply a vector by

27. The Distributive


number then

1) is to

Law.

turn

We

it

through two right angles.

shall prove

that if

is

a real

Let k be positive. Along PQ set off PQ' = kPQ.


in R'. By similar triangles,
QR to meet

(i)

to

Draw

Q'R' parallel

PR

and

and

Q'R'

= kQR\

kPQ + kQR^PQ'

Hence the theorem holds

for

positive

-k),

we have

numbers.
(ii)

For a negative number

and

IG *

hence the theorem holds for negative numbers.

Thus

the distributive

vectors by real

NOTE.

law holds for the multiplication of displacements and

numbers.

The diagram of

Fig. 18

is

drawn

for a value of k greater

than unity

student should see that the same result follows from a diagram in which k
unity.

is less

the

than

VECTORS AND COMPLEX NUMBERS

74

Complex Numbers represented by Vectors.

28.

It will

now

be seen that, so far as addition, subtraction and multiplication by real


numbers are concerned, complex numbers are subject to the same laws as
the vectors which represent them. This fact is fundamental in theory and

very useful in practice.


It should be noticed that

if

Theorem

1.

If

divides

z is represented by a vector AB,


the angle which the directed line AB

number

AB

and am z
then z is the length
makes with the directed line Ox.

is

AB in

the ratio

m and

is

any point, then

(m + n)OC - mOA + nOB.


For

mOC^mOA+mAC,

Also

mAC = nCB = - nBC

whence the

Theorem
in the ratio

result follows

2.

If

n:m,

by

O
FIG. 19.

addition.

z z
point which divides the straight line joining v 2
then the corresponding numbers are connected by the

z is the

relation

This follows from Theorem

1, in

accordance with the principle stated in

this article.

In particular, if z

mid-point of

z^ then

= %(z l + z 2 ).

that
// a, b are complex numbers, prove geometrically

Ex.

1.

Let

A B

Bisect

is the

be the points which represent


C, then

a, 6.

AB at

OA+OB=20C
and
Therefore

OA-OB^'BA^Z'CA.
a +6

200"and2CJ;
Now, since C

and a -b are represented by

hence

is

mid-point of base

A B,

SYMBOLS OF OPERATION
Ex.

2.

//

OA, OB, OC

are connected by the relation

= 0,

Men A, B, C
[This

a -f b

where

-f

= 0,

are collinear.

the converse of

is

75

(a

Theorem

We

of this article.

+ c)(W==a.OA+c.OC'; hence

The Symbol

have

AB^c

BC.]

as an Operator.*

Along two straight lines at


consecutively, equal lengths OP, OQ, OP', OQ' in the

29.

right angles set off,


positive direction of rotation.

Let the symbol

applied

through a

it

of turning

operation

a vector denote the

to

angle

right

in

the positive direction of rotation.

To bring our language into conformity with


that of algebra, we say that to multiply a vector
by i is to turn it through a right angle in the

FIG. 21.

positive sense.

Thus

in Fig. 21

OQ=i OP

OP' =

Therefore

where i*OP

Thus

an abbreviation

is

1(1

OP) -

OP,

Hence

for i(iOP).

and -1 denote the same operation, and


OQ' =

OQ' = iOP' = i(-l)OP and

Again,

Either of these results


to

OP' = i OQ.

and

multiply a vector by (-

is
i)

turn

it

OP -

- 1)OP.

in this sense

-OQ =

written in the form

is to

1)

we

write

-l)iOP.

OP^OQ',

so that

through a right angle in the negative

sense.

Again,

Ex.
z, z'

if i

//a,

3
.

OP

is

taken to mean

(i

OP),

it is

obvious that

b are complex numbers, find numbers


z, z' and a, 6 may be opposite

so that the points

corners of a square.

Let

be the mid-point of a6, then

Oc + icb

Similarly,
*

2'=!- (a

+ &)+* (a- 6).

For the moment, the reader should forget

FIG. 22.
his conception of

as denoting a number.

B.C.A.

PRODUCT OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

76

30. The Operator cos0-MSin0.


Draw two equal straight lines
OP, OP' inclined at an angle 0. Draw P'N perpendicular to OP. Along
NP set off NQ equal to NP'. Then

OF = ON + NP' = ON + iNQ.
ON = ^ n OP - cos

Also

OF - cos

/.

OP +

OP,

sin

OP,

which we write in the form

OF-(cos0+ism0)OP,
and we say that

to

multiply a vector by cos

sin

is to

turn

it

through

the angle 0.

31. Multiplication

Number.
say that

to

and Division of a Vector by a Complex

In accordance with Arts. 26, 29 and 30 of this chapter,


multiply a vector OP by the complex number r (cos -h i sin 0)

we
is

length by r and turn the resulting vector through the angle 0.


the stretching factor and cos -ft sin
the turning factor.
These are independent of each other, and the order in which they are

to

multiply

Here

applied
If
z,

OQ

we

its

r is

indifferent.

is
is

the vector obtained by multiplying

OP

by the complex number

write

OQ^zOP

arid

OQ/OP^zi

also say that the ratio of OQ to OP is the number z.


Division is the inverse of multiplication, so that if OQ = zOP then
the result of dividing OQ by z.

we

is

Therefore

to divide

a vector

OQ

resulting vector through the angle

The

result

is

by

z is to divide its length

by r and tnr^ the

0).

the same as that obtained

32. Product of

OP

by multiplying

OQ by

I/z.

Complex Numbers.
OQ^z'OP and OR^zOQ,

Let
then we write

where

zz'

applied to

OP

denotes that the operators

in succession, in this order.

z',

z are to

be applied

AEGAND DIAGRAMS

77

Since the stretching and turning factors may be applied in any order,
OP may be transformed into OR by multiplying its length by rr' and turning the resulting vector through the angle (6 + 6').

Hence the operations denoted by


and rr' {cos
z'z
zz',

(0

+ 0') +

sin (0 + 0')}

are equivalent.

Again,

if

we take

(cos 0-h

sin 0) n to

+1

(cos
is

to be applied

n times, the

result

is

mean that

the operation

sin 0)

the same as that given by the operator

cos n0

-f i

sin 0) n

= cos n0 +

sin n0.

In this sense then


(cos

sin w#.

It will be seen that complex numbers used as operators on vectors conform


to the

laws of algebra.

EXERCISE IX

ARGAND DIAGRAMS VECTORS


:

1. If z = 3 + 2i, z'
1 -f i, mark the points z, z' in an Argand diagram, and
by geometrical construction, the points representing

+ Z',

Z-Z',

ZZ\

find

Z/z'.

be complex numbers of which a, b are constant and z varies.


If Z is given in terms of z by one of the following equations, it is required to find
the point Z corresponding to a given point z. Explain the constructions indicated
in the diagrams, 01 being the unit of length.
2.

Let

z,

a, b

FIG. 24.

(ii)
(iii)

Z=

(iv)

Z=tz where

Z~az+b.

t is

real,

CENTROIDS

78

find tho point Z corresponding to a given point z t


the point Z is on the y-axis.

Z=(l + z)/(l-z),

3. If

and show that

= 1,

numbers and

are given complex

4. If a,

if

J^
6^,

find the point z corresponding to

value

of

-oo to + 00,

passes through a, b,
to the values from

[Along the

from
which

line

the segment ah corresponding


to 1 of t.

ab set off the length az = t.ab,

line

Oz=0a+az~0a + t

then

varies

the entire

describes

real

any given

and prove that as

t,

ab;

:.

z=a + (b-a)t,

etc.]

5. If z=a(l + it) where t is a real number, prove that as


tho line through the point a perpendicular to Oa.

6. If

c,

a are given numbers, a being

real,

and,

find the point z corresponding to a given value of cf>

show that as t varies from with centre c and radius a.

is real,

once the

circle

7. If

A, B, C,

that this theorem

8. If

is

is

is

any point, then (m l +

m m w
at A
A A&
=
m
m
OA
+
+ ...)OG
+ msOA + maOA

29

. . .

all

9. If z is the centroid of particles of

mass

of the

Any

three coplanar

Moreover,

2,

m w m

s , ...

and non-parallel

pOA +qOB + rOC = Q,

OA,

vectors

where

we may suppose
acting at A l9 A% ...
.

at z l9 z 29 z a ,
. . .

OB OC
9

...

then

are connected by a

q 9 r are real numbers.

p:q:r=& OBC A OCA A OAB


:

...

3 4- ...

sign,

m^ + m 2z 2 + w 3z3 +

...)s

relation of the form

same

m m
2,

29

l9

l9

19

are not

3 , ...

z,

19

to be the centre of parallel forces, proportional to

10.

the point z describes

= tan J<^.]

the centroid of particles of mass

l9

+ oo

[Put

an immediate consequence of the identity

m
To include cases where m m
O

GO to

D are any four points in a plane, then


AD BC^BD AC + CD AB.
.

and

z=c + a(l + it) I (I - it),

(ii) if

Show

varies z describes

z = c+a(cos< + isin<),

(i) if

where

where the signs of the area# are determined by the usual rule.
Also the points A, B C are collinear if p + q +
and conversely.

rQ

[For

and

q,

let

p:q:r= &OBC AOCA


:

&OAB,

be the centre of parallel forces, acting at A, B,


r then G coincides with O, and
pOA

let
9

(7,

and proportional to

VECTORS AND COMPLEX NUMBERS


11. (i) //a,
of the form

j8

are non-parallel vectors

involves the two equations

If a,

(ii)

p=p'

andp,

q,

79

p' 9 q' are real numbers, adequation

q=q'.

y are non-parallel coplanar vectors connected by the equations


= Q and p'a + q'fi r'y = 0,
p<x + qfi + ry
r'
are
these are one and the same equation, that
then
real,
p' q',
-fc-

where p

q, r,

is

[These theorems follow at once from Ex. 10.]


12.

three complex

Any

numbers

z l9 z 2 , z 3

are connected

by a

relation of the

form
where p,

q, r

are real numbers.

p:q:r~ A0z 2z 3

Moreover,

the signs of the areas being determined as usual.


Also the points z l9 z 2 z a are collinear if p + q + r
Prove this algebraically, and deduce Ex. 11.

Q,

[If z l

=x + iy
l

whence the

l9

z2

=z 2 + iyl9

zs

=z 3 +

B C are collinear, and is any point,


OA EC + OB CA + OC AB^O.
Theorem 1, m n m + n=CB AC AB.]
A,

(i)

Zj, z 2 , z a

then

[In Art. 28,

Let

we have

results follow immediately.]

13. If the points

14.

it/ 3 ,

and conversely,

be complex numbers, no two of which are equal, then

If the points z l9 z 2 z 3 are collinear,


,

2|2~2l

Z 2~*3\

*8hl-2l|

=-

Also, if the point z l lies between z 2 and z 3 , the ambiguous signs are both minus.
(ii) If the above equation holds, then either z l9 z 2 , z 3 are collinear, or else O is
the centre of a circle which touches the sides of the triangle Z 1 z 8z 3 .
15. If A i^4 2^4 a is an equilateral triangle, the vertices occurring in the positive
direction of rotation, prove that
s

where

4- 1

sin

an imaginary cube root of unity.


numbers corresponding to A l9
3 X -f wz 2 + cj*z 3 = 0, and consequently
2
2
z^ 4- z a + z 3 - z^ - Z& - Z& = 0.
o> is

Also, if z l9 z 2 , z 3 are the

16. If

numbers

A X YA'X'Y'
a, a' 9

is a regular hexagon and


then the numbers represented by

where 6 has the values

~,

~
3

A t9 A

B9

prove that

A' represent given complex


X' Y Y' are given by
9

TRANSFORMATIONS

80
The

17.

triads of points

A B C and X,
9

triangles if the corresponding


by the relation

x(b

Y,

Z are the vertices of directly

complex numbers

- c) +

y(c

[The triangles are directly similar

and

a, b, c

x, y, z are

similar

connected

- a) + z(a - b) =0.

if

=
AC XZ

i.e*.

if

c-a

=.]
z-x

18. If ABC is a triangle and triangles BCX, CA Y, ABZ are drawn on BC,
CA, AB, directly similar to one another, the centroids of XYZ &ndABC coincide.

[By
1
J Ex.

17. i

b-c

= y--- = z br. Hence show that# + yv + z=a + & + c.lJ


c-a a-b

drawn on the sides of a given triangle ABC, all


inwards. Prove that their centroids form an equilateral triangle.
be the centroids of the triangles drawn outwards on BC, CA, AB.

19. Equilateral triangles are

outwards or

all

[Let P, Q,

Prove that

_ _

QA = CA

(cos

30 + L sin 30),

__ __
A R =AB

i
.

\/O

30 -

(cos

QR \CB + ^ (CA -AB), and that RP has


show that EQ = EP (cos 60 + sin 60), and use Ex. 15.]

Hence show that

Hence

sin 30).

*Jd

a similar value.

'

TRANSFORMATIONS

'

20. If Z, z are connected by any of the relations in Ex. 2 and


given curve s, then Z will describe a curve S.
Explain the following, where a, b are given complex numbers.
= z -f a, S can be obtained from 8 by a translation.
(i) If Z

if z

describes a

Z=tz where t is real, the curves s, S are similar and similarly situated,
the
centre of similitude. In this case we say that S is a magnification
being
(ii)

of

If

s.
(iii)

If

Z = (cos a-f

tsin a) z,

can be obtained from s by a rotation about

through L a.
(iv) If

Zaz

-f 6,

can be obtained from s by a

Z = l/z, S

is

the reflection in

a magnification and a

rotation,

translation.
(v) If

OX

of the inverse of

s,

being the centre

of inversion.
21.

Show

22.

that each of the substitutions in Ex. 20 converts a circle c into a

except that in

circle C,

Show

(v), if c

passes through O, then

[Z
L
or

circle into

= ~> H--a

is

a straight

line.

that the substitution

a'z

converts

more of those

circle or, in

-;
az
+ br?

in Ex. 20.]

an

+ b'

exceptional case, into a straight line.

therefore the transformation

is

to one
equivalent
^

CHAPTER

VI

THEORY OF EQUATIONS
1

Roots of Equations.

type f(x) =0

of the

an equation

Under this heading we consider equations


a polynomial, and equation will mean
'

where /(x)

is

of this kind.

The general equation


forms

(1)

nth degree

of the

be written in one of the

will

xn ~ l + pfln - 2 +
~
a xn + c^z"- 1 + a2xn 2 +
M (yt
1 \
~
aQxn + na^- 1 +
a zx n 2 +

xn

+p

-~

or,

where binomial
briefly in the

= 0,
=
+ an

... -f
j0 n
. . .

+ a n = 0,

coefficients are introduced.

. . .

The

last

equation

is

written

form
(a0>

a 1? a 2

...

a n $x,

l)

= 0.

For the present, we assume that every equation has one root. This is the
fundamental theorem of the Theory of Equations, and will be proved
in another volume.
(1) It follows that every equation of Ike n-th degree has exactly n roots.
~
For let f(x) = xn +p l x n l + ...+p n and let a be a root of/(x)=0. By
the Remainder theorem, f(x) is divisible by x a; we may therefore
assume that

Let

may

/J

be a root of

=0

<f>(x)

as before,

<j>(x)

is

divisible

by x /J, and we

assume that

Proceeding in this way,

we can show

where there are n linear factors on the


A, and no others.
a, /?, y, ...
,

that

right.

Hence f(x) =

has n roots

ROOTS AND COEFFICIENTS

82

Imaginary Boots. Let the coefficients of f(x) be real then,


is a - t/J (Ch. V, 14).
Therefore/(cr) is divisible by

(2)
is

if

a -Mj8

a root, so

that

is,

2
by (x-a) +

2
.

Thus a polynomial in x with

can be resolved into factors

real coefficients

which are linear or quadratic functions of x with real coefficients.


Multiple Roots.

(3)

by

re

-a, a

When

is

If

f(x)^(x-a)

where

(f>(x)

</>(x)

not divisible

is

an r-nndtiple

called

we say that a

2,

root otf(x)=^Q.
a double root.

is

Relations connecting the Roots and Coefficients of an


Equation.
.

Theorem.

then the

//a 1? a 2

...

a n are

the roots of the equation

sums of the products o/a t a 2 a 3


,

...

taken one, two, three,

<x.

...

at a time, are respectively equal to

Pv

-Pi>

For

xn

+piX

n -l

+pzX -*+

-P*>

...

(~ 1 )>rr

>

+ p M ^(ff-a,)(x-a 2 )...(#--a,

- x - Zaj

xn

11

~l

+ 27a,a 2 x n ~ 2 +
.

...

...

........... (A)

and, equating coefficients,

we have
.a n = (-l) wy n ............. (B)

Conversely, if ot^ a 2

...

xn

an

satisfy the equations (B), ffoiy are the roots of

-\-p l x

n ~l

4-y 2 x

n ~a

+ ...

+7> n =^0.

For under these circumstances the identity (A) holds.


It follows that the result of eliminating a 2 a 3 ... a n from equations (B)
,

is

-f

j^a;. 1.

a~ x -f
// a,

j3,

...

+t) w

arc

Mo roote
a + /?

Write the equation

3.

in the

o/ 2a;
-f-

y,

form x3

+ x* - 2x - 1 =0, write dQwn


^y + ya + a/J, ajSy.

-f

2
-|# 4-

l).r 4-

Transformation of Equations.
= 0, and suppose that we require

of /(z)

),

...

= 0.

where

<f>(x)

is

-|)

=0

Let a,

the valuer of

j8,

y,

...

be the roots

the equation whose roots are


a given function of x.

TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATIONS
Let y =

and suppose that from

<f>(x)

83

we can

this equation

single-valued function of y, which we denote by <f>~ (y).


Transforming the equation /(a?) =0 by the Substitution

find

a;

as a

obtain /{^"^(yJJ

A
-a

O,

case in which x

Ex.

which

1.

//

a,

j-

Let

~p

y~ l---x

)9,

x^-x-lQ,

are the roots of

Hence

ivrite

down

then x

and,

(y) 9

we

#3 - x -

if

is

given in Ex.

2.

find the equation wJiose roots are

the value of 27(1

the equation required.

is

not a single-valued function of y

is

x=$~

0,

y H- 1

-f

a)/(l -a).

then y

is

given by

y-l

/y-l\

UTIJ
which
This

is

is

equivalent to

Hence

the required equation.

'

also

i+v + i+P.^+Y^-l
1-a 1-J8 1-y
Ex.

2.

roots are

If a,

a3

3
,

jS

j9,

fere

Me

Let ,v=rc 3 then a;-?/3 where ;/3 denotes a?^y cube root of
therefore obtained by rationalising
,

is

)-y+ p
for the result will be the

equation,

let

y+p*

l,

pM* ~m,

Hence the required equation

is

the

same
s

+ p^

4 p,

The required equation

y.

same whichever cube root y* stands

which

equation whose

off(x)x? 4-piX +p zx+p3~Q, find the,

roofs

n,

pdj*
3

f w*

for.

To

rationalise the

then Z-f-m + n = 0, and therefore

+ n8

is

as

+ (Pi3 - 3piP2 + 3p3 y2 + (p 23 - 3p!p2 p3 4- 3p 3 a y + p a 3 - 0.


)

4. Special Cases,
The following transformations are often required.
Let a, jS, y,
be the roots of f(x) = 0, then
. . .

(1)

the equation whose roots are -a, ~j8, -y,

(2)

the equation whose roots are I/a,

(3)

the equation whose roots are

This transformation
(4)

We

is

called

The equation whose


find f(x

+ h)

as in

diminishing the roots

1//J,

1/y,

is/( -x)==0

...

...

is

kot, A*j8,.Ary, ... is

/(1/rr)

multiplying the roots off(x)

a - A,

ft

- h,

-A

is

/(x

-f

Q by
A)

6y

A.'

k.'

= 0.

Ch. Ill, 4, and the transtormation

off(x) =0

f(x/k)=0.

roots are

=0

is

called

SPECIAL CASES OF TRANSFORMATION

84
(5)

The second term of f(x)^a&n +ai$n "~l + aiXn -* +

removed by diminishing the roots by

For

f(x

-f

...

+a n =

can be

ajna^.

= a^(x + h) n + a t (x + A) - 1 -f
h)
11

~
so that the coefficient of xn l

iuf(x + h)

is

na

. .

A+a1? and

this is zero

when

To transform /(#)=0 into an equation in which the coefficient of the


term
is 1 and the other coefficients are the least possible integers proceed
first
as follows
(6)

Ex.

Consider the equation of

1.

Write this
Putting x

ar>

fz

and multiplying by &

yjk

& which

least value of

will

-!*

make every

3
2
y - 9y f 90y - 168

Transform x* 6

2.

^ =0.
=0.

coefficient

an integer

+ 5z + 12 =

=
into

i_2)

lacking the second term.


diminish the roots by 6/3 = 2.

The reckoning on the


the resulting equation
o:

which

is

jr.

3.

-7a;

right

"J

shows that

// a,

)8,

2/S + 3,

is

+ 6^0,

are

4-5

-8

-6

ITJ

173

_^_

^_2

-4

T2
+2

ITy

+12
g

Me

roots of 2x*

+ 3x* - a: - 1 -0,

find the equation whose roots

2y-i-3.

The equation whose


3.3

-6
+2
-

the one required.

are2a + 3,

so that the

y = 12a;.

where

an equation

Wo

is 12,

is

required equation

j&a:.

7=0.

the equation becomes

f-\W +^y
The

fa:

roots are 2a,

2.~'+3--j-g-l=0,

or

2j3,

2y

is

- (

3) )

^ + 3^-2^-4=0.

3 - 2 - 4
- 3 +
+ 6

-h

1+0-2
-3

Increasing the roots of this by 3 (as in the margin, where


divide successively by x + 3), the required equation is

"j

we

_ 3

+
+

+ 2

9
7

are connected 6y i^e relation ft~


we can
J?*. 4.
// two roots, a and j5 of f(x) ^S(a)
generally find them as follows: The equations /(se)=0 and /{$()} =0 have a
common root, namely a. Therefore x - a is a common factor of f(x) and

and may bo found by the

H.C.F. process.

If however f(x) and/{0(a:)} are identical, then the method

fails.

CUBIC AND BIQUADRATIC


Ex. o.sfiolve 2x* + a;8 - Ix - 6 =0, given

Let the roots

be

a + 3,

a,

that the difference between

+
+
+

Find the

j8.

equation whose roots are a -3, a, j8~3. The


reckoning on the right shows that this equation

is

common

~ 6

+ 21

+ 42

+53

is

wsa^ + 36z

# + 1, therefore

and the third remaining root

We

The Cubic Equation.

""^"19

this proves to be

Again, the product of the three roots

If

+ 13

Find the H.C.F. of these expressions;


and hence - 1 and 2 are roots.

5.

is 3.

factor of

and 2a^ + & 2 - 7* - 6.

2^ + 19z 2 + 53z + 36

two of ike roots

Hence, x - a

86

is

= -1
-

3/2.

take as the standard form

+ 3cz + d!:==0 ........................... (A)

x = y + h, this becomes

B=

where
If

h=

-b/a, then

JB

= 0, and

^+
H = ac-b

where
Or,

if

we

write

]8,

= ay = ax + b,

y are the roots

+
03

.................................

the equation

+ 3ffz + <? =

+ 6, ay +

a]8

is

a + 6/a,

We

The function u

is

called a quartic.

If

6#

+ 6/a, y + 6/a, and

take as the standard form

w = ax + 46x + 6ca; + 4da; + e =


3

/J

6.

The Biquadratic Equation.


4

(B)

.................................. (C)

of (A), those of (B) are

the roots of (C) are aa + 6,


6.

= 0,

is

G - a*d - 3abc + 2R

z3

If a,

the equation

x^y-bja

....................... (A)

the equation becomes

40

(B)

where

ac - i2

= a2d - 3a6c + 26s


3

If z

= ay = ax + 6,

the equation
s4

If

(as for the cubic),

K = a e - 4a 6d + 6a6 c - 36

and

<x, j3,

4
.

is

+ 6#z2 + 43 + #=0 ............................. (C)

y, 8 are the roots of (A), those of (6) are

of (C) are aa+*6, etc,

a + 6/a,

etc.,

and those

EQUATIONS WITH CONNECTED ROOTS

86

EXERCISE X

TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATIONS
1. If a, jS, y are the roots of 2ar* 4- 3# 2 - x- 1=0, find the equations whose
roots are (i) l/2a, 1/2)3, l/2y ; (ii) a- 1, 0- 1, y- 1 ; (iii) !/(!-), l/(l-0),
2
l/(l-y); (iv)a + 2,0 + 2, y + 2; (v) a ,
[(iii) should be deduced from (ii).]

2.

If a,

roots are

[For
3.

y\

2
y are the roots of 80^ 4# -f 6# -1=0, find the equations whose
+ i, y + i; (ii) 2a-f 1, 20 + 1, 2y + l.

)8,

(i)

(ii)

a + i,

use the result of

(i).]

x*-2x*-3x 2 + 4x-~l=:Q, given

Solve

unity.
1
[If a, a"" are these roots,

(a;

- a)(x - or 1 )

x4 - 2x* - 3x* + 4x -

and

that the product of two roots

is

x*

common

factor of

- 4x 3 + 3z 2 + 2x -

1.]

Solve 4s4 - 4x 3 - 13# 2 + 9# + 9 =0, given that the sum of two roots
- a are these roots, (x ~-oc)(x + a) is a common factor of
[If a,
4.

4x*-4x*-13x* + 9x + 9
5.

is

zero.

4* 4 + 4a?- 13z 2 - 9s + 9.]

and

Solve 4# 3 -24o; 2 -f 23^+18=0, given that the roots are in arithmetical

progression.
[Let the roots be a
6.

is

a+

S, a,

8,

.'.

3a =^.]

Solve 6x - Ilx 2 -3x4-2=0, given that the roots are


3

gressions

[Solve 2#

- 3t/ 2 -

lit/

+ 6 = 0, whose

roots are in A.P.]

- 8# 3 -f 14# 2 ^ 80; - 15 =0, whose roots are


7. Solve
[Let the roots be -38, a 8, a-f 8, a-f-38.]
a;

in harmonical pro-

in A. P.

Solve 2# 4 - 15# 8 + 35o: 2 - 3Qx + 8=0, whose roots are in G.P.


3
3
1
[Let the roots be a/>~ a/)" , ap, a/? .]
8.

9. Solve

a?

-7x 2 + 36=:0,

given that the difference between two of the roots

is 5.

10. Solve 4x 4 -4a? 3 -25aj 2


the roots is unity.

+ a:-h6=0, given that the

difference

11.

Transform into equations lacking the second term

12.

Transform into equations with integral

(u)

13, If

Un

is

coefficients

between two of

^-

odd, prove that

n0 = (-l)Kn-i)tan0tan(V-Wn^

\n/

\n/
V

[Regard the equation of Exercise VII,

14, as giving

n/

tan 6 in terms of tan n$.]

GENERAL THEOREM

87

Character and Position of the Roots of an Equation.


We say that the character of the roots is known when we know how many
are real and how many are imaginary.
7.

The position (jf a real root is its position on the scale of real numbers,
and is determined roughly for a non-integral root by finding two conFor a complete discussion,
secutive integers between which the root lies.
we require Sturm's Theorem (Ch. XXVIII), but a good deal of information
can be derived from the elementary theorems which follow.

Some

8.

general Theorems.

= n
f(x) X +p
where

p l9 p 2
+ im is a
,

...

Xn
1

~l

Here we suppose that

+ p2Xn

~~ 2

+ ...

-f

pn

are real numbers.

root of f(x) = 0, then l-im is also a root (Ch. V, 14) and


2
- = - 2
has
the
f(x)
quadratic factor, {x (1 4- im)} {x (I iw)} (x 1) + m
If

The last expression is positive for all real values of x.


are the real roots of f(x) = 0, these being not necessarily
f(x)

Thus

if

a,

/?,

. . .

all different,

= (x-*)(x-p)...(x-K).<l>(x),

where <f>(x) is positive for all real values of x.


factors is unique.

Also this expression in

Hence, if x varies, the sign of f(x) can change only when x passes through
a real root of /(x) = 0, and we draw the following conclusions.
(1)

case

If x

when

is greater

than any of the roots, f(x)

all the roots

Whence

is positive.

This

is also the

are imaginary.

pllows^tbat for sufficiently large values of x, any polynomial

it f

s its highest term.


(2)

Let a and b be any

real

numbers

then

///(a) andf(b) have like signs, an even number of roots o//(z)


between a and b, or else there is no root between a and b.
(i)

(ii)

lie

///(a) and f(b) have unlike signs, an odd number of roots off(x)

between a

and

lie

=Q

b.

an equation of odd degree, it has at least one real root.


(ii) Iff(x)~Q is of even degree and p n is negative, the equation has at least
one positive root and at least one negative root.
For, by (1), a positive number a can be found so large that /(a) is
of ( - l) n
positive and/( -a) has the
(3) (i)

///(#)

is

sign

Hence
lies

odd, /(a) and/( -a) have unlike signs and at least one root
between a and - a.
If n is even- and p n negative, /(a) and /( - a)
if

is

are positive and /(O) is negative, so that at


and a and at least one between and -a.

least

one root

lies

between

NUMBER OF REAL ROOTS

88

Descartes' Rule of Signs. In what follows, every equation is


supposed to have a term independent of x, so that zero roots do not occur.
In considering the signs of the terms of a polynomial taken in order from
9.

we say

that a continuation, or a change, of sign occurs at any


particular term according as that term has the same sign as the preceding,
or the opposite sign.

left

to right,

Thus x1 - 2x? - 3xt - 4X3 + 5x2 - 6x + 7 has 2 continuations, and 4 changes


of sign, the continuations occurring at the terms -Sz4 -4Z3 and the
,

-2Z6 +5z2 -6z, 4-7.


The equation a xn + a l xn " 1 ^-a^c n ~ 2 +...-{ a n =0 is said to be complete
when no coefficient is zero. If ar = we say that the corresponding term
changes at

is

missing.

In a complete equation : (i) Ifx is changed into -x,a change of sign becomes
a continuation and vice versa.
If

(ii)

number of changes, and p!

is the

of sign, then

p -f p,' = n,

Descartes' Rule

is

where n

the

number of continuations,

is the degree of the equation.

as follows

The equation f(x) = cannot have more


more negative roots than f( x)

positive roots thanf(x) has changed of sign, or

has changes of sign.

To prove the first part, we shall show that if u is any polynomial and
v~u(x-a), where a is positive, then v, when expanded, has at least one
more change of sign than u.
First suppose that no term is missing in

instance

Signs of terms of u,

---

Signs of terms of v,

where

indicates that the sign

is

+ + - +
+ + 4---- + -+ -

+-+-

term

u and consider the following

may

be

-f

or

- or that the corresponding


,

zero.

In the diagram of corresponding signs, observe that


(i) If the rth sign of u is a continuation, the rth sign of v
(ii)

is

ambiguous.

Unlike signs precede and follow a single ambiguity or a group of

ambiguities.
(iii)

On

change of sign

account of

(i)

is

and

introduced at the end of

(ii),

v has at least as

even in the most unfavourable case in which


tinuations

sign than u.

and on account

of

(iii)

v.

changes of sign as u,
the ambiguities are con-

many
all

v has certainly one more change of

NUMBER OF IMAGINARY ROOTS

89

That no changes of sign are lost on account of any terms which may be
missing from u appears on considering such instances as

+00-

-+00+-00
-+-0-

--00+
-

Thus v has at least one more change


Next let f(x) = <f>(x) (x - a) (x - j8)
.

of

of sign
. .

than

where

a,

/(z)=0.

u.

are the positive roots

j8, ...

If </>(x) is multiplied in succession

by

a?

-a, x-fl,

multiplication introduces at least one change of sign.


Hence /(x) has at least as many changes of sign as/(x)

...

each

has positive

roots.

Again, the negative roots of/(x) = are the positive roots of/(-x)=0,
with their signs changed. Hence the second part of the theorem follows

from the

first.

Corollaries.

10.

Let n be the degree of/(x), and

number of changes of sign in/(x),


the number of changes of sign in/( -x),
m the number of positive roots of /(#)=0,
m' the number of negative roots of f(x) =0
[JL

the

fji

then

(i)

roots

ifp,

+//<w,

the equation /(#)

=0

has at

least

n - (^+/A') imaginary

;
(ii)

if all the roots

For by Descartes'

o//(x)=0 are

rule,

m^p, and

real, then ra=ju,

m'^p,'

'.

and m'

=///'.

Hence

m + m'^fi +fjL'^n,

(A)

and the number of imaginary roots = n - (m + m')^n - (p. +/u/).


Again, if all the roots are real m + m' = n, therefore by (A) m + m

Now

and, if w</u,, it follows that m'^>^ , which


m^fji
Therefore w=/u, and m'=///.
Ex.

1.

//

q, r, s,

is

=/z +fi'.

impossible.

are positive, show that the equation


f(x)

-x* 4- qx 2 +rx - s =0

has one positive, one negative and two imaginary roots.


By Art. 8, (3), /(a;)=0 has a positive and a negative root.

Also

/*

and // = !,

therefore these are the only real roots.

Ex*

2.

Here

Show

= 2,
/u

real roots,

that x?

=
^' 1

-2#2 +7 =0 has
therefore

at least

3.
/Lt-|'ft-'~

two imaginary

roots.

Hence there cannot be more than three

namely, two positive and one negative.

Therefore the equation has at least two imaginary roots.

EFFECT OF MISSING TERMS

90

DeGua'sRule.

11.

If a group of r consecutive terms

if r is even, the equation has at least r

(i)

if r is odd, there are at least r

(ii)

+1

imaginary

roots

or at least r

is

missing from

imaginary

roots,

according as the terms which immediately precede and follow the group have
J
like or unlike signs.
"

~ ~
terms between hxm and kx m r l are missing from/(x).
m ~r - l +
= m
and fl (x) = t/j(x) + (f)(x),
<l>(x),
f(x) hx + kx

Suppose that the


Let

1
m ~ 2 4m
^ (x) = hx + c^x- + c2x

where

none

of the set, c l3 c 2 ,

...

cr ,

The number of changes


in 0(-z) is r + 1.

= number
= number
/*'

Let

/x

...

c rx

m ~ r + kx m ~ r - 1

being zero.

of sign in

ifj

(x)

of changes of sign in

+ the number
~ r ~l

hxm + kxm

of changes of sign in h(

~x)

m+

k( -x)

(-x)

m and

"~ r

~l
.

and /( - x)

Thus the total number


the number in/^x) and/x ( -x) by r + 1 -(/u,-f/x').
Hence f(x) = has at least r + 1 - (/x + /z') imaginary
of changes of sign in f(x)

First suppose that r is even, then

of changes of sign

is less

than

roots.

m ~ r ~ have
opposite
l

(-~x)

and

signs,

(i) if

h,

(ii) if h,

k have the same signs,


k have unlike signs,

/x

and

is odd,

(i) if

h,

(ii) if

h,

(-x)

=1

= 1 and p =0, and


/x

~1
m and
have
( -#)-'
t

If r

//

in both cases

the same, sign, and

= r + 1.
k have the same sign, p = 0, /// = and r + 1 - (p,
= 1 and r + 1 - (/x +/z') =r - 1.
k have unlike signs, ft = 1,
-\-JJL')

/it'

This completes the proof.


.

1.

If

H = ac - 6 > 0,
2

<Ae equation

(a,6,c,

/wo imaginary

For by the substitution

by De Gua's

12.

w
...%,l) -0

roots.

x~y~ 6/a,

-^

the equation becomes #n

rule this equation has at least

is

said about the roots of

Also, the equation

is

an equation

.-

a2

two imaginary roots

Limits to the Roots of an Equation.

whatever

if

(1)

xn ~ 2 -f

...

=0, and

H > 0.
In this

article,

refers to the real roots only.

supposed to be written with

its first

term

positive.

UPPER AND LOWER LIMITS

91

In searching for the roots of an equation, it is advisable to begin by finding


two numbers between which the real roots lie. If k, I are two such numbers
and A>Z, then h is called an upper limit and I a lower limit to the roots.

Upper Limits. Any number h is an upper limit to the roots of f(x) = 0,


provided that/(z)>0 when-x^h.
Method of grouping terms. The process consists in arranging the terms
(2)

of the equation /(x)

we can

in groups, so that

find

by inspection a

number h such that the sum of the terms in each group is ^0 for x^h.
To distribute the terms conveniently, it is often advisable to multiply j(x)
by some positive integer. With a little ingenuity, this method can be made
to yield quite close limits, as in the examples at the end of this article.
Other methods are given in the next exercise, and in Ch. XXVIII.

Lower Limits.

(3)

If

(i)

an upper

is

li

limit to the roots of f(

0, then

x)

li

a lower

is

limit to the roots <>//(#)= 0.

For
(

if

the least root of /(x)=0, then -a


-a, and therefore -h'<oc.

is

Hence, h

-a;)=0.

the greatest root of

is

>

(ii) If h" is an upper limit to the positive roots 0//(l/x)-=0, then I/A"
a lower limit to the positive roots off(x) 0.

For

if

a' is

the least positive root of

Ex.

Here

Qf(x)
f(x)

>0

= 6#3 - 60s; 2 - 6frr - 600 ^

for

x^l& and

Again, putting x =

Now
The

greater root of 16?/

Hence <f>(y)>0

Ex.

We
The

l/y,

15

10-6

is

for y"^

is

4x~(x

+ Hty -

~~

>

i-e-

(20*/
1

15)

the greatest

+ x(x* - 66) + (x3 ~ 600).

an upper limit to the

the equation becomes

<(*/) =5*/

Thus

I/a' is

so l/A"<a'.

Find an upper and a lower limit to the positive roots of


3
2
/(z)=z - 10* - llx - 100=0.

1.

Thus

then

/()= 0,

Hence A">l/a' and

positive root of /(!/#) =0.

is

-0

<f>

(y)

roots.

= lOOy3 -f lly 2

-f-

IQy

-10.

- 1).
1) + (16r + 10y
1-4

^^

is

lo

for x = -

a lower limit to the positive

^v-p

and

if

ie. for

y has this value,

20t/

> 0.

10-6.

roots.

Find an upper and a lower limit to the roots of


8
f(x) =3x*~ 61s -f 127#* + 220a; 520 = 0.
2
2 have f(x) =z (3a;
Qlx + 127) (220* 520).

2.

-I-

greater root of 3

-61o;4-127=0

is

17-9 ....

Thus 18

is

an upper limit to

the roots.

- z) = (3s4 - 520) 4- x(6lx* -f 127a: - 220), and each group


4 is a lower limit to the roots of /(a;)=0.
Hence

Again, /(
if

.0^4.

of terms

is

positive
B.C.A.

RATIONAL ROOTS

92

To

13.

roots which

px~q

is

and

+ bx n ~ l +

p, q are integers

. . .

prime

. .

to

one another, then

is

a factor of

a,

q is a factor of k.

For, denoting the polynomial


0, and therefore

aq

Hence aq n =p x an
to

such

Any

can be found by using the following theorem


If
4- hx -f k, where a, 6,
h, k are integers

exist

may

a factor of axn

and

or zero

Roots of an Equation.

find the Rational

<?,

therefore

divisible

Hence

by

by

+ bqn lp +

px-q

if

f(x),

...+ hqp n

~l

is

a factor of f(x), then

+ kp n = 0.

n
integer, so that aq is divisible by p.
n
Hence a is divisible by p.
prime to q

Now p

is

is

prime

Similarly k

is

q.

the rational roots of

axn + bxn

~l

. . .

+k=

must

be included

among

q/p, where p is prime to q, p is a factor of a and q a factor of k.


We can test the values of q/p by synthetic division, or we may use
the method of divisors given below.
the values of

Ex.

We

Search for rational roots of f(x) = 2x 3 - 5x 2 + 5# - 3 = 0.


have f(x) ~2x 2 (x --f) +5(.r - |), therefore % is an upper limit of the roots.
1

Also

has no positive roots, therefore f(x) has no negative roots.


If qjp is a root, p
\ or 2, q
1 or 3, and the
only values of q/p which lie between
and | are 1, i, -2. Testing these by synthetic division, we find that | is a root and

/(

x)

it is

the only rational root.

Newton's Method of Divisors.

14.

Let the given equation be

transformed into
n
n ~l
+ p 2x n
f(x)=x + p l x

where p^ p 2

~2

...

+p n = Q,

..................

... are the least


(See Art. 4,
possible integers.
the last theorem, if a is a rational root of (A), then a

By
and p n

is

divisible

by

(6).)
is

an integer

a.

Let h be any factor of p n


by x h, the usual reckoning
.

1+ft

I-/*)

(A)

-h

a factor off(x), and

If

is

as follows

is

we

divide f(x)

+y 2 +...+?V_ 2

+p n -l

+Pn

h
9l

Where

q^pt

+ h,

Newton's method consists in performing these operations in the reverse


order, thus

Pn+Pn-l
-gn-l

+Pn-2 +...+ft
-92
-gn-2

+Pl
" gl

+1
"1

NEWTON'S METHOD OF DIVISORS

93

this is added to
divided by A, the quotient is -~q n -i
giving ~q n _ 2 h. Dividing this by h, we get ~g n _ 2 which is added to

Here p n

is

p n -.i,

;p n

>

and

If any q in the process is not an integer, f(x)


the reckoning need not be continued.
Herein lies the advantage of Newton's method.

number

Further, the last

To

lessen the

Ex.

Find

1.

is

0.

4/(

1.

lie

a rational root, it is
possible values of h are therefore
2,

1,

A number of these
so that

4,

3,

-7,

6,

=2 3 .3.7.

-8

(A)

can be excluded at once, for

5
/(I)- -160- ~2

if

is

2
off(x)^x* -39z + 46z 168==0.

between - 9 and 7.
h is a factor of 168
an integer and

is

The

x-h

if

2
- 30) + 2 (23* - 84),
f(x) = x
(x*
3
=
-x) 2x*(x* 78) + (x* -672) + x (x - 184),

follows that all the real roots

Also

must be

and
h

line

not divisible by x - h and

trials, choose any number a, then


divisible by a -h. We generally take a

the rational roots

Since

If

bottom

in the

is

number of

factor of/(x),/(a)

it

_2

so on.

/(

- 1)-

-252- -2 2

32

7,

are not roots.


is

a root,

-h

is

Again, -I -h must be a

a factor of 160, thus we can exclude - 2,


factor of 252, and so we can exclude 4.

4,

6,

8.

The remaining

numbers are
-7.
+3,
-3,
+6,
that 6 and - 7 are the only
find
Newton's
we
method,
by
2,

Testing these as below


rational roots.

1-3) -168

+46
-56
~^To*

1-6) -168

4-46

^28
Tl8

-39
4-3
-36

4-0

_-6

-JL

-1J

~~6

EXERCISE XI

REAL ROOTS
1.

Use Descartes'

(i)

If q

(ii)

x*

is

positive,

- 3#4 + 2a?3
*

rule of signs to
sc?

+ qx + r = Q

-1=0

show that

has only one real root,

has at least four imaginary roots.

The reckoning stops at these stages because 10 and 73 are not

divisible

by

4-1

3.

REAL ROOTS

94:

Show

2.

and by

that the roots of (a - x) (b

- x) - h* =

are real

and are separated by a

6.

[Denoting the left-hand side by/(#), we have

By grouping terms,
Exx.

in

find

an upper and a lower

limit to the roots of the equations

3-9.

3. x*

x 5 - 10** - 5a?3 + 6* 2 - 11* - 350 =0.


- IQx - 5) + (6z 2 - llx thus

- 3z3 - 2* 2 + Ix + 3 -0.

4.

[For an upper limit in Ex. 4, group


x*(x*
For a lower limit, write x = -y and group thus
:

350).

- llx*

-9z- 50=0.

5.

x* + 4x3

7.

2x*~llx*-I()x-l=Q.

6.

x*-

[Group thus: x(2x*~ llx-ll) + (x-l).]


z54-z 4

-6*3 -8o,' 2 --15a;-10:-0.


- 2 - 15) + (z 4 - Sx 2 [Group thus x(x* 6z
8.

9.

a;

- 3z 4 - 24z 3 + 95z 2 - 46x - 101

= 0.

For the equation f(x) =xn +p 1 xn

10,

-l

greatest negative coefficient is equal to


roots.

[Let

sol, then/(z)>0

This holds if xn

>p

if

xn

----,

i.e.

xn >p(xn
if x -

10).]

+p

~l

xn

~2

+ ... +p n =0, if the


p + 1 is an upper

then

+ xn -* +

...

+ I),

i.e.

if

numerically
limit to the

xn

x n >p

1
.

> p.]

For the equation f(x) ~xn +p l x n l +piX n 2 + ... +p n = Q, if the numerically


greatest negative coefficient is equal to -p and the first negative coefficient is
p r then Zjp 4- 1 is an upper limit to the~ roots.- n
n r X H T I + ...
+
+ l), i.e. if
l, then/(z)>0if x >p(x
-

11.

This holds

if

x n >^

-r

i.e.

if

(x-l)x

r~ l

>p, which

holds

if

(*-

I)

>p,

i.e.

12. If the rule in Ex. 1 1 is applied to the equations in Exx. 3-7, show that
- 51
- 1 ; (5) 7, - 6.
the limits are (1) 4, - 4; (2) 351, - 5
(4) 6,
(3) 9,
;

13.

By

1 100# 2 - 237=0.
using Ex. 11, find an upper limit to the roots of x

Find the rational roots of the equations in Exx. 14-19.


14. * 3 -9z* + 22o;-24:=0.
15. a? 3 -5* 2 - 18*4-72=0.
16.

3* 3 - 2* 2 - 6*

4-

4=0.

17.

4# 4
i

18.

6s

-25^4-26^ + 4s-8=0.

19.

6a;H53^-95a; -25ar+42=0.

ELEMENTARY SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS

95

Symmetric Functions of the Roots of an Equation.

15.

Let a,

y, 8, c,

/J,

then by Art.

2,

be the roots of
^
xn +p 1 xn 1 +p2x n - 2 +

...

27a=

-p

27aj9=]9 29

l9

... -f

pw = 0,

27a/?y

= - j>3

...................... (A)

etc .............. (B)

be shown that these equations can be used to express any


symmetric function of the roots in terms of the coefficients.
It will

Functions of the type ZoPfPy*

...

where

a, 6, c

...

are positive integers,

These can be calculated in order by a


of
and
process
any symmetric function of the roots can be
multiplication,
expressed in terms of them.

will be called elementary functions.

Ex.
(i)

For equation (A) find

1.

The product

Sat,

27aj9yS consists of terms of the types

of these occurs once, in

product of any one of


Hoc

a,

a88 =27a 2

Za 3

yS and S**ffy.
a 2/?y8, a/?yf The first
the product. The second occurs five times, namely as the
c and a term from 27a/?y8. Therefore
j5, y, 8,
the values of

8 +527<xSc,

and

2 2
(ii) Consider the product 27aj8
y,
ZajSy. This consists of terms of the types a
The first of these occurs once.
The term a 2/?y8 occurs three times,
a s)8y8, a/tySe.
The term ajSySc
namely, as each of the products (a/?)(ay8), (ay)(a/?8), (a8)(ay).
occurs ten times, for we can select two out of the five, a, j, y, 8, c, in 10 way?.
.

Therefore

^aft

Using the

NOTE.
becomes

^y -

27a 2 j8y

and equations

last result

These results can

+ 3Za a]8y8 + lOZ^ySe ........................ (C)

(B),

we

find that

Z^Fr^PiPi-ptPa-Sps .................................. (D)


be tested by putting a=]8 = y ...=1. In this way (C)

CJ C? = 3(7? + 12(72 + 10(7?.


.

For reference, we give the following

results,

indicating briefly the

-" 1

"" 2

process of reckoning.

// a,

j3,

. . .

are ZAe roots of

- (27

2
.

aj8)

j8,

y,

...

+ p2;rn

. . .

+ y n == 0,

Here the elementary functions


in a,

xn + fto;71

and fourth degrees


and obviously the process can be

of the second, third

are calculated in order,

continued so as to find any function of this kind. It is important to notice


that the degree n of the equation does not occur in the reckoning.

DIFFERENCES OF ROOT3

96

Symmetric Functions involving only the Differences

16.

of the Roots of f(x)=0.


These are unaltered

the roots are diminished

if

by any number

they may be calculated by using the equation


chosen so as to remove the second term.

A useful check is provided by the theorem in Ex.


in

Exx.
Ex.

2,

h.

Hence

f(y + h) = 0, where
1

below.

is

The functions

3 are important.

Let v be any symmetric function of the differences of the roots of

1.

(o c ,a 1 ,fl a ,...an $a:,l)

then if v is expressed in terms of a

a l9 a 2

...

n =0

the

sum

of the numerical coefficients is

zero.

The sum of the numerical coefficients is obtained by putting a^ a^ a 2


But in this case the given equation becomes (x + l) n every root of which
since t; involves only the differences of the roots, in this case, v=0.
,

Ex.

2.

// a,

jS,

+ 3bx* + 3cx + d =0, find

are the roots of ax3

1
is

-1, and

the values of

have a (x - a) (x - jS) (x - y ) = ax 3 + 3bx- + 3cx + d.


- 1 for x in this identity, we find that
Substituting 4- 1 and
(i)

We

a 2 (a 2 +

therefore

(ii)27(

Ex.

3.

2
)

(j8

+ 1 - (a - 3c) 2 + (36 - d) 2

2
)

(y

8-y)(y-a)-^y-Za2 -3
// a,

/3,

y, o are the roots of


................................ (A)

0,

find the values of


f

<!).(

(ii)r(a-j8)VS
+ a-/3-8)(a+/3-y-8).

-/3)

a)

(ii)

and

(iii)

its

The equation whose


d,

roots are -

-i

8Za|8
,

^ y

thus

-,

-^
is

fi
8

(6

ac).

obtained by interchanging o and

Denote the function by v. Since v is a function of the


may be found by using the equation

differences of a,

j3,

e,

y, 8,

value

obtained by the substitution

xy-b/a.

4#

y+i-O,

................................... (B)

SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF ROOTS


Let

a',

',

97

Then since Za'=0,


+
a-8=jB' /-a'-8' = -2(8' -fa ),
-0/8 = (8'ta')(S'+jB')(8' + y')

be the roots of (B).

y', 8'

and

- 8'3 + S' 2 (a' + j8' -f y') + 8' (j8

.'.

#*.

7/a + jS + y + 8 = 0, prove

4.

827a'j8'y'

y + yV +

a,

j3,

!=<), 5 2

-2^p 2 , 5 3

Hence by

tions.

tftaf

Also a 5

+p

= 0, and
4
2

2 <x?+p3<x.

let s r ~ZoL r then by Art. 15,


+pi<xQ, with three similar equa>

addition,

The following are

y.

j8,

= -3p 3

& +p %* +P& +jp

Equations whose Roots are Symmetric Functions of

17.
a,

y, 8 be the roots of

+ a'j8'y'

= 320/a*.

a 5 + )3 5 + y 5 + 8 5 - - SjScejB
Let

'')

If a,

^J&f'l.
2

(j8-y)

(y-a)

/?,

typical examples.

+ qx + r=Q,

are JAe roote of x?

find the equation whose roots are

(a-jS)

Let 2~(j8 -y) 2 then since 2?a =


,

and a/?y = -r,


= (jg + y) 2 - 4j9y =a 2 f 4r/ a

Hence the required equation can be found by eliminating a from


a3 +ga + r=0,

By

subtraction,

a 3 -za-f4r=0.

(z -f q)oc

Substituting for

a in the

first

= 3r.

equation and simplifying, we have

which on expansion becomes


-f

The
-

Ex.

artifice

2.

(i)

employed

Find

in the next

the condition that the

4g

+ 27r 2 =0.

example

sum

is

often useful.

of two roots a,

xt+p^+p^+paX+p^Q
may

ft

of

................................. (A)

be zero.

Use

(ii)

a, j8 are

the result to find the equation

any two

whose roots are the six values of |~(a-f /?), where

roots of

a^ + 46a? + 6cz2 + 4da; + e=0 ................................. (B)


(i)

Since a and

-a

are roots of (A),

a4 + P&* + p 2a2 + P3a + Pi - 0,


a4
4

.*.

Now a 9^0
which

is

unless

p4 =0,

-2>i<x

-fj 2 a

+^4=0

therefore

the required condition.

+ #2
2

2>1

~^3 +^4 =0
and a^a 2 ^ p a )=0.
;

P4~2>1#2JP3+2?3 2=: 0>

............................. (C)

ROOTS OF THE CUBIC EQUATION

98
Let

(ii)

If then

-\ (a + j8),

we have

then

we diminish the

- z) =0.
- z) +
(j8

(a

roots of (B)

by

z,

B=az + b,
D-(a,

For equation

b,

x~y + z,

0,2*

I)

sum

of

two roots of

.............................. (D)

+ 2bz + c,

E = (a, b,

c,<%,

the

is

+ 4By* + GCy* + 4Dy + E=Q,

ay*

where

writing

This equation

the resulting equation in y will be zero.

c,

d,e$z, I)

4.

(D), the condition (C) gives

an equation of the sixth degree

in

2,

whose roots are the values of J(a

EXERCISE XII

SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF ROOTS


If a,

j3,

2
y are the roots of ax* + 36# 4- 3cx + d=0 and
H = ac-b 2 G = a*d - 3a6c + 2b\
,

prove that

a^a3 ^

1.

2.*

a^V
2

-3(a' d-9a&c-f9&
3

= 3 (^

3
).

a - 9^6 -h 9c 3 ).

8
2
2
2
3
2
^y + ya*)(ay + j8a -h yj8 ) = a*(3a ]8V
= 9 (aW - 6a6aZ + 3ac 3 -f 36 8rf).

3.

a*(a^

4.

a 2 {(j8-y) 2 -f(y-a) 2 4-(a-j8) 2 }-18(6 2 -a^).

5.*

-f

a f {a a (j3-y) 8 + j8 8 (y-) 8 + y 2 (a-j8)} = 18(c 8 -c).

*Explain

how

to derive (2) from (1)

and

(5)

from

a {a(j3~

7.

a 4 {(j8-y

8.

a3 (^4-y

9.

a 3 (2a-~y)(2j3-y-a)(2y-a--/3)^ -27(9.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

[(i)

The condition that a, 0, y are in A.P. is ^=^0.


The condition that they are in O.P. is oc 3 =6 3d.
The condition that they are in H.P. is rf 2a - 3dcb + 2c3 =0.

If

2a = /M-y,

ax + d=0.
11.

(iii)

then

a=

-b/a.

(ii)

Eliminate x between

Put x~l/y and use condition

The condition that

aC 3 =5 3D, where
12.

(4).

6.

10.

is

a,

/?,

may

be connected by the equation

B=

The equation whose

roots are

jgy-a

yq-j8

2
)8

2j8'
is

Show that

(i).]

a(aa:

-h 26a;

this reduces to

a-f j8-2y

+ c) 3 = (aa^ + 36x 2 4- 3ca; + d) (ox -f

a cubic equation.

[Use Ex.

11.]

u=

and

SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF ROOTS


y are the roots of

13. If a, 0,

rootsare -

ft

[Let 2 =

14. If a,

4-

+-

prove that the equation whose

is

Prove that a 8 -f 2ga - rz = 0.

Eliminate a between this equation

any two roots of x* + qx + r=Q, the equation whose roots are the

are

]8

- + -,
a y

+ -,

&+qx + r =0,

99

six values of a/0 is

[Let z = -

a = /fe, hence the required equation

/.

^
15. If

[Let a,

+g0-fr=0

6, c

last

example to show that


5 x5 - a 5 5ax(# -f a) (# 2 -f a.r -f a 2 ),
(x -f a)
7 x* - a 1 = lax(x-{-a)(x z -f aa; + a 2 ) 2
(# -fa)

17. Solve(x-fa-f-6)

18. If a,

-x -a -6
-f
-x) +
6

y, 8 are the roots of

j8,

-) +

-f

26 3 , prove that

from

a*Z(*
a 32;(a -

-6)~0, and use Ex.

(ii)^

4, p. 97.J

prove that

~lp*(p**-pt).

+ 4bx*-\- 6cx 2 + 4dx + e=Q and //~ac~6 2

20.* a 2

= I2(ad~2bc).

*Note that

a 2 a 2 =4(4& 2 -3ac).

21. a*i;a z p

x*+p&*+pjc+pt=0,

8 are the roots of ax*

y,

Ga*d- 3abc

23.

j8

-:0.

(1)^ = 2(^-2^),

24.

got by eliminating

[Observe that x -f a -f 6

19.

is

+ qzp + r = 0.]

+ b b + c 6 =5abc(bc + ca + ab) (ii) a 1 + b 7 + c 7 ~labc(bc + ca + ab)*.


be the roots of a: 3 -f qx + r =0.]

a*

Use the

If a,

z3

and

a + & + c=0 show that


(i)

16.

22.* a 2

from

(20) follows

(19)

and

(22)

from

(21).

= 144(c 2 - bd).
8) (y + y8 + S
- 32(7.
y)(a 8) =
]8)(a
2

25. If a, 0, y,

...

are the roots of xn +p l xn

-1

+p xn

-2

+ ...+p n = 0,

prove that

Ev* j3 2 = - ptf

Show

that the squares of the roots of


n1
2 4a<F
are the roots of
26.

a^-

- M*"" 1 +

a^-

n~2

. . .

-i-

... 4(

l)

na

n =0

1)

n6

w = 0,

where

= 2 - 2a 2
= oS
* b r =ar
2a r _ a r+ ! -f 2a r ^
&o

ft

27. If the equation

is

ar+2

r+8

. . .

. . .

whose roots are the squares of the roots of the cubic

identical with this cubic, prove that either

the roots of 3 a

a a
%<*>ia* + 2a a4
- 2ar ^30
+

^2 ==

a =6=0 or a =6 =3, or

a, b are

CHAPTER

VII

PARTIAL FRACTIONS
1

and Q are polynomials

in x,

An

Rational Fractions.

expression of the form P/Q, where


called a rational fraction. If P is of lower

is

degree than Q, P/Q is called a proper fraction.


than Q P/Q is called an improper fraction.

If

is

not of lower degree

By means

of the division

transformation, an improper fraction can be expressed as the

**

If

X'
A' + -^-,

A+^

where the

X'

A A

Also

therefore

Hence

^7

and X' are respectively

YX'-XY'

A - A' =0;

is

2.

and X/YsX'/Y'.
*

-y.

of lower degrees

of lower degree

than

and

Y',

and

than YY'.

for otherwise, the polynomial


is

A - A'

impossible.

would be identiThus Az=A' and


y

X/Y^X'/Y'.
To resolve a given fraction into partial
the sum of two or more simpler fractions.

is

to express

it

as

Fundamental Theorem.
A,

denote polynomials in

Partial Fractions.

fractions

A^A'

X YX'-XY'
yy

cally equal to a proper fraction, which

consequently

letters

and X/Y, X'/Y are proper fractions, then


r or

of an

ix

Theorem.

sum

Thus

integral function and a proper fraction.

are prime

to

//

such that

For since

C/AB

CX
A

is

is

a proper fraction and the factors


X/A and Y/B can be found

each other, proper fractions

prime to

polynomials X',

BX'+AT = 1

j^

*
and therefore

C = CX> CT
+ -~j-

can be found so that


(Ch. Ill, 18.)

FORMS OF PARTIAL FRACTIONS

and CY'/B are not proper


polynomials Q, Q', X, Y such that
If CX.' I

fractions,

by

101

division,

we can

find

CX'
where

X/A and Y/B


C

Now X and 7 are

BX + AY

is

fraction

so also

X Y

Y
+>

and then

are proper fractions,

_,

A and B, therefore
Thus (BX + A Y)/A B is a proper

respectively of lower degrees than

than AB.

of lower degree
is

CT = n

and

C/AB,

therefore

C + tf-O and

To

resolve a Proper Fraction P/Q into


set of Partial Fractions. We shall prove that
3.

(i)

To a

non-repeated factor

x-a

of

its

there corresponds

simplest

a fraction of

the

A
form

x-a

(ii)

To a factor

- b) n

(x

To a non-repeated
.

there corresponds
J

x-b
(lii)

a group of the form

---o?_T\O'/-- --'***',

-i

of
/

(x-b)

1\*>

-L.

(x-b)

(x-b)*

2
quadratic factor x

+px + q

of

there corresponds

fraction of the form

(iv)

To a factor

(x

+px + q)
+-

of

there corresponds

'"

(x

Here A,
Proof

B is

B B2
I}

(i).

Let

prime to

Cv (72 ... are independent


=
$ (#-a) S, then since x-a
,

...

x - a, and

a group of the form

+px + q)

'

of

x.

is

a non-repeated factor,

so

P/Q = */(*- a) +7/B,


where the fractions on the right are proper

fractions.

Hence

is

constant.
(ii)

that

Let
JS is

B. It is assumed that x - b
n and
(x
6)
consequently

Q = (x - b) n
prime to

is

where the fractions on the right are proper

fractions.

not a factor of

JB,

so

TYPICAL EXAMPLES

102

X is of degree n - 1

Hence

Bi(x-b)
where

51

+ B2 (x-b) ~*+...+ Bn

(Ch. Ill, 4.)

are constants, which proves the statement in question.

at most, and it can be put in the form


~
n l
n

The proof is similar to that of (i), but X is of the form Cx + D.


(iv) The proof is similar to that of (ii), but each of the set J91 B2 ...
the form Cx + D.
(iii)

is

of

Various ways of finding the constants are explained in the following


examples.
X*

Ex.

1.

Express

as the

~ j^-*

'

sum

of

an

integral function of

x and

three

proper fractions.

We have
Hence
is

- a) (x - 6) (x - c) = x* - a:2

(x

it is

2a + xZab - abc.

4
easy to see that the quotient in the division of x by (x a)(x ~b)(x~ c)
We may therefore assume that

x + a -f b + c.

re

5
C
4
x-a x-b x-c*

(x~a)(x-b)(x-c)

To

find A, multiply each side of (A)

by

(A)

-a, and put x=a.

a;

'

(a-b)(a-cY
The

values of

and

can be found in the same way

a4

(a-b)(a-c)'

(x-a)(x-b)(x-c)
Ex.

Resolve into the simplest possible partial fractions

2.

Multiply each side by x 2, and then put x

a?

a;

-5

- -

m
Therefore
,

x-a

-5 =

r^rr
s

(#-l) (a;-2)

21- -43-

-x-l

-f

,-

=-^
2

+T

(*~1)

rr*
8

(a;-!)

x -2^

Second method. Find d as before. Next, multiply each side of (A) by (x then put

a?

=l

Next, multiply each side of (A) by

a?,

r~

l'-5
^~

and
;

Finally,

put

a:

=0 in

(A), /.

--=
2i

~a-f 6

let
/.

4.

#->oo

a=

~c~JL

-2.
.'.

= 1.

1)

and

METHODS OF QUADRATIC DENOMINATORS

103

In this way two


equations connecting the coefficients can always be written down. The
steps are equivalent to the following
Multiply each side of (A) by
3
3
and
the
sc
coefficients
of
(x~-l) (x-2)
equate
(the highest power of x)
and the absolute terms on each side.
Particular attention

is

called to the last

two

steps.

W
...

33? - 2x 2 - 1

Multiplying by (x

ax + b

+ x -fl) (x* - x + 1), we

cx

+d

...

find that

3x*~2x2 -l=(a
and, equating coefficients,

= -2, a-6 + c + d=0,


a=2, 6 = 1, c = l, d- ~2.
J

Whence

+ d=-l ............ (B)

Note that the first and last equations in (B) can be found by (i) multiplying (A)
by x and letting #->oo and (ii) putting x=0. Two other equations may be quickly
obtained by putting x~l and x- - 1.
,

The following method

is

sometimes

3s - 2x 2 x 2 -x -fl
3

whence by

The

a +c =3

= 2,

= 1, c = l,

and
9

also the fractions are identically equal,

find e

and /.

2c

-2c=

+ 2d= -2,

and so

-2,

rf= -2.

"

__

first

+ d)
x 2 - x 4-

+ 2c + d = l,

(m)

We

ca^-f (c

_
~~ aX

(A),

division,

integral functions

giving a

From

useful.

^ + ^l>

Multiply both sides of (A) by x

c?

-f

(^^ + ^

ea;+/

x + 1, and then

*" (

let

This gives

We have &2 =

- a? ~

= * B+/

'

when

and #3 = 1, whence we

find that

and
It follows that

l=3(
/.

3(/-2c)*-3(e+/) = l.

This linear relation holds for two values of x (namely, the roots of x 2
It

is

therefore

an

identity,

/-2e=0 and

4-

x + 1=0).

and so

l=-3(e+/),

giving

e=-l/9 and /=

-2/9.

104
Next, multiply (A)

PARTIAL FRACTIONS
by x + 1, and then let x = 1
;

"
Multiply (A) by (x -I)

Multiply (A)

In

(A), let

by

x,

xQ,

and

and then

#=1

let

-> oo;

let

3
~(-2) .l~
;

= a -f 6 -f e,

/.

-l=a~& + e-d+/,

.'.

8*

-i

giving c

= ^ + ^ = ^-|.

giving
;

1
'

(x-l)(x>- !)(**-!)
1

17

!**

*-l

s + 1'72

/
2r 6

1 \9

/__

(*-l)

'

(x~l)

a;

EXERCISE

PARTIAL FRACTIONS
Resolve into partial fractions
3( *~ 6)

I.

3.

a:
"

'

'

--g

'

10

11

'

as the

-fl)

sum

(l-ax)(l~bx)
Hence show that if 1 -o&x 2

is divided
quotient of (n 4- 1) terms, this quotient is

and

a;

12

'

(a:

Express
r

H-a: -f 1

- I9x - 15

'

)(a? -f2)-

15.

'

'

(a;

of a constant

by

-f-2)"

and two proper


r r

fractions.

-(a + b)x + dbx\ so as to obtain a

find the corresponding remainder.

16.

Express

fractions

-- -- -

~ =~
<a-)(*-&)(*-c)
.

sum

of a constant

as the

sum

of a constant and three proper


p

x3

17.

Express

fractions
18.

r--

(-a)(*-6)(a-c)

as the

and three ^
proper

Hence show that

_
""

IDENTITIES
19.

Express
r

FROM PARTIAL FRACTIONS

3.4

rr-,

sum

as the

(x-a)(x-b)(x-c)

function of x and
of an integral
6

three proper fractions.


Hence show that

(a-b)(a-c)(a-d)

(b-c)(b-d)(b-a)

__
(c-d)(c-a)(c~b)

(d-a)(d-b)(d-c)
is

equal toa-ffc-fc-fd.
20. If ( 1

+ x) n

+ c x + c 2x 2 + ...+ cn xn show
,

x+ 1

x
[Assume that
21.

...

=^ +

Hence show that

v; 2 _
22.

"

that

ct

_c

Use Ex. 21 and


(\\

v;

34 _

___

714-2

similar identities to prove that

_^___fL_4__^__ "
1.2 2.3 3.4
_

3.4

vlvy

-4_f_l\n
V
;
(

_.
4.5
;

1.2.3

2.3.4

2.3.4

370 T '"'

(n

+ l)( + 2)(n + 3)

23. Prove that

24.

Use Ex. 23 to prove that

[In Ex. 23, write

n -f 1
!

for n,

and put
an =w,
...

= !, a,=2,

105

and

a?=0.]

2(n-f3)

CHAPTER

VIII

SUMMATION OF SERIES
1

Meaning of Summation.

integral variable,

and

Let u n be a function

of the positive

let

possesses this peculiarity it is the sum of n terms,


these terms cannot be added up, unless the value of n is specified.

The function
Sometimes

sn

it is

possible to express s n as the

number which does not depend on

and the number


is

of

n.

sum

of

terms, where

and
is

For example,

terms on the right (namely two)

independent of n.
To sum a series to n terms or to find the sum of the first n terms of a series
but this is not always possible.
to express s n in the form just described
is

Among the series capable of summation are arithmetic and geometric


a harmonic series cannot be summed.
series
;

The sum

of the first

n terms

of the series

ui +
is

often denoted

2.

by

^iU r and sometimes by 2u n or simply by


,

Method of Differences.
v n - vn _

form
to n terms.
For,

1,

where v n

by hypothesis,

whence by addition

is

// we are able

some function of

n, then

to

express

we can sum

sn

u n in

the

the series

METHOD OF DIFFERENCES
Ex.

1.

Sum

the series

'

and since v

Q,

u n ~n(n +

Here

3 +2

-f

to

...

-f-

107

n terms.

l)(n-t-2)

u n= vn~ vn-

where

vw

=-i(

we have by the preceding,


J )

(n

4-

+ 3).

2) (n

3. Series in which u n is the Product of


terms of an A. P., beginning with the n-th.

The

last

example

an instance

is

of this type,

be applied to the general case, which


It is required to

sum

to

n terms

is

successive

and the same method can

as follows

which

the series in

"

wn =
where

We

(a

+ w&)(a + n + I

6)...(a

+ w + r-

n-

un

/>),

a, b y r are constants.

__
_

have
__u n {(a

u n (a -f n + r

Therefore w n = v n - v n _^

where

and consequently
Here v is independent
the following rule
of the A. P.

+ n + r .b)-

On

b)

vn

5W

-f

(a

b)

n
-/

= vn - %
sum

of n, hence the

the right of

n terms may be found by

to

u n introduce as a factor the next term

number of factors
and add a constant.
found by putting w = l,

divide by the

so increased

and by

the

common

difference of the A. p.

The constant
substituting

is

for

in v n

as in the next

1.
Sum to n term* 1 3 5 + 3 5 7 -f 5 7 9 f
Here u n ~ (2n- l)(2w-f l)(2w + 3), and applying the

Ex.

To

find the constant C,

put

?i

=1

The expression

which follows

. . .

or

by

in the bracket (} is formed


(n-l-2) in the A.P. 1, 2, 3, ... .

3)(2

rule,

in (A), noting that s l

-f

example

=I

+ 5) + 15}.

by subtracting the term which precedes n from that


B.C. A.

SUM OF INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

108

which u n

4. Series in

In Ch. Ill,
of

a Rational Integral Function of n.


has been shown that a rational .integral function

4, (3), it

is

can be expressed in the form

of degree r

o + bn + cn(n + l)-f dn(n + l)(n + 2)-f

where

a, 6,

division.

e, ...

We

are constants whose values

I.

Sum

to

may

can therefore use the rule of the

this type, as in the

Ex.

...

(r

+ 1)

terms,

be found by synthetic

last article to

sum

series of

next example.

the series

2.34-3.6 + 4.
Here

ll-K..-f(tt

+ l)(n 2 -f2).

= (n + l)(n' + 2)

tt

+ 1 )*

+2

+2

+0
-2

Dividing by n, n + 1, n + 2 in succession, as on the


right, the reckoning shows that
tt

+1

-2

n = n(

therefore

3n 8 + Wn* + 2ln + 38),


the

'

constant

'

clearly being zero.

which u w is the Reciprocal of the Product of r


successive terms of an A. P., beginning with the n-th. A
5. Series in

simple instance

the following

is

Ex.l.

111

Here

(2/i-l)(2w

+ l)

where

t>

The general
in which u n is

case

is

as follows

It is required to

sum

to

n terms

the series

the reciprocal of

(a-f n6)(a

where

--

+w+ 1

6)...(a-hn-t-r~l

6),

a, 6, r are constants.

The numerator

is

the difference between the

first

and

last factors of the

denominator.

SUM OF RECIPROCALS

109

Proceeding as in the last example, we have


1

(a

u n ^v n _ l -v n

Therefore

+ n + r-1 6)-(a-f nb)


.

and

sn

= vQ -vn

1
.

Now

where

b)(a + n + 2

b)

...

(a

+ n + r-

.6)

n, hence the sum to n terms may be found by


Remove the left-hand factor from the denominator of u n ;
divide by the number of factors so diminished and by the common difference
of the A.P. and subtract the result from a constant.

independent of

is

the following rule

The constant
in v n

is

found either by putting n = 1, or by substituting

,,

Ex.

for

Thus, in the last example, by the rule

2.

Sum

the series

4-

l.Tc

n(n + 3)

J*

n(?i

+ ^-^ +
O.U

l)(n

. . .

.,

7i "f

C== _L,

+ 2)(n

To

find the constant C,

"

put w = l in

_L^
1.4

(A), observing that

We

have

n
.

11

5
1

u
1

^
""18

which

is

11

" c^ 18*

3.2.3.4*

Alternative method, by Partial Fractions.

s^

the same result as before, in a different form.

TWO IMPORTANT TYPES

10

The

last

an instance of a

is

example

whose n-th term

scries

P is a polynomial in n of degree m.
m<r - 1, this can he summed by expressing P in

is

where
If

a
If

w=r-

1,

H-

% (a + n&) + a

2 (a 4-

the series cannot be

n+

4-

w6) (a

1/>) 4-

do

for to

summed,

the form
. . .

this

we should have

sum

a harmonical progression.
If w>r~l, the nth term consists of an integral and a fractional part
which can be dealt with separately.

to

Another important Type.

6.

+
6

a(a +
b(b

a (a +

\)

1) (a

If u n

+ 2)

a(a+

"

term of

is the n-th
1)

...

(a-f

n-

1)

sn

rn

= u n (a + n)/ (a - b + I

AT
Also

w,

=w

Therefore

sn

= vn

then

+ *) -

For
where

(a-fl)-fc
v
/
- ~=
r T
a-b+1

The

Series U 4-u 1 x-f-u 2 x 2


nomial in n of Degree m.
7.

If x

= l,

this series

then

s (1

where

^i

can be

a-6-hl

v 2 ^u z

a
f

1 ).

_-

a~fe+l
1
=

a-6 + 1

as in Art. 4.

- x) = w + v& -f t'^2 +

= %-^o>

>

{w
n
^
* (a

+ n) - a}.
'

+ u n x n where u n

4-...

summed

(n

-u lt

. . .

If

x ^1,

+ vw a:n - u nx n+l

a Poly-

let

= w n -w n . r

... t? n

Now v n is a polynomial in n of degree m - 1

is

thus by repeatedly multiply- x (m


the problem of finding
in
we
can
reduce
all),
ing by
multiplications
that
of
a
8 to
summing geometric series.
;

It follows that s = P/(l ~x) mfl where


Ex.

1.

Sum

Denoting the

sum by
s(I

Let

+ 2 2z + 3 2za +
we have

the series I 2
s,

. . .

- x) = 1 + So: H- 5x* +
5'

+ n*xn ~ l

. . ,

a polynomial in

is

+ (2 H -

xn - 1 -

x.

SUM OF POWERS
then

a' (I

- x) = 1 + 2x + 2x* -f

. . .

111

+ 2a;w - 1 -

n
(2n l)x

.__

The

8.

Series

+ 2 r + 3 r -f

and

cr

...-f

nr

= n(n-f-l),

We

shall write

a'

Theorem. // r is a positive integer, S r can be expressed as a polynomial in n of which the highest term is n r + l/(r + 1 ).
For we can find a l9 a z ... a r independent of n, such that
(1)

^a l n + a 2 n(n-l) + ... +a r n(n-l)(n~2) ... (n-r + 1), ....... (A)


=
obviously a r l. Writing n- 1, n-2, ... 1 in succession for n and
n

where

adding, by Art.

3,

we have

+
The right-hand
highest term

is

Show

#*.

1.

We

have

side,

-a r (w + l)w(tt-l)

when expanded,

n r+1 a r/(r +

that

1),

that

a polynomial in n of which the

is

n r+l /(r

is,

-f-

1).

S^ln(n + l)(2n + l) S3 ^4n 2 (n + l) 2


9

7i

-n-f W(TI~

(n-r + 1) ............. (B)

...

1)

Also

(2) If /S r
fe

= 61 n + 62n 2 -ffe3 n 3 + ...-f6r4 1 n r


.

"

=/(n), the values of & r41 , 6r ,

may be found as follows.


= l r + 2 r + ...+nr and /(n-l)-l r -f 2 r -f ... + (n-l) r
/(tt)

r _j, ...

w =/(n) -/(n - 1 )

therefore

so that

n r = 6r41 {w r+1 -

(n

Expanding and equating


J

7,

6r+1

""'

1
'

r+1
l)

+ b r {n r - (n - l) r} +

coefficients, it will

h - =
ftr 1

and so on. If r is large, b lf 62


and we use other methods.

...

r
'

h
6r -

2= n

'

. . .

+ 6r

be found that
h ftr 8=

r(r-l)(r-2)

cannot be found conveniently in this way,

ODD AND EVEN POWERS

112

The values

(3)

of

ing the function

8^ S3 S5> ... may be found in


v n = n r (n + l) r -(n-l) rn r
,

succession

by

consider-

We have

v1 + v 2 + ...+vn =n (n +

l)

and, expanding by the Binomial theorem,

Putting n

n - 2,

1,

1 in

...

n and adding,

succession for

_5 +

a- n(n + 1). The

where

last

term

is

rSr+l or Sr

...

..................

according as r

is

(A)

even or

odd.

When r = l,

2, 3,

this

...

formula gives

=4

$3

-87

Thus if r is odd and >1 and Sr =f(n), then n2 (n + 1) 2 is a factor of/(n),


and the remaining factor is a rational integral function of n(n + l). Of
z
2
course, it does not follow that S r is arithmetically divisible by n (n + 1)
.

(4)

S2 /S4 S6 ... may be found as follows.


=
wn nr (n + l) r (2n + 1) - (n - l) r r (2n - 1)

The values

Let

of

W1 + w2 + ... +wn =ri

(n

+ l)

and

cr'

then

a=n(n + l)

where

On

(2n + l)=a a,

expansion, we have

*2r-4

Putting n

1,

- 2,

in succession for

...

Sr

or

(r + 2)S r+1

...

this

n and adding,
(B)

the last term being

When r 1, 2, 3,
r=l
Jour' =3S2
=
r 2

according as r

is

even or odd.

formula gives

r-3
r=5

'
|

(3o*

- lOa8 + ITo2 - 15a + 5).

BERNOULLI'S NUMBERS

113

Thus if r is even and $ r =/(n), then n(n + l)(2n + 1)


and the remaining factor is a rational integral function
It will presently

from (A)

this

$ 3 $5 5 7
,

. . .

number

//r>l,

all

...

of

/(ft),

1).

immediately deducible

Sr

as the coefficient of n in

contain the factor n (n-f I)

2
.

for

S 1 =ln(n + l) and

The numbers

B -B4 BQ9
2>

Bv B2 B3
,

is

the following.

+ l)Bar + iC5(2r-l)B^ 2 + iC5(2r-3)fi2r ^ + ...=0, ...... (C)


on the left being B r or (r + 2) Br+1 according as r is even or odd.
,

the zero

B2m

on

the right of (C) is to be replaced by |.

the coefficient of

is

in

the left-hand side of (C)

(4),

%n (n +

as Bernoulli's numbers.

...

formulae can be given for calculating these numbers

then

(2r

For

Br

many

the last term

Art. 8,

n(n +

are the famous numbers of Bernoulli, in terms of which a large


of functions can be expanded. For convenience we shall refer to

great

= 1,

define

one of the best

If r

We

expressed as a polynomial in n.
= 2, and 7?3 , B^ ly ... are all zero;

the whole set

of

is

Thus

is

a factor of

of the last section.

Bernoulli's Numbers.

(5)

when

- #8

appear that the formula (B)

is

l)

(2n

Putting r=l,

is

52w

Hence by the formula

(B) of

the coefficient of n in the expansion

l).

2, 3,

...

in (C),

5B4

.B 2

30"

Continuing thus, we find that

""
A

691

M "6*

p ~
16

43867

3617

510'

798

'

20

_
~

174611
*

330~

few more of the extraordinary properties possessed by the sequence

Bv B2 B39

... are
given below.
the Binomial theorem,
,

By

Putting

n-1, n-2,

Equating the

...

coefficients of

in succession for

n on each

side,

n and adding,

we have
(D)

SYMBOLIC NOTATION

114

from the equation

Similarly,

it

follows that

n r+l

=ci

and consequently
1

From

and

(D)

(E)

...

+ (-ir~ 1 Cj

{1

+ (--ir==0 ......... (E)

by addition and subtraction,

............ (G)

),

where each

series continues

or Q
till
1, appears.
19
are
to
(F), (G)
equivalent
equations 10', 11' in Chrystal's

Formulae

They may be used for calculating 5 2 B^


twice the amount of labour required by (C).

Algebra, Vol. II, p. 231.

but their use requires


Symbolic notation.
cally thus

Equations

etc.,

can be written symboli-

(D), (E), (F), (G)

(D)
(E)
(F)

(G)

where, after expansion, each index is to be changed into a suffix


be written for

Bm

Theorem.

(6)

i.e.

Bm

is to

//

8f =

2r

+ ...+n r where

is

a positive

integer,

then

Sr - rS r _i + Br

(i)

where

is

<d

independent of n and

defined in Art. 8,

is,

(")

S r = r [s r ^dn + nBr

in fact, the

Bernoullian number as

(5).

For S r can be expressed as a polynomial in n


this polynomial by /(?*), we have

of degree r

-f 1.

Denoting

* r -/(*)-/(*-!)
This relation involves only positive integral powers of n up to n r y and
holds for all positive integral values of n. Hence it is an identity, and we

may

differentiate

both sides with regard to


r -l
rn

Writing n-1,

ft

-2,

...

/'(n)f{n
where

r is

r-1

1 in

Therefore

=f(n)~f'(n-l).
and adding,

succession for n,

+ (n-l) r

independent of n.

n.

-l

+ ...H-2^ 1 + r

BERNOULLI'S THEOREM

Br is the

Moreover,
lian

number

No

first.

Ex.

1.

Putting

coefficient of

defined in Art. 8,

(5).

constant of integration

Deduce formula (B) of Art.


r + 1 for r in (A), we have

115

n in/(n), and is therefore the BernoulThe second statement follows from the

is

added, for

8, (4),

Sr

is divisible

from (A) of Art.

n.

by

8, (3).

Differentiating with regard to n,

i(r

No

+ l)aV = C[ fl (2r4a)S2r +

constant

Dividing by
(7) I'sin^

/S'

...

2 , N.j

C^

added, for every term is divisible by


+ 1, we obtain the formula (B).

is

the relation

^V-M^'r-i^ +

.)

we can

//#,.,

S = n,

Thus

find the values of/S'j.

(At any stage, the constant

by successive integrations.

found by putting n =

n.

B r can

be

=-

xS A

2.;

==

Continuing the process,

we

arrive at the equation


7i

which

r-1

'

r-2

|3

'"

be written

may

+ I)S r = n r + l + B 1 C[' n n r + B2 C 2r +l n r - l + ...+B r ^

(r

and expressed symbolically, as above,

(H)

form

in the

is known as Bernoulli's Theorem.


= l, we have equation (D) of Art.
n
Putting

This result

Ex.

1.

8, (5).

Verify the following, either by substitution in (H),

n3

n4

by successive

or, starting

with

nz

integration.

n*
~

n1
~2

n3 n
3^~30

n8

"
10

2n 7

7?i

"15

2w 3

"

2
9

_n ^ w + 3
"TO

4"

"9

__7

"T(J

11

30

w*

n2

"20
'

Tl
8

n
In*
_w
s
+ +
"8

"2

T2

In 4

w2

""24"*" 12

66

SUMS OF INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

116

EXERCISE XIV

SUMMATION OF SERIES

A
Sum

n terms the

to

(Arts. 3, 4.)

Exx.

series in

1-9.

1.

1.2.3.4 + 2.3.4.5 + 3.4.5.6 + ....

2,

2.5.8 + 5.8.11 + 8.11.14 +

4.

1.5 + 2.6 + 3.7 +


a

....

6.

1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 +

8.

1.2.3 + 4.5.6 + 7.8.9 +

Find the value


10.
12.

...,

to

P+3 +5
2

2+2

+
3

...

+ 3* .4+

5.

7.

1.2.4 + 2.3.5 + 3.4.6 +

9.*

....

...

2.1+5.3 + 8.5 + ....

of

lP + J2 2 + 13 2 + ...+2P.
lP + 12 3 + 13 3 + ...+2P.

Sum

3.

....

n terms

11.

1P-12 2 + 13 2 -... ~20 2 + 2

13.

20 3 -19 3

+ 18 3 -...+2 3 ~P.

the series in Exx. 14-16.

14. !
16. l

17.

Show
(i)

(ii)

18.

Show

that whether n

P-2

is

odd or even,
to (n-1) terms- 1( to (n - 1) terms = |( -

+ 3 2 -4 2 + ...
1* - 2< + 3 4 - 4 4 + ..
2

that the

natural numbers

is

sum

n
l)

l)

n(n- 1).
n(n -l)(n*-n~

1).

of the products, taken two together, of the

2
-^n(n -

first

l)(3?i

19. Find (i) the sum of the squares, (ii) the


together of the numbers 1, 4, 7, ... (3n -2).

sum

of the products taken two

20. Find the number of shot which can be arranged in a pyramidal pile
triangular base, each side of the base containing 10 shot.
21. Find the number of shot in a pile of 8 courses
side of the base containing 12 shot.

22. Show that the number of shot in a pile of


side of the base containing 2n shot, is

on a

on a triangular base, each

courses on a square base, each

23. 'Find the number of shot in a pile of a rectangular base, the sides of the
base containing 16 and 10 shot respectively, and the top course consisting of a
single row of shot.

24.
pile of shot of n courses stands on a rectangular base, and the top course
consists of a single row of x shot. Show that the number of shot in the pile is

Here the nth term

3, 3, 5,

...

is

the product of the nth terms of the arithmetic series, 2,

Here w f =r(w

l)=nr

(r

l)f.

5, 8,

...

and

SUMS OF OTHER TYPES


25. Show that
or zero, then
l*

26.

Show

if

of the form

is

+ 2 4 + 3 4 + ...+ n*is

that

if

is

B
to

n terms the

,111
__ __
1

2.3

2
2
2
by P-f 2 -h3 4-...+7i

divisible

by

3
.

3.4.5

3.6

6.

1.3

o
O

F + 2 + 3 + ...4- n

1-24.

2.3.4

(Arts. 5, 6, 7.)

3.4

1.2.3

m is a natural number

5m -f 3, where

then

____

1.2

3.

3m -f 1,

Exx.

series in

or

divisible

of the form

is

.+w

Sum

5m -f 1

11?

7*""

2.5.8

6.8.

11

8. 11

14

5.

5
6.

8.

__ 2.3.6
__ __
1.2.4

07II + -+ ~-f ~ +

,1 +

2.4

5\"9

JLL
2. 4.

_LL*L*. + "

6^2. 4^6.8

12.

...

32

14. 1

3.4.6

' * *

77

F75

52

13.

72

+- + 2i + ~
1
~

(!+*)(! +2*)
16.

3.
l.| 1-f 2.|2-f
|3

1*

+ ...

1-

n.]

(2rn-l)-l

(n-fl)

3. 9.

*
*
11. 137. 13. 15
115.

""

on

"

n ~ l = a;* " 1
- a:n .]
(a: + n)
[Observe that nx
1

21.

[The value of s n (l -x) can be found by Ex.

11.]

-n 2

BERNOULLI'S NUMBERS

118
22
"'

17273

-.1

24

-[3
25.

+
+

il

n~

27374
11

23
M

475

3~.

-+w

l
'

273

+22
+

+ 2*

'37I

'

+ re-l

[5

Prove that

l+n + n(n
v

Sum
26.

n- 2
+

to

+ l)
ft

'

r^

-f

+ ... xtor

terms =

n terms

--

+-

....
3* 2

/r*

aa
(1

C
1.

If

[Put -Ti +
2.

If

3.

-n + 2,

1,

...

/(-n) = (-ir+y(n-l).
-1 for n in the identity f(n)-f(n- l)~nr .]

Sr ^ b^n + b 2 n 2 + b a n 3 +...+ b r+l nr + show that


64-61 4- 6 8 -6 4 + -...=0.
26 2 - 36 3 + 46 4 - 56 5 + ... =-0,
3.26 3 -4.36 4 -h5.46 5 -...^0.
1

[Use Art.

8, (2).]

Given that

value of

(Art. 8.)

F-f2 r + 3 r -f ...+n r =,/(n), show that

Ss by

= -^a 2 (2a 3 - 5a 2 + 6or -

3)

where a

n (n +

),

deduce the

differentiation.

4.

Continue the reckoning in Art.

5.

Show

8, (5), to find

that formula (C) of Art. 8,

form

(5),

Bm is to

be written for

B 12

1),

B.

6.

Find the value of B^ by using formulae (F) and (G) of Art.

7.

Show

8, (5).

that

C\+WBr + C$+W-*Br_
[Expand (2n +

l)

r+l

-(2n -

!)'+>.]

z 4-

and

J514 .

be written symbolically in the

- \Y (2B -

'

where after expansion

may

the values of

C rb +*2r -'BT _ 4 +

. . .

=r+ 1

CHAPTEK IX
DETERMINANTS
Notation.

complicated expressions can be easily handled if


they are expressed as determinants/ The theory which we are about to
explain arises in connection with linear equations.
1

Many
'

=
equations a^x -f 6j 0, a^c -f b 2
=
of x, then
0.
The expression
If the

a^ a^

of the second order,

and

is

are satisfied

a^

aj) v

is

by the same value

called a determinant

denoted by
or

by

(a^).

Next consider the system


a i x + ^\y + <a = 0,

a 2x

-f

b2y

+ c 2 = 0,

= 0.

equations are satisfied by the same values of x and


to show that
If these

The expression on the


is

y, it is

easy

a determinant of the third order, and

left is called

denoted by
or

This determinant in

its

a 1 6 2C3

expanded form

C&ifyjCg 4-

In considering the form of

by

is

^ 2 63 C 1

this- expression,

observe that

Disregarding the signs, the terms can be obtained by writing the


letters a, 6, c in their natural order and arranging the suffixes in all possible
(i)

'

The number

ways.
(ii)

As
is

arrangements

is

six terms.
[3, giving

any particular term depends on the order of the suffixes.


Ch. IV, 4, (1), the interchange of two suffixes, 2, 3, for example,

The sign
in

of

of

called the transposition (2 3).

The term o 1 62^3> i n which the


the sign

-f

suffixes occur in their natural order, has

DEFINITION OF DETERMINANT

120

The

sign of any other


the suffixes in that term

or by an odd
third terms,

Also

in this

2.
a, 6,

number
1

2 3

is

term
is

according as the arrangement of


derived from the arrangement 1 2 3 by an even
is

or

Thus, considering the second and

of transpositions.

changed to 1 3 2

by the

single transposition (2 3).

changed to 2 3 1 by the two transpositions


These ideas will now be generalised.
order.

23

is

of

Definition
c, ... I, and n

Determinant.

suffixes 1, 2, 3,

an

The determinant

of the

...

bn

bn

c n ...l n

of

performed

letters

2
represent n numbers thus,

nth order, denoted by


,

By means

we can

n,

(1 2), (1 3)

cn

or

by

(^i^2 c3

ln)>

... l n

sum of all the products, each with the sign determined


the
rule
below, which can be formed by writing the letters a, 6, c, ... I
by
in their natural order and arranging the suffixes in all possible orders.

is

defined as the

Rule of Signs. The sign of the term a 1 6 2c 3 ... l n where the suffixes
The sign of any other term is -f or
occur in their natural order, is +
,

according as the arrangement of suffixes in that


arrangement 1 2 3 ... n by an even or by an odd
(that
by an even or an odd substitution).
This rule is justified by Theorem 2 of Ch. IV,

term

derived from the

is

number

of transpositions

is,

Each

of the

n numbers a l9

6X

...

a 2 62
,

4.
^s

called

an element

of the

determinant.

The diagonal through the left-hand top


elements a l9 6 2 c3
,

a i&2c3

i fi

... l n ,

is

corner, which contains the

called the leading or principal diagonal,

and

called the leading term.

The expanded form of the determinant has n terms half of these have
the sign + and half the sign For suppose that there are p terms of the first sort and q of the second.
Since the interchange of the two suffixes transforms a positive into a
negative term, p^q* Similarly q*^p, and therefore p = q.
Every term contains one element and one only from each row, and one
element and one only from each column. We can find the sign of any
particular term by the rule at the end of Art. 4, Ch. IV.
:

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS
Ex.

Jn the expanded form of (a 1 6 2c 3^4 e 6)> find Me signs of (i) ajb^c^e^

1.

= (I 2 4 X 3 5 )
, ? t Q)
f <u
o 4
o
o/
\

(i)

121

2 H 2 4 H 3 5 )>

and tho

si

Sn

is

(ii)

ajb^c^d^.

~
(

The

last steP is

JL

unnecessary

if

we use the

we may make

Or,

rule referred to.)

single transpositions, as follows,

24513,
showing that

three,

() (\ II I ^}=( l
Or

as

if,

14523,

of these are required,

5 >( 24 )' and the

some text-books

advise,

12345,
is

number

of

so the sign

si s n is

wo count

the

inversions

'

(Ch. IV, 4)

and (ii), these are 5 and 10 respectively the


odd and the second even, giving the same results. But this takes much longer.

in the arrangements of the suffixes in


first

12543,

and

3.

Theorem. A

columns and

its

(i)

determinant

is

unaltered by changing

its

rows into

columns into rows.

Let

The leading term of each determinant is a^c^.


The remaining terms of A are derived from a 1 6 2 ca by keeping the letters
in their natural order and arranging the suffixes in all possible ways, an
interchange of two suffixes producing a change of sign.
The remaining terms of A are derived from a^b^ by keeping the suffixes
in their natural order and arranging the letters in all possible ways, an
interchange of two letters producing a change of sign.
The results in the two cases are identical. The same argument applies
f

to a determinant of

4.

any

Theorem. The

order.

interchange of two rows, or of two columns, changes

the sign of a determinant without altering its numerical value.

For the interchange of two rows is equivalent to the interchange of the


suffixes, and the interchange of two columns is equivalent to the interchange of two letters. Hence in either case the sign of every term of the
determinant
5.

is

changed.

Theorem.

determinant in which two rows or two columns are

identical is equal to zero.


If

of

two rows or two columns


is

But

of a

determinant

are identical, the value

unaltered by the interchange of these rows or columns.


this interchange transforms

into

- J,

J=~J, and J = 0.

therefore

EXPANSION BY ROW OR COLUMN

122
6.

Expansion of a Determinant

Row

of any

in

Terms

of the Elements

or Column.

Let

Every term in the expansion of A contains one element and one only
from each row, and one element and one only from each column.
Hence,

A can

be expressed in any of the six forms

a 1 A l + b l B l -f CjCp
4-

a 1 u4 1

b%B 2 4- CgCg,

+ a2 A 2

b}

Bl -f b2 B2

cx

Cl

+ c3 C 3

contains no element from the row or column containing a j? a


similar remark applying to every A, B and C.

where

To determine

A^

every term of

A which

contains a 1 can be obtained

from a^^s by keeping the letters in the natural order, retaining 1 as the
suffix of a and arranging the other suffixes in all possible orders, the interchange of two suffixes producing a change of sign.
Hence A l is equal to the determinant (6 2 c 3 ), obtained by erasing the

row and column in A which contain a v


To determine any other coefficient, say C 3
consecutive rows, bring the row containing
of

interchange
to the extreme

consecutive

bring

c3

the

to

the

interchange

the top.

of

the

By

column containing

c3

left.

Thus we have

in succession
*3

and now

columns,

By

c3 occupies the

&3

c.

top left-hand corner, and the relative positions

of the elements not belonging to the

row and column containing

c3 is

unaltered.

Every interchange of rows or of columns introduces a change of sign.


<__
The number of interchanges is equal to the number
t
of vertical and horizontal moves (indicated by arrows)
left-hand
which
in
c
to
the
to
top corner,
required
bring 3
'

this case is 4.

Hence,

<73 is

c8

equal to the determinant obtained by erasing the row and

column containing

c3 , multiplied

by

1)

Similar reasoning applies to a determinant of any order.

MINORS AND COFACTORS


Ex.

1.

A~(a 1 b zc B

with reference to the element*

in the

results are
-

2.

aa

J--

(ii)

Ex.

(i)

in the second column.

first roiv, (ii)

The

the determinant

Expand

123

62

-63

Prove that

g \^abc

c\

Expanding with reference

+ 2fgh-af 2 -bg 2 -ch z

to the

first

row,

f-h

A=a

= a(bc -/ 2 - h(hc -fg)+g(hf-bg)


= abc 4- 2fgh - or/ 2 - bg 2 - ch*.
)

Minors and Cofactors.

7.

For the determinant

the minor of any element is the determinant obtained by omitting from


the row and column containing the element.

The

(H r )

cofactor

of

an element (h r ) is the coefficient of that element in


J, and is therefore equal to the corresponding minor

the expanded form of


with the proper sign prefixed.

The sign

is

of consecutive

determined as follows
rows and columns

Count the number of interchanges


of vertical and horizontal moves ')
'

(i.e.

required to bring the element to the left-hand top corner. The sign is +
or
according as this number is even or odd. The rule may be stated
thus. For the element h r which is in the r-th row arid the s-th column,
,

the cofactor

For the number


is

of

= (- l) r + s

(the

minor of h r ).

'

moves required to bring h r to the left-hand top corner

(r-l)-f (.9-1).
1.
Find the cofactors of d 2 and c 4 in the determinant A "(a^b^d^).
Omitting the row and column which contain d 2 it will be seen that

Ex.

the minor of ^ 2 = (a 1 6 3 c 4 ).

Denote the cofactors

Similarly

O4 =

The student who

1)

in question

4 ^" 3

is

(a 1 6 2 c? 3 )

by

Z) 2 , (74

by the

rule given

above

(a^b

acquainted with

partial differentiation

'

should observe that

B.C.A.

MULTIPLICATION OF DETERMINANT

124
8.

For the determinant

Identities.

Important

A = (aj)&)
we have a number
(i)

of identities of the following types

a 2 A + b2 B l + c2 C l = 0,
l

(ii)

61

4 1 -f b 2 A 2 + b z A^ = 0.

where

A B ly

...

where

A B

C^ are independent of a l9 b l9 c v

19

19

19

are the cof actors of a l9 b l9

...

Hence the expression

the result of substituting a 2 6 2 c 2 for a 19 b l9 c 1 in A, and


equal to a determinant with two rows identical, therefore

is

a 2 A^

The second

identity

is

+ b2 B l ~f c 2 C l = 0.

obtained by putting b l9 62 b 3 for a l9 a 2 a3 in the


,

A = a^! + a 2 ^ 2 -f a3 ^ 3

e q ualit 7

therefore

is

Similar identities hold for determinants of any order.


9.

Theorem

minant

is

// every element in any row, or in any column, of a determultiplied by a number k, (hen the determinant is multiplied by k.
.

For every term in the expansion of a determinant A contains one


element and one only out of each row, and one element and one only out
of each column.

Thus
ka

Conversely,

common

'2

^2

'3

^3

if all

a2

the elements in any row, or in any column, have a


is a factor of the determinant, and can be taken

factor k, then k

outside.

10.

Theorem. A

determinant can be expressed as the

sum

minants by expressing every element in any row or column as


numbers.

For example, we

shall

of two detersum of two

the

prove that

a.

a2

o2

oc

63

c.

Denote the determinants on the right by A A' and the one on the
by A".
9

left

ADDITION OF BOWS OR COLUMNS

We

have

+ a2A 2

a^A^

-f-

a^A,3

A^ A 2 A 3 are independent of a-,, a 2 a 3


Now A is obtained from J by substituting oq,

where

And A"
a 19 a 2 a3
,

is

obtained from

J by

and

Similar reasoning applies in

(or

Theorem.

+ a 2 a 3+ a 3
,

+ a 2 ^ 2 + a3 ^ 3

J +

a +a

a^

all cases.

unaltered by adding to the elements of


(or column) k times the corresponding elements of any other raw

column), where k

For example, we

is

determinant

is

any given number.

shall

prove that

e,

+ kb3

63

c3

Denoting the determinant on the right by

we have

/r

Note that by a second application


X

-I-

A and

6X

cx

62

c2

left

by

A',

-0.

of the above,

/c x

+ I U3

ha

that on the

=*

Now

NOTE.

substituting a^+v.^ & 2

=oc l A l

J" = a+a-4-f

any row

a 2 a 3 for a l9 &2

Hence

1 1

125

C3

In simplifying determinants the following points should be carefully

observed.

one which
(i) When, as in the last part of Art. 11, a column (or row) is replaced by
contains the elements of that column (or row) all multiplied by a number h, then
the determinant is multiplied by h. For instance, if the second column is subtracted

from the
minant
(ii)

is

first,

and the remainders are put

in the second

column, the sign of the deter-

changed.

When more than

this kind, at least oni

one column

column

(or

(or

row)

row) must be

is

changed by a succession of changes of


unaltered, as in Art. 13, Ex. 1.

left

APPLICATION OF REMAINDER THEOREM

126

Theorem.

If the elements of a determinant A are rational integral


functions of x and two rows (or columns) become identical when x~a,
then x-a is a factor of A

12.

can be expressed as a polynomial in x, and


so that the result follows by the Remainder theorem.

For

(is

Again, ifr rows become identical when a


a factor of

For

K)/

J=0

when x = a;

is substituted for x, then

(x

- a) r ~ l

A.)

rows can be replaced by rows in which the elements


hence
are the differences of corresponding elements in the original rows
x - a is a factor of all the elements in each of these (r - \ ) substituted
r

of these

rows

and the

13.

result follows.

Examples.

The determinant

in question

Expanding with reference to the bottom row,


J =19( - 19 13 + 23 31) -f 5(19
.

[In the

first

step, the 3rd

is

column

taken

denoted by A.

+2 31)^10209.
from the 2nd to form a new 2nd column,
.

11

taken from the 3rd to form a new 3rd column, and twice the 1st
taken from the 4th to form a new 4th column. In the second step, six times

the 1st column

column

is

is

the 3rd column

is

is

taken from the

1st,

the 3rd

is

subtracted from the 2nd, and the

4th added to the 3rd.

Ex.

2.

Prove that
1

If

a/?, two columns

Similarly

ft

y, etc.,

in

-)(-)(

-8) (0-8)(y -8).

are identical, and consequently a-/?

are factors.

is

a factor of J.

Hence

Since J is of the sixth degree in a, /?, ... , k is independent of th^se quantities. Now
the term j5y 2 S 3 occurs in J, and on the right-hand side the coefficient of this term is
- k, therefore k ~ - 1.

METHODS OF EVALUATION
Ex.

3.

//

a cube

oj is

root of unity, prove that

a -f&eo +c<o

127
is

a factor of

cab
Hence show

To the

that the determinant is equal to

first

column add

CD

times the second and

4 bat + co>

wz

times the third, therefore

6-f cco-foco 2

o2

4 6o> 2

ct

a
|

C 4- #cu

jab

a4&o>4co> 2

.*.

The

Ex.

2.

This method applies

to

is derived

are factors.

a determinant of any order in which the second row


the third from the second, and so on, by a cyclic

the first,

from

and a

a factor of J, similarly

is

rest follows as in

substitution.

Ex.

Prove that

4.

(6-fc)

(c+a)*

(&4c)

a 2 -(&4c) 2

c2

a2

(a

Subtracting the

sum

of the

second and third rows from the

-6

be

2(a-f6+c)

b*

and taking 2 outside,

first

6c
bc

+ ba

a+b -

In the

last step the first

column

is

ac

added to b times the second_ajid to

third, which is equivalent to multiplying by be

Alternatively.

If

we

substitute

+ bc

c times the

for a,

=0;

hence a

is

Again,

a factor

if

and

(6 4- c) is

similarly b

and

(-a)
62
c2

and

in this there are three identical

factor of J.

are factors.

substituted for a,
2

a2
(-6)
c2

a2
a

62
(

- c) 2

columns; hence, by Art.

12,

(a

4-

b -he) 2

is

RULE OF SARRUS

128
Hence, since

is

of the sixth degree,

the remaining factor necessarily being of the first degree and symmetrical, since the
cyclic substitution (a, 6, c) gives a determinant equal to A.

Putting o =

whence

l, b

= 1, c~l, we have
4

= 27iV,

2.

EXERCISE XV
A.
1.

The

SIMPLE EVALUATIONS

positive terms in the expansion of (aj}.^) are

fliVa*

Hence the

rule of Sarrus,

which

is

btCMz,
as follows

Negative
terms

Cjtta&a.
:

'2->

V*/

^r

a2 b,c 3j.--'

a3.'3 ' C a3
"3.
3^

The determinant (!^ 2 C 3)

D=P-N

is

the

sum

of the products of the three elements lying

on each of the six lines in the above diagram on the left, the sign of the product
- according as the line which determines it is drawn downwards or
being -f or
upwards, proceeding from left to right.
A more convenient way of using the rule in numerical cases is shown on the
right.
2.

3.

Apply the

Show

rule of Ex. 1 to

show that

= abc -f 2fgh - a/2 - bg* - ch 2

that, in the expansion of (^i

following terms occur

-f c

and that the other

positive terms are obtained

from these by the substitution

SIMPLE EVALUATIONS

129

any term in the expansion of (a^Ca ...) and another term T' is
T by a cyclic substitution involving r letters, the order of the
suffixes being unchanged, then T and T' have the same sign, or opposite
signs, according as r is odd or even. [Exx. 1 and 3 are instances.]
4. If

is

derived from

5.

In the determinant (a 1 6 a c 8
Z ), the
^i>
sign of the term a w 6 n _ 1c w _ 2
M
second diagonal has the sign -f if and only if n is of the form 4k
. . .

forming the
or 4& + 1.
6.

'

'

show that the terms

In the expansion of (a

-f

aj

occur.
7.

show that the terms

In the expansion of

4-

a 26 4c 6^ 1 e 8/

occur.
8,

10.

Expand

the following

Prove that

is

-^-M^-f m +nz )-t(L l

equal to

where
11.

L lf

Jlf2 ,

are the cofactors of

1 19

m^,

n3

in

Prove that
I

a;

n
a;

y
values
whatever.
w
have
Z, m,
any
[From the first, second and third columns

where

fourth column.]

respectively take a,

/?,

y times the

ADDITION OF ROWS OR COLUMNS

130
12.

abe

Prove that

-6
-c

-d

-d

-c

[Multiply the rows by a, -6, -e,


13.

-d

new top

to form a

row.]

Prove that

1i

^
i

"*"

'

and that a

similar result holds for a determinant of the nth order

and of

this

form.

[Subtract the top row from each of the others and expand with reference to
the top row.]

and u ll =

14. If

o
2
[From the fourth column subtract x times the
and
the
second,
third.]

15. If

u=ax*

y*

.'y

ax + by

-xy

b'

c'

a'x

prove that

bx + cy

+ b'y

b'x

column, 2x times the

first

+ c'y

ax + by

a'x \-b'y

'

[Add x times the second column


column to y times the second.]

to

y times the third

then add x times the

first

16.

Prove that
a

ax 4- by

bx + cy

ax + by

bx + cy

[Multiply the
17.

first

column by

the second

-x
b

equal to

(x

by

z
)

2
(ax 4 2bxy

+ cy 2

-x

a~-x

c-x

-a -6 -c -d)(a? -a 4-6 - c +d){x* -

).

and subtract from the

y,

bed

Prove that the determinant


a

is

x,

= - (ac - b

(a

c)

(6

third.]

APPLICATION OF REMAINDER THEOREM

METHOD OF FACTORS

bed

B.
18.

x+a

Prove that

19. If 25 ~ a

x+b

x+c

x+d

+ b 4- c, prove

(s-c)
2

[Show that s'


and find

factor,

(.s-a)
6

(*~6)

--

6,

by putting a

A'

-a)

(s

are factors

2,

deduce that

Ns is

the remaining

&~0, c0.]

20. Express the following in factors


(i)

2
2

- a,

that

(a

-x*(x + a + b+c + d).

a
- a
6)

131

(ii)

(iii)

y
1

A-h/x
21.

Prove that

[Divide the
'6'

/x,

22. If

c/c'

bc'

ca

caf 4- c'a

c'af

ab

ab' + a'b

a'6'

row by

first

b'c',

= y, and use the

A-~y4-aS,
I

fA

b'c'

the second by
example.]

c'a',

the third by

a'6'.

last

prove that

fJL

A2

+ b'c

be

va

Hence show that the following determinant has the same value

23. Prove that

x3
a

By

a2

a;

equating the coefficients of x on each side, show that


1

au

a2

Put

a/a'

A,

COMPLEMENTARY MINORS

132
24. If

is

a root of #

= 1, show

that a

4- baj

abed
b

+ cw z + dw 3

Hence show that the determinant is equal to


- (a + b + c 4- d) (a - b + c - { (a - c) 2
d)

14.

Minors of a Determinant.

-f-

(b

is

a factor of

- d) 2 }.

The determinant obtained by

omitting any number of rows and the same number of columns from a
given determinant A is called a minor of A.
If

we omit two rows and two columns, the resulting determinant is


and so on.
from A we omit the rows and columns which contain every element

called a second minor,


If

of a given minor,

to the

first.

we

Thus

get another minor which is said to be complementary


(a 1 6 2 ) an d (c3 eZ4 e5 ) are complementary minors of

the interchange of rows and columns, any minor of A can be put


into the left-hand top corner, and then the complementary minor can be

By

seen at a glance.

15.

Expansion of a Determinant by means of

n o rs

its

Second

Consider the determinant

In the expansion of A, the

sum

of the terms

which contain a v hz

is

and the sum of those which contain a 2 b l is - a^b^c^d^) Hence every


term in the product (^^(c^d^) occurs in the expansion.
Again, every term in A contains one element out of the first row and
one out of the second, and these elements have different suffixes.
.

Hence A

is

sign, of the

where the
rows

equal to the

sum

of all the products, each with its proper

form

first

is any minor formed from elements of the first two


two columns), and the second is the complementary

factor

(or of the first

minor.

The sign

of a

product

is

determined as follows. Take, for example,

EXPANSION BY MEANS OF MINORS


In the expansion of this product, the term
suffixes in the

same

133

occurs.

Keeping the

order, observe that

abcde
Therefore, in the expansion of J, this term occurs with a negative sign,
sign of the product is

and the

More

generally,

if

any two rows

of a

ar

br

cr

df

br

cr '

...

determinant

hr

... rif'

kr

...

kr

'

...

. .

'.

are

where hr hr belong to the sth column and kr kr to the s'th column, then
A -ZX - I) r + r '+*+*'(h r kr >) (the complementary minor of (h r kr >)).
>

The summation is to include all the minors which can be formed from
The sign of the product may be determined as above, or as
in Art. 7 by counting the number of moves required to bring h r to the
place occupied by a x and k r to the place occupied by 6 2

the two rows.

'

>

Thus, in the instance given above, the sign of

In a similar

way we can expand

(b 1 d 2 )(a 3 c4 e^) is

given by

a determinant in terms of the rth

minors which can be formed from any r rows (or columns).

NOTE.

In the

double-suffix

following convenient form:


is

sign

Ex.
It

is

1.

'

In

notation of Art. 20, the rule takes the


a rs ...) (complementary minor), the
(a>j> q

1 VP+^'t" *"+*+

Expand A = (a 1 6 ac3rf4

in terms of the minors of the rows containing al and a,.

easy to verify that

+(A)(to)
Ex.

2.

Prove that if
aiui

<>i

c8
c*

Pi
Pz

P*

nt

m^

rc 2

m2
Pa

Considering the minors of J, which can be formed from the elements of the first
three rows, the only o^e not equal to zero is (a 1 6 ac a ), and the complementary minor is
Moreover, the term a^c^^m^n^ occurs in the expansion of J, therefore

Again, A
second and

is

transformed into A' by the interchange of the first and fourth, the
and the third and sixth columns. Whence the second result follows.

fifth

MULTIPLICATION OF DETERMINANTS

134
16.

Product

As a typical case

of Two Determinants of the


we shall prove that
bl

4-

Denote the determinants on the


a,

left

61

by A and

a^

4-

bl

same Order.

then we have

al

6,

a2

Cinvn

-1

-1

-1

-1
where the second determinant
the third column add
fourth column

times the

add L times the

Hence, as in the

last

JJ'H-1)

obtained from the

is

first

first

and

and

as follows

first

times the second

To

to the

times the second.

example,

2
.
I

+v

aj, 2

4-

-1

bfl

-1
whence the

result.

The product of two determinants of (he n-th order (n>2) can be expressed
in a similar form, and by the same method.
Second method.

It

is

aJi

4-

b^wii

a3Z1

4-

b3

The determinant A

required to show that

+ c^n-^

l 4-

is

c^
the

^A, where

al 2 4- b^w

4-

61

m3

a3

4-

63

sum

2 4-

b^i

of 27 determinants,

two

4-

cx

of

which are

and

wliich are the

same

as
^i

ai

c\

b2

a2

c2

and
b3

The second

of these is zero,

and the

first is

b3

equal to

With regard to the sign, observe that Iim 2n 3 is transformed into


by the same number of interchanges of letters as those required to change
a 1 62c3 into b^c^. This number is odd, and therefore the sign is
.

Of the 27 determinants, all are equal to zero except the six of the first
type, in which a's are in one column, 6 s in another and c's in the third.
J

RECTANGULAR ARRAYS

135

Moreover, for reasons similar to the above, (a^c^) is a factor of each of the
six, and the other factor is a term (with the proper sign) of (Iitn 2 n$), there-

J = (a

fore

6 c

(I

).

similar result holds for determinants of the nth order (n

= 4,

...).

17. Rectangular Arrays. A number of symbols arranged in rows


and columns is called a rectangular array.
If the number of rows is not equal to the number of columns, the array
is
generally enclosed by double lines, and is sometimes called a matrix.
Let the number of columns exceed the number of rows.

(1)

Consider the arrays

!;

Proceeding as in the

al

a2

li

"2

C2

last article,

fro

n^

Wl
I lit)

W
tin

we form the determinant

J = al + bm + cn
!

By

reasoning similar to that in Art. 16

This process

is

it will

be seen that

called multiplying the arrays.

determinant formed thus from two such arrays is equal to


the sum of the products obtained by multiplying every determinant which can
be formed from one array by the corresponding determinant formed from the

In general,

the

other array.
(2) Let the
If

number of rows exceed

number of columns.

the

from the arrays


a2

b2

a3

we form

||

the determinant

^2^3 -f

it will

63

be seen that

J =0.
J

b 2 m^

+ bm
22

This follows, as in Art. 16, or from the fact that


&x

62

b,

m
m2
w3
l

In general, the determinant formed by multiplying two such arrays

is zero.

RECIPROCAL DETERMINANTS

136
Ex.

// *r = a

1.

+ yr + 3r

prove that

^2

S3

The

first

54

two

55

^3

&A

S6

results are obtained

by squaring the arrays

1111

1111,

aj8y&

The

last is

Ex.

2.

y
2
y

j3

a2

S2

got by squaring the determinant in Ex. 2 of Art. 13.

Prove

that

2(a t - a z ) (o a - a 3 ) (a 3 - ^5(6! - 6 2 ) (6 2 - 6 3 )

This result

is

obtained by forming the product


a,

Reciprocal Determinants.

18.

where

^ij,

l9

...

-2b 1
-26 2

Let

are the cofactors of a l9 b v

...

6j

622

^ = (^63

in A.

...

k n ) and

For reasons connected

are sometimes called inverse


with linear transformations, A v
19 ...
elements, and A' is called the reciprocal determinant.
(1)

//

is

a determinant of

minant, then

The .following
identities of the

A'

method
type

=A

applies in all cases.

al A l

is the reciprocal deter-

n ~~ l

Let A==(a i b2 c3 ), then using

+ fej JBj + c l C l == A

aA% -f 6^82 +
it will

and A'

the n-th order

c i@2

" 0>

be seen that

J
A
whence

it

follows that

J'= J

2
.

SPECIAL METHODS OF EXPANSION

Any minor

(2)

of A' of order r

is

137

equal to the complement of the corre-

r ~l

provided that A^O.


sponding minor of A multiplied by A
As a typical instance, let J = (a 3 62 c3d4 ). We shall prove that,
,

then
.

We

and

(A,B<>C) =<LJ

if

2
.

have

A
A

c2

C^

7?

64

000

C4

ca

d1

c2

d2

c3

d3

c,

d.

therefore

and
The second identity

is

obtained by multiplying

11

jLjL-\

JLJ-\

juL

-^2

Oi

/y.

D
B
0001

AS

Two Methods

19.

C3

of Expansion.

reference to the elements of a

With

(1)

A by

and

Let

row and column.

^=
m
n

m
Let ^j,

jBj, ...

be the cofactors of a v bv

...

in A.

In the expansion of K, the sum of the terms containing r is Ar


every
other term contains one of the three I, m, n and one of the three V m', n'.
:

>

and

Again,

are complementary minors of

r
hence, coefficient of IV in

K=

coefficient of a^r in

= - coefficient
and

of a x

in

K
J = - Al

similarly,
coefficient of

mri

m K=

- coefficient

= - coefficient
Thus

it will

of c2r in

of c2

J = - C2

in

be seen that

Ar - {AJl' + B2 mm' + Cz nn
-f

4-

C2mn'

B3m'n + A 3nl' + C^ril + BJm' + A zl'm}.

DOUBLE-SUFFIX NOTATION

138
(2)

With reference

Let

a diagonal.

to

c.

/? 2

C3

x2

-f

is

+ #3^64 -f x^

# B2 -f

03 +

Note that the expression

x)

in brackets is the

sum

of

x^x^a^ x

terms derived from these by the cyclic transpositions

The
20.
in the

verification

d2

c2

be the cofactors of the elements in the leading diagonal

Cr^efy? 4

7^4

a2

of J, then the value of A'

-f

K=

&3

Let

and

dl

Cx

&!_

a2

is left

xj) 3 c 2

and

to the reader.

Definitions.

(a&c), (123).

determinant of the nth order

is

often written

form

lw

Denoting any element by a rs the determinant is said to be symmetric


a sr = a rs
a sr = -a rs
the determinant is skew-symmetric: it is
If
,

if

implied that

the elements in the leading diagonal are zero.

all

For example,

if

a
h

first

f m

-y

is
symmetric and L
determinant is bordered by

the determinant

that the

is
I,

Ox
-x

skew-symmetric.
m, n.

We

also say

Symmetric Determinants.

21.

// A rs A 8r are the cofactors of the elements a rs> a sr of a symmetric


determinant J, then A r8 = A sr
(1)

For

A r8

Thus

is

transformed into

A sr

by changing rows into columns.

^ = (011

if

au

a 12

a31

a32

a*>.

OM),
Z

a21

32*

SYMMETRIC DETERMINANTS
(2)

For the determinants

J=

K=

139

f m

we have

the following important relations


(i)

EC - J 2 - Aa, GH-AF = Af,

where A, B, ... are the cofactors of


These follow from Arts. 18, 19.

etc.

a, 6,

...

in J.

Consider the following symmetric determinants

Let A, B,
if J=0,

K = - (Al* 4- Bm* + Cn*+ 2Fmn 4- 2Gnl + 2TZm),

(ii)

(3)

be the cofactors of

...

then

AK==Z -(Al +

Because A = 0,

...

a, b,

:'

We

in J.

shall

prove that,

Hm + Gn)*.

the coefficient of r in the expansion of

is

zero, therefore

- AK = A (Al* + J3m2 + Cn2 4- 2*W -h 2flW 4- 2ff Iro).

^J5-ff2 = Jc,

C^-(? 2 -J6, GH-AF=Af, etc.


Hence AB = H2 AC^ G 2 AF = G^F, etc. and therefore
- AK = ^ 2 Z 2 + #2m 2 + 2 n 2 + 2GHmn + 2^GwZ -f 2AHlm = (Al + Hm + Grip.
Moreover,

way we can prove that


- BK = (TZ 4- Bm 4- JFn) 2 and

In the same

More generally, using

the notation of Art. 20,

A n = (a n a22

...

...

and

let

A U) A 12

inA n r Then, ifA n _ l


A nA n
(A u a ln + A 12^2n +
.,

let

^ n -i==(a n a 22

a nn ),

the determinants being symmetric,

a 12

- CX - (67 H- J?m 4- Cn) 2


a n-i>
,

...

n-i)>

be the cofactors of a n

with similar values for

A 22A n A^A n
,

A!, n _ 1 a w _ 1 n )
,

....

asr = ar8 A 8r ~A r8 and


(1), since
expanding
J w -i == 0, we have A n - - (^ n a ln 2 + ^ 22a 2n 2 + + 2^ 12 m2n +
Now, since A n _l = 0, every minor of the reciprocal determinant
as

For,

in

Art.

19,

(-^11^22
is

zero.

Hence, by

Using such

^n-l> n-l)

and A^A^^A^A^.
(2), A n A 99 ^A^
follows that A n A n has the value stated.

Art. 18,

identities, it

B.C.A.

SKEW-SYMMETRIC DETERMINANTS

140

The following

(4)

result is of great importance.

Consider the symmetric determinants

a-x

a-x

b-x

b-x
f

a-x

~x

J 2 J 3 J4

Denote these by

J 2 ^3

Jj,

Then

above type.

d-x

a-x, and suppose

Let A^

the sequence

be continued indefinitely by constructing determinants of the

>

b-x
f
f c-x

the roots of the equations

4=0, J 2 =o, J 8 =o,...,


are all real, and the roots of any one of them are separated by those of the

preceding equation.

A 1? A 2 (A 1 <A2 )

If

cise

XI,

x has the values -

oo

/x2 ,

/u, 3 ,

if

we have

/x t

x has the values

J4

are

so

Exer-

</z 2

=
3

^1

</n3

then A^A^

+,-,+>->

fa,

are real

negative.
-f

/^2 ,

-f

Hence
.

in ascending

oo

is

are

is

negative; hence,

and are separated by those

of

Zl 3

= 0;

Skew-symmetric Determinants.

For

cofactors

For

(see

on without end.

22.
(1)

J4 =

if

zJ 3

and denoting them

<A

/^3 ,

oo

therefore the roots of

and

A x <a<A2

then A^A^

the signs of

are real,

<A

Again, as in the last section,

the signs of

J 2 = 0,

A 1? A2 oo

J^O

Therefore the roots of


order by fa,

if

then

2).

Also, as in the last section,


if

J 2 = 0,

are the roots of

skew-symmetric determinant (^u


- n ~l A
rs
ofa rs asr then A sr = ( l)
the

A r8

22 , ...

a nn ), if

A rs A 8r
,

are the

A sr

by changing the sign of every element


and then changing rows into columns and since A rs is a determinant of
(n-1) rows, the result follows.
Thus in the determinant
is

transformed into

-c
-6
the cofactors of c and

c are

-c
-b
and one

of these

is

-a

1)

and

times the other.

-a

THE PFAFFIAN

141

Every skew-symmetric determinant of odd order is equal to zero.


For if A is a skew-symmetric determinant of odd order n, and A'
(2)

is

the

determinant obtained by changing the sign of every element in A,


A'

But A' can

= (-\} nA=-A.
from

also be obtained

thatJ'=J: whence

A by

changing rows into columns, so


For example,

the result follows.

-c
-6
(3)

-a

Every skew-symmetric determinant of even order

(i)

A n = (a u a 22

Let

. . .

J n ^ = (a n a 22

a nn ),

a perfect square.

is

a^,

n _ x ),

where

is

For n = 2,

even and the determinants are skew-symmetric.

12

*12

Let

^4

^4 12 ,

...

A n _l =

by the preceding
that a sr =

-a rs

... in J n
_!.
n
=
and A sr (-l) ~ 2A rs = A rs

be the cofactors of a n a 12

exactly as in Art. 21,

A ll A n = (A ll a ln + A

(3),

Since n

is

even,

Remembering

we can show that

^ 2n + ...+A lin _

a n _ ltn )* ................. (A)

A n is a perfect square, so also is A n moreover, A u is a skewdeterminant


of order n - 2
and it has been shown that such a
symmetric
determinant of order two is a perfect square, therefore the same is true for
Hence

if

those of orders four, six, etc.


(ii)

If

is

even and

J n = S n2

the value of 8 n *

is

given by the following

rule.

Write down all the arrangements in pairs of the numbers


Denote any such arrangement by (M), (Im), ... (uv), then
%n = Z(

a hlfllm

where the positive or negative sign


... uv is derived
from 1234

hklm

The term a l2a u

transpositions.
(a)

where

The

rule is suggested

A n A 12 A 13
,

is to be
...

...

a n _ lt n

which agrees with the


*

is to

or by

have the sign

J3

find that

rule.

Named

the Pfafflan,

an odd number of

when n = 4. By

Whence we

n.

taken according as the arrangement

are the cofactors of a n a 12 a 13 in

A 12 = -

...

a uv)>

n by an even

by the case

2, 3,

1,

by Cayley,

after J. F. Pfaff.

equation (A),

so that

VALUE OF THE PFAFFIAN

142
(j3)

n-2> we shall
holds when n = 4,

that the rule holds for determinants of order

Assuming

prove that it holds for those of order n. Then, since


it will hold for w = 6, 8, etc.
By equation (A),

Now J n _ 1 = 0,

therefore

it

Art. 18, (2),

by

Hence

etc.

by the rule. We shall show


that the signs on the right are alternately positive and negative.
The values of JA n and
Consider the product P ^m^^n a vn\JA J>v
are
rule
from
the
sets
the
obtained by
JAgp

where the values

of *JA n ,

.JA^,

etc.,

are given

2, 3, 4,

n-1

...

and

1,2,3, ...y-l,p

+ I,

...

n-1.

Moreover, every term in the expansion of P, with the proper sign, must
occur in J n
.

For clearness, the element a rs


If p

the product

is even,

will

be denoted by

contains a term

M,

(rs),

so that (sr)

which

is

= - (rs).

the product of

and

By changing the order of the numbers in each of the J(n - p) 4- 1 pairs


which are underlined, it will be seen that ( - !)*(*-*)+* jf j g the product
of elements (rs) in which corresponding values of r s are as below.
y

1,

2,

2,

3,

3,

...p-2, p-1, p, p +

4,

...y~l, p + l,

The numbers
those in the

n,

p + 2, 2> + 3,...w-2, n-1,


p + 3, p + 2,...n-l, n-2,

l,

p,

in the second line can be written in the

first

by %(n+p)

transpositions,

and

n,
1.

same order as

since

%(n-p) + l+i(n + j?) = n + l, an odd number,


it

follows that

value of 8 n

//

is

1)

numbers

is n,

It

of

<

is

a term in

Jn

so that

-#,> nNMj>j> occurs in the

odd, the corresponding process requires changes of order in


- 1) transpositions. Since the sum of these
pairs, and i(n + p

i(n -p +

rule.

which

is

even,

+a pn *JA p9

occurs in 8 n

thus

remains to be shown that the value of S n can be written down by the


It is obviously
necessary only to consider the first term in the value

MISCELLANEOUS METHODS
This

143

(pn)(l2)(34:)...(p-l,p +

is

or

according as

is

Now

even or odd.

the arrangement

+ l,

p, n, 1,2,3, ..._p-l,p

...

n-l

n by ^ + n-l transpositions. The rule


asserts that the sign of the term is + or - according as p + n - 1 is even
or odd, that is according as p is odd or even, which agrees with what has
can be derived from

...

1, 2, 3,

been proved.

EXERCISE XVI

MISCELLANEOUS METHODS

A.
1.

If a

+6

-I-

=0, solve the equation

a-x
c

0.

c-x

b
2.

-x

Prove that
(&iC 2 ) (#^2) "f ( c i a z) ftA) -f

(0iW (^1^/2) =0.

[Use the identities


tti(6 lc 2 )

3. If (a l b 2 c 3

+ 6i(c

o2 )

)=0 and

+c

a 2 (6 1 c.2 ) 4-62(0^2)

(o 1 6 2 )=0,

(^62^3)

-f

=0, prove that

(& 2c 3 )

4.

Prove that
c a -fa 2

5.

aa

Prove that

- a2

l/(a +

6. If

ca

!/(&

+ *)

l/(c

+ a)
''Q'

where

is

the product of the denominators, prove that

03(^62) =0.]

MISCELLANEOUS METHODS

144
7.

Show

that
c

8.

is

Prove that the

'

-(a + 64-c)(6-hc-a)(c+a-6)(a + 6-

c
c

skew

determinant

b
I

-a

n
x

am

equal to
9.

Prove that

10.

is

6-c
c -a
a -6
a + 6-f-c

=2(a + 6 + c){a6c

(6

c) (c

- a) (a -

6)}.

Prove that

equal to (a + l)(6-

1
lj

[This follows from Ex. XV, 13,


by the same method.]

by putting

+a ~
l

I/a, 1

+a

or, directly,

11.

Prove the following


(i)

(ii)

(Hi)

(iv)

- ax

by

cz.

- (ax + by + 02) (ax' + 6t/' + cz').

-6)(a + 6-c).

where 2*=

1/6, etc.

PRODUCTS OF DETERMINANTS
12.

145

Denoting the squares of the differences ft - y, y - a, a - j8 by


- 8, - 8 by I', m' n'
8, /?
y
respectively, prove that

and those of a -

/,

m, n

prove that

determinant A, when x= a
~
the same, then (x -a) p l is a factor of J
rows
become
(i) p
- a) p + ~~ a
(ii) p rows become the same and q columns become the same, then (x
a factor, provided that the common elements are zero or are divisible by (x - o) 2
14. If in a

ff

is

B.
15.

PRODUCTS

Write down as a determinant the product


b

is

y
x

y
X

Hence show that the product of two expressions of the form a 3 + 6 3 -f c 3 - 3abc
of the same form.
16.

Prove that

[Consider the product

17.

By

forming the product on the

a*

where J 1 =a 1 c 1 -6 1

1
,

c,

-26,

a,

c.j

- 2&2

Oj

I^^

left,

prove the identity on the right,

-^b^

etc.

24,
7 12

2J

/31

/,

2J 3

PRODUCTS OF ARRAYS

146
18.

forming the product

By

a+

ib

c+ld

-c +

id

a - ib

b'+la'
-d'+lc'

d'

ic'

V - la'

prove that
2

(a

H-

62

+ cz + d2

where l=(6c'),
19.

(a

/2

-f 6'

+ c'* + d'*)

m = (ca'), n = (ab')

V = (ad'), m' = (M'), n' = (ci').

2
2 2
2
Express (P + 2 4-3 + 5 ) as the sum of four squares by taking
c, rf and 2, 5, 1,3 for a', &', c', d'.

1, 2, 3,

for a, 6,

20.

By

multiplying the arrays on the

left,

prove that the determinant A

V
m'

2ir

m'

lm' -f I'm

n'

n'

nl'

Hence prove that

if

+ l'm
2mm'
mn' + m'n
Im'

+ n'l

ax*2hxy+ by* +-2gX'*r2fy + c

nl'

21.

+ n'l

2nn'

the product of two linear

=0.

Prove that
=0.

[Multiply the two arrays of four rows


||

al

a^

etc.

Prove that
(i)

...

1*1...
1

...

the determinant being of the nth order.


(ii)

etc.

MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS AND EXAMPLES

C.

22.

-26 t

ab

a + nb

a + b.

a + nb

a + (n-

a+b

1)6

a + 2b

+ 2b

a + nb

a. (n-

zero.

mn' + m'n

factors, then

is

APPLICATION TO GEOMETRY

147

23. If

prove that u n ^a nu n

[Expand with reference to the bottom row.

Such determinants are

called

continuants,,]

(ii)

sin

Hence show
(j3

y) sin (y

f sin (y

(iii)

that, If a,

Use the

- a)

-a)

sin

(a

sin (y

last result to

y, 8 are

any

+ sin

/?)

8) sin (a

(/?

show that

angles,

y) sin

8) -fsin (a

if a, 6, c,

(j3

/?)

d and

8) sin

sin (a

7
,

b', c', d',

where

[(ii)

In

(i)

put

m = (ca'),
~ cos
z

(iii)

Let

a, 6, c,

circuits a, b,

c,

n=(a6

x = cos 2a 4- 1

2y + 1 sin

a', &', c', d'

sin(a-8)__

),

sin 2a,

d make angles

d and

8) sin (ft

6, c,

8)

= 0.

are the lengths

d are parallel to

LMN + Lmn + Mnl + NlmQ,

respectively, then

= (6c'),

8)

a', b', c', d'

of the sides of two quadrilaterals such that the sides a,

(y

2y,

a,

on

/?,

L = (ad')>
y = cos
2

y, $

M=

2)9 -f

= cos 28 +

(bd') 9

sin

sin 28.

with a fixed

N = (cd').

2/J,

line.

By projecting

lines perpendicular to d, a, 6,

_sin(ft-

c,

the

prove that

APPLICATION TO GEOMETRY

148

Prove that the equations (i), (ii) are respectively the equation to the
joining (x^y^, (x t y t ) and the equation to the plane through
26.

(ii)

2/2

Show

-0.

also that the last equation


'>__'*
A/

X/j

^2

"~

'i

Vi

*i

^2

2/2

^2

'3

2/3

23

be written in the form

may
41

line

<!/

Mj

#1

2/1

2/2

fi, C, Z> are four points in a plane and the lengths BC, CA, AB, AD,
are denoted by a, b, c, x, y 9 z, prove that these are connected by the

27. If ^4,

BD,

CD

equation
c2

62

z2

a
b2

a2

x*

z*

z2

-0.

11110

[Let (x l9

y^

(x 2 ,

y*

be the coordinates of the points.

y 2 ),

X2

l/ 2

-2z

Multiply the arrays

000
28. In a tetrahedron

by

a, 6, c, d, e,

sphere

is

...

the volume

is

F, the radius of the circumscribing

E.

Assuming equation

A B

A BCD, the lengths BC, CA,AB,AD, BD, CD are denoted

/ respectively
(i),

prove equation

where (x v y lt

Zj),

(x 2 ,

y2

z 2 ),

...

are the coordinates of

(ii).

and use the equations


z.i

Note the value of

this

determinant given in Ex.

)^c>,
11, (iv).

etc.]

CHAPTER X
SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS
1.

Systems of Equations.

variables x,
is

t/, ...

which

If

is satisfied

w=

is

an equation connecting the


...
then (xj, j/j, ...)

when x = x ly y = y ly

u = 0.

called a solution of

= 0,
If the
be a system of equations connecting x, y,
solution
are
said
to
be
have
a
common
con(x l9 y l9 ...), they
equations
sistent, and (x l9 y v ...) is called a solution of the system u^Q, v~0 ...
Let u =

0, v

. . .

. . .

Equations which have no common solution are said to be inconsistent.


Equations which are homogeneous in x,y, ... have the common solution
(0, 0, ...), in

which each

of the variables is zero

some other common solution

be consistent unless

but they are not said to

exists.

one equation of a system is satisfied by all the values of x, y, ... which


satisfy the others, the equations are said to be not independent.
To eliminate a variable x from two equations is to obtain from these
If

two an equation

free

from

Any

x.

result so obtained

must hold

if

the

equations are consistent.

To
exist).

solve a

This

system of equations is to obtain


done by a process of elimination.

all

the solutions

(if

any

is

Illustrations.

The equations x + y = 1, x + y = 2, which represent

planes), are inconsistent.


The equations u 0, v

So also are the equations

= 0,

lu

+ tnv-0

u~ 0, v = 0,

parallel lines (or

2% + 3v = 4.

are not independent.

Equivalent Systems. (1) Two systems of equations are said to


be equivalent when every solution of either system is a solution of the
other. In such cases we may say that one system is the same as the other.
2.

(2)

// a v a 2

are constants

...

MI
is equivalent to the

= O,

and a l ^0
w 2 =0,

...

the system of equations

w n = 0,

system

For any solution

a solution of the second and, since


a l is a constant (not zero), any solution of the second system is a solution
of the first.
of the first

system

is

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS

150

m, V m' are constants such that Zw'-Z'ra^O, then


=
is equivalent to the pair
equations w 0, v
If

(3)

I,

lu

+ mv

Vu + m'v = 0.

0,

For any values of the variables

the pair of

z, y,

which

...

satisfy

w = 0, v =

also

satisfy the second pair.

Moreover, any values of

x, y,

satisfy

m'(lu

which

...

+ mv) - m (Vu + m'v) = 0,

+ mv)+

l(l'u

- I'm) u - 0,

(Im

l'(lu

satisfy the second pair also

+ m'v)~0,

which are the same as


f

(lm

and

since

It

Irri

is left

-Z'w^O,

these are the

same as w = 0,

Any

(5)

the two pairs

M2 = V 2

1/^2-^2,
But

solution of the system

^1=^1,

W2 = v2

the second pair of equations is equivalent to the two pairs

w1 = t;1

u%

= v2 and w2 = 0,

t;

= 0.

Systems of Linear Equations.

3.

the chief difficulty


(1)

is

formal proof

(2)

to include

The equation ax + by + c

6=0, e^O, in which


is

all

In considering this subject,


the special cases which may arise.

has infinitely

many

solutions, unless

case there is no solution.

hardly required.

Consider the equations

excluding the case in which either


(i)

= 0.

to the reader to supply proofs of the following

a solution of

t>

The pair of equations uv = 0, w==0 is equivalent to


and v = 0, w = 0.
w=0, w =

(4)

is

- I'm) v = 0,

is

of the

form Ox + Oy + c = 0.

If (a 1 62 )^0, there is an unique solution.


2, (3), the equations are equivalent to

For by Art.

Wj62

which are the same as

-w

2 &!

=0,

- w xa2 + u<p t = 0,

<&

= 0,

INCONSISTENT EQUATIONS
(ii)

//

(a 1 62 )

= 0,

if

(ai& 2 )

= 0, we

For

151

the equations are inconsistent unless also

have w x 62 - u2 b

(b^) =0 and

Hence the equations cannot have a common solution unless (b^) and
c a
( i %) are

both

zero.

If (a 1 62 ), (ft^), (c^) are

(iii)

same, and there are infinitely


For in this case

all zero, the

many

two equations are one and the

solutions.

and

u^a^u^av
Hence any solution of one equation is a solution of the other, or else an a
is zero and a 6 is zero.
The latter alternative cannot occur.
For example, suppose that a^O; then by hypothesis fc^O and
a 2 61 = a 1 62 = 0, therefore a2 = and b2 ^0.
Hence the equations are one and the same.
uj) 2 =zuj)i

The case in which

(iv)

the equations are inconsistent

may

be regarded from

another point of view.

Suppose the
(6^2)

bja

We

&2/a

finite

y to vary in such a way that (a^-^O while


then #-><x> y->oo and the fractions x/y,
,

equality.

=
say that in the limiting case when (a^) 0, the equations are
- fe a l or - 62 a2
x
by infinite values of x, y which are in the ratio

shall

satisfied

(3)

coefficients of x,

and (c^) remain


l9
2 tend to

Ifa^x + b l y =

and a 2x + b<$ = 0, then

either

x = 0,y = Qor

else

(a^) = 0.

Conversely, if (afi^^Q these equations have solutions other than (0,0),


they are consistent.

i.e.

This

is

a particular case of the preceding.

The following
Ex.

1.

=0

=0 or

and (a x c2 ) ^=0, then (6 x c 2 )


(o^)
satisfy the equations a x 6 2
aj} { =0,

//

For a lf a 2

results are required later.


else

a x =0, a a =0.

a^ - afa ~0.

are not all zero and


Ex. 2. // (a 1 6 8 )=0, (6 1 cs )=0 and (c l a 2 )=0, where a lf b lt
#2 ^2> c a are not all zero, then of the pairs (a l9 a 2 ), (b l9 6 2 ), (c lf c2 ) there is at least one in

which neither quantity is zerb.


For suppose that fl^O, then
6 t =0,

if a a =0 we should have o^ =0, a^ =0


which
the
contradicts
=0,
Cg
hypothesis. Hence, if a^O, then

Ex. 3. Let A =(0^3) and l& A\> B


oe the cofactors of a lt 6j .....
A =0 and CB = Q, then either Cl =0, C2 =0 or else A B =0, B3 =0.
For we have
a l C l 4 a2 C 2 = 0, &!<?! + 6 2 C2 = 0, cl Cl + c2 O2 = 0,

and therefore

Prove that if

^=0, C2 =0, or else (6 1 c 2 )=0, (c 1 a 8 )=0, i.e. ^4 3 =0, B^-0.


Or thus: Using identities of the type (^^3)= Ja t it will be seen that
(OjBa), (C 2 A 9 ), (C 2 B3 ) are all zero. Whence the result follows.
therefore either

(Ci-4 t ),

LINE AT INFINITY

152
4.

Three Linear Equations.

Consider the equations


0,

Let ^^(a^Cg), and

let

.4^

...

l9

be the cofactors of a x b l9
,

(1) //"<A6 equations are consistent, then

For on account of the

J = 0.

identities

+ a 2 C 2 -f o3 C3 = 0,

a l Cl

C^ +

we have

...

Hence, if the equations are


must have

(7 2

w2

satisfied

by the same values

of x, y,

we

AQ.

=
If A

Ae equations are consistent and have an unique solution except


when every C is zero ; in which case each of the equations (assumed to be
distinct) is inconsistent with either of the others.
(2)

For by the preceding, u l C l + u 2 C 2 + w3 <73 = 0.


(i)

// no

is zero,

the equations are not independent.

= and w 2 = 0, w3 = are
(ii) // CjL-0, C 2 7^0, C 3 =Q, then u 2 C 2 4- u 3 C 3
the same equation.
In both of these cases, since C3 ^0, the equations w 1 = 0, w 2 = have an
unique solution, which is the solution of the system.

= 0, C2 = 0, C3 9^0, then w 3 ==0. This case is excluded.


(iv) // every C is zero and the equations are distinct, each is inconsistent
with either of the others. In this case we may say that the equations are
(iii)

7/C'1

satisfied

5.

by infinite values of

The Line

say that the

x,

y which are in

the ratio

For the sake

at Infinity.

of

- 6X a r
:

complete generality we

'

equation/

Ox + 0y-hc =
represents the line at infinity.
w = meets the line at infinity

The
is

where

c^O,

ideal point in

which a straight line


on that line.

called the point at infinity

Parallel straight lines are to be regarded as meeting on the line at infinity.

For the

lines

w = 0, u + k = Q

intersect

on the

line

Ox-f Oy

+ k = 0.

These

conventions enable us to include various special cases under one heading.


Illustration.

// u 1 =0, w 2

and
A =0.

then the necessary


at infinity) is

0,

u3 =0

(as above) are the equations to three straight lines,

sufficient condition that they

may

meet at a point (which

may

be

SYMMETRICAL FORM
6.

Two

Equations

in

Three Unknowns.

Consider the equations

^O,

........................... (A)

= 0,

........................... (B )

excluding the case in which a l9 b l9


(1)

Of the

three

153

(0^), (^2)5

or a 2 , 6 2 , Cg are all zero,

Cj

c i a a)>

that at least one,

oppose

say (a l b 2 )

>

is

not zero, then the equations are equivalent to

- %a 2 + u2a l = 0,

Wj&jj

~ w^i ^

which are the same as

-(aA)y + (Cia2 )z=(a ld2 ),


-(b l c 2 )z +

........................... (C)

(a l b2 )x^(b l d 2 ) ............................ (D)

z, there are definite values of x and y,


and (c^) are not both zero.
If (6 1 c 2 =
and (c 1 a 2 ) = 0, then x and y have definite values and z may
have any value. (In fact, we have ^ = 0, c2 = 0.)
Thus in every case, by Art. 3, Ex. 1, there are infinitely many solutions.

Corresponding to any value of

provided that

c
(fc 1 2 )

(2)

(a v

Suppose
2 ),

(b ly

quantity

is

that

(a^), (b^), (c^) are

all

(See Art. 3, Ex. 2.)

zero.

Also

Then

zero.

6 2 )j (Cj, c 2 ) there is at least one, say (a l9

of the pairs

a2 ), in which neither

we have

t^aj-wg^ss -((*&) ............................... (E)


Thus the equations are of the form 1^ = 0,
+ ^ = 0, where k~(a l d2)/a 2
and they are inconsistent unless k = 0.

(3)

In particular

it

follows that the equations

a i x + b^j
are always consistent
are equivalent to

(i.e.

-f

cz = 0,

a 2x

+ 6gt/ 4- c^ = 0,

they have solutions other than

(0, 0, 0)).

They

^/(b^) =y/(cl a 2 )=z/(a 1 b 2 ),

provided that no denominator

is

zero.

=0, they are equivalent to x = 0, y/(Cia 2 )=z/(a l b2 ).


= 0, then x = 0, y 0, and z may have any value.
(6^2) =0 and (0^2)

If (6^2)

If

(4) If (a,

j3,

y)

is

any solution

of (A), (B), these

may

be written

which are equivalent to

(x-a)/(V2 ) = 2/-^)/(c1 a2 ) = (z-y)/(aA)


(

provided that no denominator

is

=0, they are equivalent to

If

=0 and

(0^2)

= 0,

................. (F)

zero.

If (6^2)

(6^)

then x=oc,

y==)8,

and

may have any

value.

INTERSECTION OF TWO PLANES

154
NOTE.

Much

Equations

labour can be saved by the following considerations.


unchanged by the simultaneous cyclic substitutions (Oi6 1 c 1 ),
If then we make these changes in any equation derived from (A) and

(A), (B) are

(a*6 2 c2 ), (xyz).
(B),

the resulting equation will also hold.

from

For example, equation (D) can be derived

(C) in this way.

The Equation

7.

to a Plane.

The equation

(1)

represents a plane unless a, 6, c are all zero.


For the sake of complete generality we say that the

Ox + 0y + 0z + d =
represents an
(2)

to

Two

'

equation

d^O

where

ideal plane called the plane at infinity.

= 0, w2 = be the equations
Eeferring to Art. 6, let
In general these intersect in a line, and we say that the

Planes.

two

planes.
equations to the line are 1^=0, u2 Q. The equations may be written in one
of the forms described in Art. 6, (4), where (a, /S, y) is any point on the line.
The equation to any plane through the line u 1 ==0, w2 = is of the form

u l + ku 2

where k

Parallel Planes.

is

a constant.

(a^), (b^), (c^) are

If

zero, the planes

all

^ = 0,

u2 =

do not intersect, that is to say they are parallel.


Hence the equation to any plane parallel to the plane ^==0
form ul + k^0, where A; is a constant. All this follows from Art.

We

is

of the

6, (2).

therefore say that parallel planes intersect in a line on the plane at

infinity.

Ex.

1.

The condition

whose equations are

that the line

(x-a)ll = (y-fllm = (z-y)ln

may

be parallel to the plane

is la

+ mb + nc == 0.

If the line

// also au + bp+cy + d=Q, then the line is in the plane.


meets the plane at (x, y, z) and each fraction in (A) is denoted by

where

2.

The condition

~~

may
and
If

meet in a point

if

(x,

lll

-a ) = 0,
/

m
/

then

~~

z)

= m/m
and

which

satisfies

value.

the last equation unless

Hence the

results follow.

whose equations are

'

m'

I'

- a') (mn' - m'ri)

the lines are parallel if

the lines meet at

r exists

may have any

thai the lines

r,

+ mb + nc)-faa

r(la

If /a-fra6 + wc=0, no value of


o + bp -f cy + d = 0, in which case r

Ex.

............................... (A)

+(f$- fi') (nl'

~
n'

'

- n'l) +
(y y') (lm' I'm) =0,

n/n'.
f

(x -a)/J=r, (x-<xf)ll'~r

mr~wV

4-(j8~^ )=0,

we have

nr-nV-f (y -/)=0.

CRITERION FOR UNIQUE SOLUTION


These equations are

by the same

satisfied

a -a'

P~p'
y-y'

(finite)

I'

m'

ri

values of

155

r, r' if

=0,

provided that (mri), (nl') (lm') are not all zero : but if these three are all zero, the
values of r, r' are infinite. In the latter case equations (A) are satisfied by infinite
values of x, y, z and the lines are parallel.
9

Three

8.

Unknowns.

Three

in

Equations

equations
i2/

~*~

ciz

Consider the

+ d-i =
.(A)

Let A==(a 1 b 2c3 ) and


Also

A l ^(d 1 b2c,)

let

On

let

19

ly

...

be the cofactors of a l9 b l9

A 2 ^(a 1 d2c3

...

in A.

J 8 -(

account of the identities

we have
and
and

Suppose

(1)
it is

u l B l -i-u 2 B2 + u^B3 ^ Ay + A 2y

similarly,

that

given by

We

........................ (C)

A^O. The last identities show that if a solution exists


3= -4/J, y= -'A^/A, z=-AJA .................... (D)

can show by actual substitution that these values of #, y, z satisfy


Or we may use the following method, in which every step

the equations.

is reversible, so that verification is unnecessary.

Because

Suppose that

zero.

Because

that

2
(A^C^) =A ^0,

is

A^^Q,

to

A^gC^^O,

so that no one of

U2 = o,

w3 = 0,

u^ = 0,

* It

2>

not

Ax - - A r

^ = 0, Jy=~J

essential to show that suffixes p, q r exist,


This step has been omitted in the text-books.
is

19

is

zero.*

B2 ^0 and C3 ^ 0, the equations are equivalent

Hence the equations have the unique


zero.

(A^B^C^

A B C3 is

the equations are equivalent to

In the same way, because


to each of the sets,

therefore at least one term of

%==0, w2 = 0,

solution,

Az= - J 3

- A-JA, -

such that none of A$ t J5a


See Chrystal, Algebra, Vol. I, p. 360.

all different,

Cr

B.CJU

is

THREE PLANES

156
(2)

= and A v A 2 A 3

If A

are not all zero, the equations are inconsistent.

For example, suppose that J 1 ^0, then

since

UiAi + UiAz + UsA^Av


it

(E)

follows that the equations have no common solution.


If we suppose the coefficients to vary so that J->0,

A v J2 J3

and at

least

one of

tends to infinity.
d
in
with
the
d.
d
large terms, we see that in
Neglecting l9 2
3
comparison
general the following ratios tend to equality
,

remains

then at least one of

finite,

x, y, z

A :B :C

x:y:z,

A2

lJ

J5 2

C2

A^

B3 C3
:

In the limiting case when A=0, we say that (he equations have a solution
(x, y, z) such that at least one of x, y, z is infinite and

x:y: z = A l B l

C^A

C a = 4 3 #3 C8
:

A l9 J 2 A 3

are all zero, the equations are not all independent and
there are infinitely many solutions ; or else each of the equations (assumed to
(3)

If A,

be distinct) is inconsistent with either of the others.

u^A^ + u 2 A 2 + u^A 3 =

For we have

If no

(i)

A =

//

(ii)

(F)

the equations are not independent,

is zero,

A^O, ^

7^0, then u 2 A 2 + u B A 3

= Q; and w 2 = 0, w3 =

same equation.

are the

the equations M 1 = 0, w 2 =
solutions which are solutions of the system.

In both cases, since

many

A.^Q,

have

infinitely

A = 0, A 2 =-Q, A^Q, we have w 3 sO, which case is excluded.


If, in the above, every A is replaced by the corresponding B or
If

(iii)

(iv)

C,

Therefore the only remaining case is that in which


minor
is
A
zero, and then every two of the equations are inconevery
of
or they are one and the same.
sistent
similar results follow.

Ex.

We

1.

// a,

6,

are unequal, solve the equations

have
1

a2

62

c2

<P

b*

and the values

9.

of y, z are obtained

Three Planes.

by the

(i)

(ii)

which

If

A^O

(d-b)(d-c)
(a-6)(a-c)'

cyclic substitutions (a6c), (xyz).

Referring to 8, let

equations to three planes, then

x+y+z~I,

^=0,

w 2 = 0, Wg=0 be the

they meet in the point given by the equations in Art.

// A =0 and A l9 A 2 J 3
,

8, (1).

are not all zero, two of the planes meet in a line

is parallel to the third plane.

FOUR PLANES
(iii)

// A,

J x J 2 ^s
>

157

are a M zero the planes have a


>

common

line of inter-

section or they are all parallel.

Proof of

Suppose that

(ii).

Jx ^

We

0.

have

J 1 ........................... (A)
A l ............................. (B)
,

On account of (A), at least one A is not zero. Let A l


=
w2 0, w 3 = are not parallel and, on account of (B),
section does not meet the plane % = 0.
Observe that

which

all the

planes are parallel

is parallel to the line,

The truth

of

(iii)

follows

Hence we conclude

0,

then the planes

their line of inter-

to the line

w 2 = 0, w3 = 0.
from Art.

that, if

or else they hare a

infinity,

8, (3).

J=0,

common

a point at
which may be

the planes either meet in


line of intersection,

at infinity.

Four

10.

Equations

in

Three

Unknowns.

Consider the

equations

u^a^x + b^j + c x z -f d x =0,


= 0,
= 0.
Let

A = (^i^a^) an ^

^ ^i>

BI>

^ e ^he cof actors

If the equations are consistent, then


For, as in Art. 4, (1), we have

(1)

of a l9 b

...

A =0.

u l D 1 + w 2 D2 + w 3 J53 -f ^4^4 = d
(2)

//

A =0,

^Ae equations are consistent

when every D is

and have an unique

solution except

zero.

This follows from the identity


== 0.

is zero, the equations are inconsistent, but they are


// every
as
having a common infinite solution, unless every minor of
regarded

(3)

to

be

is

which case there are infinitely many solutions.


explained with reference to four planes in Exercise XVII, 17.
The methods already described apply to systems of linear equations con-

zero, in

This

is

necting more than three variables,

and lead to

similar results.

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

158

EXERCISE XVII

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS


1.

Solve by means of determinants

x-y + z~Q,
2x 4- 3y - 5z = 7,
3x - 4y - 2z = - 1.

(i)

(ii)

y+z ~

1,

3y- 22 4-3^
2.

With regard

to the equations

4x 4- 7y - 142 = 10,

show that the

first

l(2x

and

find

3.

n.

2# + 32/-4z= -4,

can be expressed in the form


4-

3y - 4z) + m (x + y + z)

= n,

Hence show that the equations are

inconsistent.

With regard to the equations


4x + ly- I4z = -24, 2x + 3y-4z~ -4,
first can be put in the form

x + y + z6,

show that the


and

find

m.

4. If x, y, z

Hence show that the equations are not independent.


are not

ax

all

-f-

zero

where

-f-

63

+ c 3 H- 3a&c ==

Having given the equations


x cy + bz, y
x, y, z are

not

az + cx,

-a 2 )^i/ 2 /(l -b 2 )^z 2 /(l -c 2

x*j(l

Having given the equations


a = b cos C c cos J5, 6 c cos
-f-

deduce the following

A -f-cos
26c cos A
6

and
8.

Having given that


=1
a? 4- y 4-

prove that

.4

+a

cos

).

=a

cos

b cos

jE? -f-

cos 2

7.

bx + ay

prove that

all zero,

and
6.

bx -f cy -f- az ~cx -}~ ay + bz = 0,

a3

prove that
5.

and

by + cz

jftH-cos
-he 2

- a2

(74-2 cos
,

^4

a/sin J.

cos

B cos (7

=6/sin

J5

1,

=c/sin 6

ax + by + cz=d, a zx 4- 6 2t/ 4- C 2z = cZ 2
a 3 x 4- 6 3 ?/ 4- c*zd 3 -(d-a)(d- b) (d - c)
a*x + b*y + c*z= d* ~(d -a)(d -b)(d -c)(
,

If the equations

cy

4-

bz

6~c

__

az
c

-f

ex _ bx + ay _ ax

4-

6y 4-

a -b

are consistent, prove that either

a + b + c~Q .or (b -c)(c -a)(a -b)=abc.


[Put each fraction equal to k and eliminate x, y, z, &.]

^4,

APPLICATION TO GEOMETRY
9. If the three

that

equations of Art. 8 are distinct and

J 2 =0 and J 3

[Since
therefore

unless b 1
:

are consistent

if

Cj

=6 2

c2

=63

A =0 and Ji=0, show

if

ca .

d=Q, A l A^: A 3 =B l Bz B3 and since d l A l +d<


J 2 = d l Bl + dpB2 + d3 Bz =Q unless
^4 2 ^ 3 are all zero.]
:

10. If the equations

Also

.159

xby + cz + du,

y~cz + ax + du,

uax + by + cz
z=ax-\-bydu,
and no one of a, 6, c, d is equal to - 1, then

a= -

1,

then one of 6,

c,

is

equal to

1.

[Ex.

XVI,

10.]

Using the notation of Art. 8, show that if t* l =0, u 2 =0, w 8 =0 are the equations to three straight lines, the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle formed by
11.

them

are

triangle
12.

(4, |),

if

13.

(# 4 ,

2/4,

and that the area of the

|), (^, |),

i JV^A^-

is

Prove that

if

c^O,

valent to

and

^=0,

the equations

w 2 = 0, u^=0 of Art. 8 are equi-

A^

deduce the solution in the form already given.

Show

that the condition that the points (x l9 y l9 2 X ), (x 2 , y29 z z )


be in the same plane is

24 )

,(x^ 9

t/ s ,

may

y\

~
"i

2/3

23

2/4

Z4

n
^*

14. Using the notation of Art. 10, consider the lines whose equations are
U!=Q, 1*2=0 and w a =0, w 4 =0. It is required to find the equation to a plane
which passes through either of these and is parallel to the other.
therefore the required planes are
[We have u 1 D 1 +u 2 D 2 -\-u 3 D 3 -^-u t
~\=0 and

D^A

15. Consider the lines

whose equations are

X-aS

S-ql/-j8Sm
n
Show

that the equation to the plane which contains the

to the second

first line

and

is

parallel

is

Deduce the condition that the


[The required equation
and aV + bm' + en' =0.]

is

may meet in a point or be parallel.


+ b (y - ft) + c (z - y ) = where al + bm + en =

lines

a (x - a)

16. Using the notation of Art. 10, show that if ^=0, % 8 =0, t* 8 =0, w4 =0 are
the equations to four planes, the vertices of the tetrahedron bounded by them
/'A

are the points

f^r> y^

the tetrahedron

jr)

>

is
**-A

/A

(jr*

ff

ID

>

77

>

e ^c

>

an(^ * na ^ tn

volume of

DDD

shown in works on Coordinate Qeom&try that the volume of the tetrahedron


whose vertices are (x l9 y l9 Zj), etc., is one-sixth of the determinant in Ex. 13.]
[It is

EQUATIONS OTHER THAN LINEAR

160
17.

be the equaUsing the notation of Art. ]0, let t^ 0, w 2 0, w 3 0, w 4


and suppose that J = 0, then
If at least one Z>, say D 19 is not zero, the planes meet at the point

tions to four planes,


(i)

(ii)

Suppose that every

D is zero,

then

(a) If all the fninors of A are not zero, the four planes are parallel to a certain
line, that is to say, they have a common point at infinity.
(/?) If every minor of A is zero, the planes have a common line of intersection
or they are all parallel.

For example, if
and we consider the planes u l9 u 2 i/ 3 Since D 4 =0,
two of these, say u l9 u 29 meet in a line which is parallel to the third.
Also, considering the planes, u l9 u. u^, since /) 3 =0 the plane w 4 contains or is
parallel to the line u l ~0, M 2 =0. Hence all the planes are parallel to the line

A^O

x\ (6^2)

Given the equations


a 2 c 3 + a 3 c 2 - 26 2 6 3 = 0,

18.

a 3c l

= yj (Cjda) - zf (a^).
-f

iC 3

26^3

= 0,

a tc 2

+ a^ - 2bJ) 2 = 0,

prove that

gl

[Prove that

L lf

20. If

Jf ,,

a;,

~ 2&1

^ 2 (i

Cl

c i-^i 2 )

-.

X= N

prove that
P

where

etc.,

are the cofactors of

y are connected with J,

1'

N X-N Y=L -M

given by

l lt

lt

etc., in

the determinant

by the equations of Ex.


#,

considered in detail in another volume.

The question of
Here we illustrate

various methods of dealing with systems of special types.


(1)

Systems which are symmetrical with regard

Ex.

1.

Find

to

y, ....

the rational solutions of

x *+ y * +558=50,

(y+ 2 )(z +*)(*+#) = 14,

3
ir'+^+z - 32^2 = 146.

If

x=p, Syz~q x\jzr


t

2
Z>

the given equations are equivalent to

-2g = 50,

are

^2 .

Systems of Equations of any Degree.


is

y are given by

= m v -f

elimination

and X,

t,

prove that the corresponding values of

11.

19,

pq-r = U,

p -3^-146;

SPECIAL TYPES OP EQUATIONS


whence we
If

- 23,

find that

p =2, then

Thus

x, y, z

I50p -f 292 =0,


- 60 and x,

giving

or

161
1

^147.

the roots of

y, z are

0*- 20 2 -230 + 60=0.


may have the values 3, 4, - 5 taken in any

order,

and there

is

no other

rational solution.

(2)

solution

sometimes be discovered by considering the properties of

may

a particular determinant.
Ex.

Solve

2.

x 2 - yz = a,

zx = b,

z2

- xy

c.

Consider the determinant

y
x

The

cofactors of x 9 y,

if (x, y, z) is

be

are yz - x", zx ~ y 2 , xy - z 2

in the top line,

z,

/.

Hence

3 - 3 - 3
z
3xyz - x
y

y
x

(zx~y )(xy-z )-(yz-x

z 2
)

^Ax.

a solution,

-a 2

Ax, and similarly, ca

-b 2 =Ay

a, b, c, and adding,
3abc - a 3 - 6 s - c8 = A (ax

+ by+cz)

ab

-c 2 ~Az.

Multiplying these by

- A2

Therefore the only possible solutions are given by


~~

a 2 -be ~~b 2 -ca "c 2 -ab


It is easily verified

in

which there

(3)

Ex. 3.

is

no solution unless

+ 6s -f c3 - 3a6c)

are solutions unless a 3

by substitution that these

a, b, c are all zero.

change of the variables.


Solve

x(x-a)=yz,
Let x

*J (a

l/X, y

1/7, z

= l/Z,

X -YZ
2

z(z-e)=xy.

y(y-b)=zx,

then the equations are equivalent to

Y*-2
o

Therefore, as in Ex. 2,

where
the

first

a 2 -be,

B=b 2 -ca, 0=c 2 -ab,

and k

is

to be determined.

Substituting in

equation
\
k_(k__ a

&_

A\A

k =0, giving the solution

therefore, either

or

k (BC

~A

with similar values for

8
)= a ABC, giving k (a

y, z.

(0, 0, 0),

+ 63 -f c 8 - 3a6c) = - A EC

SOLUTION BY SUBSTITUTION

162

In

(4)

In equations involving

useful.

Ex.

the case of two variables x,

4.

x, y, z,

we may

solution

t'x.

is

+ bt + c2) -. x {i + mj),

x^Q,

if

the solutions are given

x 2 (a'+b't + c'P) -x(l' + m't).

by

+ mt)/(a + bt + d 2 ),

(l

2
(a + bt + ct

where

(V

tx,

2
m't) = (' + 6'e + c'J (Z + mi).
=
become cy* my, c'y 2 m'y,

-f

If x~Q and y^O, the equations


- y
m/c. In this one value of < is infinite.

solution

7/a

(5)

sometimes

+ bxy -f cy2 = lx + my, a'x2 + b xy + c'ya = I'x -f m'y.


= tx the equations become
(0, 0), and if y

x *( a

Hence

write

is

Solve

ax*

One

y = tx
=
y tz, z

the substitution

x = x 1 ,y = y l

/.

cm'-c /m =

and

can be guessed, then a suitable substitution

...

is
"V

x ~~~ Ju\
*&r. 5.

One

-A-

"V

y ~~ y\

/S'o/ve

solution

is (6 -t-c, c -fa,
ar

+ 6), and

if

we

write

= 6+c + JT, y=c+o-l-7,

the equations become

Hence

if

none of the

three,
1

X, F, Z,

+ |__1
Z""

I
9

i# zero,

+ !___!

X~

Special cases.

If

This

JT=0,

gi ^es

7=0

L_^I

X+Y~~

2_1_1
X~a b

'

with similar equations.

we have

c'

the only solution, beside the obvious one.

and

Z^O,

then a=0,

6=0 and Z may

have any

value.
If

JC=0, 7^,0,

Z^Q,

then 6=0,

c=Q and

7,

^ may

have any values such that

7Z + a(7+Z)=0.
Ex.

6.

The

eight solutions of

x*

+ 2yz=a,

y*

+ 2zx=b,

z*+2xy=c,

.......................... (A)

are given by

where

-X"

and

By

=2a-6~c2v/(a2 + 6 2 -fc2 -bc-ca-ab)

k=>J(a + b+c).
addition,

From
where

(+i/ + z) 2 =a + 6+c,

/.

x + y + z-k.

the second and third of the given equations, by subtraction,

X~k~Zx.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATICS
Adding the second and third

163

and subtracting the

of equations (A)

first,

we

easily

find that

^V

A/
-

and solving

for

z
,

we obtain the values

Another solution.

=6+c-a;

stated in the question.

Equations (A) are equivalent to

-A

(say),

2
2
2
(x + w y + ojz) ~ a + o>6 + co c = B,

(x+uy +o> 2z) 2 =a + oj 26 +o>c = (7,


where

o> is

an imaginary cube root

of

1.

Therefore the eight solutions are given by

x+w zy+a)Z=*/B,
root of A and so for *JB,

x + y + z=JA,

where *JA

From

is

either square

x+a)y+a) z=,JC

............... (B)

*JC.

equations (B), by addition,


3a?= N /^+Z,

where X=*JB+>JC, and therefore

Also,

from the second and third of equations

(B),

%c

and

These
Ex.

7.

^^

results agree

Show

with the preceding

that, if the

if

we change the sign of X, which is permissible.

equations

(A)
are consistent, then

abc

From

+ 2fgh-af*-bg*-ch*=Q ................................ (B)

equations (A), by multiplication,

ax *(b*y* + c 2 z*) + ...+...+2abcxzy*z*=Sfghx*y*z* ..................... (C)

6V + c z = (4/
2 4

Also

- 26c) y*z2

with two similar equations. Substituting in (C) and dividing by x*y*z* (assumed not
to be zero), the result (B) follows.
Special cases.
(i)

If

Considering the original equations

z=0, y^O, 3^0,

then

C2 a =0,

it will

be seen that

and c=0;

hence the equations become, by* = 2fyz, &y*=0, and

we have 6=0, and/=0.

=0, y=0 and 2^0, the equations reduce to the single equation c 8 =0;
(ii)
and thus do not constitute a system of equations.
Thus, if the equations (A) form a system of equations with a solution other than
(0, 0, 0), then the condition (B) holds.
If

COMMON ROOT OF TWO QUADRATICS

164
Ex.

Prove

8.

that, if

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - 2yz - 2zx - 2xy =. 0,

and
no two of
x

then, if

(b-c)

a, b, c are equal,
z

xyz

"

(c- a)

(a~b

+ b 2y 2 -f c 2z 2 - 2bcyz - 2cazx - 2abxy

a^x 2

'

The given equations can be written

-ax + by + cz)

x(

+y-

Multiplying these by (x
find that

-by + cz)

-\-y(ax

+ by - cz)

(ax

z),

-f

+ by -cz)=Q,

z(ax

respectively

and subtracting, wo

xy{y(a-b)+z(c-a)}=xy{z(b-c)+x(a-b)};
similar equations can be obtained.
is zero, we may write

and two
z, y, z,

y(a-b)+z(c
Hence,

if

-a)k,

no two of a,

+x(a-b)=k,

z(b -c)

x~

are equal,

b, c

Hence, assuming

-~-

a) (a

~
2

-a(b~c) +b(c-a) +c(a-b)*


:.

none of

the three,

x(

k(b -c)

(c

whence also

that

j~

0)

ax -by - cz

(b+c)(c-a)(a~b)'

2
2
2
Zax(ax-by-cz)^X (b-c)(c-a)(a-b) 2a(b -c
.

-A 2 (6-c)2(c-a) 2 (a-6
and the result in question follows.
The consideration of special cases

is left

to the reader.

EXERCISE XVIII
1.

If (a,

ft), (a', j8')

are the roots of

u
prove that

a^^^-^^
and consequently

common

root is

the necessary

E=0,

and

R = (ac'- a c)
f

2.

Eliminate

x,

sufficient condition that the equations


2

- (ab' - a'b) (be' - b'c).

y from the equations

and show that the


(a, 0), (a', j3')

roots of the resulting equation in z are aa',


are the roots of

ax 2 + bx + c-0,

Show

have a

where

that this equation

a'x 2

a/3', /?</, jS/T,

where

+ b'x + c'Q.

is

f
a 2a' zz* - aa'bb'z* + (b z a'c + b /2ac - 2ocaV) z 2 - bcb'c'z + c 2c /2 = 0.

Prove also that the equation whose roots are a/a',


from the last equation by interchanging a' and c'.

a//T,

/a

//T is

obtained

SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS

165

Solve the equations in Exx. 3-28.


3.

* 3 + 3^ = 8,

4.

X 2y + xy 2 + x + y^3,

5.

x(l-y*)=2y,

6.

x + y + z = $,

7. (y

*2
8

'

xy+(x + y)=2.

+y

l)

y(I-x*)=:2x.

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ^ 29,

+ z)(z + x)(x + y)=*,


9

[Put

2(x - l)(y -

(x

a;- 1

25
8

"

'

9.

10.

-=l6-xy,

^--^Q-xy.
x

12
l^

^ ---

15.
[(

a>

a z --y~

4.

i
y
-. _
-a z -x- a
?

l-p, and prove that

2 2 ==a

+ 2/"f z,

2
2:

4-a;

6-i-

- x 2 = 6 s - 7/ 2
yz + zx {-xy= a
2

+ y)(a? + 2)=o

[Put
18, ayz

-X(a-b) + a-b

z-f re,

- 22

etc.]

1_ d

A2

16.

+ (l-2/) 2 -(l-o:)(l-2/)(l-a: y),

a;l-A, y

[Put

i/

/,

13. (l~rr) 2

14.

-----4. y2
a y a a?

1
-

<2

11
C

~~

x=
+ by + cz= bzx + cz -f ax ~

19.

20.

= -_ = ..2

+ 0;

X4-7/-1

21.

22.

x(bc-xy)=y(xy~ac),
xy(ay+bx - xy) ~abc(x + y - c).

-x)=by (z-x)(z-y)=cz.
2
xy(c-z)cz 2
zx(b-y)=by

23. (x-i/)(2:-2)=aa;,

24.

yz(a-x)=ax

2
,

(y ~-z)(y

25.
26.
27.

28.

'

'

x+y=x' + y'=r,

112
112
=
--.

y'

-,

\^e + 1 + *Jy~-2 = *Jx -1 + N/jMh2 = 3.

x'

and

ELIMINATIONS

166
29. If

5a?

5t/

-2

pr0ve

y+\=x,

that

and

solve

the

equations.
30. If

-}-^
o

=~+
x

=a + b, show

that either

+ y=a + b.

(X+Y + I)(aX + bY -a-b)=Q.]

[Puta^aJf, y=bY, zndshov?


31. Eliminate #, y, z

or x

-4-^4-1=0
b

--2)

from

---

and ax + by + cz-Q.

CL

x3 -y*~ y*-x*=a* and aM-y= -a, and a:, y are unequal, prove that
2
8
2
2
2
~
(iii) 3a (s 4-t/ )=
(ii) 3a -3a + 3a- 1 =0,
xy = a*(a-l)l(2a-l),
4
4
2
3
3 =
and (v) 3a(a; + t/ 4- l) = 2+4a
3a(z 4-y ) 2-a,

32. If
(i)

(iv)

1,

yV + (y + z)

33. If

2 2
a: !/ 4-

then will

(z-fir)

(x

Ayz -

+
+

+ i/) 2

+ A,

A2^ = l4-A and


Aa:y

-f-

x^y,

= 1 -f A.

111111111
__
__
__

34. If x, y, z satisfy the equations

__

__

y-\~z

__
y

_,

_._

__

+x

x-\-y

+ c a)=y(c-\-a-b)z(a + b c): and hence solve the equations.


+ by* -f cz 2 = 0, ayz bzx + cxy = and x3 + y3 -f z 3 -f Xxyz = 0, prove that

prove that x(b


35. If ax*

36. If a

-f-

+ 6-fc=0 and x + y + z = Q, prove

that

2
2
[Use the identities (6y + cz ax) = (bz + cy) ,

37.

Given that

a 2o: 2

and
Sh

etc.]

-f-

+ c zz 2 - 2bcyz - 2cazx - 2a6a:y = 0,

b 2y 2

W
38. Eliminate x, y, z

from
(

showing that the result

(x

+ y-z)(y+z~x)~bzx,

(y

+ z-x)(z+x-y)=;cxy,

is

abc~(a + b + c-4)
39. Eliminate x, y, z

41. If

a;

a?

4-t/ -f2

from

x + y-z=a,
40. Eliminate

a:

a
t/

-2 2 ==6 2

x8 + y8 -2 3 =c 3

xyzd*.

and y from
2

= l,

+ 2y 4-32=3,
a;

3o;

+ y4-2 = 3,

-8y-f52=

3.

prove that

CONSISTENT EQUATIONS
Show

42.

167

that the equations

are consistent,

and

x y

find

z.

and
x 2 - ayz ~y 2 - bzx = z 2 - on/ f (a; 2 + 1/ 2 + z 2 ),
a 2 -f & 2 4-c 2 = 2a&c + l and z a /(l -a 2 )^2/ 2 /(l -6 2 )=z 2 /(l -c 2 ).

43. If x, y, z are not all zero

prove that

Show

44.

that

z=c is a solution of
3
3
px* + #y -f rz = &M/Z,

if

a, ?/=&,

then

xa(qb* ~rc 3 ),
is

i/

= &(rc 3 -pa 3 ), z=c(pa 3 -gfc 8

another solution.
45. If

3/

7V

-(y + z-x)

*-

+ x-y) = -

(z

(x

+ y-z) and J-fw + n=0, show

46. Eliminate x, y from (fc~#)(c-t/)=a 2 , (c-a;)(a-i/)=& 2 , (a -x)(b

that

-y)=c

2
.

47. If the four expressions

u2 +

xz+zu),
are equal, prove that each
48. If x lt x 2 ,

... Xf,

2
2
z
2
equal to %(x + y + z + u ).

is

are all different

and
2

prove that
49.

(i)

x1 2 + xs 2 ~(k*- 4k 2 + 2) a:^.
from the equations
x
ax + by + cz + eft = 0,
a a; 6'y -I- c'z -f rf^ =0,

Eliminate

x, y, z,

-I-

x
showing that the result

&

-f-

c
-f

- + 6'
- + c- d'
T =0,
x
y z

+ -=0,

a'

-f-

is

L MN + Lmn + Mnl + Nlm = 0,

m = (ca

where

l-(bc

)9

L = (ad'),
(ii)

Use

this to prove Exercise

n = (ab'),

),

N=(cd').

M=^(bd'),

XVI,

25,

(iii).

[(i)
LV }

Prove that

...

...

(x*-t )yz
the unwritten fractions being obtained

(LMN). Now put x\

2
t/

z\

for x, y, z 9

...

v. ,

(y -z*)xt

by the
1

cyclic substitutions (xyz), (Imn),


in Ex. XVI, 25, (i).

Let # = cos a-f-tsina, y = cos -f t sin j5, etc., where a, j8, y, 8 are the
angles which the sides a, 6, c, d make with a fixed line. By projecting along
and perpendicular to this line, prove that the four given equations hold.]
(ii)

CHAPTER XI
RECIPROCAL AND BINOMIAL EQUATIONS

Reciprocal Equations.

1.

reciprocal equation

which possesses the following property


a root.
Let

a,

a xn

then

+ a^"-1 4-

a nx n

. . .

+ art^x*" 1 +

a reciprocal equation

is

(A)

any

root, then I/a is also

+ a n _yX + a n = 0,

.....................

(A)

are the roots of

...

I/a, l/)3,

Hence

is

an equation

be the roots of

...

/J,

a.

If

is

Denoting each

of these fractions

+ a x x + a = 0.

. .

if

by

and only

if

we have

k,

an a
so that

We

&=

1.

say that Reciprocal Equations are of the first or second types


+1 or k= -1, /&aZ i5 according as a r = a n _ r or a r = ~a n _ r
according as k
shall

=
/or r 0, 1, 2,
Theorem

...

n.

TAe

reciprocal equation of the first

Let f(x)

=a

x n + ajX**" 1

of the first type,

xnf (

\3//J

-f

Therefore/(z)

(z
is

2m + 1

-f

an =

be a reciprocal equation.

that of

// this

2m + 1. Then

+ 1) 4-a 1 x(a;

divisible

by x -h

2m ~ 1
1,

+ 1) +

and

if

may be
m
+a mx (x + 1) = 0.

the equation
...

</>(x)

+x
=

is

is

is

written

the quotient,

x+

X
hence $(x)

=/()

Let n be odd and equal to

=
f(x) a

any reciprocal equation depends on


type and of even degree.

solution of

a reciprocal equation of the

first

type of degree 2m.

TYPES OF RECIPROCAL EQUATIONS


Iff(x)

Let n = 2w +

xn

of the second type,

is

/( x/

169

-/(#)

Grouping the terms as before, we can show that /(x)

1.

2m (-} =
by x 1, and that, if <(x) is the quotient, then x
with the same result as before.
= ~a m
Again, if n = 2m, since a r ~ -a 2 m-r> ^ follows that a m
therefore a m = Q.
Hence the equation may be written
divisible

<

/(x)

=a

(x

Therefore /(x)

1)

+ a 1 x(x 2 - 2 -

divisible

is

equation

We
the

of the first

if

<f>(x);

and

+a m _ 1 m -1 (x 2 - 1) = 0.
tf

<^(x) is

the quotient,

in every case the solution of /(x)

=
</>(x)

...

2
by x -!, and

Thus

1)

is

type and

say that a reciprocal equation


type and of even degree.

depends on that of a reciprocal


even degree.

of

of the standard

is

form when

it is of

first

Theorem

The

2.

solution of a reciprocal equation of the first type

and of

2m

degree
depends on that of an equation of degree m.
Let the equation be
-1
a x2m 4- fljX 2
4 ax + a = 0.
4. . .

Dividing by

xm

this

may

be written

1 \

Let x f

-^=z

and x r +

xr

=t/ r so that
,

1\2

u*=z

+ -) -2 =

,
A
.(A)
.

then

-2.

x/

x+

Also

= 3,

and so on.
Thus equation
z 1 is

= ^ + -r ) + (x*~* -f -i-A
+ -^
^xv V
x 1 /) f\
xr 2 /
7

"-

wr = 2w

therefore

Putting

} (x'~
x/\

4,

...

in succession,

(A) can be expressed as an equation of degree

one of its roots, the corresponding values of xare given by

a?

m in z, and

if

- z^x + 1=0.

THE BINOMIAL EQUATION

170

The reader may

verify that

#*.

Solve 6s5

1.

One

root

is

w 8 = z8 - 8z6 + 20s4 - 16z2 + 2.

- 7z,

14z 3

1*4 - 33** - 33z 2

4- 1

Dividing by x +

1.

+ 1 1* + 6 = 0.
we have 6x4 + 5z3 - 38x2 + 5x + 6 =0.

1,

2
Dividing by # and grouping the terms,

If 2

= 3; + -,

this

.".

Whence we

becomes

find

a;

2"

6(z

an d x

or ~^sr

= 2,

|,

-3

that

-2)+5z-38=0,
i8

gi y ^ n

hy

x-\

The Binomial Equation x n -1=0.

(1)

If a

(2)

//

common
For

is

root of

xn -

prime

to n,

ar

so aZso is

=0,

=|- or

Thus the roots are -1,

or ~J.

2.

is

is

i^Aere r is

2, |,

any

-3,

integer.

m -l=0 and xn -l=0 have no

the equations

root except 1.

if

is

common

positive integers.

can be found so that


If n
n roots are
(3)

then a pm = l and afln = l, where p, q are any


pm ~qn = 1, and since
is prime to n, j9 and 5

root,

Therefore

(x.

pm-qn=

(See Ch.

1.

a prime number and a

is

1, a,

2
,

...

a*

is

I, 4, (3).)

any imaginary

Hence a = l.

root of

xn -

=0, $e

"" 1
.

For every one of this set is a root and no two of them are equal. For
a
a~ =
l, and the
suppose that the two a and of (a>b) are equal. Then a
n
b
=
=0
and
x
1
o^~
l
have
a
common
This is
root.
equations
imaginary
- 6.
is a
for
and
n
is
thus
n
to
a
l<a 6<w,
impossible
prime
prime
fe

If

(4)

of

xn

n=pqr

1 =

...

are the

wAere p, q,r,

...

are primes or powers of primes, the roots

n terms of the product

a root o/x p -l=0, jS o/a?-l=0, yo/xr -l=0, ete.


Take the case of three factors p q, r similar reasoning applying in

where a

is

cases.

Any term

of the product, for instance

(a

and

similarly

(/J )

=* 1

and (y )*

= 1.

/?}/ , is

= (a*) a *r = l,

a n
5

a root.

For

all

SPECIAL ROOTS
any two terms are equal,

If

w hich

=0

and

since

aj8 y

--htsin -

where

xn -

of

prime to

is

have no common root except 1.


(5) As explained in Ch. V, 17, the roots
cos

if

instance,

=a

&/
'^9

c/

impossible, for jg*-*y-' is a root of z

is

^ft-fty-c'^a'-a^
and oca '~ a is a root of x p

for

171
6

= 0,
/x

qr,

=0

>

-l=0

these equations

are

w-1.
-i

1, 2, ...

The imaginary roots are therefore

2r7T

cos

2riT

sin

= l,
.,

where

according as n is odd or even.


If x n - 1 is divided by x - 1 or x* the quotient, then <f>(x)Q

is
<f>(x)

or

...

2,

according as n is odd or even and


a reciprocal equation, and if this is

is

transformed by the substitution z = x + -, the values of


x
o
2 cos

r = l, 2,

If r is less
(1)
v
'

= 0,

same

but

to
than n and prime
r
i

.-

I or,
1

is not

type.

TH

-.

&

&

-n

,,

sm

2rn\ m

cos

Therefore
divisible

by

rm

is

n.

This

where

1,

2rm7T
2rm?r
---sm ---- = 1
h

Definition.

is

by

and since n

n,

of

xn -

The

roots of
special
r

prime to

number

#w -

1=0

is

and of

degree,

the

m<n,

is

prime to

r,

must be

is

not a root of an equation of

called a special root of the equation.

are cos

--hi sin
n

where

r<n and

-l=0 has <f>(n) special roots, where <f>(n)


numbers less than n and prime to n, including unity.
and prime to n then n -- r is prime to n, and therefore
n.

n
Thus, x

is

the

of

r<w

2f7T

cos

db

sin

2r7T

are special roots. These can be arranged in pairs, fa,


-j,
so that they are the roots of a reciprocal equation.

a root of

m<n.

=0 which

the same type and of lower degree

2rir
-is
.

sin

impossible, for

Any root

divisible

then

-2rrr

then cos

n,

any equation of lower

root of

2r7r

cos

if

If

or

...

z are

n
Special Roots of x -1 -0.

3.

xn -

10

v
where

M-

71-1

rt

fj8,

^J,
^

etc.,

B.C.A.

SOLUTION OF BINOMIAL EQUATION

172

a special root of x n - 1 =0, the n roots are 1, a, a 2 ... a 71 1


For every one of the set is a root. And if two of them are equal, for
~
a
b
then a a b = l, so that a is a root of x~ b = l. This is
instance, if a =a
""

If QL

(2)

is

>

impossible, for the last equation

c, ...

=0.

xn -

I =0, the
complete set of special roots is
are the numbers less than n and prime to it,

root of

//a is any special


a ac ... where a, 6,

(3)

than xn -

of lower degree

is

including unity.

a is any number less than n arid prime to it, the remainders when
3a
... (n-l)a are divided
a, 2a,
by n are the numbers 1,2,3, ... w-1,
taken in some order or other (Oh. I, 10). And since a n 1, it follows
~
that every number in the set oc a a 2a a 3a ... a (n 1)a occurs somewhere
in the set a, a 2 a 3 ... a n-1
Therefore a a is a special root.

For

if

4.

The Equation x n -A^O.

(1)

Let

A =a(cos a +
(
\

are

^/a

For by De
its n values are

2r7rl

-h

where

J-,

then the roots of x n -

|,

-ft sin

where a =

sin a),

a + 2r7i
cos

= 0,

_
1, 2, ...

o,.

it

cos

1.

----

4- i

------

sin

cos

n values of

^A may

a\

-f i

sm -

cos

n/

-n

r?r

sin

h t

he found by multiplying

roots of xn

+ 1 =0

are

This

is

---------i-ivsm

Solve x 5 -

Ex.

1.

real root is 1.

~0.

Deduce

where

obtained by putting a^=l, a

The

= A(),

cos

The values

of

then

a;

22

-fz-1^0,

are

#2

is,

54

TT

.'.

cos -

=coa 0JO
36

s/5
^-- +

1.

,+ai-f

-f

--

+ 1 =0.

a:

2-|(-ls/5).

giving

cos - o

Therefore the values of z are 2 cos

n ~

30 and cos 72.

or-

2=3 + -

1, 2, ...

1,

x*+x*+x* + z + 1 ~0, that


Let

in (J).

77

the values of co#

Dividing by x

sin

=1

2)

--

5
l

and 2 cos
,

and

Now

55

54
.

2?r

cos --

72
=cos ,,^0

cos

V "-!
= ^-

),

any value of

by the n-th roots of unity.

The

and

r,

all different.

follows that the

(2)

Moivre's theorem, this expression is a root for every

bmce

^4

- cos -;

SOLUTION BY QUADRATICS
Ex.

2.

the roots.

173

What are the special roots of a; 15 -1=0. Find the equation of which these are
Show that this can be reduced to an equation of the fourth degree. What are its

roots?

The numbers

< 15 and prime to


1,

The

2, 4, 7,

special roots are

cos

15 are

15-7, 15-4, 15-2, 15-1.

-~

sin

The non -special roots are the


The L.C.M. of x3 - 1 and x* - 1

(r

ID

15

roots of z 3 is

4-

(x

x+

= 1,

1
5

(x

2, 4, 7).

and xb 1) and

Therefore the equation whose roots are the special roots

x - x1 + ar - x*
8

+#

- a; +

-0.

is

=0,-

thatis,
If

ZX + -, this becomes

that

z*

is,

of which the roots are 2 cos

2f7T
(r

-r-^-

15

5.

- z3 - 4z 2 + 4z + 1 =0,

= l,

2, 4, 7).

The Equation x 17 - 1 =0.

this equation

Gauss discovered that

the solution of

depends on that of four quadratic equations.

This can be

proved as follows.

The imaginary roots

of

2f7T

cos

-=y

x17 .

=0

2f77

sm -y=-,

are

= 1,
^

where

rk

2, 3,

...

8.

Let yr = cos
then we have
--y
,

yn-r = yr
Also the

sum

of the

and

2yrys - y f+J 4- y r .s ...................... (A)

imaginary roots

is

1,

therefore

Equations (A) lead to an arrangement in pairs of y l9 y 2 ... yg which has


a remarkable cyclic property. Starting with the pair y^y^ we have
,

On

trial, it will

like result.

Let
then

appear that no y except y4 taken with


,

t/j,

will lead to a

EXPRESSION IN SURD FORM

174
It follows that

relation connecting a,

any

j8,

y, 8 continues to hold after

the cyclic substitution (a/3yS).

Such

By

relations are the following.

a + j3 + y +

(B)

8= -i ................................... (E)

Again, using equations (A),

ay -i

to* 2/1^8+

2/42/2

+w^^
ay = - -^ ...................................... (F)

therefore

Consequently

j88

we can show

Similarly

-^

...................................... (G)

that

16aj8=-l+4a-4j9, .............................. (H)


4a 2 =l+2 8 + y ................................... (I)
j

Then by

+ S = 2/x ............................. (J)

a + y = 2A,

Finally let

A+^= ~i

(E)

Also

4A/x,

= <xj8 -f jSy 4- y8 4- aS.

Hence by (H) and three equations derived from


stitution (a/?yS), we find that

2/2>2/8

+ j3 =
y ~2fy + y -0
2
+ 8 -0
2/ ~2yy

2/6,2/7

^/*

2/

2 y l9 y^ are the roots of y

Thus

this

by the

cyclic sub-

2ocy

2/3.2/5

Since cos
quadratic

(K)

+ 82/-iV =

decreases as 6 increases from

is that

which

to

77,

the greater root of each

is stated first.

Thus, starting with the last equation and working upwards, the values
of y l9 y 2 ... ys can be found, and then the roots of x 17 - 1 =0 are given by
,

-2^3 + 1=0,
Ex.

1.

etc.

Express cos

as a surd.

and

=
Also

and by

(I),

(34 -2^17),

g^

(34 +2^/1 7).

REGULAR
therefor.

cos --

17-GON

175

J^{17 +3^17 ^(34 -2^17) -2^(34 + 2^17)}.

NOTE,

The

(i)

cosines of

~,

...

-^=-

can be expressed in a similar form; the

surd values of the sines of these angles involve one more radical sign.
(ii)

It

is

(Ex.

XIX,

22.)

length determined by a quadratic equation can be found geometrically.


therefore possible, by the use of ruler and compasses only, to effect the following

Any

construction.

To

inscribe a regular 17-sided Polygon in a Circle.


be the centre.
Take the radius of the circle as unit of length. Let
Draw x'Ox, y'Oy at right angles, cutting the circle in A, A' and JB, B'.
6.

Let the vertices of a regular inscribed 17-gon be marked 0, 1, 2, ... 17, the
The ordinates y l9 y 2 ... ys of the points
point
coinciding with B.
,

To solve these geomet8 are given by the equations of Art. 5.


1, 2,
2 =
6
are
the ordinates of the
observe
that
of
+
the
roots
2ay
rically,
y
2 2
=
cuts the circle x + y
2ay + 6 =
points where the axis x
Thus to find the points (0, t/j), (0, y 2 ), ... (0, j/8 ) (two of which are
...

marked

The

t/ 3 ,

y5 in Fig.

27),

we have

centres of the circles are

to

draw the

marked

o>,

circles in the following table.

A,

/z,

The
To draw the

a, etc., in Fig. 27.

p are easily drawn, giving the points a,


last four circles notice that
circles co, A,

j9,

y, 8.

(i)

The

circles a,

j3,

y, S meet

y=0

at the

as diameters, respectively.
For, since the equation to the circle on

By,

same points as

the circles

on

J5jS,

J58, J5a

_
2

which

is satisfied

by

x=

*J

- f$,

J5j8

as diameter

is

~
/

.y=0,

we can draw

the circles

j8

und

y.

REGULAR

176
(ii)

The diameters of the

to the circles

j8,

circles a,

/3,

17-GON
y, S are equal to the tangents

from

y, 8, a, respectively.

For (diameter of
tangent from JB to

- j3) = (2jS + y + 1) - 4j8, and the square


Hence we can draw the circles a,
2/2 -f y.

Q a) = 4 (a
Q = 2

j8

of
8.

14,

Construction.

Along Ox take OJ^^OA. Along Oy take


and radius oo7 draw a circle cutting yOy in A,
f

With centre co
With
p.
centre A and radius A J draw a circle cutting yOy in a, y. With centre ft
and radius /i7 draw a circle cutting yOy' in jS, 8. Draw the circle on By
as diameter cutting Ox in G. With centre jS and radius $6 draw a circle
f

cutting yOy' in

t/3 , j/ 5 .

Through y 3 y 5 draw parallels to x'Ox. These lines meet the given circle
and 5, 12 of the required 17-gon, which can be comthe
arc 35 at 4 and setting off arcs equal to 34.
pleted by bisecting
Or we may draw the circles a, y, 8 as explained above.
,

in the vertices 3, 14

RECIPROCAL AND BINOMIAL EQUATIONS

177

EXERCISE XIX

RECIPROCAL AND BINOMIAL EQUATIONS


Solve the equations in Exx. 1-9

1.

x'-Sx* + Ilx*-Sx+ 1=0.

2. x*

3.

2# 4 + 3z 3 + 5* 2 + 3a; + 2=0.

4.

2x* + x* -I7x*

5.

2x* +

5x*-5x-2=0.

6.

3x 5 - 10* 4 - 3* 3 - 3s a - 10* + 3=0.

7.

2z 6

8.

2z 7 -a;-32; 4 - 3^-0; + 2=0.

9.

-z 5 -2z3 ~a; + 2=0.

-f

l+(s + l) =2(* + :r +
2

1
[Write this x* + x-* + (x + x~

+ Qx*-5x* + 6x + l=Q.
+ x + 2^0.

4
.

I)

+ 2)*~2(x + x~ l + 1) 4 and show


,

that this reduces

to
10. If sn

~l+u + u + ...+un

where u n

un+l -Un

and

*n=-T-9-2
*j

xn +x- n and

z=x + x~

prove that

*n= wn-i- 5 n-.

Hence show that

+sn = 1

[1

11. If a is
2

n=
xn

+ a5

as

12. If
13.

15 the

JL

-10 depends.

and

(1 -ar)(l

-ar')=2-z.]

an imaginary root of # 7 - 1 =0, the equation whose roots are a -fa 6 ,


8
a
is
*,=3 + z -22J - 1 =0.

+ a4

is

The

a prime, the special roots of x 2n

special roots of
2T7T

The

sin

special roots of

values are

d-

x9

-1=0

2f7T

values are cos


14.

n+ l
equation on which the solution of x*

x~ n

cos -

sin -

where

x 12
)

by
12
[To find the equation, divide a; 6 L.C.M.
of
a;
the
x*
i.e. by
1,
L]
\

15. If a,

/?,

are the roots of x n

are the roots of x*

~ 1,

-1=0
that

-1^0

+ x* + 1~0, and

=0.
their

2, 4.

are the roots of

is,

-f 1

g-(N/3

by the

# 4 -a; a -f

=0, and their

t).

L.C.M. of

x2 -

1,

#3 -

1,

x*

1,

x9 -

1,

3
2
y are the roots of o# -f bx + cx + d=0, prove that the equation

1
l
l
*
whose roots are a-f-, 5
+ -, y-f a
^
y

is

+ (ac + bd)z* + (ab + bc + cd- Bad) z + (a - c) 2 + (6 - d) 2 = 0.


2
3
2
[Prove that adIJ{x -a;(a-fa- + l} = {(aa; + bx* + cx + d) (dx* + ex + bx + a)}, and
write (x* + l)fx=z.]
adz*

that there is a value of k for which x* - I5x 3 -&r 2 + 2


find this value.
and
1,
that
x*-15x*-Sx*
+ 2=0 has two roots a, p such that
[Show
16.

x*

4-

Show

is

divisible

by

kx -f

a/?

= l. Then

CONSTRUCTION FOR REGULAR PENTAGON

178
17.

For the equation x*+px* + qx* + j34-l=0, prove that


(i)

and only if,


2
4(g-2)<p <(itf+l) 2 and 2g + 4<p
the roots are all imaginary if, and only if, p*<($q + I) 2 and at
one of the two inequalities p*<4(q -2), p*<2q + 4 holds

the roots are

all real

if,

(ii)

least

(iii)

two roots are

x + x~

[If z

l
t

then

z*

-f-

and two imaginary

real

pz + q 2 = 0.

Let

z l9 z 2

or

i(z 2

&=i(i>/z7^4)

if (fg-f

I)*<p

2
.

be the values of z, then


N/z a 2

-4).

any value of a: is real, one and therefore both values of z must be real, and so
p*>4(q-2). The conditions in question can now be obtained by considering
the equation whose roots are z^ - 4, z a 2 - 4.]
If

18.

// in

the last

all the roots

example

values of z are real, prove that

[For then 4(q 2) <p* <2q + 4,


19. If (x

l)*=a(x* -

1)

of the given equation are imaginary and the

p <4 and q<6.

and

etc.]

x^ 1, prove that
'

x~

2(1 -a)'

Also if 0<a> 16, the given equation has three real and two imaginary roots,
if a <0 or a> 16, the only real root is 1.

but

20.

Show

that, if r

is

any

integer, the roots of

(4r+l)7r

are the values of tan

2fTT

21. If

yr = cos-~ show that


o

and deduce the construction indicated


figure

for

inscribing

regular

in the

pentagon in

circle.

In the figure

OH=\QA, and

22. Prove that the values of sin

and

cos-^ are respectively

-^^
and

(I

-v'17-f N /(34-2 N /17)}--i N /{174-3 N /17

[Referring to Art. 5, Ex.

1,

+ N/(34-2 x/17) + 2

sin=V(i-~iy2) and

{!

+A-

CHAPTER

XII

CUBIC AND BIQUADRATIC EQUATIONS

TheCubic Equation.

1.

The standard form of the cubic equation

is

w = ra + 3ta + 3cz + rf-0 ............................ (A)


3

If

bja this equation

where

= ay = ax + 6,

becomes

= ac-6 2

//

If 2

If a,

j8,

y are the roots

2.

is

+ 3//z +

6-'

................................... (C)

a -ft/a,

of (A), those of (B) are

fl

+ b/a, y + ft/a,

a/3 + 6, ay + b.

+ 6,

Equation whose Roots are the Squares of the Differ-

ences of the Roots.


equations (A) and

(B).

The differences of the roots are the same


Hence the equation whose roots are

(-y) 2
is

G=^a*d

the equation
z

those of (C) are aa

obtained by putting

The

(y-) 2

>

= 3H{a 2
q

resulting equation

r = G/a*

(<*-)

for

2
,

in Ch. VI, 17.

is

aV + 18a4^

-h81a 2flr2 2;-f27(G?2 -h4Jy 3 )==0,

...............

(D)

whence the important equality


a6 (]3-y) 2 (y-a) 2 (a-j8) 2 = - 27(

4-4# 3 ) ................ (E)

It is easily verified that


2

.................................. (F)

A = a?d2 - 6a6crf + 4ac 3 + 463rf - 36 2c 2

where

.................... (0)

a (^-~y) (y~a) (a-j3) =->27J ...................... (H)

so that

The function A
is

+ 4#3 = a 2J,

is

called the discriminant of the cubic u,

and

the necessary and sufficient condition that the equation

have two equal

roots.

its
t/

vanishing
should

CARDAN'S SOLUTION

180

Excluding the case in which two

Character of the Roots.

3.

roots are equal,


possibilities are
(i)

and remembering that imaginary roots occur

All the roots

may

One root may

and then by

be real,

and two imaginary

(H),

in pairs, the

J<0.

and, denoting the roots by a,


A IIJL, we find that the product of the squares of the differences of the roots
- A) 2 + /it 2 } 2 so that A >0.
is equal to 4p,*{ (a
(ii)

be real

Hence if J<0, all the roots are real and unequal ; ifA>0, one root is real
and two are imaginary.
Also it follows from equation (D) that J7 = 0, 6r=0 are the necessary and
sufficient conditions for three equal roots.

Cardan's Solution.

4.

z=az + 6,

If

the equation

az + 3&z -h3cz-hd =
3

becomes

z
z = w*~

Let

Comparing

(B)

+ 3#z + #=0 .............................. (B)


z3

+ w*; then

and

(C),

.............................. (A)

- 3rwn*z - (m + n) =

m*n* = -H, m + n=

-G.

m and n are the roots of 2 + <#-#3 =0,


and we may take
m = J - G + >/(r2 + 4/73).
Therefore

................ (C)

........................

(D)

If

denotes any one of the three values of

the three values of

m*

are Q, ajQ,

<*)

Q, where

CD is

an imaginary cube root

of unity.

Also, because

w* = -/?, the corresponding values of

-H/Q,
Hence the values

of

z,

that

is

ri*

are

-<*HIQ,
of

ax 4- 6, are

Q-H/Q, O>Q+4H 8 <0, all the roots

NOTE. If C? 2
of the cubic are real, but Cardan's solution
them in an imaginary form, which is very unsuitable for practical purposes.*
In this case a solution can be easily obtained as follows.
gives

5.

Trigonometrical Solution when

G 2 +4H 3 <0.

Taking the

equation
z3

when

6r

+ 4Jff <0, a

+ 3Hz 4-0=0,

solution can be obtained

This

is

sometimes called the

................................. (A)

by using the equation

irreducible cote.

FUNCTIONS OF THE ROOTS


If cos

30

is

known, cos

determined by

is

0-i cos 30 =

cos 3 0-f cos


z = q cos 0,

Let

181

(B)

so that

cos 3

Equations (B) and

3ff

q*

+ ^-cos0+
2

-^

(C)
'
v

(C) are identical if

ff

= 2V-# and cos30-~-~=


3

2>/-/P

Now

G?2

<If

equation.

ifif

is

3
,

and so a

(D)

,___..

can be found to satisfy the last

real value of

any such value, the roots of (A) are


^27T

jcosl
^x.

1.

reduced

+ 3&# 2 + 3cx + d =0

3
// all the roots of ax

are reai, a/iow

tJiat

the equation

can be

to

3-j-f^=0,

where

27/x

<4,

xp

+ qt, where p and q are


by a substitution of the form
If z = ax + 6, the equation becomes z 3 - 7b + Q = 0,

A= -3#=3(6 2 -oc).

where

-aj

real.

Since aU the roots are real,

+4# 3 <0,

/.

#<0

and

h>0.
Writing

the equation becomes

z=*Jh.t,

substitution

x~
NOTE.
reduction.

The

XXIX,

M =a-f

co y,

an imaginary cube root

a> is

~- .t.
+ >Jh

=1,

of unity,

+ CO + C0 = 0,
2

TAe interchange of any two of the

CO

(0

a> /J-f coy,

and observe that

-^=1^3.

letters a,

into the other,


functions L ,
Thus the transposition (a, j8) changes

/J,

y transforms

either of the

+ coa +

a>

y)

3 ==

(cua

i3 into

3
co ^8

co y)

= coW 3 = M3

It is the existence of functions possessing this property which


the solution of a cubic equation depend on that of a quadratic.
(2)

the

3.)

.L=a-hco/J-f

CU

(1)

= GI*Jh\ and

Important Functions of the Roots..

Let

where

jj.

roots of the cubic can be expressed as convergent series by using this

(See Ch.

Two

6.

where

t*~t+p.~

is

L and

M are functions of

the differences

1-f co-f

they are unaltered by writing a + A,

j8

a>

o/a>

j8,

y.

For since

=0,

+ h, y + h

for

a,

j3,

y.

makes

SUM OF TWO CUBES

182
(3)

We

have the following equalities

wM = 2j8 ~ y - a,

orL +
a>

cu

M = 2y - a - 0,

by Ex. XII,

Also,

a>

L - wM =

a>L -

'

cu

a>

co

a>

oj

2
)

(y

- a)

- j8)
) (a

9,

Z 3 + M 3 = -27/a 3

Therefore

..............................

(A)

i3 -M 3 =-3(<o-a, 2 )( 8- y )( y -a)(a-jS) ................. (B)


j

iJf = 2k 2 - 2?j8y = -9#/a2 ......................... (C)

Moreover,
(4)

From

equations (A) and (C)

follows that (-|a) 3 , (-JaM) 3 are

it

Ae

roofs of

which
7.

is

the auxiliary quadratic in Cardan's solution.

The Cubic

Sum

as the

of

Two

3
2
// u == ax -h 36x -f 3cx + rf, ^Aew constants

Cubes.
,

B,

A, p,

u^A(x-\Y + B(x-tf\
provided that u has no square factor

s=

(ac

Also

Eliminating A,

from the

equations,

coefficients it will be seen that the identity

\A + ^.B^-

first

a( A

Assume that

are the roots of

A+B = a

(A)holdsif

A, /x

........................... (A)

- 6 2 x 2 + (acZ - be) x + (M - c2 ) = 0.

By expanding and equating

of

can be found such that

A/u

jit

three

and from the

last three of these

+ 6( A2 -p?) + c(A -/x) -0,


- A 2 ) = 0.

and that A^/x, and divide the


these equations by A-/x and the second by Aju,(A~/t), then
= 0, and
aA/Lt + o(A+jLt)4-c

Eliminating

neither A nor

/u,

is

zero

first

/^,

Therefore A and, by symmetry,

^ are the roots of


- (bx + c) 2 = 0,
(ax + b) (ex + d)

which

is

the same as

H(ac~62 )x
Also A,

are given

by

+ (od~6c)x + (6d!-c2 )==0 ................... (C)


A + B =a, A-4 +fJ3 = - 6.
2

THE HESSIAN

183

// A = 0, then by equations (B),


TJ
2 =A
&i-c

so that also in this case A

// A

jit,

two equal

the reasoning
roots.

i
and

c
o<Z-&c
-- = ^ = ----//,=
^
oc-os2
6 v c

and p are the roots

Ex.

w=

if

and only

has two equal roots, so also has

H=

UG the preceding

1.

if,

Let

2x*

to solve the

2x*

equation

A+B = 2,

and

A+2B=;-l,

2
-(#-7) =0,

so that

vice versa.

giving

= l,/i=2;

.4=5, 7?^ -3.

and the roots

_ 5"^ -2A;3^ _ (5Jfc3*)

has

+ 3#2 - 2lx + 19 =0.

Hence the given equation may be written 5(x- 1) 3 3(#-2) 3


2
by -^/5 (x - I ) = k /3 (a: - 2), where k 1, co, co

are given

=1

w=0

+ 3x*-2lx + l$ = A(x-X)* + B(x-iJL)* ........................ (A)

Then A, //, are the roots of (2* + 1)( -lx + 19)


and, equating the coefficients of x 3 and # 2 in (A),

Since ^3

if,

For using equation (G) of Art. 2, we find that


2 - 6 2 (bd - c2 =
4
(ad 6c)
(ao

Hence,

H = 0.

of

This case will arise

fails.

Hence the roots are


|(

/75 -4/45),

The Hessian.

8.
is

called the Hessian,

The roots

of

H=

will

hQ =

where

(1)

and

is

of great

H = ac- 6

2
,

A,

ft,

and we

h^ad- be,

shall write

h2 = bd-

c2 ,

A 1 2 ~4A A 2 = A .................................. (A)

Using the identities of Exercise XII,

~18H = a
(3)

importance in the theory of the cubic.

be denoted by

so that

(2)

H which occurs in the last article

The function

We

{(o;--a) ()8~y) 4-(a:--j3)

can find the values of

A, p, in

4, 5, 6,

we

find that
2

(y-a) -f(x~ y ) (a^j9)

terms of a,

/J,

y as

} .......

follows.

(B)

Let

M =a + eo j8 + coy,
y,
2
=
Z/ j8y + coya 4- a> aj8, M' = /Jy -f co 2 ya 4- a>aj8.
L =<x -H co/J + o>

Then,

and

if

P = (z-a)(j8~y), Q = (a?-j8)(y-a), R = (x~y)(a-j8),


P + <? + = 0, therefore Z"P2 = - 227Q/J
J

we have

AUXILIARY QUADRATIC

184

from (B) that one root A

It follows

that

2
A(> -

is,

(4) It is

by

+ (co 2 - w)L' =0,

^ = -M'/Jtf ...................... (C)

A = -L'/l and similarly

so that

easy to verify that the substitution

reduces the equation h^x?

which

<*>)L

H=0 is given

of

+ hfl + h2 =

to

the auxiliary quadratic in Cardan's solution.


Thus the roots of the auxiliary quadratic are
is

EXERCISE

XX

THE CUBIC
(i)

Find to five places of decimals the real root of


z s + 293-97=0, (ii) z 8 + 6a; 2 H-27a;-26^0, (iii)

2.

Find to

1.

five places of
(i)

3.

decimals the real roots of

x* -3a;-Hl=0,

(ii)

- 3qx +r =0 and k =
y are the roots of a:
(0-;
3

If a, 0,
(i)

>/3(4g

-r 2 ), show

tl

08 -;

(ii)

The equation whose

(iii)

roots are

j9

- y, y - a, a - j3

is

+ y + y a=|(r + Jfc), a y-f ^ a + y ^ = f (r-t).


a
8
8 = 3
a y-hj5 3 a + y 3 )8= -9g 2
a
(v)
j8 + ^ y-f-y a
If
the
are
all
roots
real and a> j8> y, the difference between any two
(vi)
of the roots cannot exceed 2 N /(3g), and the difference between the
greatest and least must exceed
aa

(iv)

4. If a, 0,
(i)

y are the roots


the equation whose roots are

j8

y,

- a, a - jS
)

(ii)

is

the equation whose roots are a 2 j8 + ]8 2 y -4r y 2 a, a 2 y + 2 a -f y 2 )9


a4* 2 - 3a 2 (acZ - She) x -f 9 (a 2d 2 - fabcd + 3ac 3 + 36 8d ) = 0.

is

In &e following examples ike letters L, M, L', M' 9 h , h l9 h 2 have the meanings
assigned in Art. 8, and unless otherwise stated a, j9, y are the roots of

.5.

Show

that

L t + "Jf=3.M', and M* +
a

L=3L'.

TYPES OF SUBSTITUTIONS
If

6.

A (x - A)

A)

-f

B(x -

l
jB

A/B=

k=

s/(

;[

y are the roots of u =0, assume that

^=

(1, 1, 1), (1, o>, o>

),

(1, o>

- JUT '/ Jtf

w),

(A)

add and use Ex.

5.]

+ i )>

^(*i

and

a 2 y + j3 2 a + y 2

3^

(/H-fc)^

Find the values of I, m, n such that

2^0^-^ + ^,

proving that

That

is

to say,

'

homographic
^ ^

which

jS,

A = - L'/L,

- L 9 /M\

y + J/? + ray -fr&=0,

9.

a,

- JJ), prove that

+ /8V4V + 8 =

8.

and

Hence prove that

If

/x)

185

+*(a - M )=a>4*(|3 - A) + J3*(j8 - ,x)=a) ^*(y - A) -f JS*(y - ft)=0.

[Multiply equations (A) by


7.

'

yoc

mh

2h

any iwo roots

+ Jy + ma-fn-0,

(a,

-k,

a/?

n=h

+ Za + w/? + tt=0
where &

29

o/ i^e cubic equation

j8)

u =0

iV( -JJ).

are connected by the

relation

Except when J =0, there are two substitutions of the form


will transform the cubic equation

u=Q into

itself,

and these

are

where 3& 2 =4A ^ 2 ~^i 2 and ^ ^i>


Explain why this fails if A ~0.
>

[This

is

merely another

way

^2 are the coefficients of the Hessian.

of stating the last part of Ex.

8.]

10. Find substitutions of the form x~(ly + m}l(l'y +


transform
) which will
the equation x 3 - 3# 2 + 3=0 into itself, showing that these are

* = (2y-3)/(y-l)
11.

and

* = (y-

Find substitutions of the form x~(ly + m)l(l'y + m') which will transform
2 60; -f 1 ^0 into itself, showing that these are
4- 3#

the equation z 3

12. Show that any pair of roots a, j3 of the equation


x 3 -3ic 2 4- 3s- 2 =
are connected by a relation of the form pa. -\-qfi + r=- where p q, r are the same
numbers whatever pair is chosen, proving that the relation is
9

13. If a,

j3,

y are the roots of x* -30#-f r=0, find


Za

proving that,

where

+ ma 4- ft

if a,

j8,

y are

I,

m, n such that

n = y, Z
/j9 + mj5 +
real and a> > y, then
2

/?,

jfc

Hence show that with these values of I, m, n the substitution


transforms the equation x 3 - 3qx

+ r=Q

hi to

itself.

1S6

BIQUADRATIC EQUATION

14. If

either

2
y are the roots of a?-21a; + 35=0, show that a + 2a- 14

jS,

15. If a,

y=x* + 2x~

(In other words, the substitution

or y.
equation into
ft

is equal to
14 transforms the

itself.)

w=0 and
=
=
k,
<**+p<z + q
p +pp + q a>k, y

y are the roots of the cubic

/?,

*
prove that

where A

p=

36

A=

if

Further,

^=

tt=0

Prove that the equation


y x* + px + q,

16.

3i=Jf(A-,*) =

-Jf'/Jf, then

2
8
(1, 1, 1), (1, <o, o> ), (1, to , o>),

by

[Multiply

-L'/A

g= a hA-a

H =0.

a root of the Hessian

is

2c

-fA,

27/2

and add.]
transformed into

is

36

.-,

p= a

if

where A

is

H=0

a root of

2c

N
g= a + A-,
a

+A,

and k

determined as in Ex.

is

Find substitutions of the form y ~x 2 + px -f q which

17.

by the

y*=k?

substitution *

15.

will

transform

=0
into the form y 3 = ^ 3 , giving the value of k in each case.
3
- 3 =0 and ( L) 3 ,
[A, p, are the roote of x* + 2x
(JJif ) are the roots of

i.e.

of

t*

=4 3

If

we take A = 1,

fi

- 3, we must take

found that each of the substitutions,


reduce tfc=0 to
18.

In Ex.

Explain

9.

J^^S

why it is not to

x = y - 6/a,

If 2= ay = ax + 6,

have

6/a,

j5,

-f

i/

= 8,

giving

ic

-f

6H
4G
.OA
+_
_^
!f+?

* This is

is

(A)

iC

G =a2d~3a6o + 26s

=a3e-4a26d + 6a62c-364

(B)

the equation becomes

+ &Hz* + Gz + K=Q

(C)

y, S are the roots of (A), those of (B) are

and those

4x + 3=0.

6c#2 + 4dz-f e=0

z*

>

It

becomes

this

iTac~62

where

If

will

The Standard Form of the Biquadratic Equation

-f

thus

6.

be expected that both roots of this equation satisfy u =0.

t
ay +

is

y=# 2 -f-7,

.]

u=*ax* + 46x
If

M=

and

y-x + 4x + 11, we may

17, if

L = - 6,

y~x + 4a;-f 11
2

of (C) are ooc


*

+ 6,

a/J 4- 6,

ay

-f 6,

a + 6/a,

/?

+ &/#, y + 6/a,

aS + 6.

a case of Techirnhausen't Transformation.'

(See Art. 17.)

REDUCING CUBIC

Some Important Functions

10.

A = /Jy-fa8,

Any rearrangement

(1)

functions

A,

/i,

of the Roots.

= ya-f-/JS,

/A

of the letters a,

v into itself or into

187

j8,

Let

i>=a/J-fyS.
y, 8 transforms

any one

of the

one of the other two.

found that the existence of functions having this property


makes the solution of (A) depend on that of a cubic equation.
It will be

(2)

We

The

cyclic substitution (a/Jy) changes

have

A to

/it,

/z

to

v,

v to A.

(j8-y)(a-S)=i>-/z

(y-a)(j3-SHA-v
Hence if two

of a,

/J,

three of a,

j8,

y, 8 are equal,

then two of

........................... (D)

A,

//,,

v are equal,

and vice

versa.

Also
(3)

if

The functions

A,

then A=/i = *>, and vice versa.

y, 8 are equal,

/x,

v are Ae roote

o/*

a*y*-&a cf + 4a(bd-ae)y-8(2ad* + 2eb*-3ace) = Q ......... (E)


2

For

2;A = 2:aj8 = 6c/a,


7a

ZajSy

+ aj3y 827a

- 4aj8y8 = 4 (4W - ae)/a2

~ (4d2 - See) + ^3 (4fc2 - Sac)


'

a2

The second term

of this equation

can be removed by the substitution

and the equation becomes


where

4^3_/^ + j = o,
=
/ ae 4bd + Sc2

(G)

(H)

Expressed as a determinant
a

&

bed

It will be
is

shown that the

solution of (A) depends

on equation

(G),

which

called the reducing cubic.

The functions 7 and J are

of great importance in the theory of the

biquadratic.

B.C.A.

THE DISCRIMINANT

188

Boots of the Reducing Cubic.

(4)

(Q) corresponding to A,

Let t^t 2

^a = A-^-A-i(A+
a

be the roots of equation

Then by

v respectively.

/x,

(F)

+ v)=i{A- /t -(v-A)};

whence, by (A), t^^a{(y - a )(j8-8)-(a-jB)(y-8)},


with similar values for 2 2 tz
If
real,

y, 8 are all real, or if they are all imaginary, then

/?,

and

of the three

or

if

A,

a,

Also

/z,

jS,

t% is real,

a,

y, 8 are real

and

t%

v,

and therefore

y, 8 are of the

if

j8

are real

and two are imaginary

3,

2,

lim,

forms

and y = / -f ^m,

are

V
8

all real if a,

im'

The Functions
/?,

2,

are all

I,

Since

J.

then only one

l9

t%,

jS,

y, 8 are all real,

m,

== /

imaginary.
statements are true.
(5)

conversely.

also

Moreover, one of these cases must

of a,

conversely.

If two of the roots a,

For

.................... (L)

a,

............. (K)

is real and A, /x are


and so the converse

then v
arise,

are functions of the differences

y, 8, so also are /, J.

/ and

It follows that

therefore in equations (H)

same

are the

and

(I)

6 = 0, c-H/a,

a I=
z

giving

K + 3H*

whence the important

for equations (A)

and

(B),

and

we may put
d=

/a

= #/a 3

a*J^HK-G*-H*>

and

identities

= a 2/-3ff2
Another important equality

is

8-y)2(a-8)2 + (y-a)

()

G* + H* = a*(HI-aJ) .................. (M)

2
8-8) + (a-j3)2(y-3)2 = 24//a2 ....... (N)

2
(j

For

and

(6)

The Discriminant.

By

equations (D),

a(j8- y )(y -)( -/3)(-8)(

- <3 ) 2 (<3 -

= 256J by
where

^ft -

< )
2

by equation (K)

Art. 2,

............................................ (0)

J =/

-27,72 .................................... (P)

REDUCING CUBIC
The function A
ing

is

called the discriminant of the quartic w,

and

the necessary and sufficient condition that the equation

is

have two equal


11.

its

vanish-

w=

may

roots.

Character of the Roots.

J = 0.

this

If two roots are equal, then


and remembering that if there are any

case

Excluding
imaginary roots, then these occur in
(1)

189

All the roots

may

be real,

pairs, the possible cases are

and then J>0.

Two roots may be real and two imaginary. Denoting the roots by a, /?,
im, it is easily shown that the product of the squares of the differences
of the roots is -4w 2 (a-0) 2 {(a - 1)* + !*}*{ (0 - 1) + 8 }*, and so J<0.
(2)

(3)

All the roots

may

Denoting them by

be imaginary.

lim, /'iw',

we

find that the product of the squares of the differences of the roots

is

16w2m' 2 {(Z Hence

(4)

12.

- m') 2

+ (w + m')*}*{(l + Z') 2 +

and so

A>0.

// J<0, two roots are real and two imaginary.

(5) If

For the

2
Z')

J>0,

the roots are all real or all imaginary.

criterion distinguishing the

Solution

Ferrari's

two cases

of the

of (5), see Art. 15.

Biquadratic.

Writing

the

equation

u=ax* +
we assume

bx*

+ &cx2 + 4dx + e^0,

(A)

that

au = (ax* + 2bx + s)*~(2mx + n)*


Expanding and equating

coefficients,

2w = as + 262 ~3ac,
2

(B)

we have

wn = &s-ad, n2 = s 2 -ae

(C)

Eliminating m, n,
2

(s

- ae) (as + 2V* -Sac) = 2 (bs - ad) 2

which reduces to
53

-3c5 2 + (46d-ae)5 + (3ace-2ad2 -2662 ) =

(D)

The second term can be removed by the substitution

= 2t + c

(E)

&3 ~/* + J = 0,

(F)

and equation (D) becomes


which

is

the

reducing cubic.'

(See Art. 10.)

= 2bt + bc-ad

Equations

(C)

become

(G)

FERRARI'S SOLUTION

190
Thus, if fj

a root of

is

m
the equation

its

n t = (26^ + 6c - ad)/m v

b 2 - ac),
l =\/ (at v +

u^=0 can

be put into the form

(ax

and

and

(F)

+ 26z + c + 2^) 2 - (2m 1 a? + n x ) 2 - 0,

roots are the roots of the quadratics

ax 2 + 2bx + c + 2^ =

(2m1x + 14).

It should be noticed tha^ the three roots of (F) correspond to the three
of expressing

ways

u as the product

of

two quadratic

=x* + 3x 3 + x* - 2 = 0.
u = (x 2 +px + s) 2 - (mx + n) 2
and
equating coefficients, wo have
Expanding

Ex.

Solve n

1.

Let

The

may

last

equation

is

and

[x*

if s -~

satisfied

take

and then

J-,

+ (p

-f-

77^) a;

?yr

-1+4, inn-

4.

Thus we

+ 5 -f n} {a; 2 + (p - ?/i) a; + s - n}

^(x*+2x-2)(x*+x + l).
-1 >/3, w, a> 2 \vhero w
,

is

an imaginary cube root of

1.

Deductions from Ferrari's Solution.

13.

then

=-|,

=i,

=--j,

Therefore the roots are

Let

factors.

]8,

y be the

ax 2 + 2bx + c + 2^ + (2m 1 x + 7i 1 )=0,

roots of

ax + 26x + c +

a, S are the roots of

Further,

let (y, a), (a,

/?)

(H) by changing the suffix

2/ x

(2^0; + n x =
)

...........

(H)

............. (I)

be the roots of the equations obtained from


into 2 and 3 respectively.

= c + 2t l + n v
a(3y

Now

a (/?y 4- aS)

therefore

which agrees with equation

(F) of Art. 10.

a(j8y-a8) = 2w

Also

= 2c + 4^,

a(]8-f

y-a-8)== -4m 1}

with similar equations given by the cyclic substitutions

................ (J)

(a,

j8,

y)

and

(1, 2, 3) of the suffixes.

Hence

(i)

the values of

m are

In connection with these functions

Ex.

3, (iii), p.

it

should be noted that by Ch. VI, 16,

96,
............ (K)

DESCARTES' SOLUTION
by

Also,

This

(F)

and

The values of n are

(ii)

The values

(iii)

whose roots are

(G), the equation

an important equation, obtained

is

of

J^ZY^

___

and from

y + oc ~ p

Of.

- yS).

r(

ya-)8S
3+y

la(oc^

are

2m 92

in Art. 15.

way

- j8S),

|a(ya

-~- 2
>

2ml

another

in

\a(fiy -aS),

-~-

191

ot

+p

that these functions are the values of z found by

(F), (G) it follows

eliminating tfrom
Z

+ bc~ad

2bt

1
__ _
~

,,
(M)

and

~2' 7

Biquadratic as the Product of Quadratic Factors.

14.

Let u

Descartes method.

ax*

4-

4foe 3

u = a (x + 2Zx -f
2

Expanding and equating


l

+l =2

--

?/i

2
)

(x

coefficients,

m+m =6

~ 4a

-f

6cx 2

-!-

4c?o; -f e,

and assume that

we have
k

-m?w

=-e

Now
1

m'

m'

Substituting the above values for

row by

If

we

a/2,

-f

m
1

m + m'

|-

211'

m + m' lm +l'm
m + m', etc., and
+
1',

-0.

+ I'm
2mm'

lm'

multiplying each

we have
a

3c-2all

all'

3c-2all'

=0.

write

the equation becomes

which when expanded

I,

+ 2t

c-t

+ 2t

0,

is

Corresponding to any root ^ of this equation, we can


m, V, m' which will satisfy the conditions.

now find values

of

POUR REAL ROOTS

192

2
=
given in the form u^-ofl + px + qx + r Q, we
proceed as in Art. 15, using I instead of 2Z, to obtain the cubic in the form
2
2=
2
irl 2
0, which reduces to an equation lacking the second
P(l +p)
y

Again,

if

the equation

term on substituting

is

- 2p/3

for

2
.

In numerical work, unless this cubic has rational roots, the solution becomes
by the methods described in this chapter the student can convince

NOTE.

very laborious
himself of this

by verifying the steps of Cardan's method for solving the equation,


2 8 - 1 \z - 15 =0, which is obtained as above for the biquadratic, x* - 3# 2 - x -f 2 = 0.*
Later, by one of the methods described in Ch. XXVII, it will be found that one root
can be found approximately with very little trouble. This is all that
it is only
necessary to have one way of breaking up u into quadratic

15.

Four Real Roots.

In Art.

11, it

is

required, since

factors.

has been shown that

necessary condition that the four roots should be real


rule (Ch. VI, 11, Ex. 1), if #>0, at least two of the roots

Hence, J>0, 77 <0 are necessary conditions that


real
but these two alone are not sufficient.

J>0 is a

also, by De Gua's
must be imaginary.

the roots should be

all

The complete

may be found by using Sturm's theorem,


the
usual
course
This,
given
adopted in text-books, involves rather
tedious reckoning
the conditions can be found much more easily by the
set of conditions

later.

use of either Ferrari's or Descartes' solution of the biquadratic.


/

The necessary and sufficient conditions


u == ax* -f 46x3 -f 6cx2 + kdx -f e =

Theorem.

aw

all real i*

(i)

or their equivalents

Let

z = ax

+b

v = z*

(ii)

J>0,
J>(),

then by Art.

that the roots of

//<0,

and

12# 2 >

H<(),

and

2Hl>3uJ.

9, (C),

and Art.

+ 6Hz* + 4:Gz + K = O

/,

10, (M), z is given

K = a I-3H
2

where

by

2
.

v=
has the same number of real roots as w = 0.
For v = 0, using the method of Descartes, and supposing that
- 2lz +
v 55 2 + 2lz + m)
m')

Now,

(z*

(z

we

get,

by equating

Eliminating

Hence, since

coefficients,

and m' from these equations,

(2Z -f

3HI)

- G2 = 1 2K, or

W + l2Hl* + (9H*-K)l*-G*=Q.

K=a*I -3H2

the values of

are the roots of


2

which, with the substitution, y +

H = at,

=0;

reduces to 4J

..................... (A)

*Thus, tt'+v^lS, ut?ll/3, t*-t?= 5-27397, ti=-2-16423, t>=l-0943,


which ttS(*H2-42042s+l-63580)(s-2-42042a:+l-22265)=0.

-i+t>- 3-85845, from

FOUR IMAGINARY ROOTS


Now

the three values of

correspond to the three ways of expressing

v as the product of two quadratic factors.

and

the roots of v =

If

(i)

i.e.

positive,

are

all real,

Hence,

the three values of

the three roots of (A) are

the roots of v =

If

(ii)

193

must be

all real

all positive.

imaginary, then, since their sum is zero,


2
Ait/i, -A-ti/i/, and thus the values of I are
2
-i(/A-/i') i.e. the roots of (A) are all real, but only one
are

all

we may denote them by


A2
is

-4(/4+/z')

positive
If

(iii)

>

and conversely.

two

of the roots of v

are real

and two imaginary, we may denote

and then the values of Z2


A, JJL, A'i/*', where A-Fju-h2A' =
2
2
i.e. the roots of
of which one is real and the other
(A), are A' J(A -f X'
t///)
two imaginary and conversely.

them by

It follows that the roots of v


if,

and only

if,

Now, the
is

the case

the roots of (A) are

roots of (A) are real


if,

and only

if,

Descartes' rule (Ch. VI,

negative and
theorem.

if

12H 2 -a 2I

is

I2H

J=/ -27/

is

First observe that,

p + pq + q

but /

is

hence,

so that

J>0,

/>0

hence, since

//<0,

if

p and
<?

q are

q according as

2HI\>\ 3aJ\;

any

2HI<3aJ.

and
real

numbers, positive or negative,

hence, since

i.e.

2HI<3aJ.

2
3
3
2
p -q = (p- q) (p + pq + q ),

it

p g q*

we have 8/P/ 3 <27a3 J 3 <a3/V;


8H*<a*J. Now, G2 + 4# 3 - a 2 (HI - aJ)

2HI<3aJ, and J>0;


and therefore

G 2 + I2H*<a 2 HI

addition,

l2H 3 <.a 2HI, and

dividing by H, which
Thus, the two sets of conditions are equivalent.

therefore

suppose

i2H 2 >a 2I.

4# 2/ 2 >9a 2 </ 2

ff<0,

positive,

by

we have

>0,

= (p + %q) 2 + f 2 >0

follows that p*
Then, since

this

also, the roots of (A) are, by


and positive, if, and only if, H is
which proves the first part of the

and

negative, therefore

Next, suppose that


2

and

HI<0

P>a P>27a J

HI

and, since

are real

of the second set of conditions,

//<0>
3

Then, since

all real,

all real

positive

that

Also,

and positive.
those of 4 3 - It + J =

u = 0, are

9, 10), all real

follows that

it

therefore those of

A = / 3 -27e/ 2 >0

To prove the equivalence


first

= 0, and

is

negative,

12H 2 >a 2 I.

~l
* In
1
general, if n is odd,
=*(p-~q)(pn- +pn-*q+ ... +gn ), where the last factor is the
qn according
product of pairs of complex conjugate factors, and is therefore positive hence p n

pnqn

&spr^q.
But,

if

is

even,

and not as p :g q.

pnqn^ty

q)(p+q) (a positive factor), hence

pn^^n

as

|p|<|ff|,

EECIPEOCAL TRANSFORMATION

194

Alternatively, using Ferrari's method, the equation

whose roots are

which, when expanded, is equation (A) on p. 192.


There are three possibilities.
(i)

AH

the roots of u =

all three real


(ii)

and

may be imaginary
=
/?
A-<fc,
y = A' 4-

(iii)

Two

take a,

j8

I/JL',

of (A) are

-iaV-fO

three real, but owe owfa/

all

in that case the roots of (A) are

u=

a = A + i/z,

are

be real

positive.

All the roots of

and the roots

may

of the roots of

8 = A'

-iW)

I/A'

>

we may take
;

(A-

A')

which

is positive.

w=

to be the real roots

in that case

may

be real arid two imaginary


8 = A - t/i
and then
;

and y = A + t/i,

we may

are the roots of (A), of which one only is real.


The proof proceeds as before.

Another method
Exercise

XXI,

of solving the biquadratic,

due to Euler,

is

given in

17.

Transformation into the Reciprocal Form.


The substitution x = py + q transforms the equation w = into
apY + *BrPy* + Wp*y* + 4:Dpy + E = Q, .................. (A)
B = ag + b, C = aq 2 + 2bq + c,
where
D = (a, 6, c, <%, 1)3, E-(a, 6, c, d, efa I) 4
16.

=
if
ap* E, Bp*==Dp,
2 =
2^, p* = D/B .......................... (B)
by aZ>

This will be a reciprocal equation


that

is, if q,

are given

Suppose that the conditions (B) are satisfied, and that the roots of (A)
where J/22/3 == J/iJ/4 :== l* Let a, j8, y, S be the corresponding
!/i> 2/2> J/3> 2/4

are

roots of

w = 0, so that

It follows that

? H~?)(y-?) = (a~?)(S-?),
2

and

...................... (C)

therefore

Hence by

Art. 13,

(iii),

the values of q are the roots of the equation in z found

by eliminating tfrom

S'
2

LO

an d

TSCHIRNHAUSEN'S TRANSFORMATION

qp

The points corresponding to q and


respectively the centre C and the foci
NOTE.

F' of the involution determined by the

"p/

as given

COtfl

points a, j8, y, 8, in which (j8, y) and (a, 8)


are corresponding pairs of points. That
is

Find a

1.

substitution of the

form

x*

Use

into the reciprocal form.

o = l,

Here

4* 3

The equation
One

and by

solution

is

(C), are

fi"

C j8.Cy = Ca.C8=CJ2 ==JF C a


/

xpy+q which will change the

+ x*-2x-l=Q

equation

....................................... (A)

this to solve the equation.

= J,

-/* + Jr=0

$=-J,

by

FIG 29

to say, the line segments are such that


Ex.

195

and by

is

= 0,

4e 3

d=

c=-l;

-^,

-f^-^=0,

that

is

(4*)

+2 (40 -3=0.

(E) of the text, the corresponding value of q is

(B) of the text, the corresponding value of

is

-i + |~|_

Taking p = 1, one substitution of the kind required is * =y 1.


2 4 ~
becomes
the
+
in
3t/ -f 1 =0.
%!? 3y
y
equation
(A),
Substituting
1
2
Dividing by y and putting z=y-f-y"" we find that
,

2
1

Also

y -#s
/.

17.

+ l=0,

- 3* + 1 = 0,

giving

= | (3

/5).

2/=i(2V2 -4), and aj=J(z~2db^ a ~4)


a

.*.

*=i(- 1+^5^-2 + 6^5),

or

i( -1

-^^^2 -6^6).

Tschirnhausen's Transformation.

If

we

eliminate

between
~
+ a^-1 + a2x n 2 + + a n =
r "" 2
1
y=xr + p^" + ^2^ + + Pr

/(x)

and

we

shall obtain

=a

o;

an equation

. . .

of the

form

Thus
for a single value of y corresponds to each of the n values of x.
can be chosen so that r of the
... p r
theoretically, in general p v p 2 ,
^n are z ^ro.

coefficients bl9 62 >

Transformation

it

This process

is

called Tschirrihausen's

has been applied to the cubic in Exercise

XX,

16,

TSCHIRNHAUSEN'S TRANSFORMATION

196

Let

Case of the biquadratic.

a,

y, 8

j8,

be the roots of

u = ax 4 -f 46x3 -f 6cz2 + 4dz + e = 0.

We shall

prove that in general three


if x is eliminated between

such that

u=

sets

of values of

p and

q can be

found

2
y = x + pz + q,

and

the resulting equation is of the form


4

Further, the values of p

and

is

+ =

.................................. (A)

<7

q are given by

ap=-Ab +
where z

+/</

2/

aq = 3c + 2bz,

2az,

......................... (B)

one of the three

aff-yS
a + jS-y-S

ya-/3S

j8y~<xS

'

'

y+a-jS^

J3Ty-a-S

the resultof y corresponds to each of the four values of x


Let p, q be chosen so
ing equation in y is therefore of the fourth degree.
3
and
let
are
and
of
that the coefficients
zero,
y 2 be the values
y l9
y
y

One value

of y.

Then we may take


4-j>y

+ ?=

-~2/2

whence by addition and subtraction,

y-a-8) = 0, ................... (D)


s 2 +^5 1 + 4y = 0, ................................. (E)

and
where

sl

= 2oL,

sz

= Z<x?. Hence we

Now
therefore

(j3H-y)

-(

where

-p^s.-Zz,
*

we

a/

j8y-a8

p=

Hence
Substituting in (E),

have, from (D),

46

+ 2z ..................................... (F)

find that

3c

a
2

giving

Moreover,
is

of the

if

form

p, q
(A).

have these values,

it is

obvious that the equation in y

SUBSTITUTIONS
As

197

be seen in the next example, each value of y gives one and only

will

one value of x which* satisfies the equation w = 0.


Ex.

Find a

to the

form y
Here a = 1,
we have

+/?/
b

substitution of the

+ g ~0. Find

=0,

=0, d = 3,

of

is

1,

5, so

that

where

4* 3

z~f and

giving

y=xz +px + q

the values off, g,

z^
One value

form

which

and use

will reduce the equation

the result to solve the equation.

7=-6, J=-9; and using Art.

13,

(iii),

+5*-9=0.

then

One such

p=3, q=0.

substitution

is

therefore

To

eliminate x from (A)

and

(B),

x2

flH\

\D j

H~ oiC.

we have

- 3x) =a;4 - 9x 2 - - 9x2 - I2x -H 5,

y(x*

xz + 43#

But

frcttn

(A)

which reduces to

- 200-0.

The

values of y are

Hence we

10*,

\/2,

and the corresponding values of x are given by

find that the roots of (A) are

-lN/2,

EXERCISE XXI

THE BIQUADRATIC
Unless otherwise stated

1.

If

2.

If

+ y = a + 8,
( j8

-H

If

j8,

y, 8 are the roots of

y)8 = (-*- 8) j8y, show

[Deduce from Ex.


3.

a,

u^ax* + 4bx* + 6co; 2 4- 4d(a: + e =0.


show that a zd + 26 3 - 3ofo = 0.
that e 2 6

-f

2d 3 - 3edc = 0.

1.]

2
2
0y=a8, show that od =6 e.

4. If

show that the interchange of any two of the four


3
and
into L 3

a,

j8,

* In the case of the


general equation, tt=0, and the substitution,
obtaining the second quadratic (G) is

y [ao? +(46 ~ap)x] * (

and

thus,

y, 8

changes

L3

into J/ 8

y**&+px+q,

the

method

for

FERRARI'S METHOD

198
5.

Show

that the equation whose roots are


j8y

- a8

ya

/94-y-a-o'

a/?

/?S

yS

-/

is

where

B-az + b, D-(a,

[Dimmish the roots of


6. If a,

ft,

b, c,

u~Q by

y, 3 are the roots

I)
#-(a, 6,
and use Ex. 3.]

d$z,
2

of w==o; 4 -fg# 2

-f

d, e$z, I)

c,

ra-f s ~0,

4
.

show that the equation

whose roots are


z3 -

is

and that

if 2 X is

<jz

- 4sz -f 4g# - r 2 = 0,

a root of this equation, then

where A ls A 2 are the roots of

A^Az^-s^O.
7,

Show

that the equation whose roots are


3

[Use equations
8.

Solve x*

23

(D), (G) of Art. 10,

- 2x* -\-a(2x -

1)

^0 by

and Exercise XX,


putting

it

3, (Hi).]

form

in the

and choosing

s so that the right-hand side is a perfect square.


the equation has two and only two real roots unless a = 1 or 0.

Hence show that

Solve by Ferrari's method


9.

* 4 + 12:r-5=0.

11. x*

- 3z 2 - 4x ~ 3 ~0.

13.

* 4 -f 12x3 4-54^ 2 -f 96x4- 40 = 0.

14.

4 4x 3 + lx z Express #

6a: -h

x*~2x- 1 ^0.

10.

a4

12.

x 4 - 4* 3

4- 5.u

4 2

= 0.

3 as the product of quadratic factors in three

different ways.
15. If a,

jS,

y, S are

the roots of x*

-\-

3x 3 4-# 2

-20,

prove that the equation

whose roots are

(j34-y-a-S)
z

is

[Use equation (L) of Art.


16.

Show

and two

2
,

(y 4-a

ft

- S) 2

(a

+ j8-y-S) 2

- 19z 2 -f 243z - 225 = 0.

13.]

that the equation whose roots are

similar expressions

is

3
2
4(*4-L) -e /(z4-L)4-eV=0

where L=ce-d*.
[This follows from equation
reciprocals.]

(L) of Art. 13

by changing

a, 0, y, 8 into their

EULER'S SOLUTION
If

17. Euler's Solution.

and

= *Jl + \/m -f \/n,

(i)

(ii)

then

Z,

which
(iii)

- 223

z2

Jl,

*Jm, *Jn denote either of the square roots of

is

.z

the same as

The complete

4(s-f//)

and(K)

6//z 2

4-

4s

-f

+ 4Gz + A" = 0,

127/s 2

~-K)s- G

4-

(9//

is

given by

- 0,

-a 2/(s + //)+a3 </-0.

solution of the biquadratic u

aa -f b = -

*Jl + sjm + >Jn,

ay + 6 =

^Z + Jin -

Observe that the values of

18.

z4

identical with

a8

v/Z

-h

s/w

m, n are i\a

I,

af3 + b~

*Jn,

the square roots being chosen so that

(L)

m, n

l~- 22!tom =0.

m, n are the values of a given by


is

/,

prove that

- &*Jl*Jm*/n

If this equation

199

*Jl- *Jm

Jl-~

*Jm -

(j3

>/n,

same

s/n has the

+ -s/n,

+ y-a-8)

2
,

sign as G.

etc., see

equations

of Art. 13.

Find a substitution of the form

x=py + q

which

transform the

will

equation
into the reciprocal form.
to solve the equation.
19, In

Ex.

Show

of Art. 17,

if

that one such substitution

each value of y which


y

is

substituted for y in y

is

satisfies

x = 2y -

1.

Use

this

the equation

+ 9% - 200^0
2

x + 3x, we get eight values of


2

x,

four of which satisfy

Without solving any equations, show that the other four values of x are the
roots of
x* f 12.r 3

[The left-hand side

+ 54x 2 + 96x

40 = 0.

(Cf.

Ex.

13.)

is

5H(z 4 + 12* - 5).]


Find a substitution of the form y=x 2 +px + q which
3 2x - 1
to the form y4 -f fy 2 + g = 0.
equation x* + x
20.

will

reduce the

that one such substitution is y =x 2 - x - 1, this reducing the equation


2
Use this to solve the equation. (Cf. Ex. 10. )
(2y) + 26 (2y) -11^0.

Show
to

21.

Find a substitution of the form

y=x 2 +px + q

which

equation
to the form

2
y*+fy + g=Q, showing that one such substitution

this reducing the equation to

4(1

is

will reduce

the

CHAPTER

XIII

</ THEORY OF IRRATIONALS


Sections of the System of Rational Numbers. Suppose
the rational numbers to be represented by points in a straight line, and let
the line be cut at any point P.
1.

Lower

class

Upper

class

P
FIG. 30.

The system

of rationals is thus divided into

called the lower class

the rationals to the

two

parts,

which

will

be

upper dass A'. The class A contains all


and
the class A' contains all those to the
of P,

and

left

the

is less tlutn any number in A'.


Two
right of P. Thus, any number in
or
does
distinct cases arise, according as the point
not, represent a
does,

rational number.

to represent some rational, 3 for example. The


Suppose
contains every rational less than 3, and the class A' contains every
rational greater than 3. The number 3 may be assigned to either dass. If
First case.

class

3 belongs to A,

number
For

it is

the greatest

number

of this class,

and there

is

no

least

in A'.

if a' is

supposed to be the least number in


yationals exist which
and greater than 3, and which therefore belong to the
',

are less than a'


class

Similarly if 3 is assigned to -4', it


has no greatest number.
the class

is

the least

number

of this class,

and

Thus corresponding
the

dass

to

has a greatest

any rational, the classification is such that


number or the dass A has a least number.
1

either

DEDEKIND'S DEFINITION
ticcond caw.

number.

201

P does not represent a rational


be equal to the side of a square whose area

Suppose that the point

For example,

let

OP

square units.
Classify the rationale according to the following rule
The lower class A is to contain all the negative numbers, zero and every
7

is

number whose square

positive

The upper
greater than

The

A'

is

is less

than

7.

to contain every positive

number whose square

is

7.

such that

classification is

Every

(i)

class

rational is included in one or other of two classes

For

A, A'.

exists whose square is equal to 7.


number
in A is less than any number in A. For if a is any
(ii) Any
number
A
and a' is any number in A', we have a 2 <7<a' 2 and
in
positive

no rational

a<a'.

so

The

(iii)

number.

and we

class

has no greatest number and the class

have to find b (greater than


case

has no least

2
For, suppose that a is the greatest number of A, then a <7,
2
can find a rational b such that 6>a and 6 <7. To do this, we

that & 2

a), so

if

-a 2 <7

- <-s
-a 2

6-flK-r

a2

This will be the

-a 2
.

2a

b -fa

Thus, 6 belongs to the class A, and a is not the greatest number in A.


Similarly it can be shown that A' has no least number.
This classification

by
is

-s/7,

is

and we assign

said to define the irrational number which we denote


a place on the scale with rationals as follows
,J1

it

to follow or to precede

any

positive rational a, according as a

iJJKDedekind's Definition.

<7

or

Suppose that a certain rule enables

us to divide the whole system of rationals into two classes, a lower class
A and an upper class A', so that any number in is less than any num-

ber in A'

Two

cases arise

has a greatest number or if A has a least number, the


tion defines a rational number, namely the greatest number in
(i)

least
(ii)

If

'

number

or the

no greatest number in A and no least number in A', the


defines an irrational number which is to follow all the numbers

If there is

classification

in

in

classifica-

A and to

precede

all

those in

A.

number

is called a real number^ and the


and
is
irrationals
known as the system of real numbers.
aggregate of rationals

Any

rational or irrational

EQUALITY AND INEQUALITY

202

The

be called the classification or the


section (A, A'), and the real number defined by it may be known as the
classification just described will

number (A, A').


The real number

zero is defined

by the section (A, A), where

contains

the negative rationals and


contains all the positive rationals.
A contains some positive rationals, the section (A, A') defines a

all

If

positive real number.

A' contains some negative rationals, (A, A') defines a negative

If

real

number.

We
we

'

'

are not justified in regarding a real number as a


have given fresh definitions of equality, inequality

'

'

number until
and the fundadefinitions must be in

mental operations of arithmetic. Moreover, these


agreement with those already given for the system of rationals.

equal
If

Equality and Inequality. Two real numbers are said


when they are defined by the same classification of rationals.

a and

precede

/J,

// a and

/J

are real numbers,

we say that a
j8

is less

and some of the


than j3 and that j8

are unequal real numbers, infinitely

to be

rationals

which follow a

is greater

than a.

many

rationals lie between

them.

For
(B,

a<j9, where a and j8 are defined by the classifications (A, A'),


respectively. Since these are different classifications, at least one

let

rational r lies between


r belongs to

a and

jS.

each of the classes

Then r follows a and precedes jS, therefore


A' and B. If r is the only rational between
A'

ex

B
Fio. 31.

a and

then r

Art. 2,

is

the least

by
number r,
Thus at least two, and
andjS.

(ii)

in

A and the greatest in B.

therefore infinitely

(J5,

Hence,

B') defines the

many,

Each

Let

A and A'

be two classes of rationals such that

class contains at least one

Any number in

same

impossible, for a</J.


rationals lie between a

is

(See Ch. II, 10.)

Theorem.
(i)

number

(i), each of the classifications (A, A),


and we should have <x = r = /?, which

number.

A is less than any number in A

1
.

ENDLESS DECIMALS

203
.

(iii)

Two numbers a and

can be chosen from

a'

**

and A'

respectively, so

that
a'

-a<,

is any positive number we may choose, however


Then there is one and only one real number a such
any number in A and a' is any number in A'.

where

is

a<a<a'

that

where a

Divide the system of rationals into two classes according to the


The lower class is to contain every rational less than any
A The upper class is to contain every rational greater than

Proof.

following rule
number a' in

any number a
It will be
tion.

small.

For

A.

in

proved that not more than one rational can escape classificatwo rationals Z and V (l<l ) so escape, then for every a and a'
f

if

This contradicts the hypothesis, for


a'

so that either a or a' lies between

we can choose a and

a! so

that

-a<V -I,
I

and

I'.

one rational which escapes classification, then it is to be


the upper or the lower class.
to
either
Thus, by Dedekind's
assigned
a
number
defines
real
the
a which satisfies the
classification
definition,
If there is

Conditions stated above.

This theorem

may

also be stated as follows

If (a n ) and (a n ') are sequences of rationals such that


(i)

and

(ii) it

a 1 <a 2

is possible to

<

3 ...

<a n

e is

number
5.

<a,/

...

<a3 '<a2 '<<,

find n such that


<*n

where

...

-<**<>

any positive number we may choose, however small) then one


and only one, exists such that # n ^a<a w for every n.

real

'

a,

Endless Decimals.

Using the ordinary notation,


a -a 1o 2 ...a n ...

let

be an endless decimal, where the successive figures are formed according


to

some
Let

definite rule.

dn = a

a^

The sequences (d n ) and


theorem, and therefore a

We
o

. . .

aw

and

dn

'

= d n + 1/10W

obviously satisfy the conditions of the last


8 is defined by
real
(d n

number

say that the decimal represents or

is

equal to this real

number

S.

B.O.A.

FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

204

Conversely, any real number 8 can be represented by a decimal. For,


using the same notation as in the preceding, if 8 is known, then for any

we can find d n so that d n <8<d n


number of figures a decimal which

suffix n,

to any

That

'.

Of course, a terminating decimal

to say,

is

represents

we can

calculate

S.

be regarded as an endless decimal

may

in which, after a certain stage, all the figures are zeros.

Since

any

by a decimal which terminates or


that a non-recurring endless decimal represents an irrational

rational can be represented

recurs, it follows

number, and conversely.

The fundamental Operations of Arithmetic.


follows, a Greek letter denotes a real number, a small

In what

Roman

letter

Real numbers will be defined by using the theorem

represents a rational.
of Art. 4, and when

we say that a

number a

real

is

defined

by a^a^a',

presumed that a, a' are any numbers in classes A, A! of rationals which


satisfy the conditions of the theorem.

it is

(1)

Addition.

then a -f j8

is

If a,

j3

numbers defined by
a<a<a' and &<<&',
are real

by a -f 6<a -f /2<a' + b'.

defined

This classification defines a real number, for


(i)

(ii)
(iii)

There

Any

We

is

at least one a

-f

< any a' +

can choose

e is

and one

a'

+ b'.

b'.

that

a, a', 6, b' so

a<^e

a'

where

-f

and

b'

6<i

any positive number, however small, and then


- (a 6) = (a - a) + (V - b)<.
(a -f b')
f

-f-

We

define

a -f /? + y as meaning

(a

-f jS)

+ y, and

it is

easy to show that

the commutative and associative laws hold good.


.

It

is

Show

1.

obvious that a

and

j3

= a.
b< 0<

-Ha are defined

defined

by

positive rational.
Let a be defined

by

is

a< a<

&',

a',

since every 6

where

-f

6<

classification of rationals.

is

is

any negative rational and

defined

+ 0<

a'

b' is

any

by

-f 6',

is

negative and every 6 positive,

a + 6<

Thus a +

then a +
a

and

by the same

Prove that a +

x. 2.

Zero

-f ft

a< a' -f 6'.

and a are defined by the same

classification of rationals

and are equal.

MULTIPLICATION OF IRRATIONALS
If

3.

is

Prove that
defined

by

205

a + ( - a) =0.

a< a< a',

then a +

a - a'< a

- a)
4- (

defined

is

by

- a)< a' - a.

every a< any a', therefore a a'< 0< a' a.


Hence a + ( -a) and are defined by the same classification, and

Now

We

(2) Subtraction.

If a,

(3) Multiplication.

/?

are positive real

and

a^oc^a'
aj3 is

Whence

define <x~j3 as a-f (-/?).

follows that

it

for

(a-j8)+j8=a,

then

are equal.

defined

numbers defined by

6</3<6',

These conditions define a real number,

by afe<a/3<a'6'.

for
(i)

(ii)
(i\\)

There

is

at least one ab

Every a6<any

a'b'

We can choose a,

6, a', &'

For

positive number.

and one

a'b'

a'b'

so that a'b'

-ab<,

-ab = a'(b' -b) + b(a'

6'

>

/}

where

is

any assigned

-a).

a'

'//

FIG. 32.

Choose rationals

a'6'

We

can

now

choose

For

a'6'

zero

- ab<h(b' -

a, 6, a', 6', so

6'

and then

^/7

Show

4.

that
a'

-a<e/2k,

= = 0. a,

a(-j8H-aj8 = (~a) and (-)( -J8)=aj8.


It is easy now to show
is taken to mean (<xj8)y.

that

defined by

that the

and associative laws hold good.

^1.^1 = 7.

a< N/7<

a',

where

rt,

a2

Hence *y7 ^7 is defined by a2 < 7<


.

a'<A,

negative factors, the definitions are

commutative, distributive

is

if

b)

and

b</2h

a.

^ Ex.

and &>/J, then


+ k(a' - a).

- ab<.

and

Further, a/Sy

A>a

that

h, k, so

a' 2 ,

a' are

any

< 7< a'

and this

positive rationals such that

2
.

classification also defines the

number

7,

POWERS AND ROOTS

206
(4) Division.

If

is

a positive real number defined by

a^a^a', then

is defined by l/a'<l/a<l/a.
These conditions define a real number, for

I/a

There

(i)

We

(iii)

and one

at least one I/a'

is

can choose

Every l/a'< any I/a.


so that l/a-l/a'<, where e is any assigned

a, a'

I/a.

(ii)

positive number.

To prove

this,

we have

show that

to

"i

a, a'

7*

can be chosen so that

p IG
f

-a<aa
0<A<a. Next
.

choose a, a

First choose h so thaia'

"~~l

'

so that a>/i

and

a</re.
Since

h<a<a',

NOTE.

Tliis

Consequently

JSfo.

it

5.

meaning

is

follows that

// a,

and

a'-a<aa'e.

reasoning depends on the existence of positive rationals

rio

j9

l/(

(a/j3)

less

than

a.

to 1/0.

assigned

Further definitions are

whence

h 2 <aa'

we have

= - I/a and a/j8=a l/j8


for (a I//?) jB =a(l/jB
/? =a
-a)

are positive real numbers defined by

jB)

a< a< a' arw2 b< j8< &',

=a.
<Aen a/j9 is

a/<

a' ft.
defined by a/6'<
This follows from the definition of

7.

Powers and Roots.

and multiplication.

l/j3

a positive integer and a a real numdefined by a n ==a a a


to n factors.
n
m
n
m
+
follows that a .a =a
and (aw ) w =amn

If

n
ber, the nth power of a (written a )

is

is

. . .

m, n are positive integers, it


That these formulae may hold for zero and negative values
we must have a = 1 and a~ n = l/an

If

of

m and n,

Theorem

(i)

// a

x, x' positive rationals

is

a positive real number, n a positive integer and

such that

<a<x' n

then positive rationals

xl9 #/

exist such that

For

if

We

can choose ^ 1 >x, so that

x<x<x',

then

x x w - xn <a - xn

The existence

of a

number x

~#<(a -xn )fnx' n

xx
,

so that

such that

~l
:

and then

x^ <a.

a<x 1 n <x /n
'

can be proved in a

similar way.
(ii)

//

is

any

positive number, however small, then

For as in the preceding, x/ n

~x1 w <(x1

-ajj)

n
n
x/ ~x 1 <, provided

nx^- 1

PRINCIPAL ROOTS
Theorem
number

207

a positive real number, there


and one only, whose n-th power is equal to a.
2.

//a

If a = z n where #

is

is

a positive rational, there

is

is

one positive real

only one such number

x,

for the nth


If

powers of unequal positive rationals are unequal.


no such x exists, divide the system of rationals into a lower

class

and an upper class A' according to the following rule


The class A is to contain every negative number, zero, and every positive
:

',

number x such that x n <oc.


The class A' is to contain every positive number x such that x' n >a.
Then (i) no rational escapes classification for no rational x exists such
;

that x n =a.
(ii)

Every #<every

(iii)

There

is

x',

for

sc

<Ca<J?'

no greatest x and no

n
.

least

f
.

This follows from the last

theorem.
Therefore the classification defines a real number
Again, for every

x and every

x'',

xn <oL<x' n

xn <gn <x' n

and

Also every rational is an x or an x', therefore these may be chosen so


x is as small as we like. Hence, as in Theorem 1, they may be
where e is any positive number, however small.
chosen so that x' n -xn

that x'

<,

n are defined

Thus both a and

by the same

classification of rationals,

a classification which satisfies the conditions of the theorem of Art. 4 and


n

therefore

=a.

a positive real number, the principal n-th root of a


defined as the positive real number whose nth power is equal to a. This
Definitions.

is
is

If

written J^a, and

is

is

generally called the n-th root of


n

Thus

(;/a)

a..

=a.

It follows that

ya.y]8-y(aj8)
If

is

odd,

we have
(-

When n

is

WH^a^ y(.

and

an odd

simply the n-th

n==

(-

1 )n

w== -a.

we therefore define the


-a as - ^a thus

integer,

root, of

(^a

principal n-th root, or

even, the 7^th power of every real number is positive, and therefore
no real number exists which is the nth root of a negative number.
If

is

SURDS

208
Indices

which are Rational Fractions.

If p, q are positive integers,

aq

is

p
defined as *]a* or (!ja)
This definition assigns no meaning to a x
is

considered in Art.

Surds.

8.

If

when x

is

This case

irrational.

9.

is

not a perfect nth power, ^Ja

is

called a surd of the

nth order.

Two
rational

surds of the same order are like surds

when

their quotient is

otherwise they are unlike surds.

The following theorems and examples depend on the


number cannot be equal to an irrational.

Theorem

1.

If

x+Jy^a + jb

fact that a rational

x, y, a, b are rationals, then

where

x=a

and y = b,or else

y and b are the squares ofrationals.


For suppose that x-^a and let x = a 4- z,. then z + Jy

Jb,

and by squaring,

Therefore ,Jy is rational, and from the given equation


the other hand, if x = a, then y 6.

is

Jb

rational.

On

Ex.

1.

// a

+ b^/p + c*jq

where

a, 6, c are rationals

and Jp

^/q are unlike surds,

thena = Q, 6=0, c=0.


By transposing and squaring we can show that
2 c*q ~a
b~p.
2ab^/p

If

ab^Q, the left-hand side would be irrational and the right-hand side would

be rational ; which

is

impossible.

Therefore a6=0, and consequently a

or

6~0.

a=0, then b*Jp + CsJq~Q; and, if 6^0, then Vp/\A?~ -c/6;


and
which is not the case.
*/p
*Jq would be like surds
Therefore 6=0 and c = 0.
//

so

that

7/6 =
Ex.

2.

then a
// a

-{-

~
c^q ~ 0, and therefore a

+ 6^/p + c^ 2 =0

wAere

a, 6, c,

and

= 0.

are rationals and

is

not

a perfect cube,

then a, 6, c are all zero.

Multiplying the given equation by %Jp

cp +a?Jp

and eliminating the terms containing


Since ^/p

is irrational, it

therefore

c^Q we should have p 2 =(

fy

= ac and c 2p
3
2
2 2
c*p = a 6 = a c.

)
\ c/

Hence c=0, and

+ 6Ap 2 =0,

follows that
b2

If

we have

therefore also

so that ^/p 2

a=0

ab,

would be

and 6=0.

rational,

which

is

not the case.

IRRATIONAL INDICES
Theorem

2.

Suppose

square, then if

p + *Jq

is

For we have

Since

Jq

is

Putting

a polynomial with

2
&ndf(x) = Q{(x-p) -q}

9.

Irrational Indices.

if

f(x)

is

identity of the form

x=p + Jq, we

irrational it follows that

a perfect

a root off(x)

we obtain an

are rationals.

is

0//(#)=0 where f(x)

is also

divided by (x-p)*-q,

root

that q is not

= 0.
p-*Jq
2
=
+
{x-(p Jq)}{x-(p-Jq)} (x-p) -q, and

rational coefficients,

where R,

and

that p, q are rationals

209

have

Rp -f S = and R = 0.

p-Jq

therefore

The theorems

Consequently

a root of/(z)

is

of Art. 7 hold

= 0.

when a

is

number, the indices being rationals, and lead to the following


Definition. Let a be a real number greater than unity, and let
be an

positive real

irrational defined

by x<g<x' where

x belong to classes of rationals

x,

Then

satisfying the conditions stated in Art. 4.

a*

is

defined

by

These conditions define a real number, for


(i)
(iii)

there

at least one a x

is

'

and one a x>

we dan choose x and

x
every a*<every a ',

(ii)

'
x' so that a x

ax

<

where

is

any assigned

number, however small.

positive

To prove

this,

ax
Next, by Ch.

'

then a x <a h and

&>,

choose a number

-a x = a x (a xl -x - l)<ah (a x '~ x - 1).


we can

II, 18, (7),

find a positive integer

n such that

an

NOTE.

The

'

-a x <ah (a n ~

At present

7/0<a<l,

a*

is

defined

show that
ax .

hold for

all real

it

way, is called its


from other values which will be found

of will stand for its principal value.

by the

defined as (I/b)*, where 6 = I/a.


able to assign a meaning to a*
It is easy to

real positive value of a*, defined in this

principal value, to distinguish


later.

x<.l/n, and then

Finally, choose x, x' so that x'

ax

-l</ah

if

classification

We

ax '<af<a x

define 1* as

when a

is

1.

negative.

a>0, the index laws

ay

= a*+* and

values of x and y.

(a

x y
)

= axy

At

Or

present,

it

we

may

be

are not

OPEN AND CLOSED INTERVALS

210
10.

and

a^l,

a single real number

there exists

If a and

Theorem.

Logarithms.

are positive real numbers

such that a*

= N.

N
<N<a

x
and first let
Suppose that no rational x exists such that a =
x
x '.
n>l. Then, by Art. 7, rationals x, x' exist such that a
Divide the system of rationals into a lower class A and an upper class A'

Proof.

by the following rule


The class A is to contain every rational x such that ax <N.
The class A' is to contain every rational x' such that a x '>N.
Then (i) no rational escapes classification for it is assumed that no
for a x <a x '.
rational x exists such that a x = N.
(ii) Every #<every x'
:

There

(iii)

is

no greatest x

the last article,

a*<jy.
The

we can

Similarly

for

find x2

if

>x

ly

supposed to be the greatest, as in


so that a^ aPK^N
i.e. so that
is

-a^

can be shown that there

it

classification therefore defines a real

Again, for every

x and every

is

no

least x'.

number

#',

a x <N<a*'

and

a*<af<a*'

and since every rational is an x or an x', these may be chosen so that


x -x is as small as we like. Hence, as in Art. 9, they may be chosen
so that a x -a x <, where e is any positive number, however small.
Thus both N and a* are defined by the same classification of rationals,
f

'

a classification which
If

a<l, we

satisfies

the conditions of Art.

find f so that (l/a)*

= l/N, and

4,

and so

a^

= 2V.

then a* = N.

any positive real number a is chosen as base and N is


any positive real number, the number
given by the relation a*~N is
called the logarithm of N to the base a, and we write f = log a N.
Definition.

Definitions. We say that


between a and 6 forms the (open)

1 1

lie

(ii)

The

real values of

or the range
(iii)

If

closed at
'

a^x^b form

(x)

which

a<x<b.

the closed interval

(a, 6)

the real numbers x form an interval

(a, 6)

open

at

a and

or the range (a <#<&).


'

'

generally means open interval/


number x in the interval (a, 6) is often called a point in the interval.

Interval

Any

x such that

the set of real numbers

(i)

interval (a, 6) or the range

a<x<6.

a<x<6,
6,

'

'

If

x l9 x2 are any numbers in the interval (a, 6) and/(x) is a function


x such that f(xl )^f(x 2 ) when x 1 <x2 we say that/(x) increases steadily
through the interval, unless the sign is always that of equality, in which
(iv) If

of

case/(x)

is

constant in the interval.

DEDEKIND'S THEOREM
)

when x^x^

then

211

said to increase steadily in the

/(a?) is

stricter sense.

f(x l )^f(x 2 ) when #T <#2 f(x) decreases steadily; and

If

if

when x l <.x2 ,f(x)

f(x 1 )>f(x^)

decreases steadily in the stricter sense.


9

'

is the set of
a real number, the
neighbourhood of a
real numbers in the interval (a-e, a + e), where e is as small as we like.

If

(v)

is

12. Sections of the

System of Real Numbers.

Dedekind's Theorem.

vx(i)

// the system of real numbers

is

divided into

and A' such that (i) each class contains at least one number,
number belongs to one or other of the classes, (iii) any number
(ii) every real
in A is less than any number in A' then there is a single real number a, such
that all numbers less than a belong to' A and all numbers greater than a belong
The number a may be regarded as belonging to either of the classes.
to A'
two classes

Consider the rationals in

Proof.

and AI, which form a section

number

If

(1)

Two

a.
is

of the

and A.

system

These form two classes

and define a

of rationals

real

cases arise.

rational,

it is

the greatest

number

in

Al

the greatest number in A v it is also the greatest


suppose that there is a number ft in A greater than a.

or the least in A^.

number

in A. For
Between a and /?
there are rationals greater than a which therefore belong to A and also
to A'. Hence j8 must belong to A', which is not the case.
Similarly if a is the least number in A^, it is also the least in A.
If

is

If

(ii)

is irrational, it is

greater than

all

the numbers in

Al

and

less

Also, a must belong to A or to A, and just as in the


show
we
can
that it is the greatest number in A or the least in A'
preceding,

than

all

those in A^.

The theorem

just proved

section of the system of real

is

of great importance.

numbers

defines

It

shows that any

a real number.

Thus the con-

sideration of sections of this kind leads to no further generalisation of our


idea of number. All this is sometimes expressed by saying that the system

of real numbers is closed, or the aggregate of real numbers is perfect.


On the other hand, the rational numbers do not form a closed system,
or in other words, the aggregate of rational numbers is not perfect, for a
section of the system of rationals does riot always define a rational.
(2) // the numbers in the interval (a, b) are divided into two
A' as in (1), the section determines a real number a.

classes

and

For

if

we take with

A
1

all

all

the real numbers x such that

the real numbers x such that x'^-b,

of real

numbers.

we obtain a

x^a

and with A'

section of the system

ARITHMETIC CONTINUUM

212

1 that if we take any


we
in a straight line as origin and any length
may choose as unit
point
of length, then to any point P in the line there corresponds a real number p.

The Continuum.

13.

from Art.

It follows

choosing suitable axioms regarding the characteristics of a straight


line we can ensure the truth of the converse of this statement, namely,
that to every real number p there corresponds a point P in the line. Thus

By

the correspondence between the points of a straight line and the

numbers
If

that

p
p

is

complete.
the real number corresponding to the point P of the line, we say
Hence the system of real
is the measure of the length of OP.

is

numbers
This

real

is

adequate for the measurement of the length of a straight

an instance of what

is

The aggregate

of real

is

known

numbers

as a continuous magnitude.
called the arithmetic continuum,

is

of the points of a straight line is called the linear

the aggregate

line.

and

continuum.

RATIO AND PROPORTION


NOTE.
small

In

Arts. 14-16 capital letters will denote concrete magnitudes

and not numbers

denote positive integers.

letters will

Equality and

Inequality of Concrete Magnitudes. In


how
a
magnitude or a quantity of any kind is to be measured,
considering
the
at
outset we must define what is meant by saying that 'A is equal to
14.

and B are quantities of the


greater than or less than J5/ where
of these statements depends on the particular kind
of quantity we are considering. For instance, let A and B denote segments

J5,'

'A

is

The exact meaning

kind.

if A can be made to coincide with J5, we say A = B


can be made to coincide with a part of B, we say
and B>A.
The student should reflect on the meaning of equal angles, equal

of straight lines
if

A<B

velocities,

equal forces, equal quantities of heat, etc.

We

15. Ratio.

number

said to contain

This

is

able,

exactly

Definition.

(that

can be divided into any

Denoting any one of these parts by C, B is


n
times, and C is called the nth part of B.
(exactly)

expressed shortly by writing

nth part of

a and

assume that a magnitude

(n) of equal parts.

we denote

C = ^B.

this

If.

by writing

A
A

contains the

B.

A and B are magnitudes of the same kind, and if integers


such that A contains the fcth part of B exactly a times

A~j BJ,

and the

times,

or

If

b exist
is, if

B^nC

ratio of

the magnitudes

to

(written

and
:

B)

B
is

are said to be commensur-

defined as the

number

a/b.

RATIO AND PROPORTION


If

no integers a and

6 exist such that

213

A = ^B, the magnitudes A

and

are said to be incommensurable.

Axiom

of Archimedes.

If

no matter how small

A may

always be found such that

mA>B

kind,

16.

Two

Ratio of

are magnitudes of the

same

be compared with 5, an integer

m can

and

or

^B<A.

Incommensurables.

If

and

are incom-

mensurable magnitudes, the ratio of A to B (written A B) is defined as


the irrational number determined by the following classification of the
:

entire

the
the

system of rationals

Lower

Class
Class

Upper

is

to contain every rational a/6 for which

is

to contain every rational a'/b' for

This classification defines an irrational


(1)

every rational

hypothesis, there

(2)

(3)

every a/6
there

is

hypothesis

is

falls

than any

no greatest a/6

bl

A>a

because

into one or other of the

no rational a/b

is less

number

for

a'/6'

which bA
for

bA>aB,

which b'A<a'B.

two

= aB

classes;

for,

by

^B<A<^B

for suppose ajb^ to be the greatest, then

by

B.

Now by

the axiom of Archimedes, a multiple of a magnitude (however


small the magnitude may be) can be found which exceeds any magnitude
of the same kind, however
Therefore an integer r can be found such
great.

^-a

JS)>a 1 J5, and therefore rb l A>(r + 1)a 1 B. Let r61==62


and (r-fl)a 1 -a2 then b^A>o 2 B and a^-a^r-f l)lrb{> ajbl9 so that
be shown that there is no
ajbi is not the greatest a/6. Similarly it can
number.
irrational
an
defines
Hence the classification
least
that

r(6 1

a'/6'

Theorem.

If

A, B, C,

are four magnitudes of the

same kind, the

ratio of A to B is equal to that of C to D if mA> =oi<nB according as


mC>=of<nD, for all positive integral values of m and n.*
= nB, then by hypothesis
If rationals m, n exist such that mA
Proof.

mC^nD and A/B = C/D = n/m. If no such rationals m,


A, B and also C, D are incommensurables, and the ratios

exist,

then

A/B, CjD are


therefore
are
and
irrationals defined by the same classification
equal.
= C:D,
A:B
and
kind
same
the
of
If A, B, C, D are magnitudes
then A, B, C,

D are said to be in proportion.


* This

is

Euclid's definition of the equality of

two

ratios,

SQUARE AND OTHER ROOTS

214

EXERCISE XXII

IRRATIONALS
is

1. Show that no rational exists whose nth power is equal to ajb, where a/6
a positive fraction in its lowest terms unless a and 6 are perfect nth powers.
/x \** a
- where
x/y is a positive fraction in its lowest terms.
[Suppose that ( j =

Then bxn =ayn


where k

is

Therefore

Since y

prime to
a whole number. Then
.

is

a~xn and byn


Jx + *Jy = */a + >Jb
,

that

is

x,

to say,

then either
2. If
9
Ja, */b are all rational or all like surds.

Hence
a and b are
.

xa, y=b

and *Jxy = */ab, unless

[Squaring, x + y=a + b,
3.

n must be a divisor of

akxn

^fa

where

a, b are

in terms of

= kyn

for

b,

Va6 are

y=a,

6.

or *Jx, *Jy,

rational.]

not a perfect square.

Also find x and y

b.

[Proceed as in Ex.
4. If

is

Let

exist such that

x, y may
+ ^/b = *Jx + *Jy,

given rationals and 6

a and

6.

a is prime to
perfect nth powers.]
Jk

or

*fxy,

Find the condition that rationals

= l,

2,

and show that x

a
\(a dbVa -6).]

a + b*Jp + c*Jq + d*JpqQ where *Jp

*Jq are unlike surds,

then

a, 6, c,

are all zero.

[We have
Hence by

Art. 8, Ex.

1,

ac=bdp,

and consequently,

if c

^0 and a ^0,

bc=ad, c*=dp,
then p=c*.]

5. If x + $y=a + $/b where x, y, a, b are rational


cubes, then x=a and y 6.

[Put

z= a; -a.

rational.

Show

Now use

that 2 8 H-y~6

+ 32\/6y =

a$lp* + b$]pq + c$q*Q


that a, 6, c are all zero.

and neither of

7.

cients,

not zero, since pjq

j? ^, j?^

_+ _

3
z
2
[Show that C*q*-a*p -b pq = 3db(ap\/pq

is

.*.

y, b are

not perfect

$y=mg/b 2 where

is

Art. 8, Ex. 2.]

6. If

in brackets

and

is

bq\/p

q),

is

a perfect cube, show

and that the expression

not a cube.]

Show

that *J2 and v/3 are cubic functions of J2 -f *J3 with rational
and that ^2-^/6 + 3 is the ratio of two linear functions of *J2 -f \/3

coeffi-

8
[For the first part, let y s/2 + \^3 ; find t/ , and eliminate \^3 and V2 in turn :
for the second part, find the value of the product ( \/2 - V6 + 3) (V2 -f N/3 + a:), and
show that this is equal to y + 5 when x 1.]

8.

root

Find the equation of lowest degree with rational

is
(ii)

[(i)
(ii)
(iii)

If * =

&2 + 3^/4;

(iii)

2
N^ + %/SL a: -l=2\a;, etc.
8
if y=#2 + 3#4, i/ = 110 + 18(4/2 +
8
=5 + 34/6.2, and (28 -5) 8 =
if z=4/2 + 4/3,
;

coefficients of

4/2 + 4/3.

which one

RATIONAL COEFFICIENTS
9.

If all the solutions of

as 2 + 2hxy + 6t/ 2 = 1,

a'x 2 + Zh'xy + b'y* = 1

then (h -A') 2 - (a -a') (6 -&') and


- a'6) 2 - 4 (aA' - a'A) (W - h'b) are the
squares of rationals.

and

are rational
(oft'

215

a, A, b, a', h' 9 b' are rational,

[Let (a lf j8i), {a 2 ,
are the roots of

j8 2 ), (

i,

ft) (

2>

^2)

be the solutions. Prove that

,.
/

show that a^, a a j3 8 are the roots of


- 4 (a*') A6')} + 2z { (a - a') ( A6') - (6 - 6') (aA')} + (a - a') (6 - 6') = 0,
- a r&. Hence show that
=ab'
where (ab')
Also,

z 2 { (oft') f

aiaa

/
.

whence the second


10. If a, 6, x,

prove that

i
)

-4(aA

)(A6

result follows.]

y are rationals such that

eiJAer

a;

a,

yb,

[Put*-a = -S:,y-&==r;
If

(o6

or I
.'.

-ab and

-cry are the squares of rationals.

(aY -bX)* + 4XY=Q.

X
X and 7 are not zero, solve for ~

Next observe that the given equation


y and 6.]

is

and show that

-ab

is

a perfect square.

unaltered by the interchange of x and a,

CHAPTEK XIV
INEQUALITIES
IN

this chapter, various

of the results are of

Many

of dealing with inequalities are explained.

fundamental importance.

Weierstrass' Inequalities.

1.
less

methods

than

whose sum

Ij a v a 2
denoted by s n then

is

a n are positive numbers

...

+sn ),
-s n ),
where, in the last inequality,

For

(1

and continuing

-a

x ) (1

thus,

it

supposed that s n <l.

is

- a2 ) = 1 -

(a l

+ a 2 + a x a 2 > \-(a l + a 2 ),
)

we can prove that

(l-o 1 )(l-o 8 )...(l


In the same

way

Again, 1 -a 1 <l/(l +%), and 1 +a x <l/(l


these and similar inequalities, we have
(1

and

-a,)(l -o.)

if s n

(1

2.

-a^,

...

(1

-a n )<l/(l + 0l )(l +a2

...

(1

H-o n )<l/(l

) ...

Many

inequalities

depend on

-00(1 -o,)

...

Ex.

2.

For

Using

+a n )<l/(l +*n ),

7/a>0 and 6>0,

// a,

6, c

(a

then

are positive

and

(a

(1

-)<!/(! -*)

the fact that the square of a real

positive.
1.

0<a 1 <l.

<l,

+ 0l )(l +az)

Ex.

(1

for

+ b)>*Jab.

not all equal, then

(a + b + c) (be + ca + ab) >9abc.


+ 6 + c) (be + ca 4- ab) - 9a6c

number

is

TYPICAL METHODS
3.

Ex.

1.

We

have

217

special arrangement of terms or factors is sometimes useful.

Show

that

[n>w

(|^)

and r(n~r + l)>n

8==1

if

r2

2
.

n 2(n-l) 3(n-2)

...

-r(n + l) + n<0

that

r(n-r + l)

is if

...

1,

~n)<0

(r-l)(r

or

if

l<r<n.

Therefore

j&e. 2.

are positive numbers

6, c

// a,

any two of which are

together greater than the

third, then

Now,

since

a(c

+ a-b)(a + b -c)>0, we have

a(a + 6 -c-f c-f a-6)>2(c~f-a ~6)(a

if

which

the case.

is

greater than

4. If a,

Similarly, l/(a

2/6, 2/c respectively

x are

6,

For since

6 (6

according as ab

+ x)/(b + x)^a/b,

that

+ c - a) + l/(c -f a - 6),

l/(6

result is obtained

(a -f x)/( b

positive,

+ bx^ab + ax,

o 2 >a 2 -(6-c) 2 ;

or

is,

by

are

addition.

according as

a$b.

+ x)^ a/b

according as

ax^bx

or a $6.

Prove that

r. 1.

positive, then (a

-f x) is

+ 6-c)

+ a-6) + l/(a + 6-c)>2/a,

+ 6 - c) + 1/(6 -f c - a),
and the

l/(c

..

(2*-D

A
then

'

/o

AI
Also

(2*

4 6
>- -.

+ ix
!)^-.-...

^<r

Therefore

*^

and

'

5. If both sides of an inequality are symmetric functions of a y


no loss of generality in assuming that

6, c, ... A, k,

there is

Ex.

"

1.

6, c

// a,

are all positive

and

n^O or n^

1,

then

a n (a-b)<a-c)+bn (b-a)(b-c)+c n (c-a)(c-b)^0.


First

an

let

w>0.

^b ^c

therefore

whence the
//

On

account of symmetry, we may assume that a^6>c.


and a n (a-6)(a-c)>6n (a-6)(6 -c), also c n (c-a)(ca n (a-6)(a-c)+c n (c-a)(c-6)^6 n (a~6)(6-c),

Hence,

result in question.
2;a n (a-6)(a-c)=Z(a-6)(a-c)=27a2

n=0,

27a 2

and
-l,

let

easily seen that

n= -w-1,

-.

2:6c

<

-276c

so that

Ean (a - 6) (a - c) = -r-

m^O.
2?a

Let a = l/a, 6 = l/jS,

m (a -

j8)

(a

y)

= l/y,

then

by the preceding.

it is

INEQUALITIES INVOLVING POWERS

218
6.

//!, a2
((!&!

-f

a n and bl9 62

...

let

a 2 b2 +

A=

bn are two sets of real numbers, then

...

-f a n ) (6 X
#tA) 2:^( a i + a 2 +
=
=
occurring only when a^Jb^ a^jb^
-f

. . .

the sign of equality

For

. . .

B = 2arbr C = 2b rz then
2
Z(ar + A6 r - A + 2 A

a r2 ,

have a r -h \br =

for every

is

the

7. If a 19 a 2

. . .

= a n/b n

. . .

-f

6n2 ),

+ A2 C.

the sign of equality occurs,

we must

so

of

also follows

sum

from the identity

\n(n -

of the

1)

squares of the form (a^g

a n are n positive numbers, not

...

all

equal

according as x and y have the same or opposite signs.


First suppose that x and y have the same sign. Let

the numbers

-f

-f

The theorem

where S

and

62 2

A + 2XB + A C = are equal and B 2 =


A 2A$ + A2 C>0 for all values of A, and therefore B2 <AC.

Hence the roots


Otherwise

r,

If

-f

for all values of A,

Therefore ^4-2AJ5+ A 2 C^O.

1, 2,

negative or zero.

...

n,

then a rx -a sx and arv

Hence
a

(a r

x+v

to

- a 2 ^i) 2

one another, then

r, s

be any two of

are both positive, both

-a/
-a8x )(ar y -a8 v )^0, and

x y
v
v
-h a*+ ^*a r*a 8 + a s a r

There are 2^(^-1) relations of this sort, not


occurs in n - 1 of them and a r xa s v in only one.

consequently

all equalities.

Also a rx + v

Hence by addition

(n- \)Za r
Therefore

nEa

x +v

x +v

>Z:a rxasy where s^r.

> Sa x +v + Safa* = Za x
r

If x and y have opposite signs, then (a r


be substituted for
in the preceding.

2a rv

- a,*) (a r y - a/)<0, and

< must

>

8. The inequality in Art. 7 can be written

n
Hence
to

it

follows that if

one another, and x,y,z,

a^ a 2

...

...

a n are n

positive numbers, not all equal

are all positive or all negative, then

27a r +y++...

Ea
^

Zgv Zaf
^

FUNDAMENTAL INEQUALITIES

**-

9. If a is any positive number except


then
First suppose that

we have
(a

l)/p

(aP

= (a - l){pa~ l - (a p

p, q are positive integers.

V)/(p

If

1}

4-a*~ 2

y are positive rationals,*

x,

x>y.

if

x~p, y = q where
_i

and

1,

219

... 4-

l)}/p(p

- 1).

Now, the expression in the large brackets can be written


1 a*~ 2 ) + (a*- 1 - a*- 3 ) +
+ (a~ l - 1 )}
(a*. . .

and each term

of this is positive or negative according as a.^\.


in either case, (a p -l)/p- (a** 1 - l)/(p - 1 )>0,

Hence,
that

p,

(a

is,

l)/p decreases as

if

y are fractions, we

may

one or both of

q,

d are positive integers and p>q----

TT~
d

P/

p>q.

(a-l)/p>(a<*-l)/q
If

cc,

and therefore

decreases,

j>

> --TT~~
d

x,

take x=p/d, y = q/d where


have to show that

We
A

>

that, is

?/

where b = a d
NOTE.

6>0 and

This follows from the preceding, for

It has

been shown that

a>0

and ^1,

passes through positive rational


x
values, (a ~l)/x increases with x.
Putting I/a for a, it follows that (a- ~l)/x
increases.
x
and
as
decreases
Further, putting
increases,
consequently (l-a-*)/*
if

as

a;

we conclude that x(a x - 1)

Ifx for x,

decreases

~
Ex.

Ifa>l and n^l.then

I.

n(a

and x(l ~ a x )
1

-l)>l

__ji

If

w>l, n(an -

If

n = \ the inequality becomes a -1>1 --, or a (a-

1)

=an .n(l-a n)> a^(l

- a~ 1 )>l - a- 1

1)

> a-1,

10. If a and b are positive and unequal and x


except

unless

1,

then

<x < 1

Proof.

6)>a _

^-i (a
,

in which case

xa

x ~l

6x

>x6

x-i

(a-b) <a

(a

is

any

i.e.

2
(a-l) >0.

rational

number

_ 6)f

- bx <x6x ~ 1 (a ~ 6)

First observe that, in either of the cases, the truth of one of

the inequalities involves that of the other.


* It

increases as x increases.

can be shown that

this is true

when

x,

v are positive

Thus,
real

if

for all positive

numbers.

(See Ex.

XXIII,

and

37-39.)

B.CJU

FUNDAMENTAL INEQUALITIES

220

x ~l
x
x
we may interchange
(a-~b)>a -b
unequal values of a and 6, xa
l
x - a x and therefore a x -b x
a and 6, so that xb*~ (b a)>b
>xb x ~ l (a-b).
Thus it is only necessary to prove one inequality in each case.
,

',

Let a/b = k, then

(i) if

according as

(ii) if

is

- bx ^xbx ^ l (a - b) according as kx - I $x(k - 1), or


x (k
l)/xg(A 1)/1, that is according as xgl (See Art. 9.)

x
positive a

is

negative and

equal to

y then xa

x ~l

- b) ^a x - b x according
(a

-l

(k-l)>k-v-I, that is according as -y(k~l)^k-k y +


v +l - 1
5 k (y + 1 ) - y - 1 or according as
according as k
(*+'-l)/(y + 1)2 (*-!)/!;
-yk~ v

as

l
,

or

that

is

Now y>0, and

y + l^l, or t/^0.

(by Art. 9) according as

xa*- l (a-b)>a x

so

-bf*.

This completes the proof of the theorem.


1 1

When

= 1,

the second inequalities in Art. 10 become

ax

-I>x(a~I)
-l<x(a-l)

ax

Writing n for x and

and

1,

1 -f

x> -1 and 7^0,

x for

0<z<l.

>l+nx

if

n<0

(l+x) <l-fnx

if

0<n<l.

-x)

(l-x)
Ex.

or

>l -nx

if

n<0

<l~nx

if

0<n<l.

// m, n are positive and

1.

>1,

any

rational except

that

m<n,

>1,

x<l and ^0,

again, changing the sign of x, if


(1

it

or

is possible to

>1,

find positive values of x such

(l+x)<
this inequality holds

Now
(1

if

or

follows that, if n is

it

For

x<0

JAen

(l+x)

Or

if

(1

+ x)- m >l -mx,


or

+7ix)(l

~mx)>l,

Ex.

// sn = a + a 2 +

2.

Denote the left-hand

if

if

x>0

and

hence the inequality holds

x{(n-m) -mnx}>0,
. . .

side

+ an

where a v a 2

by un then
,

r=n4- 5

HH-Un-^^-j*

if

or
...

if

if

-mx>l/(l +nx),

0<x<(n -m)/mn.

an are

all positive t

n>l,

*_

^(l+aja+o.)...

then

or

if

ARITHMETIC AND GEOMETRIC MEANS


Now

s r

-^ n Li> ra n ^n r^Tl

1
>

when r>l

and when

(Art. 10),

221

= l,

this

becomes

an equality, therefore

un - u n _ l >an u n ^

therefore

Now

M!

>0

and

n=2,

for

n >(l

+an )u n _ >u n ,
1

3, 4, etc.

Arithmetic and Geometric Means.

12.
are

0, therefore w n

If

(1)

a,

c, ...

6,

n numbers and

A^
then

^4

and

+ c+...-h)

arithmetic

n
G= J
(abc

...

&),

mean and G the geometric mean

of

&.

Theorem.

13.

not all equal

For

the

called

is

...

a, 6, c,

-(a + 6

let

T/?e arithmetic mean of n positive numbers, which are


one another, is greater than their geometric mean.
he the arithmetic mean and G the geometric mean of the n

to

numbers

positive

a, 6, c, d,

Suppose that

a^any

other

number

...

A* ..................................

(A)

and that fc^any other

of the set

number, then
Let

&'

na>a + b + c + ... +k>nb and a>A>b.


=a + 6 - -4 so that ?/">0, and consider the set
A,b',c,d,...k,

obtained by substituting A,

Thus

A + b' =a

-f

the same arithmetic

b'

for a, 6 in (A).

and Ab'>ab.

mean

.................................

We

(B)

have

Hence the numbers

of the set (B)

as those of (A), but a greater geometric

have

mean.

the numbers in (B) are not all equal, then A is neither the
the least of the set. By repeating the process we can therenor
greatest
fore obtain a set of n positive numbers containing two A's, with the same

Again,

if

mean

as before, but a greater geometric mean.


we shall finally arrive at a set of n numbers each equal
of which the geometric mean is greater than (?, and since
is the

arithmetic

Continuing thus,
to

geometric

Thus

mean

for the

of these equal

numbers

10, 1, 2,

7;

The arithmetic mean

numbers,

it

follows that

A>G.

10, 1, 2, 7, the successive sets are


5,

of the

increasing from left to right.

6,

2,

7;

numbers

5,

6, 4,

5,

5,

5,

5.

in each set is 5, the geometric

mean

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

222

Taking the

Alternative proof.

set (A),

we have

Proceeding in this way, we can show that


abc

k^

...

(1

(a

-f

6+

is

k)

}*
>

if

...

a power of

2,

then

'/

so that

is

where

If

not a power of

2,

occurs r times

and n-f r

a b

consider the set


is

a power of

c9

...

By

2.

A A A
9

...

the preceding,

abc

The right-hand

G^A,

...

n +r

A n+r

side is equal to

Gn A r ^A n + r

and therefore

when

the sign of equality only occurring

the numbers

all

so that

a, 6,

...

are equal.
Shoiv that n n >l

J&r. 1.

We have

(1

Now

AV

>\

1.3.5...
...

For

...

(2n

1).

(2w !)}/>
+2n - 1 =

&{!

(2-l)

and

.3.5

a^ (n

There are n inequalities

- a 2 ) + (0 - a 8 ) +
- a 2 ) (5 1) ^ {(5

. . .

...

(2

(2*-l).

2
1)} -r/

n n >l .3 5
.

a n are positive and (n - 1)* =

(*

therefore

+3 +5 -f ...

// a x , a 2 , a 3

2.

3 5

+ 3 -f 5 + ... +
1

.'.

...

^+a

(2- 1).

+ ...

-f

an

+ (* - a w = a lf
)

8 ) ...

(a

-a

n )}

(or equalities) of this kind,

l /(

n~ l \

and the

result follo^a

by

multiplication.

14.

Theorem,

//a,

6, ...

k and

x, y,

...

are two sets of

positive

numbers, those in the second set being rational, then

+
ku

For in Art. 13 we may take x^x'lg, y = y'lg, ... w = w'/g, where x' y
... w' and
g are positive integers, and then it is sufficient to prove that
9

+
''

ax'

Now
is

fy'

+ ...*M/
'

the left-hand side

the geometric

mean

b occurs y' times,


the last theorem.

...

is

...

'" k

the arithmetic

of a, a,

6, 6, ... k,

mean and
k

...

the right-hand side


where a occurs x' times,

and k occurs w' times, so that the

result follows

by

MAXIMA AND MINIMA


.15.
all

Theorem.
to

equal

// a, 6,
one another, and

k are n positive numbers which are not

c, ...

m is any rational except

.,

let

or 1, then

m does not or does Iw between

according as

For

223

and

1.

a + 6-f c-f

...

+&

then
1

fl
m ^ l-a
m m m
-a
-(a + & + c + ...+ k )^
l-(a + + c + .:.+

and

xm + ym -f zm +

according as
If

m does not lie

xm + y m +

Hence

...

and therefore
If

0<m<l,

and

between

-f

w-n) = Q,

. . .

Art. 11, the sign

>

must be replaced by
+wn <n.

xm + i/m + ...

inequalities, so that

Art. 11,

+ wm -n>m(x4-y-h ...
rw
xm -f m -f
-f t^ > n.
y

by

+ wm $ n.

. . .

by

1,

<

in all these

This completes the proof of the theorem.


1

6.

Theorem

Ifa,b,...k and x,y, ...w are two

sets

...

+wk m

ofn

rationals

and

m being any rational,

those of the first set are not all equal to one another, then,
.

does not or does lie between


and 1.
according as
* This
depends on Art. 15 in the same way that Art. 14 depends on Art. 13.

17. Application to Questions of Maxima and Minima


Val ues. In the theorems of Arts. 13-15 the inequalities become equalities
when all the num'bers a, 6, c, ... k are equal. Hence we draw the following
;

conclusions

Suppose that
then:
(1) If

x, y, z,

x+y+z+

...

. . .

w are n positive variables and that c is a constant,

+w = c,

the value of xyz

so that the greatest value of xyz


(2) If

...

is (c/n)

xyz...w = c, the value of x + y +

...

...

+ y+

... -f

is

is

greatest

when

n.

w
i

so that the least value of x

ncn

is

least

when x = y=...

=w?,

APPLICATIONS

224
if

Again,

ra is

rational except

any

or

from Aft. 3 we conclude that

1,

between

x + y + z + ...+w = c then, according as m does not or does lie


and 1, the least or the greatest value of xm +ym + ... +w m occurs

when x

y...w,

(3) If

the value in question being n l

~m

cm

m
m
m = c, then
-f w
(4) If x + y +
according as m does not or does lie
between
and 1, the greatest or the least value of x + y + ...+w occurs
when x = y=...=w, the value in question being n 1 " 1 /. c1 /.
. . .

Ex.

1.

Find

the greatest value of

xyz for positive valuer of

x, y, z, subject to the con-

dition

Since yz + zx + xy~l2, the value of (yz)(zx)(xy) is greatest when yzzx^xy, that


when x~ y~z-2.
Hence the greatest value of (yz) (zx) (xy) is 2 8 and the greatest value of xyz is 8.

is

Ex.

2.

// the

sum of the

sides of

w given, prove that

a triangle

when

the area is greatest

the triangle is equilateral.

Let
If

a, b, c

is

be the sides of the triangle, and let


2
- b)
zJ
s(s - a)

the area, then

(s

Now

(.?

Hence the value

of (s

Ex.

3.

Since

Find the
x 2 y3 6.

o%3 = 6,

Therefore A#

if

-f (s

- a) (s - b)

Therefore the value of

condition

a)

is

/x

are

6)

(s

-I-

- c)

(s
is

(s

-f

+ c ~2s.

a constant,

greatest
b

- c).

c)

when a

greatest

when

-a~s -b~s -c.

= c.

3x + 4y for positive values of x and

least value of

A,

any constants, we have

+ Xx+^y -f/xy+^y

is

least

when
2

\x) (Xx) (^y) (py) (/z//)

A#=/u,?/

= (6A 2/z 3

+ 4t/

of 3z

Find the least value of x~* + y~ l + z~ l for positive values of x,


the condition x + y + z = c.
In Art. 17, (3), putting w= - 1, n~3, since m does not lie between

+ y~ l + z' 1

is

SV" 1

4.

value of x~ l

= 6A 2/x 3

Hence the least value of 2Az -f 3pty is 5(6A /i )^.


Putting 2A = 3 and 3/x 4, it follows that the least value

Ex.

y, subject to the

is

y, z

which satisfy

and

1,

the least

or 9/c.

EXERCISE XXIII
In

marked with an

the inequalities

*, all the

numbers concerned are supposed

to

be

positive.
... a
1. If
,, cr 2
n and b 19 b 2 ... b n are two sets of numbers and
the second set are positive, then (a l -f a a +
-f a n )/(6 1 -f 6 2 +
+ bn)
lies between the greatest and least of a^/b^
an lb n
...,
2 /6 2
,

. . .

2.

If a,

6, c

are
(b

any

4-

real

a)

numbers, show that


a - 6) 2 -f (a + 6 - c) 2 ^ 6c

-f (c -f

. .

-f

ca

-f

ab.

all

those in

TYPICAL EXAMPLES

225

3. If J + w -fn = l and J' + m' -f w' ^l, then


2
2
[E(mri - m'ny + (W + mm' -hnn') = El* Z7' .]
2

4. Show that a(x + y)*


the quantities involved.
5. If any two of
showthat

a>0

If

6.

+ bz + cz(x ~-y) cannot be


2

positive for all real values of

together greater than the third and x

a, 6, c are

and x>y, show that ax + a~ x >a y + a~ y

+ y + 2=0,

c, d are in harmonical progression, then a + d>b + c.


[Let p 3g, jp f, 2>-l-#> ^>4-3^ be the reciprocals of a, b, c, c?.]
~
~
8.* If x^ty, then (axn + byn )l(axn l + byn l ) increases as n increases through

7.* If a, 6,

integral values.
9. If a, 6, c,

[2(ab

m*
10.*

-4-

dareall >1,

1)> (a +

+ 1),

!)(&

then

etc.]

--- +
^ a + b + c.
c+a
2
2
[For, (& + c )/(& + c)^(& + c), etc.]
11. If x>0 or <-l, then
r
zn ' r
^ I +x
[Show that x + + x
-r
&4-c

12.*

(i)
(ii)

a(a-b)(a-c)+b(ba 3 -f 6 3 + c 3 + 3a5c ^ a 2 (6 + c)

[The second inequality


13. If a, 6, c

> 27a

15. If

[If

a>6, then

16. If

n>0

Za Ella^n*
.

and not

p>l

Za 3

(ii)

all

El'.a'&nZa*.

equal, then

y are any two positive numbers such that

#,

\*

(^

-l<x(?-l

a?

+ y = l,

then

.]

anda?>l, then

> ~nx

x n ~x~- n
17. If

first.]

and Za(6-c) 2 >0.]

JEb"

a 9^6 and

+ a) -f c 2 (a 4- b).

merely another form of the

is

14. If a, b 9 c are positive

6 2 (c

are n positive numbers, then

... fc

(i)

[327a

-I-

and

r is

(p

any

4.

[Use Art.

ni
9.]

rational except zero, then

l)f+i

- r+i^( r + l)pr >-pr + l p

where the upper or lower signs are to be taken according as


lie between
and - 1.

Hence show that

(l

+ 2 a + 3 r 4-

...

)/w

r4

'

lies

does not, or does,

between l/(r-fl) and

[In Art. 10, let a;=r4-l. First put 0=73 + !, &=/>,


Finally let p = l, 2, 3, ... n in succession, and add.]

and next a=|9, 6=p-l.

HARMONIC SERIES

226

19.* a*b

+ b*c + c*a^3abc.

21. If

x> I

22. If

any two of a,

and n

is

20.

a positive integer,

(#

1)1 (x

are together greater than the third, then

6, c

23. If all the factors are positive, then

abc^TI(b+c-a)

(i)

24.

The

and

25. If

x+y+z

of,

is

a, 6, c,

abcd^ TI(b + c+d -2a).

-ax -by -cz)

greatest value of xyz(d

factors are positive,

(ii)

provided that
d are given positive numbers.
is

<Z

/4 o&c,

all

the

6, c are positive rationals and x, y, z are positive variables such that


a b
constant, show that x y sf has its greatest value when x/a y/b zlc.

26. If x, y, 2 are positive

and x + y-f- z

then

1,

8xt/z

<( 1 -z)(l

-i/)(l

-z)<-2

[Observe that 27(1 -a:) = 2.]


27. If

*=!+-A + -+.
..+_
n
o

and n>2, show that

[Consider the sequences \, \, ?,

^04:

...

!L^

and ?, ?,

1ZO

71

...

!tl

.]

71

28. Let a l9 a 2 , ... an be a sequence of


positive numbers and let A,Q,
respectively be the arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means of a^ and an , then
n <a a ... a
n
(i) If ttj, a 2 ... a n is an arithmetical progression,
1 2
n
(ii)

29.
(i)
(ii)

an

a harmonical progression,
nH<a 1 + a 2 + ...+an <nA and H n <a la 2
,

<A

If a x a 2

...

is

n
IfzjX&t ...xn =a where a

is

...

an <(? n

a constant, then

r
The sum of the products of every r of the x's >
CJ?a
The least value of (x l -f (a?a + k) ...(xn + k) is (a 4- k) n
.

ifc)

30. If a is

any positive number except 1, and x, y, z are rationals no two of which


and which may be positive or negative, then
a x (y - z) +a*(z - x) +a*(x - y)>0.
let
z
be
x,
[First
y,
integers and let x> y> z (Art. 5). Consider the A.M. and
the O.M. of the set of numbers a x a x a x ... a 2 a 2 a 2 ... where a x occurs
(y -z)
times and a? occurs (x y) times.
If x, y, z are fractions, denote them
by p/d, q/d, r/d where p, q, r, d are integers
and d is positive. This case can then be at once deduced from the preceding.]

are equal

31.

Deduce the theorem of Art. 9 from Ex.

32. If

a l9 a 2

...

(a 1

[In Art. 15 put

a n are positive and


+ aJ + ...+an*)<

w = ?, a-a^, etc.]

p>q

30.

then

333

IMPORTANT GENERALISATIONS

-f-

16

a-f b

w= -1, n4, $(b+c+d)

[In Art. 15, put

227

+ c + d'

fora, etc.

Use Art. 16 to show that

34.*

a" 1 + b~ lc + cr l a

a+b+c

*)

35.*

[Use Ex. 34.]


36. If

a2

!,

...

OK and b l9 b 2 ,
then

...

two

bn are

sets of positive

numbers arranged

in descending order,
(a l

+ a 2 + ...+an )(b + b 2 + ...b n ^n(a b +a 2 b 2 + ... +a n b n


- 2a
br
Use the relation (a r ~a n )(b r ~bn )^0
r r
r
l

~na b

[Let u n
that w n >w-n _!.]
37.

If a>

and p, q are
a*

).

positive integers,

aa

-I

p
[Let

~l

p-q, a
2

u^(a? - l)lp -(a*- - 1)1 (p ~ 1),


1

show

tfiat

to

2
-I) when p>q.

then by Art.

9,

... -f

show

1)};

~.

p(p-L)
a p -l aq ~l

and

p
38. If

a>l and

q
x,

y are

"

positive rationale, then

[Put x pfd, yqjd where p,


Ex. 37, we find that

q,

d are positive

Let a lld

integers.

then, using

and by

Art. 9, Ex.

39. //

a> 1

ami

1,

x,

d(a

y are

- 1)> 1 -a- 1 .]

positive real numbers, then

(a*-l)lx>(av-l)ly

if

x>y.

[Let x' y' be rational approximations to x, y such that x'>x, y' <y, and there7
x - 1
fore x' - y > x - 1/. Let /( # )
)/, and suppose that
(a
9

then

We

/(*)

can choose x', / so that


when *>!/. See Ch. XIII, 7.]

-c' <l(x-t/)(l
|

-a" 1

2
)

and so

/(a?)

-f(y)>0,

CHAPTER XV
SEQUENCES AND LIMITS
(Continued from Art. 11 on p. 15)

Limit of a Function of the Positive Integral Variable

When

is

large,

1 4-

enough, we can make


This
as

n tends to

infinity.

further,

by making n large

as nearly equal to

1 -f

roughly what

is

nearly equal to

is

n.

is

as

we

meant when we say that

like.

1 is

the limit of

In this explanation, the meaning of

+-

'

large

enough/

'

as nearly equal to 1 as we like,' is by no means clear.


If u n is a function of the positive integral variable n> the
n tends to infinity is usually defined as follows

limit of

u n as

'

that we
(1) If corresponding to any positive number
no
matter
how
a
there
is
m
such
that
small,
positive integer
may choose,
for every integer n greater than or equal to m
Definitions.

where

is

a fixed number, then

is

expressed by writing

This

lim u n

called the limit

is

tends to infinity.

lim u n = L

or simply

/,

ofu n as n

n->oc

We also say that

un

tends to

as n tends

u n -~>l

as

to infinity

n-+vo

corresponding to any positive number


how great, there is a positive integer
matter
no

then u n

this

by

that

we may

choose,

such that for every

n greater than or equal to m,


u n >M,
is

said to tend

to infinity

wn

>

as n tends
or

oo

to

lim u n

w n ->oo and v n = - u n we say that


If u n -->l we say that the sequence (u n )
If w n ->oo or - oo
to the limit L
the
If

and express

(2) If,

integer

infinity)

= oo

v n tends to
is

and we write

minus infinity (-<#).


and that it converges

convergent,

sequence (un )

is

said to bo divergent*

THEOREMS ON LIMITS
u n does not tend to a

If

oscillate

un

If

limit,

It

if|a|<l, a^-^O;

a n ->

is

u 2 ),

or

oo

a=-l,

if

according as n

oo

an

is

This

u3 ),

(3,

...

=r

even or odd,

often useful to represent the

graphically.
(2,

it is

that, for

first

a n ~> oo if a - 1, a n = 1 for
and a n oscillates finitely; if
and so a n oscillates
1,

infinitely.

few terms

of a

sequence (u n )

done by plotting points whose coordinates are

is

It

said to

\<M,

does the function a n behave as n-> oo ?


II, 18, (5), it will be seen that if a>

How

1.

1,

Otherwise, u n oscillates infinitely.

said to oscillate finitely.

is

every n;
-

oo

n,

Referring to Ch.

a<

nor to -

\u n

Ex.

and the sequence (u n ) is called oscillatory.


can be found such
oscillates and a positive number

every positive integer

then u n

+ oo

nor to

229

(1,

),

usual to join points representing consecutive

is

terms.
Ex.

2.

un = ( -

//

n
l)

+-

represent

Jew terms of the sequence


and examine the diameter of the sequence

graphically the first

(un ),
as

n->

oo

As ?i~> oo u zn -> 1 and u 2n ,!-> Thus un oscillates finitely.


,

2.

1.

FIG. 34.

Fundamental Theorems on Limits.

(1)

Ifu n -*l and

v n -*l\

then

u n + v n ->l + l',

(i)

l/u n ->l/l, unless

(iv)

Proof.
(i)

and

un

(ii)

-v n ->l-l',

= 0,

(v)

Choose a positive number


(ii).

By

w n ^ n ->Zr,

(iii)

u n \v n ->l\l' unless
,

I'

= 0.

no matter how small.

the definition of a limit

we can choose MJ and

so

that

\u n -l\<.l

and
If

\v n

we denote

will hold for

-l'\<\t

the greater of

n^m, and

and
|

Wn

mv m2

for

n^m

for

n^m%.

by m, then each
n we have

for such values of

_ Vn _

(J

_ J')

Hence, by the definition of a

sg
|

Mn

limit,

u + v->l + l'

and

of these inequalities

MONOTONE SEQUENCES
u n = I + a and vn = T +
Then

230
Let

(iii)

j9.

Choose any positive number

greater than

V + j8

then

1,

\u nv n -ll'\<\fll\+\\.L.
the definition of a limit

By

provided only that

n^m. Hence

Let

tt n

= Z+a,

is ftoJ zero

we can choose a

Now by

IV
\

<.

This follows from

(iii)

number L

positive

and

than

+a

|,

and

|ifX'

we can choose

m so

that

also

*
and therefore

11

i_

c,

less

<

-|

n>m. Hence

<

the definition of a limit

provided only that

(v)

then

A
//
then

u nvn -

also

u nvn -+ll'.

Therefore
(iv)

m so that

we can choose

>T

for

(iv),

when r
Ifu n ->l and v n ~w n ->0, <Aen v n ->l.
For Vn -Z = Vn - Wn ) + (w n -Z), therefore

(2)

Now we

can choose

|w n

Hence

-J|<|

vn

-un

+\ u n -l

\.

and

|^ n

-w n |<i.

for such values of n,


|

3.

n^m both

so that for

-Z|<ic

f>
|

vn

-1
1

<

c,

Monotone Sequences.

said to increase steadily, and (u n )


If w n +i<w w for all values of n,

and therefore
w n +i^ M

If
is

un

v n -> Z.
for a11 values of n,

un

is

called a monotone increasing sequence.


is

called a monotone decreasing sequence.

said to decrease steadily,

and

(w n )

is

EXISTENCE OF A LIMIT
Theorem
less

231

// every term of a monotone increasing sequence (u n ) is


than a fixed number k, then the sequence converges to a limit equal to, or
1.

less than, k.

Divide the system of rational numbers into two classes as

Proof.
follows
:

of

The lower class is to contain every rational a such that, for some value
n (and therefore for all greater values), w n >a.
The upper class is to contain every rational a! such that u n <a' for all

values of n.

No rational escapes classification, and every a


the classification defines a real number A.

We

shall

is less

prove that the sequence converges to

First observe that

every rational

which

than any

a'.

Hence

as a limit.

u n cannot exceed A. For if u n >A, u n would exceed


This is impossible, for such
lies between u n and A.

a rational would belong to the upper class.


Next, choose a positive number e, no matter

how

small,

and

let

a be a

rational such that

A-<a<A.
Then a belongs to the lower class, and
sequence and by all succeeding terms

0<A-un <

therefore

is

exceeded by some term um of the

if

limu = A.

Hence

k^A,

Again

for otherwise k

would be exceeded by some term

of the

sequence, thus

It follows that

or to

For

u n <k

-f

oo

if

if

un

increases steadily as

n->oo

then u n tends to a limit

u n does not tend to +

oo

number k

a positive

exists such that

for all values of n.

Theorem 2. If every term of a monotone decreasing sequence (u n ) is greater


than a fixed number k, then the sequence converges to a limit equal to or
greater than k.
This can be proved by an argument similar to the preceding, or thus
Let v n = -u n then (vn ) is an increasing sequence of which every term is
Therefore (v n ) converges to a limit less than - k. Hence
less than - k.
:

(un ) converges to a limit greater than k.


Hence also if u n decreases steadily as n->oo

to -oo

then u n tends to a limit or

EXPONENTIAL INEQUALITIES

232
i

Ex.
If

1.

un

//

~0

un

1,

--ii(x

n -

1)

where

for every n,

#>0, show

that

un tends

to

a limit as n-^&

and so lim u n ~0.

x>I, u n >0, and by XIV, 9, un decreases


limit, which we shall denote by /(x), as ?i~> x
If

Hence un tends

as n increases.

to a

If

0<#<1,

(1) ///or all values of n* u n is positive and u n


a constant greater than unity, then ?/ n ->oo

Theorems.

4.

where k

is

For u n >ku n _{>k*u n _2


(2)

y>\ and

x~l/y, then

let

all

Iffor

>k

...

values of n,

un

n ~l

u1

Now &>1,

therefore u n -+co

and u n i<Jcu n where k

is positive

is

a positive

constant less than unity, then u n -0.

The proof
(3)

// u n

For

if

is

similar to that of

is positive

Theorem

(1).

and lim u n n /u n = l then w n ->o> ?//>!, and u n -+Q


.

/>! we can choose k so that >&>!, and then hy the definition


we can find m such that u n+1 /u n ^>k for n^-m. Hence by

of a limit

Theorem

(1), w n ->oo
l<] we can choose k so that l<k<I, and then we can
u n+l ju n <k, for n>w. Hence, by Theorem (2), w n ->0.

If

Ex.

1.

If p

is

a given

integer, positive or negative,

*
(i)

un =

If

and the
5.

(1)

results follow

xn
-^

->oo

if

x>l
u

then

=(

~->0

(ii)

sJww

\v
-_

if

find

m so that

that

|*|<1.

'X>x

as

rt-> oo

from Theorem

(3).

Exponential Inequalities and Limits.


If n

For,

is

a positive

integer,

+-

<3.

by the Binomial theorem,


...

to

n -f

12 '(3

Or,

it'

^ m where M

is

a fixed number,

i.e.

after a certain stape.

terms

EXPONENTIAL LIMITS
(2)

m and n are positive integers

//

1+

>

w/

\n

+m/

>

and

n/

ml

m>n,
/

m.

11,

and therefore

then

1-

For since m/n>\, by XIV,

and

233

1 \
1

m/

l\ n

>l-f-j.
\
n/
n

therefore

Moreover,

0<w/m<l,

Hence

l-<l-

'

'

by
J XIV,

1\*

f
1

11,

--

<1

n/

and

n/

(3)

The number

andu n = (l--)
\
n

Ifu n = (l+-)
n/

e.

'

through positive integral values,

and
the

same for

the limit is the

,thenasn-+oo

'

tends to a finite limit, so also does

71

This limit

both.

is

denoted by

and

e,

is

un

'

one of

most important numbers in mathematics.

For

(i)

every n.

has been shown that u n increases with n and that u n <3 for
Therefore u n
as n->co where e is a fixed number less than 3.

it

-e

\~ n
(f\
-~

'
'

(ii)

Again,

Wfl

-*- - u = u fu
n (
n
\u n

\
1

= un

0<w n

therefore

'

- un <

u n '-u n -+Q

therefore

(by

n 2 /)

{\

l<l--<l+nn*
n /

Nowifn>l,

<-. Now

->0,

and

u n '-+e.

It should be noticed that

u n <e<u n
It

can be shown that 6-2-7182818284

f
.

....

EXERCISE XXIV
1.

State

how

the following functions behave as n->

(ii)

n + (-l) n

(v)

n 2 -f(

->

as n->

(i)

+ (-l) n

(iv)

+ (~l) n -.

xn
2.

Prove that

QO

(iii)

XIV,

\
j

11),

EXAMPLES ON LIMITS

234

Represent graphically the

3.

say

how each behaves

||<l,

n->oo

%n

un ~

If

6.

A*

[The limit

~~

Show

is 1, if

and -

> 1,

otherwise.]

-H---- _H-------o+...-fr-, prove that f<t*n <l,

tends to a limit as w-*oc


7.

then

^.fl

Find lim

5.

few terms of the following sequences, and

first

--*

(Os.i.
2 o
4. If

as tt~>oo

that

-n< -^ + o- + 4- -f

vr<n.
/i

... -f

,4

Hence show that

and that un

1 H-

4-

. . .

---><
n

/I

[Group the terms thus: -+

1\

^+-

as ?i->oo.

/I

1\

-4- -4-

... .]

^-4-

8.

If lim

71(0;^

prove that

1) =/(a;),

z>0 and

if

Ex.

llli
[See Art.

xn y n -

3,

=yn (xn -

For the

1.

1)

lim yn ^

and

Q
9

T
If

tt
^v

[If

/>0, then -

5
2

vn ->oo

n ->0,

/v

10. If

wn -

_^_^
and

i<

w n i' n

<

according as x

2n

"

^^'s-srn:'
4

Now

_____

1).

1) -f (y

we have f(xy)-\im n(xn yn -

last part

5 y,
1

hence

v< 2-^n

and

2w

46

''*

2n + 2

N/2/Hrl, prove that

between l/\/2 and 1 as n->oo


[Show that w n ^<wn then by Ex.

lies

wn

tends to a limit which

"

/2"
has shown that this limit = A/ - .]
' 7T

9,

wn *=un vn and

<wn <l.

Wallis

GENERAL PRINCIPLE
n ^ 3,

11. If

n+
prove that
\/(n +

<s 'n. Hence show

1)

[For the

first

also

steadily;

part use the inequality

w>4

(r + 1)^

(i)

between

lies

7J
71

and

1 -f

+ l>0,

lim u n ^\l(r f

-f

2r

-I-

r-f-i

nj

\
(ii)

that

lim {(a
n-

3 r -f

r-,--l

Corresponding
small,

decreases

. .

-f

4-

l
,

n +

(a

-f

2)

-f ... 4-

(a

The

and add.

+ tt) r j/tt f + 1 = l/(r + l).

^-00

to

any

positive

must be possible

it

n r )/ti r

The necessary and

cient condition for the convergence of the sequence (w w )

how

oo

1).

General Principle of Convergence.

6.

n ->

Show

as

s'w

[In Exercise XXIII, J7, put 1, 2, 3, ... n in succession for ?;,


necessity for the condition r~hl>0 in (ii) should be explained.]
13.

If Z>1, for ?*>3 we


C'^>1, therefore "?i->Z where Z^l.
n
But J n /n->oo when J>1 (XV, 4, Ex. 1).]
l /n<l.

any rational except zero and

12. If r is

If r

Thus

<3.

4 ---I

that */n ->

^n>L and

should have

show that

235

to

number

find

we may

choose, no matter

so that, for every positive integer p,

\u m + ,-u m
1(

that

suffi-

as follows.

is

\<

(A)

say, the difference between u m and any subsequent term must


be numerically less than e, so that if the terms of the sequence are repre-

That

is to

sented graphically, all the terms beginning with u m lie in a strip of width 2e.
This statement, called the general principle of convergence, is of the
greatest importance,
(i)

The condition

and may be proved as


For

is necessary.

um + p - u m

<
\

The condition is
points Wj, u 2 ... on the
(ii)

so that

all

um + P -

I
\

un

we can

>l,

find

u m+p - u m - (u m

Now

for every positive integer p.

Hence

if

follows.

+ u m -l\

]1t

and
|

-l)

um

+ (l- u m ).

^ -um \<

e.

Represent the terms u v w 2 ... by the


The condition asserts that m can be found

sufficient.

x-axis.

so that

the points,

on a segment of length
with its middle point at um

lie

2e

FlG

35

By
like.

choosing e small enough, we can make this segment as short as


Hence it seems reasonable to conclude that as n->oo the point
,

tends to a limiting position somewhere near to um


If the student
satisfied with this reasoning, he may omit the proof on the next page.
.

B.C. A.

we
un
is

NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITION

23G
Given

for every positive


such that

integer

e,

that,

no matter how small,

un - um
for every integer n greater than m,

a positive

<e

required to prove that the sequence (u n )

is

it

there exists

is convergent.

Using the given condition, we can determine a positive integer


w 2 >Wj, u mi> is within the interval

Proof.

so that, for every integer

('U mi

Denote

this interval

by

-,

U mv

+).

(a v b^.

w >w2

Again, we can determine m 2 so that, for every integer


3
within the interval (u m<i - |e, u niz f ie).
Now u mi is within

W 3 >m

Thus the whole or part

Denote the common part


This
//

^Hi.2

is

of length

The

(w ?Wo

Je,

of these intervals

lies

-e,

of

entirely within

figure illustrates the case in

um^ +

um ^

is

for
(c^, 6 T ),

within (a v

b^).

and contains u n

tor

\t)

is

(a 2 6 2 ).

by

/^),

(c/ 1?

which the intervals overlap.

FIG. 36.

repeating the process, we can find a succession of intervals (a^


such that (i) each contains all that follow
...
(a,., b r ) ...,

By
(a 2

6 2 ),

(ii)

(iii)

for sufficiently large values of n,


b n -ff

a n <J<b n

.>, t -->

tl

Hence by Ch. XIII,


that

b^),

1,

there

is

and

for every n,

ns

uu
H

is

~~*

within each of the intervals

'

one real number

and one

only, such

this is the limit of the sequence (u n ).

NOTE. The necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of


the sequence (u n ) is usually stated (less simply) as follows.
Corresponding to any positive number e that we may choose, no matter how
small,

it

must be possible

to

find
\

if

>w,/w

so that

",

"

<e

.................................

(B)

every positive integer p.

The condition (B), though apparently more general than (A), is equiTo prove this, we have only to show that if (A) is possible,
valent to it.
then (B) is possible when n]>m.

BOUNDS OF A SEQUENCE
we can

the condition (A),

By

all

the terms w wfl

m so that

U^^-Un

and then

find

<ic,

um+z>
m+z

wf 2
.

237

He in the interval

Therefore the difference between any two terms which follow u m


so that
Hence we can find

than

is less

|w n + p -tt n |<

H>w.

if

Therefore the conditions (A) and (B) are one and the same.

Bounds

7.

of a Sequence.

If

(1)

there exists a

number

such

that, for all values of n,

the sequence (u n ), and also the function u w are said to be bounded above (or

on

the right).
If

number

there exists a

JV

such that, for

all

values of n,

then (w n ), and also w n are said to be bounded below (or on the left).
A sequence (u n ), or a function w n which is bounded above and below,
,

is

said to be bounded.

Examples.

Here

(un ) has a greatest term,

namely w 2 ="2

^ has

also a least term,

These are called Ae upper and lower bounds of (MW ), or of u n (FiG.

namely

- 2.

37).

-1

FIG. 38.

FIG. 37.

2.

Although there

wn

is

no greatest term, we say that

for the following reasons


(i)

(ii)

No term

of (u n ) exceeds

Infinitely

many terms

is

the upper bound of (un ), or of

1.

exceed any number

For similar reasons, we say that -

1 is

less

than

1,

for

u.in

-+

1.

the lower bound of (u n ) of u n (FiG. 38).

UPPER AND LOWER BOUNDS

238
// u n

Theorem.

no term of (u n ) exceeds h

(i)

at least

(ii)

This

bounded above

is

number

function u n

a number h such

there exists

one term of (u n ) exceeds any number


h

is

that

less

than

h.

called the upper bound of the sequence (u n ) or of the

Divide the system of rationals into two classes.


The lower class is to contain every rational a such that for some value

Proof.

of

n
u n ^a.
The upper

of

class is to contain

every rational

a'

such that for

values

all

u n <a.
Since u n

is

classification,

defines a real

bounded above, both classes


and every a is less than any

number

exist.
a'.

No

rational escapes

Hence the

classification

h.

Moreover, no term of (u n ) exceeds h, for in that case it would exceed a


rational a' greater than h. This is impossible, for a' belongs to the upper
class.

Also

if e

is

any

positive

number, no matter how small, we can find a

rational a such that

h-<a<h.
Now a belongs to the lower class and is exceeded by some term of (u n ).
Hence at least one term of (u n ) exceeds h - e.
Hence the number h satisfies the conditions stated above.
This theorem is often stated as follows
// u n is founded above, then it
has an upper bound.
In a similar way we can show that
// u n is bounded below there exists a
number I such that
:

(i)

(ii)

no term of (u n )
at least

The number
function u n
NOTE.
h and

is less

than

one term of (u n )
I

is

any number

is less tJian

called the lower

bound

of the

greater than

I.

sequence (u n ) or of the

// (u n ) JLOS no greatest term, infinitely

many

terms of the sequence

lie

between

h-.

For every term is less than h, and at least one term u m is greater than h - e. Since
ia no greatest term, infinitely
many terms are greater than u m and therefore also
greater than h e.
there

Similarly, if (un ) has no least term, infinitely

and

many

terms of the sequence

lie beticc.cn

LIMITS OF INDETERMINATION
Terms selected from u l9 u 2
said to form a subsequence.
Ex.

Explain how

1.

to select

t/

3,

...

239

according to some definite rule are

a subsequence which will converge

to the

upper bound h

If a 2 ^h, let a 3 be the lirst


If Ui^h, let a, 2 be the first term of (un ) greater than v
term of (un greater than a.2 Continuing in this way we form the required subsequence
The formal proof is loft to the student.
^i a2 <x 3 ...
t

Lower Limits

Upper and

8.

(of

Indetermination) of a

Sequence.
Let (u n ) be a hounded sequence and let h l9 h 29 A 3 ... and l v J2 ^>
the upper and lower bounds of the sequences u 19 u 2 u% ..., u 2 u 3 w 4
(1)

u39 w4 u 5
,

If

fi

...

...

etc., respectively.

then u v

l=sUl9

* >e

h^u

h^h^.

If

hl = h 2

Thus, in

not

is

ly

than any term of

less

then Aj

is

t/

2,

^h

%, ^4

...

u 2 u3 w4

the upper bound of

>A

therefore

...,

and so

and so on.
4
Similarly A 2 ^/fc 3 A 3
any case, h l
2
and
Hence h l9 h 2 A3 ... is a steadily decreasing sequence
every term is
greater than or
greater than l v Therefore this sequence tends to a limit
.

equal to l v
Similarly

than h v

l9

2,

3,

Therefore this

The numbers

H and

an increasing sequence and every term is less


sequence tends to a limit L less than or equal to h r
is

...

are called the upper

and lower

limits (of indeter-

mination) of the sequence (u n ).

lim u n = //

It is usual to write

(2)

and

lim u n ~L.

Examples.
Here h 1

= h 2 =h3 = ...=H.

(Fig. 39.)

FIG. 40.

FIG. 39.

1\

Here

^ = ^3-

h^h^u^;

=l z ~Uq-,

etc.

etc.
.',

/.

//=lim u2n ^l.

L~tim w 8n+1 =

-1.

(Fig. 40.)

GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF CONVERGENCE

240
(3) It is
all

easy to see that,

terms of u lt w 2

...,

wn _1

After a certain stage,

(i)

that

if

A n >Aw+1 then h n = u n and h v A 2


,

As w->oo two cases

arise

the A's are equal, that

all

7>
/>
/>
~ "'m+2
~
n
m ~ Mrn+l

m exists

to say,

is

h n -\ are

...

so

H
"

In this case, (u n ) has no greatest term. None of the terms from u m onwards
- e.
can exceed H, but infinitely many terms exceed

There

(ii)

no such stage as that described in (i). That is, no matter


h n >h n+l
be, we can find w, greater than m, so that

is

m may

how

great
Therefore every h

is

a term of (u n ), and in

cases //

all

such that, after a

is

certain stage, every term of (u n ) is less than


+
e ;
Hence in all cases, infinitely many terms of (u n ) are greater than
a
in
other
than
are
certain
all
the
terms
less
+
also, after
stage
of (u n )
.

words, only a finite number of terms exceed II

In a similar

way we can show

+ e.

that infinitely

many

terms of

un

are less

L+e

than

and, after a certain stage, all the terms are greater than L~-e; in
other words, only a finite number of terms are less than L-c.
It follows that, if

H=L=

then the sequence converges

l,

For, after a certain stage, all the terms of (u n )


//

-f

that

is

between I -

and

lie

to

as a limit.

between

L-e

and

+ e.

We can at once deduce a proof


(4) General Principle of Convergence.
that the condition in Art, 6 is sufficient for convergence.
Given that

can be found so

that

\u n

-u m \<e

nl>m,

for

it

is

required to prove that (u n ) is convergent.

u n cannot tend to

First observe that

-f

co

or to

oo

Therefore

We can therefore choose m


(u n ) has upper and lower limits // and L.
u n - um
and n (n> m) so that
un
3-6
Je,
Je,
\u m L
|

and since

-L

- u n + um

<

-L + u n - um

<

<

\H-L\^\H-u n \+\u n -L\+\u n - u m

<c.

H and L is
H = L and

to say, the difference between the fixed numbers


Therefore
less than any positive number c, however small.

That
is

(u n )

9.

is

convergent.

Theorems.

(1)

certain stage,

where k

is

But

un

if

In

// (u n )

a positive constant
-u n ^ ;>w n - u n
}

the first case,

is

an increasing sequence and

if,

after

u
less
^.

than unity, then the sequence


the sequence is divergent.

suppose that the conditions hold for

is convergent.

Then

if

therefore

IMPORTANT THEOREMS
w>s, u m+l -um <k(um -um ^) ... <ten 9 (u -u8 ),
um+l - um <km c where c = (us+l - us }jks

241

Also

Hence by addition

Choose any positive number


can find

no matter how small then, since &<1, we


and since 'Umirn >um it follows that
;

m so that &m <e(l -k)/c,


I

tWn

- um

<c

for every n.

Therefore the sequence (u n ) converges.


In the second case, if n>s, u n+l - w n >w s

Now
(2)

us

w s+1

is

~ w 6-

a fixed positive quantity, therefore obviously

// M M >0 /or a^

m^.9

o/ n awrf w n+1 /?/, n ~>/>0 where

w n ->oo

is

a fixed

n
number, then u n ~+L
Because Z>0, we can choose a positive number
like.
Then we can find m so that

e< and

as small as

we

and by multiplication,

Since

Z-e>0,

it

follows that

^u n

^u n
therefore

(Z-)

<

J m <(Z + e) n

'

and

i
(t

')

(I

-)<u nn <\

j
V

m
1

Now

u m fl m

is

a fixed number, therefore (u ni /l m ) n

>]

and

?/

n
n

>i!.

The converse of this theorem is not true. That is to say, if ^n n ->


follow that w n4l /w n ->/. For consider as a special case the sequence 1,

NOTE.

/,

it

does not

2, 1, 2,

...

in

which the terms are alternately


a limit.

and

2.

Here w n n ->

1,

but n n

fl /^ n

does not tend to

IMPORTANT THEOREMS

242
(3)

We

//

,<?

= u + uz +

can find

-f

u n and Urn u n = I,

so that for

any

Urn

then

n-*x

positive

>

oc

sn

/.

c,

Hence by addition,
- m)(l - e)<s n - s m <(n - m)(l + e)
(n

for

and

Now let m and n lend to oo in such a way that w/m->oo


we may suppose that m~>cc and n>m 2

(For example,

.)

We

show that under these circumstances s m /n~>0.


Since u n -*l we can find a fixed number k such that u r
and then
m < WA',
8m < % + h/ 2 4- ... 4shall

r,

so that

<

.v

Thus

(4)

//

Let

like,

and

P n = a n & +a n _ 1 6 2 + a n _ 2
1

and

bn

';

= + f3 ni
l>

---

+a

(3),

We

shall

+a 2 + ...+a n )->0 and

l(a 1

can betaken

j8 n

->0, then

4-a^).
i(j8 1+

j8 a

...

+j8 n )-^0,

Te-

prove that $,,->0.

have
|

and since a n->0 and

jS n

can also find


|

as

A-m

Q n |< ~n T|
r =i

->0 we can find a


|a f

We

and

to zero

so that a n -~>0,

?Z

and we

n->(>.

Q = ~(^i+n-ift +

where

by

for every

therefore s n jn->l.

nfy^^a-fay,

Now

<k

m/n and 5 m /?i tend

in the inequality (A),

we

A:

7i

as small as

and

|<*

fixed

number k such that for every s

|ft|<t.

so that

<

/k

and
|

f38

< c/A

for

Hence

|a r ]9 n _ r+]

and

COMPLEX SEQUENCES
for n-r + l>m,
|<*| j8 n-r+1 |<
* r

n>2w,

10.

zn

If

(1)

i.e.

= xn +

corresponding to any positive


such that
integer

-z\<t

\z n

where

we

a fixed number, then z

z is

zn = z

lim

write

said

(z n ) is

is

a positive

n^m,

for

called the limit

is

limz n = z

or

however small, there

e,

r^m,

where x n and y n

iy n

are functions of a positive integral variable n, the sequence


to be complex.
If

for

B)

P n-~>ab.

|Q n |< e: consequently Q n->0 and IV

Complex Sequences.

l^r^n.

Therefore

(A)

r>m
f^>r r<m + I,

|r0n-r+l|<*| a r|<

the inequality (A) will hold


for
so that, with this^proviso,
oc r n _
f3
r+l \<e
If

243

or

ofz n as n->oo

and

z n ->z.

n->oo

Under these circumstances the sequence


limit

(z n ) is

said to converge to the

z.

In order

lim z n

that

=x+

it is

ty

limx n = x

and

necessary and sufficient that

limy n ~y.
2

K-H=-y{(z-z) + (2/--?/) 2

For
Therefore
|

zn

z
\

First suppose that z n -*z.

and

xn

By

l^n" !"^^?

z
\

|# n -#|

therefore

~z\-> 0,

All this is evident geometrically, for \z n

points z n

and

yn

and

tend to zero, so that xn +x and //>?/.


Again, if x n ->x and y n ->y, from equation (A)
\z n

(A)

.
\

definition,

therefore

zn

-z\

\y n ~y\

it

follows that

zn

-> z.

is

the distance between the

z.

The theorems of Ch. XV, 2, regarding the limits of the sum, difference,
product and quotient of two functions of n, continue to hold when the
(2)

functions are complex.


(3)

Limit of

zn

as n->oo

Otherwise z n does not tend to

For

let z

(i) if

(ii) if

= r(cos 6+ i

=l

to a limit.

then z n

z is

complex.

a limit except
then z n = r ri

sin 0),

|z|=r<l, then
z

when

r n ->0

= l, and

and
z

if
|

zn

->0;

then

|>

7/|z[<l,

then z n ->0.

when z = l, and then limzn = l.


(cos n0+ sin nd), and
i

r n ->oo

and

zn

does not tend

SUBSEQUENCES OF PROPER FRACTIONS

244

11. General

condition for the convergence of a complex sequence

sufficient

as follows

so that
\

to

(z n ) is

Art. 6,

any

e,

positive

-z m \<e for

zm + p

If

Proof.

and by

(z n )

is

Corresponding

The necessary and

Principle of Convergence.

however small,

convergent, then (x n )

we can therefore choose m


\

N W

X
^m+y

__

Jr'm

it

must be possible

to

find

every positive integer p.

|<-1<:
^ 2 fc

and

(y n ) are

convergent sequences

so that for every positive integer p,

MTU]
*iu-i

< 2f
e
Mm \^l

lay
|

__,,/

.7^40

->.

htn + p-^ml

therefore

Hence the condition


Next suppose

that
\

Therefore (x m )
(y n )

is

As

any

^ - z m \<t,

then
|

convergent (Art.
(z n )

is

6),

however small,

e,

and

x w +p - x m

it

similarly

<

z
|

it

may

be stated thus.

must be possible

to

find

can be shown that

convergent, and the condition

in Art. 6, the condition

positive

if

necessary.

Hence

convergent.

NtfTE.
to

is

is

zm

is

sufficient.

Corresponding

so that

for every positive integer p.

EXERCISE XXV
1. If u n is a
decreasing function of n, then, after a certain stage, all the terms
of u n have the same sign.
- QO
First let u n -> I. If / ^ 0, u n is positive
f Kithor u n tends to a limit or to
for all values of T?, for un tends to / from above. If I <0, we can choose
so that
.

l<un <0

n^m.

for

Therefore the terms of (u n ) beginning with u m are


negative.
If u n ->--<*), we can find
so that u < - k for

2.

If u n

is

n^m.]

an increasing function, the statement

in

Ex.

3. Show that the positive


proper fractions can be
arranged in a definite order, so as to form a sequence.
Represent the first few terms graphically indicate
terms which form subsequences converging to the
upper and lower bounds as a limit.
[The sequence, omitting such fractions as |, is

1 is

true.
;

'

2'

3'

4'

5'

5' 5'

The required subsequences


dotted

lines.]

5'

6'

arc indicated

by the

-Q

FIQ. 41.

GEOMETRICAL CONVERGENCE
4.

un >0

If

[See Ex.
5.

6.

n and un+l /un ->l then (nun

for all values of

XXIV,

and Art.

11,

\+1+
2
n (\+
V
3

un ^

n -+l.

9, (2).]

Prove that lim -

If

245

. . .

-0.

[Art. 9, (3).]

n/

show that

->

and consequently

e,

(n

e.

4-

"n-l

7.

- .^

z~

"~l.n

5-

71

~w

-7i

prove that

oo

[Show that

r(7i

k>0

prove that

(ii) if

>

where

for

and

(j) if

+ -^T;,

-zr*+

prove that un -*

If

If

9.

i
.

+l

8.

...

3(71-2)

a,

= l,

2, 3,

...

n.

Hence show that

and negative roots of x 2


and %>0, then ^ ->a;
and v 1 <fc, then vw ->j8.

-/? are the positive

= */ (k + u^)
vn = */
vn

un

__ l )

(A:

-x-k

rt

Illustrate geometrically.
[(i)

Here

t*

= ^ + w n -i ^n

~&+w

'

f2-2

wn 2 ~ wn - 1

~ u n~i -Un-zi

hence u n '^u n _ l9 according as u n _^'u n _ z therefore (u n ) is monotone.


2
2
u t ~ a) (u l + /?),
J^ir5< suppose that u t > a, then u l >u 1 +.k for 'i^! - u t - k
(
2 =
2
a
u
and
is
/.
/. u 2
2 <t6 1
(u n
l + k<u l
decreasing sequence.
2
Again, u 2 ~u l + k>u 2 + k .'. u 2 >oc. Similarly u n ><y, for n 3, 4, ... Hence
;

i/,

^n -> Z ^ a.

The

Thus wn

case in which

i^ n_!

and

->

follows that

u l <a can be treated

of y x and
(ii) Draw graphs
meeting at A. In Fig. 42, we have

in the

same way.

y~

PrPr ~ u r ~ u r+\*

and thus

The

it

figure illustrates the case in

which

Ui = ON = N p > a,
l

and shows that (un ) is a decreasing sequence.


Thus J\^rPr > Nr pr for every r, and so Nr is
always to the right of N. Thus un -> I ^ a
and

Hence

tends to

as a limiting position

and un -> a.]

NN r N 2
FIG. 42.

N,

CONVERGENCE TO ROOTS OF EQUATIONS

246

Wn=/( wn-i) where f(x) is such that (i) f(x)>0


and (iii) the equation x=f(x) has a single
w
that
->a.
prove
n
[It is advisable to draw a figure.]
10. If

increases with x,

11.

Show

number

that as the

tend to the roots of x 2 - x - 7

=0

if

*>0,

positive

f(x)
root a,

(ii)

of roots tends to infinity, the expressions

as limits.

3 = v7-v7+y, prove that


2/ ^( a; 2_7)2_7
last
the
Draw a graph of
equation, and prove that
12. If

un ^

\7-V7-f \/7-N/7T...

%, w 3 u5
u Z9 u^ u$

then

to

if

2n

roots,

a decreasing sequence,

... is

... is an
increasing sequence,
and that both sequences converge to 2 as a limit.

Prove also that

\7-fv7- V 7 WT"^"...
13. If

to oo ^3.

u l9 v1 are given unequal numbers and

n^^

for

u n decreases, and vn increases as n increases, (ii) Each of the


functions u n and vn tends to a limit, which is the same for both. This limit is
called the arithmetico- geometric mean of u and i\ (Gauss).
~ v = i ( \^w_i - N/v -i ) 2 >
u > v for ever ^
prove that

(i)

>

Un - I u n~i + vn-i) < Wn-i


... <v
n ... <^ w ... <u 2 <u

.'

Thus v^^
Hence u.n tends

t;

Vn

t*

= s/(^n -i^n-i)> ^n-i-

and so does vn
Also lim vn = lim n_ 1 = lim (2un - Mn^) = lim
to a limit,

and

n .j

CHAPTEK XVI
CONVERGENCE OF SERIES
1

Let u n be a function of n which has a definite value

Definitions.

An

for all positive integral values of n.

which every term

in

is

R Ui v

by

sn

expression of the form

followed by another term,

This series will be denoted by En^\u n

n terms by
The sum

(1)

or

by

is

27w n

called

an

infinite series.

and the sum

of its first

of the

p terms immediately

following the nth term

is

denoted

so that
**n, v

As n tends

~ w n-f 1 + u n+2

~^~

~^~

u n+j> ~ s n+v~~ s n-

to infinity, there are four distinct possibilities

to a finite limit, to infinity or to

minus

infinity, or it

sn

may

may do none

tend

of these

things.
If s n

tends to a

called its

sum

finite limit s,

to infinity.

Thus

lim

s n = s,

the series

is

said to be convergent and s

is

defined by

s is

or briefly,

lim s n

= s.

n->oo

This

is

also expressed

w t + w 2 + w3 +
If s n

tends to

oo

by writing

=s

to oo

...

or to -

oo

or

the series

27fw n = s,
is

or

2u n = s.

said to be divergent.

tends to no limit, whether finite or infinite, the series is said to


oscillate.
We say that the series oscillates finitely or infinitely, according
as s n oscillates between finite limits, or between + oo and - oo
If s n

Series

which diverge or

The sum
not a

sum

be non-convergent.
essentially a limit, and

oscillate are often said to

(to infinity) of a

convergent series

is

in the sense described in the definition of addition.

We

is

are

therefore not justified in assuming that the sum of an infinite series is


unaltered by changing the order of the terms or by the introduction or

removal of brackets.
In fact, changes of this kind

may

alter the

sum, or they

may

a convergent series into one which diverges or oscillates.


Thus the series (1 - 1) + (1 - 1) + (1 - 1) + ... is convergent and
zero,

but the

series 1

+ 1-1 + ..

oscillates.

transform

its

sum

is

ADDITION OF SERIES

248

The Geometric

2.

converges

l^l^l and

if

oscillates finitely if x== - 1,


For sn (l-z n )/(l-z) if

5 n~>oo

If

x^l,

If

x< - 1,

s n->oo

If

x=

or

Theorems.

3.

Uj

The

Series.

series

+x + x* + ... +xn - 1 -t-...

its

sum

and

oscillates infinitely if
If |z|<l, z n ->0

is

It

l/(l-x).

diverges if

x< - 1.

x^l.
-1, sn = l

and

or 0, according as n
oo according as n is odd or even.

(1)

If

+ Wg + tia-f

is

...

a given number, the

is

* n->l/(l

-x).

odd or even.

series

um+l

and

converge, both diverge or both oscillate.

6<tfA

For

let

Then

5n

n = sm 4. n -Sfn

(i) if

(ii) if

(2)

= w 1 + w 2 -f...+w n

sm+n

an d

tends to a

is

*n

a fixed number, hence

finite limit or to

oo

so also will t n

sm + n tends to no limit, whether finite- or infinite, neither will t n

If k

a fixed number and Eu n converges to a sum s, then Eku n is


its sum is ks.
Also if the first series diverges or oscillates, so

is

convergent and

does the second, unless & = 0.

-oo

if s n ->s, then ks n ~+ks.


If k 9^0 and s n
so. does ks n
tends to no fixed limit, finite or infinite, neither does ks n

For
$n

If

4.

Addition and Subtraction of Series.


wx

converge and
(i)
(ii)

(Wj

4-

(MJ

their

Vj)

Vj)

+ (u 2 -f v 2 ) +
-f-

(ii)

v2 )

(u 2

-f

NOTE.

-f

sums are

w2 -f

In the proof,

The proof

is

-f

. . .

all

w2 +
s

. . .

. . .

and

- . .

and

vl

+ v2 +

If the

series

. . .

respectively, then

converges,

and

its

sum

is s

converges,

and

its

sum

is s

+ w n ) + Iim(v 1 -f v 2 4-

the series in brackets are

. . .

+1

t.

+ v n ) = s 4- 1.

finite.

similar to the preceding.

SERIES OF POSITIVE TERMS

We

first

heading we

consider series in which all the terms are positive. Under this
include series in which all the terms are positive beginning with

some particular term.


5.

Introduction and Removal of Brackets. Let Zun be a series


and let the terms be arranged in groups without altering

of positive terms,

SERIES OF POSITIVE TERMS


Denote the sum

their prder.
(i)

// Su n

For

converges

to

a sum

let

Then

m tends

where

Now

lim

n we can

terms in the nth group by vn then


,

so does

s,

2v n

for every

of the

find

m and p,

to infinity with n.
therefore

m = lim sm + 9 = s,

so that

lim t n = s.

If Zv n converges to a sum s, so does Zu n


For corresponding to every n we can find
(ii)

But lim tm = lim tm+l = s,

so that

lim s n = s.

therefore

Changing the Order of Terms.

6.

249

// the terms of a convergent


remains convergent and its

series of positive terms are rearranged, the series

sum

is unaltered.

Proof.

manner.
is

Let

Eu n -be

Denote the

first

n terms

Further, suppose that the

(n +p) terms of

Zu n

of

first

Zu n

are,

among

the

first

n^m^n+p,

m tends to infinity with

Also

n.
sn

< >m<s n+1)


f

lim 5 n ==lim 5^ +J> ==5, therefore lim m = s.


Hence Zvn is convergent and has the same sum as

Now

NOTE.

The argument

fails for

MI

Zu n

such a derangement as

+ wa 4- u6 -f

..

+ uz + w4 + w e +

. . .

where Zun is broken up into two (or any finite number of) infix
For here we cannot find m so that the first n terms of Zun
m terms of Zvn Thus u2 does not occur till infinitely many of ti
have been placed.
The rule for the addition of aeries applies in cases of this kind, but
Sun is broken up into infinitely many infinite series.
Derangements of the last sort are considered in another volume.
.

tsrms of

terms of 2v n are among the

Thus

and

Let

u.

Suppose that the

Zv n

convergent, and let the terms be rearranged in any


v n so that every u is a v and every v
series by

new

first

COMPARISON TESTS

250

Theorem.

7.

of positive terms cannot

series

and

oscillate,

than some fixed number k, the series converges and

less

always

if s n is

sum

its

is less

than k.

For

XV,

(Ch.

and therefore tends to a

increases with n,

sn

Hence the

3).

every n, then

s n ~>s,

s is

Comparison Tests.
Ua n is known to be

8.

terms and

*
(i)

(ii)

u n ^a n for

* or
if
or if

(iii)

Proof,

u n/a n

to

...

a + a2

If

(i)

u l + uz

and since
For

(ii)

is

less

to oo

-r ...

be

Eu n and Za n are
divergent, then Uu n will
(ii)
(iii)

3).

we have

...

a n <t

un

follows that

it

is

convergent.

Now

ka n

is

convergent,

convergent.

//

(i)

for

limit.

+ u n ^.a 1 +a 2 -f

This follows at once from

XV,

than some fixed positive number k

for

(ii),

if

lira

a positive constant k, such that u n /a n <k for


(2)

<k

we have u n <ka n

values of n,

all

than k (Ch.

//

a finite

a fixed number,

is

un

therefore
(iii)

sn

if

Further,

less

<x>

2u n and Sa n are two series of positive


convergent, then Zu n will be convergent if
(1)

always

u n/a n tends

oscillate.

a fixed number

values of

all
is

cannot

series

where

finite limit or to

u n /a n

all

we can

is finite,

find

values of n.

two series of positive terms and

Za n

is

known

to

be divergent if

^a

un
n for all values of n ;
* or
if u n /a n is always greater than some fixed positive
or if

u n/a n tends

to

a limit greater than

/.
:

zero.

TV be a positive number, no matter


(i) Let
Proof,
Ea n is divergent, m can be found such that

how

great.

a l + a2 +

. . .

-f

>N

provided that

n> m

t^-f w 2 +

...

+w n >JV

provided that

n>m,

an

number k

Since

divergent.
values of n,

u n >ka n

% therefore Eun

is

Now Ea n

is

divergent

therefore

divergent.

at once from (ii), for if lim u n /a n is finite, a positive


ound such that u n/a n >k for all values of n.
.y these tests, we require certain series which are known
or divergent. The geometric series and the series of the
.hose which are most generally useful as test series.
flcient

that these conditions should hold for

all

values of

greater than

some

METHOD OF COMPARISON
Theorem.

9.

The

series

p>l and divergent if


Denote the given series by
convergence or divergence

any way we

in

First

let

is

+ H^ + O +

TJ

Group the terms

is

Now

the

(B)

unity, for

Next, if

thus:

as follows

2, 4, 8,

and the

terms, respectively.
than the corresponding term in

is

/ 1

1 \

!+_+_ +

same as

!+_+

or

...,

a geometric series whose

common

+ ....... (B)

ratio 1/2 P-1

is less

than

last

Each term

terms in the brackets are 1/2 2

brackets contain

Now

etc.,

in (A) after the first is less

is

convergent if

p>l. Hence (B) is convergent, and therefore S is convergent.


p = 1, the series S becomes 1+J-f^ + J-H...
Group the terms
i
i+
i + i +i +
...
.................. (C)
i +
+
+
i)
+(
i)

where the

which

^s

is

...

which

terms in the brackets are l/2 p l/2 2p l/2 3p

brackets contain

Each term

a series of positive terms, its


not affected by grouping the terms in brackets
Since

S.

first

.+-

please.

p>l.

where the

251

2, 4, 8,

of (C)

...

3
,

1/2

1/2

and the

etc.,

terms, respectively.

greater than the corresponding term of

is

the same as

+i + f + f + ...,

l+ + i + J + .......... (D)

or

and therefore S is divergent.


Lastly, ifp<l, each term of/S after the first is greater than the corresbut the last series is divergent, thereponding term of l+^ + J + i+...
(D)

is

divergent,

fore

is

10.

divergent.

Examples on the Comparison Tests.

1.

Is the series

- -f

=
.

Ex.

j.*>.4:
let

+ o~~l

an

r
o 4 o
.

+ ~*

converge^ or divergent

Then we have

Now Zan

is

convergent

un

therefore

is

convergent.

The nth tenn a w of a suitable test series is found thus Keeping only the highest powers of
n in the numerator and denominator of u n we obtain 2n/n8 or 2/n*. Disregarding the numerical
factor 2, we take !/
for e*
n
:

B.C.A.

D'ALEMBERT'S TEST

252
Ex.

Test for ro nvcrgence or divergence the series


x
xn ~ l
1
x2

2.

<1,

If

a;

l+#2

l+o: 3

->0 and vn lxn ~ L

->

a:~

n ->

and

w^
71

#n

=1
1

a:

= 1, u n = ^ and

If

the series

is

+-

...

l+zn

Now Zxn ~

1.

convergent.
If a;>l,

4.

1+z

+ xn

=1

...

where x>0.

convergent, therefore

is

1
--

x x~ n +

->

Hence

ZV-,
n

is

divergent.

divergent.

TESTS DERIVED FROM THE GEOMETRIC SERIES

D'Alembert's Test.

11.

u n+l ju n <Jc<\

vergent if

where k

Zu n

series

is

of positive terms is eon


may have an\

a fixed number and n

value.

The

series is divergent if

For

if

u n+} fu n ^l for

u n+l /u n <k<l for every

Thus w w <Wj k n ~ l and

71

2^7/j

all

values of n.

n, then

"1

A-

convergent, therefore

is

27w n

ii

convergent.

Again,

if

u n+l/'u n ^l for

+u n ^nu

w t -f w 2 +

therefore

values of n, then

all

-*cc

In particular, if u n ^/u n tends

l<\ and

to

Hence Su n

a limit

is

divergent.

then 2!u n is convergent whei

Z,

when />!.

divergent

For if Z<1, choose k so that l<k<l. Then by the definition


u n+\lu n<k f r ^>^ where m is a fixed number. Hence

of a limit

Wi +
is

convergent, and therefore

Again,

if

/>!, then

um+2 + NOTE,

(i)

is

Zu n

tt

is

m+2 +...
convergent.

can be found so that u n+ ^>u n for

divergent, and therefore

It is sufficient that the conditions

un

is

n>m.

Henc<

divergent.

should hold for

all

values of

greate

than some fixed value.

Nothing is said as to the ease in which Urn un+l lun ~l. In this case the
be
convergent or it may be divergent, and we say that the test fails.
may
For example, consider the series
(ii)

1111
+ + + +

The
If,

first is

divergent, the second

however, u n ^^u n tends to

the series

is

divergent.

The

"'

series

and

2i

1
i

4*

is

convergent, and in both

as a limit

from

1+2+3 + 4 +

...

seriei

--

we have lim un +Ju n = 1


u n+l >u n

above, so that always


is an instance of this
.

CAUCHY'S TEST
12.

Cauchy's Test.

Eu n

series

253

of positive terms

is

convergent if

w n n <&<! where k

is

a fixed number and n can have any value.


i

The

series is divergent if

u n n ^l for

many

infinitely

values of n.

u n n <k<l, then u n <k n and since k<\ the


vergent, and consequently Zu n is convergent.
For

if

series

Zk n

many

values of n,

con-

is

w n w >l,

If

Zu n

then

is

and consequently w n >l,

for infinitely

obviously divergent,
i

In particular, if u n n tends
and divergent when l>l.

The proof

Zu n

a limit L then

to

is

convergent when l<ll

similar to that in the last article.

is

It is sufficient that the conditions should hold for

n>m,

where

is

number.

fixed

but

Also nothing

the limit

if

is

Zu n

approached from above,

Comparing these

13.

said as to the case in which lim u n n

is

useful than Cauchy's.

concerned, u n+l ju n

is

is

divergent.

more generally
with which we are

tests, that of D'Alembert

For

most

in

the series

of

\,

a simpler function than u n

is

On

the other hand, Cauchy's test is more general than D'Alembert's.


That this is the case will be seen by noting that

Cauchy's condition for divergence

(i)

is

greater than a fixed value,

and

this

is

For

wider than D'Alembert's.

in D'Alembert's test the condition has to be satisfied

by

all

values of

not the case in Cauchy's.


i

(ii)

It

has been shown in Ch.

XV,

9, (2),

that

if

u n+1 /u n->l then u nn ->l.

But

if

u nn ->l,

So we

does not follow that u n+l /u n tends to any limit.


expect that Cauchy's test will sometimes succeed when
it

may

D'Alembert's

fails,

as in Ex. 3 below.
2

Ex.

Show

1.

that the series

ic

#3

yA

+ ...

is

convergent if

0<#<1

gent if

un =

Here
Hence,
If

and

is

if

1,

xn
-

un
n+1 =

0<:r<l, the

~;

n+1

.*.

lim

n
w n41
=lim
T
un
n-fl

series is convergent,

D'Alembert's test

divergent.

xn+l

fails,

and

if

but in this case the

x>l,
series

xx.
it is

divergent.

becomes

and

diver-

EXAMPLES OF SLOW CONVERGENCE

254
Ex.

Show

2.

that

series

the.

+x + x2 /

+ x* f

12

+ ...

convergent for all positive

is

(3
"~~

values of x.
/>.n-i

TT

~n

7?

lim

II

-= 1'
lim

iv

=i

series is convergent.

+ 6 + a 2 4- 6 2 + a 3 H- 63 -f

Test for convergence the series

3.

,,,

'

Hence the
Ex.

Horo

. . .

-^

Here

according as n
divergent

is

a^l,

if

test

is

odd or even, the


or if b^\.

series is

0<a<l

if

convergent

w n n ->a a or 6 2
and 0<6<1, and

test, since

Using Cauchy's

inapplicable.

and D'Alerabert's

EXERCISE XXVI
1.

State the character of the series

showing that

for the

second series lim$o M ~-l and lim

2.

Show

that the scries x

3.

Show

that,

if

ci

l -\-

-?>

+ x ^ + x2

+ 3
+ a t ) 4-

a2

(a,

ft

...

-\-

is

5 2n _

x~ 2 + x + x~* +

-}

4-^4)

Criticise the following


2(-J

i-

J-f-.-)

which
5.

(iii)

is

absurd, for

If

is

11

<1,

^-i-*-l-i

+ l-+-J +

<,

'

(ii);
v

>

some

fixed

number m.

=(i + 4 +4 +

...)

+ (* + ! + i +

= n-i+4 + ...,

,..11111

first

million terms of the

. .

that

(m +

The sum
lies

(iii)

is

....

4-

Given that 2 20 > 10 6 4- 1, show that the sum of the


series I -f i f 1 4- j -f
is less than 20.

Show

never convergent.

and so on.

6.

-..

...

a positive integer, show that


1

is

...

=i+
.-.

2.

convergent, so also

J (a 2 + a 3 +

Prove also that the converse is true if a n >0, for n


[Consider the sum to n terms of the second series.]
4.

.
|

between

Hence show
4-

m-fl

and

m+1
,

. .

.,

must be taken.

with an error

-~

(m-fl)
-f(ra

that, in order to find the

^ + 4~r +

to infinity
J of the series

less

/rr2 + :
~^r2 +
(w-f2)
(m-l-3)

rri.

+ 1) 2
sum to

than

infinity of the series

001, at least 1000 terms

CONVERGENCE OF SERIES
Determine whether the
n

9.

a+6

+ 26

a + 36

3.4

.2

Exx. 7-14 are convergent or divergent.

series in

o.lll

10

. .

255

5.6

_5_

~
13.

J_ + __ + _?_ + ....

-A-

H.

Test for convergence or divergence the series whose nth terms are
15.

19.

-^_.

is.

-JL_.

17.

/t

-.
+a

20.

n-

21.

N/rc

2n

/_4.

is.

_______
2
+ l-n.

22.

V^-fl-s/n 8

For what positive values of x are the


what values are they divergent ?
23.

25

'

l+2x + 3x* + 4x* + ...


.

29.

32.

terms

--

30.

31.

refer to series of positive terms.

Zun

is

34. If

Hun

is

35. If

Eun

is

-2! ^ -^t-

convergent and

convergent, so

un

vn

^t-1 ^ ^=^
vn
un

divergent and

[After a certain stage

un z

is

un <l,

for

37. If

2un

is

convergent, so

Find the sum to


n ^
1.3.5
,

ww ->0

2.5.6

then Zt'

is

is

convergent.

divergent.

un 2 <un .]

/.

).

+ ~~^-~ -f ...
5.7.9
4

3
i

1.4.5

n ^ m, then Zvn

Zun f(\ +un


is Sun ln.
[For ww /

infinity of the series in

3.5.7

for

36. If 27wn is convergent, so is

A
41)

Explain why D' Alembert's test cannot be stated thus A series of positive
convergent if the ratio of each term to the preceding is less than unity.

33. If

a;

is

Exx. 33-37

38.

.....
26

3a

2a

7.8.9

Exx. 23-31 convergent, and for

+ */2 2 4- x 2 /

24. 1

4.5.6

1.2.3

series in

_i

3.6.7

Exx. 38-41.
39. -

1.4

-f :r~

2.5

3.6""

.,12

41

-i

.3

3 .6

--

11

ABSOLUTELY CONVERGENT SERIES

256

TERMS ALTERNATELY POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE

Theorem.

14.

alternately positive

The

and

u^-u^ + u^-

series

negative, is

...

in which the terms are

convergent if each term

is

numerically

less

than the preceding and lim u n =^0.

We

Proof.

and

have

can be written in the form

this

= w l-( w 2- w 3)-( w 4- w 5)----- w 2n

*2n

Now

Wj-i/a, w 2 -i/ 3?

From

(A)

it

-w 4

...

are

all

therefore follows that s 2n

positive, for

is

and increases with

positive

n,

(B)
always less than the fixed number u v
Hence, s.2n tends to a limit which is less than MJ (XV, 3).

and from

it is

seen that

2n is

$.

Again, S 2ni l ~s 2 n + u 2n+i an( l l* m U 2n+i


same limit as s 2n
The series is therefore convergent, its sum
.

therefore

tends to the

s 2n+l

Ex.

Show

1.

that the series

^ 4- -3"--

...

is

positive

and

less

than u v

is convergent.

Here the terms arc alternately positive and negative, each term is numerically
than the preceding and lim l/--0
hence the series is convergent.

less

SERIES WITH TERMS EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE

Absolutely Convergent Series. The series 27w n containing


positive and negative terms, is said to be absolutely convergent if the series
15.

un

is

convergent.

Hu n

convergent and

u n divergent, then
or
conditionally convergent
semi-convergent.
If

is

Thus the
series 1

-f

series

f+

l-| + i-i + --+

ally convergent, for

An

Theorem.

Zu n

Let

it

is
is

Su n

said to be

is

absolutely convergent, because the

is

But, 1-^4-

convergent.

convergent and

1 4-

3 4-

3-

-$+...
4-

. . .

is

is

condition-

divergent.

absolutely convergent series is convergent.

be absolutely convergent

then by definition

un

is

con-

vergent.

Now

i/

4j

un

=2u n

or 0, according as u n

positive or negative.

is

Therefore every term of the series


(u n + u n \) is
term
of
the
series
272 u n |.
corresponding
convergent
\

>0

and

is

< the

Hence Z(u n + u n
\

convergent.

\)

is

convergent and consequently, by Art.

4,

Zu n

is

PRINGSHEIM'S THEOREM
NOTE.

if

we say

is

absolutely convergent,
and not that of 2u n itself.

Zu n

that

another series,
un
From Arts. 11 and 12,
\

it

a fixed positive number

is

absolutely convergent

<k

less

than unity.

Since s n

of the positive integral variable n,

Zu n

sufficient condition for the convergence of

Corresponding
it

to

must be possible

//j/7/
HUM

any

to

-jo
t-o,

Thus

Zu n

if

is

positive

find

7?
it
n>

Ex.

is

p
1.

to

tend

if

-4^

convergent and

allowed

Apply

Mft-fi

and in particular u n ^0.


But the condition (A) is
unless

so that

-4-

'*n~f 2

is

'

in

to oo

-U II

* *

'

<^~
~-

ensure the convergence of

Hu n

any way whatever.

11
4
+ '"~

2 "3

7f w

'

p ~

n+

f "'

4-

n+2

+...+

n+p

For any fixed value of p, p/(n H />) -> as ?i-> oo


hence, Rn p cannot tend to zero, and so the series

>

n~\-p

But

is

Pringsheim's Theorem.

'

lp

/i'

Here

tive

n-f j?|

the general condition to the series

17.

and

any integer,

sufficient to

'not

a function

e that

?/

as follows

is

is

(B), the necessary

we may choose, however small,


u^in^for every positive integer p,

number

'}/

j,

after

|uj<*,

or if

General Condition for Convergence.


by Oh. XV, 6,

16.

if,

i_

?p
is

Zu n

follows that the series

certain stage,

where k

statement of this theorem, he should


we assert the convergence of

If the reader fails to see the point in the

note that,

257

// Su n

if

ri

then p/(n

-f

p) ~>

not convergent.

is

a convergent series of posi-

decreasing terms, then nu r ~>0.

For

if

is

any

positive integer

as W->OQ
P u m+v< u m+l+ u m+2+ + u m+jT>
=
Let p m, therefore mu 2m >0 and 2mu 2m->0 i.e. nu n -*Q, when n = 2m.
and
Let p = m 4- 1 therefore m + 1 u 2m +l~->
;

(2m +

1)

u 2m+l

= 2(m + 1) u 2m+l - u2m+l ~~>0

This proves the theorem, whether n


Ex.

1.

Use

Hero nun
and, since

this

n-

it is

theorem

to

show

=1, and does not tend to


it

nu n

when n = 2m -f

Hence E- cannot be convergent


n

i.e.

>Q,

odd or even.

is

that the series

a series of positive terms,

27

zero.

is divergent.

must be divergent.

REARRANGEMENT OF TERMS

258

of

Zu n

sum

Removal of Brackets.

Introduction and

18.

Denote the

be arranged in groups without altering their order.


terms of the nth group by v n then

of the

2u n

If

(1)

Let the terms

is convergent, so also is

Sv n and

these series have the

same

sum.

For

Then

= !*! +

let

for

any value
sn

of

= m

+ ...+M n

n we can find

or

sn

= v l +v% + ...+vn

m so that either

= tm + (ww4l + w m+2 +

..u m + 9 ),

where the terms in the bracket are included in the group vm+1
If

Zu n

is

convergent,
fi

n,p

w n+1 + t w+2 +...ttw4 ->0 as n~oo,


therefore s n - Z m-> 0.
as n ~> oo

:=s

m~> QO

also

J>

Hence Svn converges to the same sum as Su n


If

(2)

Sv n

is convergent,

Zv n

For, given that


for all values of p.

Denote

(3)

as in

Ev^

un

is

Eu n

is

not necessarily so.

convergent,

we cannot conclude that

by u n \ and suppose that the terms of Zu n

Rnjtf->Q

are grouped

'

Let v n be the sum of the terms of the nth group.


(1).
is convergent, so also is u n (Art. 5)
and, as n -> oo

Then, if

'

Therefore, as in

(1),

Zv n

Rearrangement

19.

converges to the

of Terms.

same sum as Zu n

The following example shows

rearrangement of the terms of a semi-convergent series may alter its


sum. and a rearrangement of the signs may change the series into one
that

it

which
Ex.

is

1.

divergent.

With regard
t
1

sum

Lft's be Ihe

to the, series
I

oj the tern i -convergent series

-5-4*3-5

1 + 5-

/ri

^r^rr^r-

........... (B)

......... (C)

obtained by rearranging the terms and the tigns of (A) respectively, prove thai (B) is convergent with a

(i)Let

then

sum

- 1 -5

{s

and

(C)

divergent.

-r- ---,-... to M terms.

or

= l -~ --H-- -- -~ + ...

to

n terms

SUM ALTERED BY
*.
1

--lim9 2n =-*.
Hence, the second
(ii)^t

*>(

then

converges and

series

<

Also

= i + l_l + l + l_l

-+-

}+( -+- -O

I/,

Now

the series

+- +-

sn +%

&U tend to

oo

-f

is

. . .

2i

Hence the

divergent

series (C) is

Theorem.

// the terms of an absolu


remains convergent and its su?

the series

Denote the new

We
And
(u n

have un
since E\

un

-f
|

Let

E\u n

|),

-f

un

v n) so tha
series by
u n = 2u n or 0, accor
is

a convergent se

for its terms are

<

the c

Z\u n \=s and Z(u n + \u n \)^


and
(u n + \u n \) -are series o

unaltered by any rearrangement of tern

27(^ + 1^1) =

2\v n \=s>
Ex.

Find a range

1.

of values of x far whicJ


2
z
l+(x-* + (x-x*)

can be arranged as a convergent

series of ascendi

Expanding the terms of (A) and removing h

Now,

|a?-a^|<l, the series (A) is coi


removal of brackets or a derai

if

justify either the

However, by Arts.
convergent

where

a?

16, 18 (1), 19,

and, by Art.

=| x

|,

is

convergent

is

NOTE.

be the case

that

x'<\(*J$-l)
which

each of these

5, this will

or

is,

if x'

-tON/5-

the required range.

What

has been said does not preclude

can be made over a wider range.

ERROR

^arching for the sum of an infinite


content with an approximate value.

and
>,ries

approximate value of

Rn

sum, denoted by
Thus we have
(A).
its

called

is

It should be

5.

s.

)er

limit to the numerical value of the

number which

o find a

Rn

cannot
\

t series

w
4-...+(-l) W w +...

Here

ive terms.

n+ 3
Brackets

Hence
lij less

is

positive

the

than w n

less

than u n ^

error in taking s n as
_ _
i

ror in taking x

an

- x2

/2 as the

sum

of the

than x 3/3.

3ss

.n

and

which

erms are

all

the terms are positive or in


the same sign. This is

all of

n often proceed as
3

--K"H
3

xn

+... where

follows.

0<^<1.

The

series is

n +1
numerically less than x
/ (n

le of s is

;ence or Divergence,
lue of

Rn

+1

) (

- x).

For a con-

for a given v&lue of n, the

more

ge.

ilue of r y the

more rapid is the convergence

convergent, but in order to find


mals, at least 1000 terms must be taken
/4

. . .

is

fore say that the series converges slowly.

SERIES OF

-v"

Next, consider the


of a million terms

series

is less

1 -f

|-

than 20

(st

therefore said to diverge slowly. In prat,


the reckoning so that we have to deal

For instance, the series, 5 = 1 - J J


By grouping the terms, we find
'

This series converges more rapidly


8
5
*-2[t + i(i) + i(i) +.

find that

rapidly than a geometrical series


'

22. Series of

Complex
Zx n and Sy n c

that the series


sn ,

r n be the sums to n

cr n ,

Ch.XV,10,

tei.

lim Sn

= lu

and we say that z n converges ti


Thus Ez n is convergent if Zx n a

(2)ByCh. XV, U^t


of Zz n
it

is

as follows

must be possible
\s n+v -s n
(3)

to

Definition of

As

zn

find

tha

\<,

terms and 2\

Corrcs

is
\

for real sei

convergent.

then 2\

zn

is c
\

Consequently
(4) It is

impo.

2x n and Zy n9 an
The

first

Hence

if

part

Z
\

xn

The theorems c
brackets and the c

(5)

of

complex

series.

This

'

FOR SERIES

is

..+zn

complex, the series

~l

and when

convergent,

if
|

+ ...

|>

0, (3),
3

sum

is

1, z

its

n does

sum

is 1/(1 -z).

not converge to

*->0 and

s n -*l/(l-z),

1/(1 -0).

0<r<l, we have
>s2tf + tsin2fi) + ... to oo

re

- r cos

ir sin

- r cos 6

that these results are also true

1-5

FIG. 43.

then

w n->0.

then we can find

ULTIMATE SIGNS OF TERMS

Now

m m+I m+2 +
+

the series

. . .

The Binomial
-

is

~ 7
-~
+ n(n-l)(n-2)
When n

called the Binomial Series.


its

sum

is (1

which we denote by

+ x)

In

+ ti 1 +

tt

all
...

stage, the terms are alternately positive

'

if

+ t< r +

...

1).

which

1, 2, ...

Convergence, etc. We shall prove that the series


1 ; and when x = l, the series converges if
vergent if x
(2)

Denote the

Proof.

n-r
r+1

ur

and the

<

n = -1 and

finitely if

oscillates infinitely if

is

-.x,

r->oo

as

series is absolutely

convergent

x = l.

. . .

is absolutely

n> - 1,

con-

oscillates

then

therefore lim

if

greater than n,
negative, or all

w< - 1.

by UQ -h u + u2 4-

series

a certain

negative, or they all have the

um+2 ... are alternately positive and


have the same sign according as x^Q.
,

the beginning, or after

and

m is the least of the numbers 0,

the terms u m um+l

a positive integer, the series terother cases, it is an infinite series,

same sign according as x^O.


For
w r +i/ M r = (n-r) xj(r +

Hence

of n, the series

+ 1)
(n-r
*

...

is

From

Ultimate Signs of the Terms.

(1)

w n->0.

For any given value

Series.

9
+ nx + n(n-l)
-Vs ' ^ +

minates and

divergent, therefore

and

uju n-><x>
25.

is

263

<

*r+l

1.

and u r have opposite signs, so that, after a


If r>n, ur
Next let
certain stage, the terms are alternately positive and negative. Also

r-n
(i)

Also
|

n>-l,

If

u r+ i

<

ur

(ii)

//

n= - 1

(iii)

//

n<-l,

as
|.

-si

r~>oo,

a,,.->n

Hence, by

the series
let

is

n + l=

Hence u r -> oo and the


The case in which x~ - 1
|

+-T where a r =
Hence, by Art. 24, w r-0.

+ l>0.

Art. 14, the series

1-1 + 1-1 +

-m

so that

..

is

and

w>0,

convergent.
oscillates finitely,

then

series oscillates infinitely.


is

considered in Ch.

XX,

6.

CONVERGENCE OF SERIES

264

EXERCISE XXVII

RANGE OF CONVERGENCE
Show

.
K

that the series in Exx. 1-5 are convergent.

_J___
a+
,
|

a+2 a+3

L__JL

1
1
L
_____

__ ____ __
22 32 42 52
I

6.

Prove that the

7.

Show

V'2.4
3

"

+4

'

2.4.6

'

62

series

that the series

X
-l+x

#2

1 4-

x + x2

+4-

X^

...

^3/ 3

4-

. . .

is

convergent
6

is

if

<x< 1.
all

values

a divergent

series.

convergent for

of x t real or complex.

8.

9.

Show
Show

that - +

-a+2

- -f

a-f-1

+3

-+
a-f5
-

a+4
;

...

is

that the series

is

convergent if /n <4/27.
[Consider separately the
10.

is

(i)

sum

odd and the sum of the even terms.]

of the

Find a range of values of x

for

which the

series

convergent.

(ii) Find a range for which the series can be arranged as a convergent series of
ascending powers of x.

11. If

0<z ^

0-4,

show that the series


2
1 4- (2x cos 6 - x
+ (2x
)

cos 6

- a: 2 ) 2 -f

. . .

can be arranged as a convergent series of ascending powers of x.


2x cos
[It is enough to show that with the given condition

4-

x 2 < L]

12. Let the terms of Su n be arranged in groups, without altering their order,
and denote the sum of the terms of the nth group by v n
Given that 2vn is convergent, prove that Eun converges to the same sum as
.

Evn

in the following cases

(i)
(ii)

If the

number of terms

in every bracket

If all the terms in each bracket have the

[See Art. 18. In case (i), J?n , j,->0.


v n tends to zero, and case (i) applies.]

In case

is finite

same
(ii),

and w n->0.

sign.

v n -+Q

hence, every term in

SUMMATION OF SERIES
Show that the series
l/(l+i), and find its sum.

l+z + z~ + ...

13.
2

14. If z n

+-~i
n

show that Ezn

L>

is

is

265
convergent

absolutely

when

convergent, but not absolutely con-

vergent.

Rn

Prove the results in Exx. 15-17, where


the given series.

the remainder after n terms in

is

15.

For the

series 1

16.

For the

series

+ry-

+ 7-5 - - +

. . .

\R n \<r ft provided

that

X
17.

For the

series

Q<x<n + l.

18

AnL--

27

+-J +

-.

20. If

2L

l_

1^:

Exx. 18-23

in

X^
i

that
~ x provided

--

tOQ0

^
]

or

!^

as

TI~> ^cording

x \$l.

then

a(a

6-2>a>0,

Show

|n

+ l)

a(a-f l)(a

+ 2)

6-1
^ ^^

f "

"

'

then

___ __

24.

r-

""'
i

6-l>a>0,

+1

19
ii/

/-

tl/

n+

L
-i- + -l- + _i- + ...to*=- T
?
I-x*
x-l

|*|>1,

23. If

Rn <

li + l-i4 + ri~;8 +

22. If

X^

!_

IJ

Prove the results stated


JLU<

X^

+ r^ + |- -+...,

+r

6(6

that the

6(6

1)

sum

l)(6

cos
I

^(6"-a-l)(6-a-2)'

n terms of the

to

is

+ 2)

{sin

series

+ cos 2^ + cos 30 + ...


- 1}.
(n + 0) cosec \Q

Hence show that the series oscillates


of TT, in which case the series diverges.

finitely

except

when

is

an even multiple

[2 cos r6 sin

25.

of

TT,

26.

Show
in

(r

+ 16) - sin (r - 10).]

that the series Z'sin nO oscillates finitely except


it converges to zero.

when

is

a multiple

which case

Show

convergent,
onvergent,

by

-sin

that the series z

when

= cos +
-

+ |2 2 +

sin -

plotting the points 8 19 s 29

4
...

$7

+ ...

is

convergent, but not absolutely

Illustrate the slowness


slownc
of the convergence

on an Argand diagram.

CHAPTER XVII
CONTINUOUS VARIABLE
1

it

We

Definitions.

passes once through

cumstances x

is

say that x varies continuously from a to b when


real values between a and b. Under these cir-

all

called a continuous real variable.

Limit of f(x).

Consider the function

When x = Q,f(x)

f(x)

= {(1

has no definite value, for

3
-f-

x)

l}/x.

then takes the form 0/0.


In other words the function f(x) is undefined for the value zero of x. For
3
2
2
every value of x except zero, we have f(x) = (3x + 3x + x )/^ = 3 4- 3x -f x
it

Thus, if x

is

nearly equal

to zero,

f(x) is nearly equal to 3 : further, by


the difference between f(x) and 3 as

making x small enough, we can make


small as we please. This is roughly
limit off(x) as x tends to zero.

what

The matter may be put precisely


number e, no matter how small. If x

f(x)

Thus, as x tends
positive

number

-3
1

<e

meant by saying that 3

as follows

therefore

is

< 1,

is the

Choose any positive

then

provided that

<

\<L.

|/(z)-3| becomes and remains less than any


we may choose, no matter how small. This is precisely

to zero,

that

meant by saying that 3

the limit off(x) as x tends to zero.


The usual
It should be observed that f(x) never attains the value 3.

what

is

definitions are as follows


(1) //,

any

small, there exists


I

where

to

corresponding

how

matter

~
f( x ) 1

is

<

positive

a number

number

rj

provided only that

and a are fixed numbers, then

which we

may

choose,

no

such that

x-a
|

<

is called the limit

TJ,

off(x) as x tends

to a.

This

is

expressed by writing lim f(x)

I.

z-+a

Or we may say that /(#)-> I as x-^a, where it is understood that x


may approach a from either side, i.e. x may tend toa+Oora-0.
Observe that nothing is said as to the value of f(x) when # = a. Such a
value

may or may not exist.

In any case, we are not concerned with

it.

THEOREMS ON POLYNOMIALS
corresponding

(2) If,

exists

to

any

number

no matter how small,

c,

there

N such that
- <
provided only that x> N,
f(x)

a positive number

where

positive

267

This

c,

off(x) as x tends

is

a fixed number, then

is

expressed by writing lim /(#)== Z or f(x)->l as x->oo

is called the limit

to infinity.
.

'x-+<x>

,(3)

If

any positive number


number N such that

a positive

or

no matter how

and we write /(#)-> oo

that f(x) tends to infinity with x,

correctly) lim f(x)

(less

oo

great, there corresponds

x>N,

provided only that

f(x)>M,
we say

M,

to

as

x->oo

3->oo

The reader should be able to frame for himself corresponding


for the meaning of f(x) tends to minus infinity as X-+CG

definitions

'

.'

Fundamental Theorems.

2.

tend to the limits

lim (u v) = I + V,
liml/w = l/Z unless

(iv)

infinity,

lim (u - v) = I - 1',

(ii)

(v)

Z--=0,

(iii)

Two Theorems

(1)

= aQ + ax -f a 2 x 2 4-

is

If

number

17

any

. . .

f(x)

a
1

<c

and the

how

small,

provided only that


|

Z'

make

for

said in this article


coefficients are real

we can find a

positive

'<!,

f(x) a Q

then

kx'f(I

<

al

/(k+*)

is

f(x)

|,

-f
|

\a n

-a
1

),

<

that
c,

<

77.

that

is if

if

a suitable value of

a 2 x' 2

-x')<, provided

kx'<(l-x
Therefore

|a 2
x'

...

x
\

k be the greatest of the

let

(a^,

then

= x' and

let

numbers

so

is

easily

= IV,
= 0.

a n xn , then

positive number, no matter

For shortness,

Proof.

and

-f

lim uv

so that

If

What

on Polynomials.

holds good, no matter whether the variable x


or complex.

Let f(x)

then

limufv = l/l' unless

Apart from some verbal changes which the reader can


himself, the proofs are the same as those in Ch. XV, 2.
3.

x which

u, v be functions of

V as x tends to a or as x tends to

I,

-f-

(i)

Let

<

/(k

+ e)

77.

B.C. A.

QUOTIENT OF POLYNOMIALS

268
(2)

//

number

is

a positive number, no matter how

m so that

\f( x )

The

letters

\>M,

provided only that

having the same meaning as in

|/(*) !=*">.

great,

n -l

+n-2

we can find a

positive

\x\

we have

(1),

^2
1

Choose any number

and a n

between

For such values

of

x we have

= i|a w

if

theorem

#'>

is if

f(x)

> x' n

{|e&

- e}.

then

|,

|/(x)|>t|a B

Hence

last

<

that

In particular, put

Then by the

< K+

if

.
\

if

x':

m is the greater of the two numbers


and

then

f(x)>M

From Theorem

(1) it follows that

if

\x\>m.

lim f(x)

= aQ *

a;->0

=
Again, if x y -fa, then y->0 as x-^a and /(a)
Hence
of y in the polynomial f(y + a).
-

lim /(x)

1.

// f(x)

_3

the term independent

lim f(y -f a) =f(a).

Km /(a;)
-3

is

(i)

0,

(ii)

(iii)

cw

a?-

^5'
(ii)

Let

a;

= 1/y,

then y ->

*-~

lim

->

as

lim /(X)
(iii)

Let x = 1

-f y,

then

as x -+

t/

The reader must understand that

a?

oo

->

and

and

this is not

a roundabout way of saying that f(x}^a Q when

CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
4.

269

Continuous and Discontinuous Functions.

We

confine

ourselves to one- valued functions of the real variable x.

We may say that/(x)


if

is

a continuous function of

the curve whose equation

where

xa and x =

yf(x)

is

is

or

in the interval (a, 6)

continuous between the points

6.

This supposes that we know what is meant by a continuous curve/


representation of the curve in Fig. 44 can be drawn without allowing
'

the pencil to leave the paper, and we say that it is continuous. In Fig. 45,
the curve cannot be so drawn near the points where x = x and x~x 2> and

we say that

the curve

is

discontinuous at these points.

FIG. 44.

We
curve

FIG. 45.

choose the following as the distinctive feature of a continuous


As the point P (x, y) passes along the curve, any small change in the

value of x is accompanied by a small change (or by no change at


value of y.
is true everywhere in
Fig. 44, but
xl and x=*x% in Fig. 45.)

(This

More

precisely thus

P(x, y) any other point on


c, no matter how small.
values of
|

Further,

X~XQ

PQ (xQ

let

on

it

|,

is

point on it.
Thus the curve

AB is

(1)

(or at the point

XQ

for all sufficiently small

continuous

is

if it is

continuous at every

x=xt

and

x=x2

it is

discon-

single-valued function f(x) is continuous at x = x


or for # ), if for any positive number e that we may

The

however small, a number


provided that x XQ <TJ.
choose,

\y-yQ \<

if

continuous in Fig. 44, but in Fig. 45

tinuous at the points where


Definitions.

yQ ) be any point on the curve and


Choose a positive number
ofP

said to be continuous at

we say that a curve

in the

not true near the points where

is

either side

Then

the curve

all)

77

exists

such

that
\

f(x) -f(xQ ) <<=,


\

This is equivalent to the following f(x) is continuous at x


iff(x)~*f(xQ )
as X-+XQ, where x may tend to XQ either from the
left or from the right.
:

TYPES OF DISCONTINUITY

270
It

important that the student should fully realise all that


If /(#) is continuous at z then

is

the definition just given.


(i)f(x) has a single

is

implied in

definite value

when

x~x

h tends to zero through positive values, then /(x + A)-> a


number L 19 and/(x - A), a finite number L 2
(ii) if

finite

i x =/(# =

and we must have

(iii)

."#. 1.
A simple case, in which f(xQ ),
given by Goursat.

If f(x)

zero,

= x2 +

x2
...

^-f
1 ~}-X"

and so

f(x)0

x2

+7

4-

(1

,^i
T*
ar)

...

L 19

to oo

L%

but are not

all

equal,

is

when #=0, every term

of f(x)

is

all exist,

then,

but, for all values of x except zero, f(x) = 1 -f x


lira /(*) = 1, so that f(x) is discontinuous at

2.

Thus, /(O) =0, and

# = 0.

*->0

TAe function f(x)

(2)

is

continuous ih any interval if

every point of the interval.


If the interval (a, b) is closed (a<b), so that the

f(x)
as x-+b-Q.

continuous at

end points are included,

x->a + Q and

continuous at a if f(x)-~>f(a) as

is

it is

at b if f(x)->f(b)

b X

FIG. 45.

Types of Discontinuities,
7

C,

as

x->x l from the

then y-^y^ as x-^x l


i.e.

right,

lim
JC

(ii)

In Fig. 45 let y v y/ be the ordinates of


from the left, i.e. as x-^xl -0 and y->y%

(i)

^
7

'^^
7 JL

^ fl/j

and

lim
X

At the point where x = x2

Thus y

This

as x-^a^-hO.

2
example, 1/x and 1/x

expressed by writing

^ 3/1 ~H

supposed that y is infinite.


For
x = x1 and at # = #2
are discontinuous at x = 0.
in Fig. 45, it

is

a discontinuous function of x at

is

is

v = Vo.
7a

,"

that f(x) has real values only on one side of the


In such a case the curve y=f(x) stops abruptly and/(x) is
discontinuous at #
(iii)

It

may happen

=
point x x

Taking
x,

we

see

(as usual)

Jx

that v x - x

to denote the positive square root of the


is

discontinuous at x

number

FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION

Theorems on Continuous Functions.

5.

(1) It follows

x=x

from the

called

a,

and product of these functions.


= 0.
except when <f>(x Q )

// f(x) tends
lim
tinuous at x^lythen

y=

If

function of a function of

Theorem.

and

x,

is

is

</>{f(x)}.

and

as x->a,

then y

w=/(x),

denoted by

= cf>{lim
<f>{f(x)}

if

where

(f>(u)

a finite limit

to

=
lim/(x) = Z, then /(z) Z
=
continuous at x I, therefore

For

are continuous at

<f>(x)

is true for the quotient f(x)/<f)(x),

Function of a Function.

(2)

and

definition that iff(x)

so also are the sum, difference

The same

is

271

con-

is

<f>(x)

f(x)}.

+ 7?, where

77

-->0 as

x->a;

also

<f>(x)

lim

Continuity of Rational Functions. If/(x) is a polynomial,


by Art. 3, lim/(x) =/(&), where a is any real number.

6.
then,

x >a

Therefore the polynomial

continuous for

is

values of x.
a polynomial or the quotient of

all

Hence also any rational function of x (i.e.


two polynomials) is continuous for all values of x except for such as make
the denominator vanish.

The Function x n

7.

// n

is

rational,

xn

is

continuous for

all

values of x for which x n has definite real values.

Suppose

(i)

that

x>0.

If

is

any

positive

number, we can choose

a, b

0<a<x <6.
Let x be any number other than x in the interval (a, 6)
then by
~
~
Ch. XIV, 10, x n -x n lies between nxn 1 (x~x ) and wx n 1 (x~x ).

so that

Now

~
both x"- 1 and x n 1

greater of the last


If

then

c is

(ii)

7/x<0,

At

<,

and

bn

let

~l
,

hence

|<&.|w|.|x~rX

provided that

continuous at x = x

x-x
|

is

the

|.

small,

<k

=-.

if

n
I

x= -y, so that xn = (-l) nyn where it is supposed that


Now yn is continuous for positive values of y> therefore

xn has a real value.


xw is continuous for
(iii)

~1

any assigned positive number, however


xn - x n

is

xn

two numbers,

Hence xn

between an

lie

the point

negative values of

x = 0.

If

is

x.

positive,

limx n = 0.

If

is

negative,

s~>0

xw ->-oo or to
tinuous at

x=

-oo, according as x->4-0 or to -0.

Hence xw

for positive, but not for negative values of n.

is

con-

CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION

272
8.

Fundamental Theorems.

and f(a)^Q, then f(x) has


the neighbourhood of

the

(1)

is

continuous at x=*a

same sign as f(a) for

that is to say,

a;

If f(x)

if

values of

all

a-r]<x<a +

r]

where

x in
77

is

arbitrarily small.

For since /(a)^0, we can choose e so that f(a)-e and f(a)+e have
and since f(x) is continuous at x a, we can find

the same sign as /(a)


so that
77
f(a)

<f(x) <f(a)

For such values

provided that

-f e,

of x, f(x) has the

<

77.

same sign as f(a).

// f(x) is continuous for the range


the value a to the value 6, f(x) assumes at
(2)

and

x-a
|

then as x passes from


least once every value between f(a)

a^x^b,

f(b).

From

the graphical point of view the truth of this statement

is

obvious.

Let A,
6,

and

We

let

be the points on the curve y=f(x) whose abscissae are a and


k be any number between /(a) and f(b).

assume

that

any

straight line

which passes between the points A,

cuts the curve at least once.


It follows that the line y

varies

=k

cuts the curve at least once.

from a to b,f(x) takes the value k at

Hence as x

least once.

y-k

a XQ

FIG. 46.

Proof.

Suppose that

tween /(a) and

f(b).

f(a)<f(b). Let k be any number beBecause f(x) is continuous at x = a and f(a)<k,

of x in the interval (a, 6) for which f(x)<Jc: and


continuous at x = b and /(&)>&, there are- values of x in

there are values

because f(x)
(a, 6) for

is

a<b and

which f(x)>k.

DERIVATIVES
Divide the real numbers in the interval

The lower class

is

to contain every

273

(a, b)

into

two

classes as follows

number x such that f()<k where

any number

in the range a<f <#.


|
The upper class A' is to contain every number x' hot included in A.
consists of the range (a<x<x ). The range
(Thus in Fig. 46, class
is

(#!<#' <#2

some

)
belongs to class A', for although f(x')<k, yet
values of in the range a <<#'.)

It has been

shown that both

(a, b) is

included,

Therefore the classification defines a real number. x

in

for

classes exist.

Also every number in the interval


than any x'.

number

f()>k

or the least

number

in

and every x
which

is

is less

either the

greatest
It remains to prove that /(# ) = k.
we can find
If f(x )-k<0, by reason of the continuity of f(x) at x
so that f(x)-k<.0 if #
Thus f()<k when
-f.
-i-e.
'.

-<<#

<

Hence x +

belongs to class A, which is impossible, as it is greater than x


If f(x )~k>0, we can find e so that/(x)-fc>0 if XQ
Q + c.
Thus XQ e belongs to class A', which is impossible, for it is less than x
.

-^X^X

Hence it follows that/(# ) =


case when /(#)

It

is

NOTE. If f(x) =k for more than one valuo


mined as above, is the least of these values.
9. Derivatives.

If f(x) is

easy to modify the proof to suit the

of

x in tho interval

(a, b),

is

and

by the equation

denoted byf'(x).

o:

deter-

a function of x such that

tends to a limit as h tends to zero, this limit


is

then

Thus/'(x)

is

defined

called the derivative off(x),

The function f'(x) is also called the differential coefficient of f(x).


It is possible that for some values of x, this limit does not exist. If x is
such a value, f(x) has no derivative at X = XQ This is certainly the case when
.

discontinuous at X = XQ

For in order that {f(xQ + h)-f(xQ )}/h


f(x)
tend to a limit as h-+Q,f(x + h) must tend to/(x ).
is

Ex.

1.

Wo

have

// f(x)

=xn

where n

f'(x)= lim

is

a positive

integer,

prove that f'(x)

may

GRADIENT OF TANGENT

274
10.

to a Curve.

Tangent

be a point which

from either

Let

supposed to move

is

be any point on a curve and let


along the curve, so as to approach

It is supposed that the curve


continuous near P, so that Q may be as near

is

to

as

we

side.

like.

T'PT

If a straight line

approaches

PQ

exists such that, as

from either

makes with T'PT

tinues to approach P) remains less than

we may

the angle which


becomes and (as Q conside,

choose, however small, then

any angle

T'PT is

called

47.

the tangent to the curve at P.

This
at

is

sometimes expressed by saying that

is the limiting

position of the chord

PQ

as

tangent to a

the

curve

tends to coincidence

with P.

Notice that

P,

PQ

The curve

(ii)

is

(i)

would cease

direction

at B,

supposed
a chord,

in Fig. 48

thrown from A,

ball hits the

is not

to be

is

to

reach P, for if

were

to

coincide with

supposed to represent the path of a ball which


ground at B and proceeds to C. Just as the

strikes the

it is moving in the direction TB and,


just after, in the
We may, if we choose, say that the curve has two tangents
BT and BT Strictly speaking, according to the definition,

ground,

BT'

namely

'.

the curve has no tangent at B.

This
at

is

an instance

of a continuous curve which has

no

definite tangent

one point.

B
FIG. 48.

Gradient of Tangent.
on the curve whose equation

1 1

curve has a definite tangent

PT

Let

be the coordinates of a point


is
y=f(x). We shall suppose that the
at P, and that this tangent is not parallel
(x, y)

to the y-axis, as in Fig. 49.


Let Q be the point on the curve whose coordinates are (x

+ A,

y-f k).

DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT
Draw

QM, and draw PR

the ordinates PiV,

R.

Then

and

since

P and

($ are

Now,

as

PT and h

y + k =/(x 4- h)

gradient of chord

.'.

Q tends

PQ = n\

J^^M

gradient of

is the

PQ tends to the limiting position

Pr =

lim^4^W'(*)^-~>;o

Hence /' (x)

OX to meet QM in

k =/(* + h) -f(x)

/.

to coincidence with P,

tends to zero
/.

parallel to

on the curve, we have

and

y =f(x)

275

fl

gradient of the tangent to the curve y

f(x) at the point

fey).

PT

tends to
is nearly parallel to OY, f'(x) will be large, and if
If
coincide with a point where the tangent is parallel to the y-axis, we may
expect that/' (x) will tend to infinity.
Ex.

1.

Find

the equation of the tangent to the curve,

point whose abscissa

whose equation

y = x?,

at the

is a.

If f(jc)~x^, we have /'(#)


the gradient of the tangent at the point
3# 2
.*.
3a 2 , and the equation to the tangent is
3
2
-a) or y = 3a z 2a
;

is

is

(a,

a3 )

12.

Notation of the Differential Calculus. In the differential


is given a different name and a different

calculus the derivative of f(x)


notation is used.

Any number
by

z-f 8x; and,

nearly equal to x is denoted


if
<?/=/(#), the value of y cor-

responding to x
thus we have

+ Sx

is

denoted by y + 8y

2/

This limit

is

denoted by

(with regard to x).


to x,

In finding

and the process

We

often write

-=^.

is

of differentiating f(x)

is

-=-

we

called 2Ae differential coefficient of y

are said to differentiate y with regard

called differentiation.

-~ in

dx

and

ctx j

where ^~ denotes the operation


the form ~7 -/*(o:),
v
'
*

it is

<r

dx

also written shortly as -~-

ax

DIFFERENTIATION

276

Rules of Differentiation.

13.

(1) If u,

v are functions of

,..

(l)

.....

(Ill)

dx

'

(.

and

in (v)

Proof.

dv

iP\

dx

dx

dx

and

-=-

ax

have

(i)
(iii)

and

du dv
T"""T">
dx dx

'

I du
5 -Tu ax

d /1\

>

definite values, also that in (iv)

Let

-5-

ax

(ii).

8 (uv)

Sv> 8(uv), etc.,

Su.,

^~ are not
ax
These are

= (u + Sw)

be the increments in w,

x.

infinite,

left to

v, wv, etc.,

Sw and Sv tend to zero as 8x->0.

the student,

( v + Sv)

^+

lim(fF

dw
dx

dv

dx

+ fc)lim

'

l^___Sw_^
du
dx

A^V
^ v ^
dx\v/ dx
dx
1

1N
.

dx v/

du

v dx

u dv
dv_l1 / du
2
v dx~^v*\ dx

fo J3 + l)2-(2-l)8_

'da:

d /^N
/u\
dx\v/

(i)
(

rf

(Sar+l)"

-l

dvN
dv\

dx/

~(3a: + l)*'

du

wlim(u-fSw)

u(w-fSu)

We have

v^Q.

responding to an increment 8x in

Because

dx

ax-u/

du

-=-

..

T-""

'

(iV) -y-

assumed that
.

,.. %
^

dx

dx\v/

dv
-J-

d
dv
du
T- (UV) = U -7- + V -7dx
dx
dx

d /wN

It is

du
Tdx

then

x,

-_*._

cor-

POWER OF A FUNCTION
Ex.

Slww

2.

277

a product and a quotient can

that the rules for the differentiation of

be written in the forms

du
dv
dp
/!)___+_
p dx u dx v ax
...

where
(iii)

1 dq
= 1 du---1 dv
u \_^
qdx u ax v ax

....
/

an<i

q = ujv.

p = uv and
Deduce

that

if

= (u1 w2

un )l(vt v2

...

wtare

v m ),

...

u 29

t> ,
2

..., t^,

...

are functions of x; then

\- Z
zdx
(i)
,

If

uv,

then

-V-T- + u-=-

~f-

ax

dx

and,

dx

each side

if

divided by

is

p(=uv) the
t

result follows.
(ii)
(iii)

This follows in a similar manner.

Let

UjU2

...

^n V

v^

...

__...

/
Z_ \J

and by repeated application

'

= !^+! du*

u 3 u^

= Z ~ m(-~};
^^
V dx
^\v dx
8

i ssc

Prove

that,

dx

rr
U

*j^

j:

V dx

dx

un)

w3
55"

dx

... i*

and the

a function of

is

rs=1

dx

\ur

result follows.

3.

I dV
dz
_
_ dU
~_
_
_

'

dx

Ex.

of the rule for a product,

dU _ 1 d%
1
rf(w
U dx ~u dx u2 uB ... un
1

SimUarly
J

then

onH
cHlU.

[/
r

/ /

vm

and -~

if

let

n be a positive integer

x,

then for

exists,

all

rational

values of n,

Let

n
\

and
.
f t

(ii)

Let n

(i)

Idw == 1 dy 1 dy
_.
_^__^.
w dx y dx y dx

-m, where

is

<

Hence, by^

wy = 1

and

m dy
1 ^w
~
y- +- dx =
w dx
y

,-r

(i),

dy
__j____
y dx

a positive integer
_

/.

,.

then

w~y

y^

n terms) = ndy
T
-

...

y (n factors)

y dx

then w=y~~ m ,

m
Idw -~
1 dy
+ m -|~ =0.
w dx y dx
- -=-

~1 rfw
-r- =-

or

w dx

y dx

then

wy*

P
(iii)

Let n=p/q where p and q are integers


'u

cr

Hence, by
J

That

is,

we have

/-\
(i)

w or

/--v
(11),
'
v

in all cases

d2

^ c?y
i-^^-fl-^
wdx zdx ydx

rft^

-=-

=-

*f
oo?

NOTB.

*
(

oo;

and

and

t)

say.

- dw ndy
--.
1

dx

y dx

and multiplying each

^ )=ny

wQ =y =z

side

by w(=y

n
),

-i.*

It should be carefully observed that there

00;
is

always a factor

y-,

unless

y=s.

FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION

278

Function of a Function.

14.

is

If w=/(x)

(1)

and y~<f>(u)

a single-valued function of

x, continuous for

a single-valued function of u, continuous for the correvalues


sponding range of
of w, then yisa continuous function of xfor a^x^b.
Let x be any value of x in the given range, and w , yQ the corresponding
is

u and

values of

y.

Because y = <f>(u) is continuous at w


we can find a number 77 such that

for

any assigned positive number

e,

provided that \u-uQ \<r),


\y-~y<>\<
is continuous at x
we can find r\ so that
>

and because /(x)

and consequently

\u~UQ\<r),

\y-yo\<e

if
|

x-x

]<?}'

This proves the theorem.

If the derivatives

(2)

values of u,

and

if

f (x) and

a<x<6 and for corresponding

(u) exist for

<f>'

F(x) = <f>(u) = <f>{f(x)},

fW-f <) ./<>,

then

ttati,,

|=|.g.

Let 8w, Sy be the increments u and y corresponding to an increment 8x


in x, then

Sw^0,

if

8y^8y Su
Sx

du
ax

8u

--->- and

As o#->0,
fi

oo;

~8u'

du
-r~
dx

since

and therefore

ou

Sx

is

a
finite,

Sw->0

-+--.
du

Consequently

dy = .. 8y _. 8w dv dw
r
ax lim/-lira^--^-ow
ox du dx

,^ v
(B)

It

may happen

that Su =

for

some value

In this case we must have 8y = 0, for otherwise


7

= 0.

hence

and then equation (A)

of Sx,

does not hold.

Also

-^-

= 0,

8w = 0.

for

~ would not be

finite

U/U

Thus the equation

dy ^dy du
dx du dx
is

true also in this case.


Ex.
(i)

/Y
(11)

Find

Let

u=ax + b,

Let

ti

(i)

then

70.1

-f-

when y =

(ax

y=u n

ox% then y =u

and
i

n
fc)

and

dx
<^V
-

dx

(ii)

=-~
du
/

=(
\

when y =
.

dx
1

=nu n~ l .a=na(ax+b} n~ l

\
)

u*J

'

~,

26x =

26a;

(a+bx*)

SIGN OF FIRST DERIVATIVE

//+,!,
a
6

&.*.

We

279

'

regard y as a function of x, and differentiate both sides of the given equation

with regard to x thus


9

2k 2y dy
~ + 7? -5? =0.
a j cr eta

15. Derivative of

xn

// y = x

n wfore

is

any

rational, then

<fy

dx
x

If

Proof.
of h,

is

positive, x

and by Ch. XIV,

Also

a;

71

"1

is

is

positive for all sufficiently small values


~
1 -1
'and nhx n l .
lies between

is

nh(x + A)*

a continuous function of

dy
-ax
If

+h

+ h) n - xn

10, (x

Therefore

x.

--

..

(x

hm

+ h) n -xn
'

h-+Q

- u, then = ( y

=
negative, let x

l)

n wn

and

r~

n
n l when n is a
Or,* having proved that the derivative of x is nx
positive
integer, we can prove that this is also true when n=p/q as follows.

Let y = a^, therefore y* = x p


,,

therefore

16.

qtf^

.dy
1
1
/- = px*>dx ^

Now
_

and

Meaning of the Sign of

~T-y

= qy9 " 1 ~/-

~
dy = px p l = pdx qy- 1 q
-/

xp ~l

Z^v

xq

Iff(x )>0

f'(x).

--*

= -p x ^
q

then for all values

x
of x in the neighbourhood of x /(x) </(x ) according as x
For {f(xQ-^h)-f(xQ )}/h tends to a positive limit as A->0.
,

sufficiently small values of


/

Similarly

t//

(x

A,

Hence

/(x + A) ~/(x

)<0, /or every x in


z

JAe

a5

has the same sign as


)
neighbourhood of x

for

A.

5x

NOTE. If /'(a;)>0 only for the single value # of #, it does not follow that f(x)
increases steadily as x increases through XQ
For if x t <a;2 <a; where x l9 x2 are in the neighbourhood of a? , it has pnly been proved
.

that f(Xi)<f(x

17.

and f(x2 )<f(x

)t

and we cannot conclude that f(xi)<f(x2 ).

Complex Functions of a Real Variable


is

See also Art. 13, Ex.

3.

+ i<(x),
+
i<f>'(x).
f'(x)

x. If y=/(x)

called a complex function of x and its derivative


rules of Art. 13 obviously hold for such functions.

then y

The

is

MAXIMA AND MINIMA

280

Higher Derivatives.

18.

the derivative oif'(x) exists, it is


called the second derivative or the second differential coefficient of f(x).
If

this is written in

y =/(#)>

If

of the forms

any

So by n differentiations (when possible) we obtain the nth derivative


or the nth differential coefficient of f(x) which is written in any of the
9

forms

The, following are important instances.


(i)

If

(ii)

If

t/

= zn

-t = nxn - 1

= a^xn + na^*- 1 + - ~^~1

a 2xn ~* +

f(x)

4-

. . .

a n)

L?

then /' (a?)

=n

a^f

+ (n - l)a^- 2 + (n

Or, using the notation of Ch. Ill,

= n(a
f'(x)

then

and by successive

a l9 a 2

...

2)

1)

^"
f(x)

a 2^~ 3 +

= (a Qy a v

a n _Jx, I)*-

a2

...

. . .

+ an

a n $x,

w
l)

...3.2. (a^-f a x ),

Maxima and Minima. We say

that/(z) has a

maximum

XQ when f(xQ )>f(x) for all values of x in the neighbourhood


In other words, if a number exists such that f(xQ )>f(x) when

at X

then /(x
replaced

is

by

<

maximum
,

differentiation

Hnfn- 1)
19.

1, if

"

value of /(x). If in the preceding, the sign


then f(xQ ) is a minimum value of (fx).

Maxima and minima

value
of

>

is

values of a function are sometimes called stationary

or turning values.

necessary condition that f(xQ )

may

be a

maximum

or a

value of f(x)

is that
f'(xQ ) =0.
This follows from Art. 16 but the condition
;

is

not

sufficient.

minimum

TEST FOR MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM


If f(x

a maximum

is

281

then for sufficiently small values of

value,

A,

Hence by Art. 16, as a increases through x the sign of


).
from
-f to -.
f'(x) changes
Suppose now that /"(# ) exists and is. not zero. Then since f'(x) decreases as x increases through rc
f"(xQ ) must be negative.
/(z + A)</(a;

Similarly
sign of f'(x)

be

minimum value, as x increases through z the


f(xQ )
must change from - to + and if f"(xQ ) is not zero, it must
a

is

if

positive.
If the sign of

(x)

does not change as x passes through x

is

f(x)

neither a

maximum nor a minimum. The


/" (x = will be considered
ma 7 be a maximum, a minimum or neither of these.
later. In this case /(#
To illustrate this geometrically, in Fig 51, the tangents at A, B C to
case in which

the curve y ~f(x) are parallel to

OX.

FIG. 51.

The

sign of f'(x) for different parts of the curve

has

f(x)

maximum values

Fig. 52 represents the

C and

graph of

t/

minimum

= x3 -f 1. Here

as indicated,

Thus y
1.

Here

Thus

-=^

= 3z2

dx

is

neither, a

Search for

maximum

nor a

so that

-~=0

ax

maxima and minima

/'(*)=6*

minimum when x=0.


values of

-6*-12=6

/'()=0

if

*=-l

or

2.

As x increases through -1, the sign of f'(x) changes from


increases through 2, the sign of /'(#) changes from - to 4Thus /( - 1) is a maximum and /(2) a minimum value.

to

Or

and

value at B.

dy
=0, but as x passes through 0, the sign of -~ does not change.
ax

when

Ex.

at A,

is

thus,

f"(x) = 12s

- 6 =6(2* -

so that f"( - 1)<0 and /"(2)>0, leading

to the

1),

same

results as before.

and as x

CALCULATION OF LIMITS

282

20. Points of Inflexion.

APE

In Fig. 53

is

supposed to be part

of a curve represented

by y =/(#).
moves along the curve from A to B, the gradient
increases along the arc AP and then decreases.
If a point

Thus

maximum

has a

ax

of the tangent

value at P,

and therefore

-~=

at P.

dx*
If

is

the secant

a point on the curve near P,


QP cuts the curve at another

point Q' near P, and we may regard the


tangent TPT' as the limiting position of
the line QPQ\ when the three points Q, P,

and Q' are very


Definition.

minimum

is

At such a

Q
FIG. 53.

close together.

point

(x, y)

on a curve at which j-

is

maximum or

called a point of inflexion.

dty
-~

point,

dx*

and the curve

0,

crosses the tangent.

EXERCISE XXVIII
Find the limits of the functions in Exx. 1-3
tends to oo .
1.

(i)

as x tends to zero

3.

'

(1

+*)- (l-

Find the values of


4. lir

Prove that

(i)

10.

Prove that

sin

[sin (x -4- h) -sin

a;

8.

Iim

1;

a;

hm
,.

6.

(ii)

Iim -

a:

= 1.

x and cos x are continuous functions of

x.

=2 sin^A cos

For what values of x

12.

Prove that

Iim

Iim cos

11.

5.

sin

9.

-7-

sin

is

tan x discontinuous

x = cos x 9

Bm(x + h) -sin a; = 2 sin


_ %h

(ii)

-=-

cos x
,,

- sin x

CO8 (x -f \h) ~> cos x as

-=-

tan x = sec 2

x.

as x

DERIVATIVES AND TANGENTS


13. If

f(x)=z(x-a)

Hence,
14.

m (x-b) n

if

m, n are

prove that

positive, f'(x) vanishes for a value of

Prove the following


d \r

283

x between a and

b.

(i)

dxj

dx
(m)
15.

(d

_1
/
jl
l-x*-2\"((l-

(dx)

+ ~

'

l)

Find the derivatives of


(iii)

n
(iv) sin z.
16.

Find -%

n
(v) cos #.

if (i)

(vi)

ax 2 + 2hxy + by* + 2gx + 2fy + c=Q,

tan n tf.

(ii)

if

x 3 + y* =

(Z-iC

,-

17.

cZ o;

12 =

Prove that

rfy

- d*y //dy\*

-^
/
aa: / \^/
2

18. If

y=A

19. If

y = cos x -f

20.

cos

Prove that

if

|Lia;

+ J5sin

sin

21.
is

r7 y
then T-O

"

2/-

then -~ = iv.

or,

dx

= tan-

[Consider the values of

IJLX,

a/a:,

(x

then

I /

10)

(x

+ ia).]

Find the equation to the tangent at the origin to the curve whose equation

on the parabola y ~px 2 + qx + r whose abscissae are


a - h, a + k respectively, prove that the tangent at P is parallel to the

22. If P, Q, Q' are points


a,

chord QQ'.
23.
24.

x(x25.

Prove that the function 2x 3 - 3x 2 + 6x - 5 always increases with


Sketch roughly the graph of y = x(x~
2
for values of a; between
and 1.

I)

and

x.

find the greatest value of

I)

(i)

If f(x)

=(x-l)*(x- 2),

for

what values of x does f'(x) vanish

= to x = 2, and show that one


(ii) Sketch roughly the graph of y=f(x) from #
of the values of x found in (i) gives a minimum value of f(x) and that the other
gives neither a maximum nor a minimum.
26. Prove that
aa; 2 -f

x~

-b/2a

bx -f c according as a

^ 0.

gives

maximum

or

minimum

value
B.C. A.

of

INVERSE FUNCTIONS

284
27.

When

(i)

does the function 3x* - 4# 3 -

36a; 2

increase with

Find the turning values of the function, and state the character of each.

(ii)

Show

28.

that the turning values of (x-l)(x -2) (2 -3) are approximately

0-38.

Four equal squares are cut off from the corners of a rectangular sheet of
8 inches long and 5 inches wide. The rest of the sheet is bent so as to form an
open box on a rectangular base. Find the volume of the box of greatest capacity
which can be formed in this way.
29.

tin,

30. The regulations for Parcel Post require that the sum of the length and
girth of a parcel must not exceed 6 feet. Prove that the right circular cylinder
of greatest volume which can be sent is 2 feet long and 4 feet in girth.

Show

31.

that the height of the right circular cylinder of greatest volume


ball of radius r is 2r/\/3.

which can be cut out from a spherical

21.

Inverse Functions.

Let f(x) be a single-valued function of

x, continuous for the range a<x<6.


Further, suppose that throughout
the range, either f(x) increases with x, or decreases as x increases. We

shall

prove that

The equation y=f(x) determines x as a

(1)

function of y.
This function

x=/~

(y)

denoted

is

mean the same

by/~

thing.

(j/),

single-valued

so that the statements

Also the function/"

is

continuous

y=f(x) and

called the inverse

of/.

Since f(x) is continuous, as x varies continuously from a to 6,


Also f(x) takes
f(x) takes every value from /(a) to f(b) at least once.
Thus, correevery value once only, for f(x1 ) =f(x2 ) only when x 1 = x2
Proof.

sponding to any value yQ of y between /(a) and/(6), there


XQ of x such that yg=f(xQ ).
l
For, taking
Again, f~ (y) is continuous.
the case in which y increases with x, let yQ
be any value of y between /(a) and /(&) and

is

a single value

XQ the corresponding value of #, so that

For

sufficiently small values of c,

x -

and

Let yQ -k

X Q~6 X Q X^ X
and y + k be the corresponding values of y,
FIG. 54.
and let 77 be the smaller of the two k, k'.
As y varies from y -7? to y + 7?> x ^ es between # -e and XQ + C, for a;
are within the interval

(a, 6).

increases with y.

x~x

Hence
|

-1

and therefore x =/

<

(y) is

provided that

continuous at

j/

PRINCIPAL VALUES

285

- k' as the values of y


y decreases as x increases, we take yQ + k and y
~
To show that/~ 1 (y) is continuous at
and XQ +
corresponding to x
If

y=zf(a) and y =/(&), we consider the variation

(2)'
^

//
J

For
~ax

if

-~- exists

dx

and

is

then ~-

a<x<b,

dy

Sx and 8y are corresponding increments of x and

is finite,

as Sz->0,

8y

dx
T
dy

ox

,.

22.

never zero Jfor the range


y

of y for the ranges

and

by

Sv

/,.

Si"

~-

dx

then, since

Therefore

vice versa.

Joi,

,.

^-

y,

=1

lim^ = l

Idy
--

dx

The

value of

Inverse Circular Functions. The numerically smallest


=
y which has the same sign as x and is such that sin y x is called

the principal value of sin~ l x. A similar definition applies to tan^ 1 x.


The smallest positive value of y such that cos y = xi$ called the principal
value of cos~ l x.

jy=s//i"

jr

FIG.

Thus the principal values


,

and that

of cos" 1

lies

of sin" 1

between

5^>.

x and tan" 1 x

and

lie

between - - and

n.

Unless otherwise stated, sin" 1 ^, cos" 1 ^ and tan"" 1 ^ will be used to


represent the principal values of the functions for these, the derivatives of
;

sin*"

a;

and cos" 1 ^ are

positive

and negative

respectively, as can be seen

from Fig. 55.


Ex.

I.

Show

Let y = tan~ 1

that

-=-

dx
a;,

then

tan~ l x =

l+x*,

x=t*ny and

dx
-=-=8

dy

'

dy
te

r+?'

BOUNDED FUNCTIONS

286

Bounds of a Function.

23.

Let f(x) be a function which has

a definite value for every value of x in the interval (a, b).


If a number
exists such that/(z)<lf for every x in

is

(a, 6),

then/(x)

said to be bounded above.


If

a number

N exists such that/(x)>2V for every

a;

in (a, b),f(x) is said

to be bounded below.

A function

which

is

bounded above and below

said to be bounded.

is

Suppose that f(x) is bounded above in (a, 6).


Let S denote the aggregate of the values of /(x) as x varies continuously
from a to 6.
applying Dedekind's theorem (Ch. XIII, 12) to the set S,
exists such that

By

we can

show that a number h

no value of f(x) exceeds h

(i)

at least

(ii)

one value of f(x) exceeds any number

number h

This

is

than

h.

called the upper bound of f(x).

Similarly, if f(x) is bounded below, a


(i)

less

no value of f(x)

is less

than

number

exists

such that

one value of f(x) is less than any number greater than


(ii)
This number I is called the lower bound of f(x).
at least

Ex.

Consider the function f(x)

I.

lim

n-^-oo 1

If

+nx 2

3=0, f(x)=0.

If

I.

x^O.

Thus f(x) has a definite value for every value of x. But f(x) is not
any interval including zero, for by making x small enough, we can make
exceed any number we may choose.

f(x)~ljx.

bounded
I/a;

in

Theorem
bounded in

1.

If f(x)

is

continuous in the closed interval

(a, 6),

it

is

(a, b).

Suppose that f(x) is not bounded in (a, b). Because f(x) is continuous
at x = a, for sufficiently small values of x - a, f(x) lies between f(a) - c and
/(a)

x in

+ e, where

is

any small

such that f(x)

(a, 6)

is

positive

bounded

possible) not bounded in (x, b).


Divide the real numbers in (a,

A' as follows
f(x)

is

is

or

is

The number x

not bounded in

b)

is

number.
in (a, x)

Hence there are values


and (if our supposition

into a lower class

to be placed in

and an upper

of
is

class

or in A' according as

(a, x).

According to the supposition, both classes exist and every number in A


less than every number in A'.
The classification therefore defines a real

number

a,

which

Now f(x)

is

the greatest

number

in

or the least in A'.

continuous at x=a, therefore for sufficiently small values


of x-a, f(x) lies between /(a-e) and /(a-f e), where
is any small
is

ROLLE'S
positive

belongs to A, which

Theorem

2.*

is

287

bounded in (a, a-fe), and so


impossible, for a + >a. This proves the theorem.

Hence f(x)

number.

THEOREM

// f(x)

is

is

continuous in

lower bounds f(x) takes the values h


9

and

(a, 6)

and

h,

at least once as

are

its

x wries continuously

from atob.
For if c is an assigned positive number, however small, there
one value of x in (a, b) for which f(x)>h -, so that

h-f(x)<

and

1/{A

upper and

is

at least

-/(*)}> 1/c.

Hence l/{h-f(x)} is not bounded. But if h-f(x) does not vanish


for some value of x in the interval, l/{h-f(x)} is continuous in (a, 6).
Therefore h=f(x) for some value of x in (a, 6).
=
Similarly there is a value of x for which f(x) I.

Theorem. Suppose that f(x) is continuous in the closed


and has a derivative f (x) for every x such that a<x<b.
and f(b) = 0, then f'(x)=Q for at least one value of x between

24. Rolle's
interval (a, b)

If /(a)

a and 6.**
This theorem is of the greatest importance. A strict proof (as given on
the next page) depends on the rather difficult considerations of the last
article, but from the graphical point of view its truth is obvious.

Let the curve y=f(x) cut the x-axis at A, B. Suppose that it is conA to B, and that at every point it has a definite and finite
gradient. The theorem asserts that there is at least one point on the curve

tinuous from

between

and

B where the tangent is parallel to the x-axis.

FIG. 56.

FIG. 57.

= l -x$. Here f'(x)= -GO at


j/
not zero for any value of x between - 1 and + 1.

Fig. 57 represents the curve

f'(x)

is

* This
proof

is

and

taken from

** If
f'(x) exists for a<a;<&,/t)
sarily in the closed interval.

must be continuous

in the

open interval

(a, &),

but not neces-

MEAN-VALUE THEOREM

288

Because f(x) is continuous in (a, b), it is bounded in (a, b) and


attains at least once its upper bound h and its lower bound /.
Either (i)/(z)=0 for all values of x in (a, 6), in which case /'(z) =
Proof.

for every

or

some values

(ii)

of f(x) are positive or negative.

positive and unequal to /(a) or /(&).


Moreover, f'(h)=*Q, for otherwise there would be values of x in the neighbourhood of h for which f(x)>h, which is impossible.
If positive values of f(x) exist,

is

there are negative values of f(x), then I is negative, unequal to /(a)


or /(6) and /'(Z)=0. For if f'(l)^Q, there would be values of x near I
If

impossible. This proves the theorem.


simpler proof, for the case in which f(x) is a polynomial, is given in

which

for which f(x)<l,

is

the next chapter.

25.

The Mean-Value Theorem.

and f'(x)
where

exists for

is

a<#<6,

-f(a)

= (b-a)f (),

some number between a and


Let

Proof.

<f>

then

(x)

=/(&) -f(x)

<f,'(x)

is

Iff(x)

continuous for

a<x<6

then
........................... (A)

b.

--

= -f(x)

-/(a)},

{/(&) -/(a)}.

Also ^(a) =
and <f>(b)=Q, hence by Rollers theorem <f>'(x) = Q for some
value f of x between a and 6, which proves the result in question.

Let A, B be the points on


Geometrically.
the curve y~f(x) where x = a,b respectively.
The theorem asserts that there is a point C on
the curve between

and

B where the

If P(x, y)
parallel to AB.
the curve, and the ordinate
is

NP

duced) meets

AB in

Q,

it is

tangent

any point on

is

easily

(or

NP

pro-

shown that
Fia. 58.

Corollary.
(i)
(ii)

//,

throughout any given interval,

f'(x) is always positive, then f(x) increases with


if f'(x)

is

(ill)

if

(x)

All this follows

two values
NOTE.

of

always negative, f(x) decreases as x increases

is

always

zero, then f(x)

from equation

x in the

(A),

is

where

it is

supposed that

interval.

It has not been

assumed that /' (x)

is

constant throughout the interval.

continuous.

a, b are

any

AREA UNDER A GRAPH


26.

a given function of x, and that


Such a function is
</>'(x)~f(x).

Suppose that f(x)


we try to find a function ^>(x) such that
called

If

and

ntegration

an

and

<f>(x)

t/j(x)

differ

Hence

if

(x) are

denoted by \f(x) dx.

is

that

<f>'(x)

any value

of

(iii),

<}>(x)

is

(f>(x)

-i/f(z)

=a

+ C.

Thus

equations which
Ex.

NOTE.

mean

^
dx

Since

xn

denoted by

Integration

Ex.

2.

//

n>0,

+ 1)

j-</>(x) =/(#),

and

<f>

(x)

f(x) dx

+ C,

are

two

the same thing.

^^

(
v

n+

)
'

x n , therefore (x n dx -

...

dx

is

*-

n+1

+ C.

to bo regarded as denoting the operation of integra-

These are inverse operations.

denotes that of differentiation.


'

where

<f>(x)

-j-

then

/(x)rfx, the general value

The symbol

tion, just as

= $'(x),

constant C.

/i

f(x) dx

\l(n

and

by a constant.

r
is

or),

any two functions such

Art. 25, Cor.

by

therefore,

iff

is

integral of f(x) (with regard to

289

PN

can be applied to find the area of a curve as in the next example.


ordinate of

is the

prove that the area

any point P(x

ONP

of the rectangle contained by

y)

on

bounded by ON,

the curve represented

NP

and

the arc

OP

by

y~kxn

is

equal to

ON, NP.

FIG. 59.

Denote the area by S and let #, y be the coordinates of P. Let Sy, 8/9 be the increments in y, S corresponding to the increment ox in x. If Q is the point (x -f oxt y + Sy)
and QM its ordinate, then rect. PM<oS<Tect. QN, i.e.
O

therefore

y<

JO

Of

< y + Sy

!f
y rfa: =

Now S=Q when

a;

and

since Sy -> 0,

.*.

y=

11 "1" 1

A:a;

<fo:

/b:
= --

-j-

(7,

^0 and 5=

where

is

a constant.

TAYLOR'S SERIES

290
27. Taylor's
Theorem.
is

If f(x)

tives f'(x),

Theorem,

known

also

as the General

the first

values of x between a and

b,

continuous in the closed interval

f"(x) .../

(n)

(x) exist

for

all

=/() + (6 - a)f () + -(&-

f(b)

/" (a) +

i^

some number between a and


is

then

"

|>*-1

The proof

deriva-

2
)

f/

is

and

(a, b)

where

Mean Value

b.

similar to that of Art. 25.

Let

and
then

F' (x)

and

f (x)=

Now

= -

(b

- x)"-

= Q and

^(6)^=0, therefore by Rolle's theorem


for some value ^ of x between a and 6, hence

which

<f>(a)

is

Let b

</>'(#)

equivalent to equation (A).

= a + h,

then equation (A)

may

be written

..+

...(B)
/^

where

J2 B

pA /<

w
>(a

+ 0A)

and

i.

0<0<1.

For any number between a and a-h/* may be written in the form
a + Oh where 0<0<1. In general, the value of depends on n.
Taylor's Series.

(a-c, a + c),

and

Suppose that f(x) is continuous in the closed


n derivatives f'(x), /"(#), .../(n) (^)

the

a/wi /Aa<
|

h |<c.

Then equation

(B) holds.

interval

FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Rn =

Further suppose that

-.-

h"f

w (a

-f

n-> oo

as

9h)->Q

291
then

vL
"

For

sn

if

is

the

sum

/(a + h)

The
:he

to

n terms

...to*>.

of the series,

s n = 7? n ->

so that

When

V(0) +

Rn

A) .

-4-

is

Lagrange's form of

equation (A) becomes

0,

AT

s n ->f(a

and

series in (C) is called Taylor's Series

remainder after n terms.

...(C)

(0)

...to

................

(D)

11
This expansion

is

known

as Maclaurin's Series.

THE COMPLEX VARIABLE

The Quantity

28.

x-f ty, which we denote by

z, is

called the

com-

Here x and y are real variables, independent of one


variable.
oo to +00.
another and each capable of assuming any values from
As z passes from a value z to a value z v we suppose the variation to be
plex

By this we mean that the point z is to move along a continuous


curve from the point z to the point z v
Thus the variation of z is continuous if the variations of x and y are
continuous.
continuous.

29. Function of a

and

Complex Variable

are functions of x

and

y,

z.

If

we say that Z

is

Z=X+

iY, where
a complex function

of the real variables x and y.


If z is known, so also are x and y. Consequently X, Y and Z are known.
Hence it would be perfectly reasonable to call Z a function of z.

But

it is

usual to restrict the meaning of the term

'

function of z

'

as

follows.

We

use the equation Z=f(z)

to indicate that

is the result

operations performed on z, the variables x and y not occurring


we say that Z is a function of z.

Thus 2x -f 3iy

is

a function of z in the

first sense,

of definite

explicitly,

but not in the

and

restric-

ted sense.

For

if.

terms of

z is

known, so

z alone, i.e.

It follows that

is

2x + 3iy

but 2x

-t-

3iy cannot be expressed in

without the explicit use of x or

y.

if

one series of operations determines

X and Y in terms of x and y.

CONTINUITY OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

292

30. Definitions relating to Limits


(1)

way

and Continuity.

To say that z tends to zero (z->0) is to say that z varies in such a


that z
becomes and remains less than any positive c we may
|

choose, however small.

Thus, after a certain stage, the point z (on an Argand diagram) is within
which may be as small as we like.
with centre
and radius

circle

To say that z tends to a (z->a), where a is a fixed number, is to say


that 2-a->0. After a certain stage, the point z is within a circle with
centre a and radius c, which may be as small as we like.
(2)

We

say that /(z) tends to a limit I as z tends to a if, for any posithat we may choose, however small, 77 can be found so that

tive

/(z)

-1
1

<

provided only that

e,

-a

<

rj.

In other words, as z approaches a by any path whatever the distance


from the fixed point I becomes and remains less than

of the point f(z)

any length e that we may choose, however small.


= z or at (the point)
(3) The function /(z) is continuous for z
e
that
we
however
choose,
small, we can find 77
may
any positive
z -z
provided only that
f( z ) ~f( z o) <
<^.
I

>

if

for

so that

the same as saying that as z tends to z along any path whatever, /(z) tends to /(z ) as a limit.
It is assumed that /(z) has a definite value at every point in the

This

is

neighbourhood of the point

The function

if it is continuous
/(z) is continuous in a region
of
the region.
at every point
Hence if z describes a continuous curve in the region of continuity of
the function /(z), the point /(z) will also describe a continuous curve.

(4)

31. Continuity of Rational Functions of z. All that has been


and 3, with regard to the real variable, holds for the complex

said in Arts. 2

In particular

variable.
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

lim (o

z-o

+ az + a^

-f

. . .

+ a wzn ) = a

A polynomial in z is continuous for all values

of

values of z except for

rational function of z

those which

make

is

continuous for

the denominator zero.

all

z.

EXPANSIONS IN SERIES

293

EXERCISE X3TTX
1.

Prove that

(i)
(ii)

(iii)

x-x always decreases with x.


tan x-x increases with x in the intervals

sin

(-lU,

ITT),....

(71-,

|TT),

decreases as x increases from

to

TT.

2
3
2
1
2. If a, ax + b, ax + 2bx + c, ax + 3bx + 3cx + d and ax + 4bx* + bcx* + 4<fo 4- e
are denoted by w , u l9 u 2 U B respectively, show that, if C7 = w 2^s -3u u l u 2 + 2u l 9 9
,

F=^o w 4~4ii 1 w 3 + 3% 2 then

=0

-7-

ax

and

ax

=0, so that

and F are indepen-

dent of a;.
3.

/
-l-

cos,

If

re 2

and
dun

dvn

^=- -

xi_ x
prove that

^=

Hence show that un and vn are

'

positive or negative according as

is

odd or

even.
[If

#=0, then wn =0 and


dui
-7

Now

= ~v >0,

.*.

= 0;

vn

is

also

= cos x- 1<0,

an increasing function,

= sin x - x < 0.

%>0;

.*.

rfv

and

^-=w

and so
4.

>0,

/.

Prove that for


(l)

(ii)

[(i)

Let

3, for

all

an increasing function,

t;

2 ),

(w a v3 ),
,

sina;

/.x

... .]

y*

3
X*
= x- X + -

QO;

to oo

r^

be the rth term of the series arid sr the


x, s zn

x as

< cos x < s 2n+l and s

r -> oo

+i

- s zn

sum

tzn+i

to r terms.
~>
as ?i ->- oo

Then by
.

There-

.]

sin (x

rv
=sm x + hT
+ h)
-

cos

W- sin x - & cos x


r^
o

2i

(ii)

= cos - A sin a: - h

cos (# -f- h)

a;

2
-

cos x

2i

6.

^!>0;

Use Taylor's theorem to prove that


(i)

[(i)

/.

values of x

COSX = l-+r-... tO

every

fore sr -* cos
5.

is

on, in succession for (u 2 ,

X2

Ex.

vx

If f(x) = sin x,

|^n

|<-|^n |->0as

+ ...

a; -f- ...

h3
sin

n-*oo.]

Deduce the expansions of sin 2 and cos x

in

Ex. 4 from Taylor's theorem.

CASES OF BINOMIAL

294
7.

Prove, by means of Art. 22, Ex.

tan" 1

;*;

=# -

x--5 -f

x'

Sr =x-~ + ~-...+(-l) r ~i

{Let

/(0)=0, and/

(x)

0<a:^l, then

that, if

1,

x*

THEOREM

tooo.

4-

^,

and

/(s^tan- 1 *-^;

JLf

= l/(l-fa: 2 )-(l-x 2 4-a:*~...4-(-l) r-1 x 2r ~ 2

so that

which is positive or negative according as r is even or odd.


Hence, tan~*aj lies between Sr and Sr+1 and 8r - Sr+l
so long as x is positive and not greater than unity.]
,

8. If f(x) is

a function whose

first

=
[Proceed as in Ex.
9. If

derivative

show

is I/a;,

then

as r ->

-> 0,

that, if

oo

0<a?< 1,

x3

x2

x-j + ---...

to QO.

7.]

0<0<7r/6, prove that tan

+ i0 3 and

between

6 lies

+ f0 8

= + a03 -tan

show that /(O), /'(O),


;
[For the second
/"(O), are all zero, and that /'"(0)^0 throughout the interval 0<0^7r/6 if
9a>8 hence, in succession, / // (0),/ (0),/(0), are all positive.]
inequality, let /(0)
/

The Binomial Theorem


a positive integer, show that the expansion of (a+h) n by the
Binomial theorem is given by Taylor's series.
10. If

11. If

is

is

any

rational

number and -

n(n-l)^ z 2
+
^

...+

-- -

<x< 1,

(i)

show that

n(n-l) ...(n-r + 2) x^T-*


'

-.

-,

IT

where
(ii)

If

0<a:< 1, prove

that

J r

->0 as

r -> QO

so that in this case


...

[For r>n, (l+0x)


(iii)

If

n - r <l

and

"'

to oo ...................... (A)

xr ->0 as r~>oo.]

<#<(), explain why we are unable to say that


+ Ox) n ~r > 1 for r>n, and so far as we can tell,
1

ftr

-+Q.

Rr may not tend to


the expansion (A) in this case, another form (named after
Cauchy) of the remainder after n terms of Taylor's series must be used. See any
treatise on the Calculus.']
[Here

zero.

To deduce
4

CHAPTER XVIII
THEORY OF EQUATIONS

(2), POLYNOMIALS
RATIONAL FRACTIONS (1)

Multiple Roots.

1.
is

a polynomial, then

(x

For /(#) = (#- a) r

<f>(x)

one real root of

Let

Proof.

If<x,isanr-multiplerootoff(x) = Q, where f(x)


r~ l
is a common factor off(x) andf'(x).
<x.)

Theorem

2. Rolle's
at least

a,

j8

where

<f>(x)

is

a polynomial and

for Polynomials.

f (x) =

lies

// f(x) is a polynomial,
between any two real roots of f(x) = 0.

be consecutive real roots of f(x) = 0, so that

f(x)=(x-*r(x-p).<i>(x)
integers, and <f>(x) is not

where m, n are positive

Then

#-/?.

(2),

is

<f>(x)

divisible

of invariable sign for oc^a^jS

by x-at or

and

/'() = (x a)
where

Now

0(a)

= m(a-j8)<(a) and

Therefore 0(a) and 0(jS) have unlike signs


where continuous.

Hence

and consequently /' (x)

\fj(x)

between a and

3.
(

1)

is

moreover,

ift(x)

is

every-

equal to zero for some value of x

/?.

Deductions from Rolle's Theorem.

=
// all the roots of f(x)

are real, so also are those of

f (x) = 0,

and

the

roots of the latter equation separate those of the former.

For if f(x)

is

of degree n, /' (x) is of degree n-1, and a root of /'(x)


n - 1 intervals between the n roots of f(x) = 0.

exists in each of the


(2)

//

all the roots

f" (x) = 0,

=
f'" (x) 0,

of f(x)
. . .

and

those of the preceding equation.

This follows from

(1).

are real, so also are those of /'(x)=0,

the roots of

any one of these equations separate

DEDUCTIONS FROM ROLLE'S THEOREM

296

Not more than one

(3)

(ii)

be the real roots of

j8x , /J 2 , ... ]8 r

a x =a 2 then a x
,

If 0^:56 a 2 ,

Hence

by
if

(i)

if
(ii)

(iii) if

or

jS1

= 0, any

/'(o;)

<j8 2 <...<j3 r

Let

of which
o^,

may

a2 be

real

=
f(x) 0.

roots of

roots

off (x) = 0,

be greater than the greatest of them.

be multiple roots, and suppose that


If

can

be less than the least of these, or

(iii)

let

between two consecutive roots

(i) lie

For

root of f(x)

j8 r

is

one of the set

j8 1? j3 2 ,

(Art. 1.)

j8 r .

between o^ and a2
cannot be consecutive

Rollers theorem, a root of f'(x) lies

<a1 <a2 <jS2

j31

a 1 <a 2 <j31

<a1 <a2

then

then

/J 2

cannot be the least root of f'(x)=Q


cannot be the greatest.

then

and

j8 x

j8 r

Thus, not more than one root of f(x)

can

in any one of the open

lie

intervals

(4)

// /'(x)

Aas r razZ roote, <Aen

f(x)=0 cannot have more than

+1

has no multiple roots, none of the roots of f'(x) =


is a root
of /(x)=0, and the theorem follows from (3).
If f(x) =
has an in-multiple root, we regard this as the limiting case
in

If /(#)

=0

which

(5)

If

(r

is

\x)

It follows

from

(4)

=
f(x)
that

true in

is

and

all cases.

(r)

the equation / (#)=0 has


as many.
has at least as many imaginary roots

derivative of f(x)

any

roots, then

imaginary

Thus the theorem

roots tend to equality.

has at

/(#)=0

least

as/'(z)=0.
(6) If all

number of

the real roots


real roots of

...

j8j, j8 2 ,

f(x)=Q by

Ex.

and
1.

have opposite

/(/J 2 )

Find

the character of the roots'of

*
/(*)

and /(#)=0 has a

real root

f(x)

same

-1

1,

j3 x

and

/? 2 ,

faw a4

2.

a // 6

tecw*

oc<

0,

are

one between

(uw imaginary

For

and the equation

then the equation


roots.

1, 1, 2.

00

+
+
-1 and

oa; -f-26a;

= (a,

6, c,

See Ch. VI, 11, Ex.

/(->(*) = ?i(tt-l)
2

f(x)

...3.(a

according as

sign.

and two imaginary

1,

roots.

Ex.

....

= 3a;4 - &E3 - 6* 2 + 24x + 7 = 0.

roots of /'(*)-=

-00

<-

between

lies

signs, or the

Here f'(x) = 12(x*-l)(x-2). The

find the

considering the signs of /(&), /(/J2 ),

single root of /(x)=0, or no root,

f(Pi)

f'(x)=Q are known, we can

of

3i

-f26

+ c =0 has two imaginary

. . .

1.

+ c)
roots.

k $ #,

w
)

NEWTON'S THEOREM

Sums

Powers
Newton's Theorem.
4.

Let a,

j3,

of

let s r ==a r

+ j8r -h... + K T

n ~l

(r

+pzxn

= 0,

-2

...

1, 2, ...),

+p

(fi)

*r

+Pi*r-i+Px*r-*+- +Pn*r-n=<>

(i)

sr _ 1

We

..................... (A)

= n,

have identically f(x)

- (a? - a) (x - j8) ... (x - /c),

and, assuming the rule for differentiating a product (Ex.

(B)

2, p. 277),

synthetic division,
2
- a) = xn ~ l +
Atf"- -f

f(x) / (x

where the

coefficients are given

by

A2=a?+p <x+p 2 ^ 3 =a -hjo 1 a2 -hjo2 a-f j 3


and finally, -4 n _ 1 =a n 1 +j9 1 an 2 -f ... +y n -v
3

=<x,+p v

in succession

other quotients in (C) are expressed in a similar way,

If the

Q l - s l + np v

and so on

and

Q<z

- ^ 2 -f p^ L -f np2

Q n ^ - * n-1 -f jvn _ 2 -f

Now f'(x)nxn ~ + (w-l)p


l

comparing

this

with (D),

-*

"-*

-*

'

xn

*~ 2

^ - (n -

on,

it will

be

. . .

+ ...+Q n

................. (D)

Q3 = s3 + p^ 2 + p^ -f np3

+ ;v-2*i + w ^n- 1-

-h(n-2)^2x
1

and so

~"

~*

seen that

where

.........

x~

x-oc

By

then

+p2 s r _ 2 + ...+slpr _ l +rp

sr

+;p n =0,

so that $

(i)

Proof,

Equation

be the roots of

... AC

f(x)^x +p lx
and

Roots of an

the

of

297

n -3

4-...

+|> w _!

^^ Q 2 - (w - 2)^2

. . .

and

Q n =p n - V

Therefore

(ii)

+ --+^--

)Pn-l

Let r^zn, then multiplying each side of /(a)


"- 1

a r -h fta 7

+ p 2 a *- 2 -f
7

. . .

-f-

r-w =
0,
^ a
rt

and similar equations hold for each root.


Hence the second result follows by addition.

(E)
r
by a

~n

we have

ORDER AND WEIGHT

298
Ex.

an

For equation (A) of

1.

the last article, find the value of

even number, in terms of S Q s l9


,

If q, c 2 ,

(a

r
x)

In this equation, substitute

= a - qxa
r

a,

/?,

...

y,

in the expansion of (1 4-x) r ,

...

7"' 1

+ C 2z V~ ~...+x
2

is

then

r
.

K in succession for x and add, therefore,

Similar equations can be deduced from the expansions of (/3-#) r ,

(y~ z)

r
>

etc.

we have

hence, by addition,

5.

where r

....

s.2

are the coefficients of x, x 2 ,

...

27(a-/?)

Order and Weight of Symmetric Functions.

Leta,

/J,

...

be the roots of
xln

+p

xn

-l

+p&n -*+...+p n = Q ...................... (A)

Consider any function of the coefficients

for example, let

Let ^ be expressed in terms of the roots by means of the equalities

Consider Jfo highest power of any root a which occurs in


u, and denote it by a*.

Each of p 19 p 2 ... involves a to the first degree


from the highest term Pi 2p% and /row. /i/s alowc
,

degree of this term, namely

The

order of a

this expression for

5
only, therefore a arises
also the index s is the

3.

symmetric function of the roots of an equation

is

defined

as the index of the highest power of any root which occurs in the function.
Thus the order of 27a 3/8 is 3, and that of Za/3y is 1.

From what
function of

the coefficients

If u

is

has been said

it

will

be clear that

the roots is the degree of the

p l9 p^

...

pn

a symmetric function of order


atfv

+ al

xn l

of the roots of

+ ...+a n = Q,

then a Q u is a homogeneous function of # a l9 a 2


For if the equation is written in the form (A), u
,

which the highest term

The
in a,

is

of degree s

and Pi =

........................... (B)
...

is

of degree s.
a function ofp l9

i/a

>

weight of a symmetric function (u) of the roots a,


|8,

...

Thus the weight of Za3/?

a symmetric

in

the order of

function ivhen expressed in terms of

is 4,

and that of ZajSy

is 3.

?2 ==a 2/ a o
j8,

...

is its

j> 2 ,

e^ c

...

degree

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Theorem.

// a symmetric function

expressed in terms of the coefficients


term,

when

299

(u) of the roots of equation (A) is

pv pz

sum

the

...

of the suffixes of every

written at full length,* is equal to the weight (w) of u.

Denote any term in u by Pi hp 2 kp^


and in equation (A) write
n
1
n
The equation becomes y -f A^y"" + A2j92 y n ~ 2 44- A p n ... 0,
1

Proof.

x = yl A.

. . .

and the roots of


If then
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

this are

Aa,

we multiply every

to multiply

A/3, Ay, ....

root by

\w

u by

the effect of this

is

to multiply piSpz, p^

to multiply

A,

pfp^pz

by
...

A2 A 3

A,

...

respectively;

by

which proves the theorem.


down the literal part of Za 2/? 2 expressed as a function of the coefficients.
of
2 and weight 4. The only terms of weight 4 are such as contain
order
p
2
z
The first two of these are of too high an order.
Pi*> Pi Pz> PiPv Pz Pv
Ex.

oc

1.

Write

is

>

2 2
2
Thus we have
27a j8 = ap\p$ 4- bp 2 -f cp^,
where a, 6, c are independent of p lt p 2 p 3
.

6. Partial

Derivatives.

Suppose that u=f(x,

y, z, ...)

is

a func-

tion of the independent variables x,y,z, ...


The operation of differentiatu
with
on
to
the
x alone varies, is denoted
that
x,
ing
respect
supposition
.

by the symbol OX
^~
respect to x.

and ^~
CfX

called the first partial derivative of

is

u with

-.

Sometimes the ordinary symbol -p

the context implying that the differentiation

_
2

d u
___

used in the same sense,

is partial.

_3 fdu\
_
.

dxdy

is

We

also write

d*u

dy\dx/

with similar notation for higher derivatives.

For example,

if

u = xm y n

j.nereiore

(xx)

^ ^
ox oy

oy ox

It follows that equation (A) holds

when u

Thus the term

2>i j> 2

is

is

a polynomial in

x, y.

written PiPiPzPzPzB.C.A.

TAYLOR'S THEOREM

300
It is

proved in books on the

represented by (A) holds

'

when

'

that the commutative property


the functions in question are continuous.
Calculus

A strict proof is difficult, and here we are only concerned with polynomials.
Again,

we

often regard

h^ + k-^-

as

an operator, and we write

du
da ( d
9 \
7
7
^
h-~-+k-=- = (h-r-+k-^-}u = Du,
ox
oyj
oy \ ox

^^=^^^--5-^

dx

if

h k are constants
y

a result which

dx 2

dyJ

dxdyj

we may

dxdy

express as follows

u.

dxdy
The value of

D n u can be written down in the same way

by the Binomial

theorem.

7.

Taylor's

Theorem

nomial of degree n in

for Polynomials.

//IN

-r^r

av

...

a n are independent of

A,

+ TT. a n

'

\^

and

if

X=x+h

Hence, by successive differentiation with regard to

f (x + h) = aj + ha

The

result follows

by putting h =

+ :-- a3 +

(A)

we may assume that

[L

a poly

...+~fM(x)
n

This follows from Ch. XVII, or thus

f(x + h) a + hdi +
where a

is

x, then

~
f(x + h)=f(x) + hf'(x) +
f"(x) +
&
Proof.

// f(x)

(1)

. . .

h"-

h,

1
-

-^

we h&ve

an

in these equations

for

we

find that

EULER'S THEOREM
If u z=f(x, y)

(2)

is

a polynomial of degree n in
1

f(x -f A, y + k)

For we

where a

may assume

301
x, y, then

_+*-Dn u

u + Di

that

... are
independent of A, k.
=
k
A
we have a = u', and differentiating
0,
Putting
with regard to h and r times with regard to k, we find that
,

^T) /(# + A, y +

Then,

if

X = x + A, Y = y
m -r

( d

-f

yfc,

k)=pr + terms

m-r

times

A,

(D)

equal to

is

\r

and putting A = 0, A; = 0, we have


which proves the theorem.
// u?Ef(x,

involving

the left-hand side of (D)

=
\SV/ /(^ ^) /tn-r,r(^

^3T/

(3)

y, 2, ...) is

^)> sa 7 ^ e fm~r
-

^ r =/m _ r

(x, y)

=^

a polynomial of degree n in

v^

x, y, z,

ZAen

...

(E)

n
where

D denotes the operator

The proof

is

8. Euler's
x,

B )*

dx
and, in general,

+ l~- +

...

oz

similar to the above, using the Multinomial theorem.

Theorem.

y and of degree
-~-

h -- + k^ox
oy

Let

(1)

be a polynomial

homogeneous in

n, then

J ^~

dy

=,

^9
dx 2

^^-

dxdy

+ y-^-) w = n(n-l)(n~2),..(n-r=f
(x^
\
ox
oy/

Proof.

Let u=f(x,

y),

then by Taylor's theorem,

f(x + \K,y + Xy)

du

---

>

and

since

is

homogeneous and

of degree

6.

........................... (B)

The coefficients of the powers of A in the expressions on the


(A) and (B) must be equal, whence the results follow,
end of Art.

in x, y,

/(x + As,y+Ay) = (l + A)t

* See

/AX
(

right of

PARTIAL FRACTIONS

302
// u=f(x,

(2)

a polynomial homogeneous in

is

y, z, ...)

x, y, z,

...

and

of degree n, then

du
du
dn
z *x a" +y~*-+
y
oz
ox
dy

D u = n(n-l)(n-2)
r

wAere

D r tfawdx for
J

(x
\

^dx

4-

y
J

^~
dy

9. Partial Fractions.

. .

...

Let

in

form.
J
expanded
r

its

in equation (E) of Art. 7, the proof

is

be a rational proper fraction


// x a is a non-repeated

f(x)l(f>(x)

let

x-a

the fraction corresponding to

<f>(x),

(f)'(a)

<f>(x)
rv

= (x-a)^(x)
/r

'x-a

and

is

x-a

^>(x)

From

l)w,

to be expressed in partial fractions.

is

factor of

For

4-

(n-r +

...

dz

=
Putting h = Xx, k Xy, /-Az,
similar to the preceding.

which

2 -5-

4-

+-^nu>

4-

the second equation


f(x)

and (rom* the

first,

by

= At(x) + (x

differentiation,

Putting x = a and observing that 0(a)^0, we have

and

f(a)=Aif>(a)
Ex.

and
If

1.

^(a)=0(a),

therefore

A=f(a)/<l>'(a).

m - 1 /(x n ~l) in partial fractions, where m, n are positive integers


Express x

m^n.
x-a is any

factor of x n

xn ~

The imaginary roots of xn


cos

according as

Let

1,

then a n

na n ~ l

= 1 and

x-a

x-a'

are

sin^-^ where r = l,

2,

...

i(w-l)
*

or ^(n-2),

odd or even.

is

a = cos

and denote the sum of the

sin

then a" 1

= cos

fractions corresponding to x - a

sin

and x - a"

the preceding,

wr = -

# cos rmoL

/.

a;

r
2

tr
- 2a:

cos

r(m - l)a
where a =
+1
,

cos ra

2?r
*

by u r then by
,

SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF ROOTS


Hence, according as n
1

x-l

r-*i

Theorem.

10.
7/a,

...

j8,

are

is odd, or even,

+r =J(n-

m -l

l(x

n-

equal to

is

1)

303

1..J .(zl)
n
x-l

'

r'

!.
a;

4-1

1--K-V
T

r--i

The following theorem is often useful.


n
w==(a a p ... a n $#, l) =0 awd

roote of

f/te

t;s^(a ,a 1 ,...a n )
is

a symmetric function 0/a,

...

j3,

involving only differences of the roots,

then v satisfies the equation


'

dv

dv

dv

For the substitution x = X + h transforms w =

A l = a l + a^i J 2 = a 2 + 2a

where
are

a -A, ]8-

A,

...

A-f a A 2

etc.,

into

and

since the roots of [7

we have

v = (f)(a^

a l9

= (f>(a^ A^

an )

...

... ^[

n ) ................... (B)

If the right-hand side of (B) is expanded in powers of A, every coefficient


must vanish, and by the extension of Taylor's theorem the coefficient of h
is the same as that in

dv

dv

dv

a Qh

2
2
^- + (2a x A -f a Qh ^~ + (3aji + 3a x A + ajh?) ^
)

dv

.'.

^or

J&x. 1.

dv

. . .

dv

a,Q^~ + 2a l ^~ + 3a 2 ^ +...=0.
^a x
ca 3
aa2

biquadratic (a

a lf a 2 a 3 a$x,
,

1)

~0, find in terms of

the coefficients

the value of

This function

where p
of

a,

j8,

q, r

. . .

is

of order 3 and weight

are independent of a

a lt

...

3.

We may
And

therefore

since v

is

assume that

a function of the differences

we have
l
l5

+ 3a 2^

+ 4a 83 ^

4
2

This

is

true for

all

values of a

a 1$ a 2 therefore
,

= 0,

giving

q-~3p,

r-2p;

The value of 3? may be found by giving special values to a,


y, 8. Thus by taking
= 1, y=-l, 8=4, we find that ^=32, which agrees with Ex. 3 of VI, 16.
,

<x=0,

APPLICATIONS OF ROLLE'S THEOREM

304

EXERCISE XXX
1.

Prove
ating

The equation f(x)==x* + 3qx + r=:0 has two equal


this (i) by applying the II.C.F. process to f(x) and
x between /(#)
and f'(x)=0.

The condition that the equation

2.

equal roots

Show

that this

may

Find the values of a


and solve the equation in one

bx 2

and

by

elimin-

may have two

+ 2cx + d~Q.

which ax3 -9x 2 -f I2x -5 =

for

the

5. All
are real.
.

roots

Ii

!_?

[Use Ex. VII,

Show

if

of

roots

has equal roots,

case.

~
The equation xn -qxn m + r=Q has two equal

14.]

that the equation x 3 - Ix + 7

and one between - 3


7. If

(ii)

be obtained by eliminating x from

3.

6.

+ 3bx* + 3cx + d =

if
;

is

ax 2 + 2bx + c=Q

4.

ax*

roots
f'(x)

has two roots between

and 2

- 4.

arid

~
~
the equation x n +p 1 x n l +p 2 x n 2
show that a is a root of
n~2 + n _
n txn-i + n _

+ ... +p n ~0 has

each

three roots,

equal to a,

n ~*

-f ... +Pn -i =0.


p 2X
2
equation x -4a^-hlOx + 7a;-5-0 has one
(

l)*p lX

2)

8. Show that the


negative and two imaginary roots.
1

9.

The equation 3x 4 + Sx3 - 6# 2 - 24x 4- r =


7 13<r<

has four real roots

positive,

one

if

-8,

real roots if - 8<r< 19, and no real root


[The roots of f'(x)=Q are -2, - 1, 1.]

two

if

r> 19.

The equation f(x)=(x - a) 3 + (x - 6) 3 + (x - c) 3 -0


has one real and two imaginary roots.
10.

11.

The equation x 6 -5a# + 4&=:0 has

three real roots or only one, according

as
12. The equation x 5 + 5o
(i) if a>0 ; (ii)
ing cases
:

+b

if

a<0

has one and only one real root in the followand 6 2 -f 108a 5 >0.

13. The equation x 6 + 5ax 2 + b


has one and only one real root in the
following cases
(i) if a, b have the same sign
(ii) if a, b have opposite
5
signs and b(b* + 108a )>0.
[Deduce from Ex. 12 by putting I/a? for a?.]
:

14.

Show

and that

that

if

36 2 <a 2 there are real values of #, y, z which satisfy

a>0

these values are all positive if


and a <46 .
2
[x 9 y, z are the roots of an equation of the form 0*-a8* + b +
2
2 3
this
reduces
to one of the form
+<(6 Ja ) + fc'=0.]
B=<f> + a/3,
2

<

#=0

and

if

FUNCTIONS OF ROOTS OF EQUATIONS


15. If

A2

Aj,,

A 3 are the values of A given by the equation

jc*^ +

^A
prove that these are

all real

order, then

y
&2

z2

^+

^A ^-A~

also, if

6,

'

and A lf A 2 A 3 are

...

a-n-i

x n- 2

ZV^O

show that

+ "- +_____

for

_i

'

h*~~

|2

|j.

= 2,

3, 4,

...

n.

17. If f(x)~0 is a cubic equation whose roots are


harmonic mean of the roots of /'(a?) ~0, prove that a 2

The sum

19. If s n

a,

the

is

sum

and a

y,

/?,

is

the

/?y.

of the ninth powers of the roots of # 3 -|~3#4 9

of the nth powers of the roots of

that

x-

is
4

-x

zero.
1

-~0,

show

H7r
s 2 tt-i^0,

a,

/?,

...

equation whose

m and n

according as n

is

* 2n -=-4cos

-.
3

are the roots of (a a l9 a 29 ... n ^/, l) w ---0,


are ay-x, py-~x etc., is (a u l9 u 2
,

roots

where ^^a^x-^a^,
21. If

descending

are the roots of the equation


'vn j______ _________i_

20. If

in

a 2 > A x > 6 2 > A2 > c2 > A3

16. If a, 0, y,

18.

305

U.2 ~~a

x 2 + 2a 1 xy + a 2 y*,

are positive integers

odd

or even,

and

show that the


un $t, l) n ^0,

...

etc.

m^n,

prove that

where

__-to

#cos(2r-f l)wa-cos
_
__ ___
// ~ _ ___
"
r
j

rc*

22. Let k be given

^^

__

cos (2r

(2
\_

by the equation
A
J'^ a-fc
^
6 -

f7

If this equation has a rejx?ated root

^, prove that

k^a-gh/f^b- hf/g - c -fg/h,


provided that none of
another (h), and then

/,

&!

g,

is

zero.

= a and

(a

If one of these (g)

-b)(a- c)

is

zero, so also is

2
.

Under these circumstances, show that


ax 2 + by 2 + C2 2 + 2/yz + 2gzx + 2hxy - k t (x 2 + y* + z 2 )
a perfect square.
[Denoting the cofactors of the elements of J' by A' 9 F', etc., the equations
are qiiadratics in ^, and the roots of any one of them
A' =0, B' 0, C" =
Hence if k~kn then A\ B', C' and consequently
separate those of J' 0.
See Ch. IX, 21, (4).]
F', G', H' are all zero.
is

CHAPTER XIX
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS AND SERIFS
Continuity of a* and log a

1.

tinuous for

all real

XVII,

(Ch.

2.
Ch.

21.)

Exponential

XV,

(1)

The reader

log a x

and Limits.

where

and

(l--}~*-*e.
xj

m is

a positive integer, then

11
+ ~<lf-;
!+<!
m+
m

1,

therefore

If

z->oo

(l

<(

1 -f

1+

/
/

XV,

5, (3),

in -f-1

"

=fl+

<(l +

xj

then m->oo and by Ch.

1\ m

1
A

-7-I1+-

m + lj

'

m+l

1+1)
(\m
m/ .(l+j^

e;

therefore

Next

let

x=y +

l,

then as

x->x

?/->co

and
v

=(i+ii
.fi+h
V
\
y/
yj
It follows that
if

x->x

or

=
lim(l+^)*

and consequently

9.

(Continued

through real values,

m<x<m +

lim

con-

continuous for positive values of

is

Inequalities

(l+-)%c
\
xJ
let

is

reminded that log x stands for log e

is

5.*

As x->oc

For

a>0, the function a x

If

This follows from Ch. XIII,

values of x.

Hence the inverse function

x.

1 -f x)
(

6.

x.

x.

from

EXPONENTIAL THEOREM
If z

(2)

is

any

real

number,
z \x

= ez

lim (14--)
X/
a^oo \

This

is

obviously true

or -

oo

if

= 0.

*Aew

a*_i

hm

is

=
obviously true jf a

Now by

Ch. XVII,

1/2;,

then as

a^l,

If

ax = l+y, then as x->0,

let

5, (2),
1

lim log a

a;

= loga.

------

x-*Q

This

let

In either case, by the preceding,

y/

(3)// a>0,

z^O,

If

according as z.50.

307

(1

+ y)* - log a {lim

y~>o

(1

+ y) y } - loga e = r

a*

lim

ic->0

Aoga

i/->o

therefore

= log a.

Here x may tend to zero through positive or negative values, so that


x
1 - a~
ax 1
and
x
x

--

each of the functions

tends to log a as a limit as #->0.

been shown in Ch. XIV, 9, that the first of these functions


increases and the second decreases as x increases from zero. Hence
It has

.,

if

x>0,

then

l-o-*
---

The Exponential Theorem.

3.

<

<log
For

a*-l

all real

values of x,

xn

'

Proof.

The

series (A) is

function of x which

x, n

we

Convergent for all values of x,

shall denote
2

by E(x).

If

- --

is

where

sum

is

its

a positive integer,

,
n(n~l)/x\ w(n-l)(n-2)/a\
~
=l+n.~
+
+
(1+-)
f-)
\
3
n --Vo2 ^(-)
\n/
\n/
n/

/-

and

+...

ton + 1 terms

IRRATIONALITY OF

308

Now

jo r

<l, and

since

E(x)
are positive

1/n, 2/n, ...(n-l)/n

than unity, for the values

- 1)

2, 3, ..., (n

of r

we

numbers

have, by Ch.

less

XIV,

1,

n
.;

Let

be the

sn

sum

0<l-;p r <r(r + l)/2n.

n terms

to

<voj
^1(2 + ^"
^(x!)

is finite

let
|

x =^x 1
\

2.3

Now

and

of (A),

3 -4

>-D

,.

for all values of

then

i.

TT a!l+ - +

+
,

Xl

g
Xl

^.\
j

x ly therefore

x\

Iim^ n4 1 = lim( 1-f

n '00^

>QO

71

but
W-^OO

This result

is

called the Exponential Theorem.

In particular, when x =
6

we have

11
+
+-+

- ii
1+1+

[2

from which
Ex.

it

can be shown that

|3
e

= 2-7182818284

...

$A#tt> JAaJ e i$ irrational.

1.

Suppose that e=pjq

where p and q are integers

then

where
?

If the equality (A) holds,

account of

4. //

(B).

a>0

Hence

and x

we should have

is

integer,

which

is

impossible on

cannot be a rational number.

is

any

real

a* = e*

that

R y=an

+2

number.
lo 8

= jE(zloga),

........................... (A)

to say
2

3
)

.................. (B)

GRAPH OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

An

6.

When a>0 and x

Irrational Index.

309

is irrational,

we take

ax

~E(x log a) as defining the meaning of a*.


This agrees with what has been said in Ch.SXIII, 9, for it will be shown
later that the sum of the series denoted by E(x) is a continuous function.
the equation

6.
(1)

Derivatives of a, logx and xf.


Suppose that a>0, then by Art. 2, (3),
x

-j-a

r
lim

ah -l

lim a x

ax

In particular,

NOTE.

= a x log a.

x
.

Tx
be observed that,

It should

a<0, ax has not been

if

defined

for all real values of x.

y = logx, then

(2) If

^
therefore

and

dx
-j~

= ev = x

-,-

-=-

is,

dx

=log
G x

has been shown that when n

(3) It

prove that this

is

true for

_d
NOTE.

Since

is

y log a,

all real

d
y,n

dx
it

en log a;

_n
__

if

rational,

en log a?

instance,

the curve

(1) that, for

TN

TN

i.e.

y=ax

until it

at B.

the gradient

OX

the subtangent is constant.

l,

A,/'

mark one of the rulings as the axis of y. On this


take OA, equal to, say, 4 intervals, as the unit;
and on OX, to the left of O, lake Oa OA. Draw

OY

To

on the graph meets

sheet of ruled exercise paper and draw a line perpendicular to the ruling as the axis of x ; and

Aa

--nx n

the tangent at a point

PN is the

xn = nxn ~' 1

= l/log a
ordinate of P, then
This fact gives a rapid construction for the graph of
y=ax , with considerable accuracy.
= ex where
For
for
take a
and

in T,

ax

we proceed thus

_n
_ xn

dx

follows that,

is

values of n,

has -been shown in

it

ay

fy = 1
xi. *
-; that
dx x

dyjdx

x = ev

meets the first ruling to the left of


Without' removing the pencil-point

da

O
FIG. 60.

B9 rotate the ruler until it passes through 6,


the foot of the ruling next to the left of or, and draw bB until it meets the ruling
next to the left of A ; and so on. Find .points on the curve to the right of Y in

fr6m

the same way, and replace the broken line by a


If,

in Fig. 60,

Also,

if

'

fair curve.'

OX and OY are interchanged,

the paper

is

turned through 90 in

its

the curve

is

then the graph

own plane, and then turned

over, the curve as seen through the back of the paper


y = log x, with the axes in the usual position.

is

the graph of

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC LIMITS

310
7.
(1)

For

For

all real

let

f(x)

so that /' (x)

from
(2)

values of x other than zero

= ^-1 -x,

(3)

then

according as x 5:

//

- 1 and ^0,

x>

//

t/

For

x>0,

then

Hence, if x increases or decreases


from zero, and is therefore positive.

0.

x>log

ix2/(l + x)<x-log

-l<x<0, then
let f(x) = x - log

-|x
(1

<x-log

i
-*

if

Hence

0(#)

+x)<s

/(l

+ &).

T2

increases

according as x

= a;~log(l + x)-%-

from -1, and since /(0) = 0,

it

0.

x2
X

1 ~r

then

and

increases as x increases from -1,

<f>(x)

I+x

Hence f(x) decreases as x

Again,

(1

+ x)<-|x2

(1

- |-x 2 then

+ x)

f'(r\
Ji vv**'/'

follows that f(x)

+ x).

(1

by taking logarithms.

(1)

then

e*>l +x.

and /'(z) = e*-l,

/(0)

zero, in either case f(x) increases

This follows from

and

and Limits (continued).

Inequalities

since <(0)

= 0,

it

0.
according as x
<f>(x)
This proves all the inequalities in question.

follows that

(4)

//

x>

greater of the

"2

-'1

^0

and

numbers

and

and

I,

1 -f x,

h are respectively the smaller and the


then

x2

This

(5)

is

merely another

For any

x2

way

of stating the inequalities in (3).

positive value of n*

(i)

lim
a;->oo

(i)

For

all

positive values of

logx
_2__
xn
Choose

m so

that

0<w<w,
x

(ii)

<-

n - w ->ao

we have by Art.
1
_1n x__m -l__ ^ ______
x
mxn ~ m
m

and

(log x)/x

2, (3),

~>0.

and

= ~ (log y)/yn ->0.


log x

lim (x n logx)
x >o

J/->QO

(ii)

then a^ x~>cx)

Put x = l/y, then as x~>0,


xw

-~- =0,
X

= 0.

EULER'S CONSTANT
(6)

For

This

is

all values

of

lim x

r,

obvious when r<0.

/e

= 0.

r>0,

x
let e

If

311

= y,

then, putting -

=n,

'

e*

Now
lence
8.
>e

as
it

x-^oo, y->oo;

and, by
follows that x r /e x -+0.

The Manner

which e and log x tend

any positive number.


First suppose that #-^oo

Now, by
n
;

in

Art. 7,

however great n

xn

(6),

w = ->0, (logy)/yw ->0.

since

(5),

may

then

e x ->oo

Let n

to Infinity.

and logx->oo.

/e -+Q, therefore e* tends

to infinity

faster than

be.

n
Again, by Art. 7, (5), (log x)/x ~>0, therefore Zo<7# tends
n
nore slowly than x
no matter how small n may be.

to infinity

n
If #->0, then -logx->ao., and
by Art. 7, (5), (log x)/x~ ->0; hence
n
log x tends to oo more slowly than l/x , no matter how small n may be.

9.

// M n = l+-g- + J

Theorem.

...H----

logn, then as n->oo

w n->y

Tt'

a fixed number lying between

is

Art. 7, (2),

By

Proof.

n-l

1\

/i

log

1+-

w/

log f

log(n-f

,
,

that

n-

<1

1,

n - 2,

...

2, in

7, (2),

n+1

is,

log

<-w

<log
i

succession for n, we. have

and by addition,

Art.

& \

Substituting

Also

n _l

Again, by

1\

/,
< n <-log& (1-n/

that w n decreases as n increases.

1.

and

it

l)<l+!-h! + ...-f-<l + logn

follows that
;

i.e.,

log (w

But log(w + l)-logw>0, hence 0<w n <l and, from above, u n


Thus u n is a decreasing function which is always >0. Consequently
;

V>y
NOTE.
/

where y

is

a fixed

The number y

0-577215

....

It

is

is

number >0; and,


known

as

since

Euler's Constant.

w w <l, y<l.
It

can be shown tnat

often convenient to state the theorem as follows


,

where

->0 as n-^oo

EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

312

10. Series for log 2.

Let

i_

l_-i

(-n-i!

,,11

.,

then

1 N

= (y + log 2n +
Therefore

2B )

(y + log

the

z2

- log 2 + e2n - en

~s2n --0, hence

s 2n+1 ->log 2.

l+z +

series

r-

+-- +

jE

Proof.

It has

fv hen
T

...

is

is

sufficiently

is

z.

real,

first of

these equalities

and exactly the same proof holds when

z is

complex.

II

+- = 1 +- -M - =p(cos
n
n
n

For

sum

z n

3T

real

z,

Its

convergent.

been shown in Art. 3 that the

Let

values of

x
(z)=lim (1+-) =e (cosy + 1 siny).

z is real,
Z

all

denoted by E(z), or by exp

// z = x + ly where x and y are

Theorem.

For

and

called the Exponential Function,

(1)

z3

holds

w+

The Exponential Function.

or complex,

(2)

1
-+... to oo.
log2 = l-| + |-... + (-l)"- 71

Thus,

11.

to r terms of the series,


to oo

/I

Also s 2n+1

2n --log2.

sum

be the

sr

<f>

sin

<f>),

where

p>0 and ~7r<^<7r.

cr

values

large

of

n,

1+->0;
n

P>0,

hence, since

and />cos< = l+-, we have cos ^>0, and -\-n


n

^ = y/(n +

Also tan

x \2

<- 0, and ^/tan ^ -> 1


=
lim {ny/(n + x)} == y.
<^)

)-> 0, therefore

lim 7^^ = lim


y2

(n tan

x \2

n/ +^i=(l+-)
nz \
( 1+-)
n/

w
therefore p
r
/

and,

lim see"

since

we have

lim p n = e*

and

- lim

sin

+ tan 2

hence, JE(z)
jE (z)

(3) It follows

nor cos y +

<f>

\n

sec 2 <;
T

<f>)*

n = lim

x
= (l-f-j

+^

sec"^;

n/

w2\in

hence

JL
2n

(^

=1

>

= lim p n (cos n<f> + i sin n^)

= e?(cos y -ft sin y).

that E(z) cannot vanish for any value of


y can vanish.

z,

for neither e*

AND COSINE SERIES

SINE

313

The function E(z) is periodic, and its period is 2i7r.


For if k is any integer, positive or negative, the values
(4)

siny are unaltered by adding 2&7r to y. Therefore E(z)


<
adding 2ik7r to z, thus E(z + 2 ikn)^E (z).

is

and

of cos y

unaltered by

A Complex

Index. When z is real, e z is a multiple-valued


The real positive value of e z is
function, except when z is an integer.
called its principal value, and it has been shown that
12.

E(z)= the

z
principal value of e

We take this equation as defining the principal value ofe when z is complex.
z

This implies that for imaginary (as for real) values of


garded as a multiple-valued function.

For

the present,

Thus
e

if
z

z=x 4

we

and %' = x' 4-

iy,

= E(z) = ex
e

thus,

z
.

take e z as denoting

(cosy-f

iy

e z is to

be

re-

principal value defined by E(z).


we write

its

and

sin y),

z,

ez

'

= ex

'

(cos y'

tsint/')

= ex e x (cos y + i sin y) (cos y' + i sin y)


= ex + x> {cos (y + y') + i sin (y 4- y')} = e* +2

z'

'

'.

Hence

the

Again,

if

same index laws hold for imaginary as for real indices.


a is real and positive and z is real, a z = ezlo ^ a = E(z log

In agreement with

E(z log

this, if

a) and, at present,

we

a>0, we

take a

a).

a z as

define the principal value of

as representing this value.

and Cosine. For all real values of x and y, it


x
E(x + ty) = e (cos y + i sin y). When x = 0, this gives

13. Series for Sine


has been shown that
cos y

Equating

real

+i

sin

and imaginary

14.

mean

yE(iy)

parts,

we have,

t/

for all real values of

-*y

3
?/

Exponential Values of Sine and Cosine.

Using

exactly the same as E(z)> by the preceding,


cos y

therefore

+i

sin

cos

y = E(iy)
j/

(c

= &u

ty 4- e"~ l
*0,

cos ?/-

sin ?/=

sin

y~E( - iy)~e~~ iy

(^ rJL~^li
""*"JWK*"

e*

to

SUMMATION BY EXPONENTIAL THEOREM

314

which can be summed

15. Series

by the

Exponential

Theorem.
(1)

The

Zu n

series

xn

where u n

is

a polynomial in

n.

'-

We

can find a

un = a

av

-f

a 1n

...

ar

independent of n, so that

+ a 2n(n -l)-f

...

+a r n(n~ 1)

...

(n-r-f

1),

and then
s^n

/v>tt

spf*

n=rr

= (a + a^x + a2x 2 4Ex.

1.

Here
2

in

-f

the value of

(n*

n-r

a rx r ) e?.

5)/ n.
i

6=n(n-l)(n-2)-f 3n(n- l)+n-f5;

TAe

n
5en*65 2/M n x /(w

n and

a, 6,...

+ a)(nH-6)...(rn-A;)

A are unequal positive

Series of this kind can be


Ex.

-f

-f

hence,

putting

5,

a8 = l, and * = 1 in the result above, we have

= 3,

(2)

Find

. . .

T**

2..

Find

summed

|n w;Aere

t/

n is

a polynomial

integers.

as in the following example.

the value of

Denote the sum by

$, then

Now
where

a, 6, c,

d=l.

Thus

rf

can be found by division, their values being

XT
Now

=->-'-*)>
_
-"' 6

a=

-5, 6 = 5,

c=

-2,

LOGARITHMIC THEOREM

315

EXERCISE XXXI
X

Show

1.

lim fl -

that

Find the sum to

= 1.
Exx. 2-9

infinity of the series in

3579

0,234

3579
+

f
4
f
ji" [6 "L?"

1*1
23
1

Prove that

33

1+2

""
+ '-

'

s
" 4 + ""

23

+2+3

ni~

38
4"

a;

48

4""

" "

""^"
2**

3a:

-=t(4S-16e).

11.

~ii"

12.

cos
6 ox

13. If

= tan" 1 -

where

16.

-f

^^ + ...4- wa:n + ...

//

Suppose
then

(i)

yn = log

rz^

- !<#<!,

+ x) - s n

^ 0,

0<x<l.

that

dx

n terms of

and

1-hx*

" "
l

s n~>log (1

is

even or odd.

and s^^
1
/( w f i)"^
-

+x)

this case of the theorem.

in

to

The case

sum

x = 0,

when

1+a;

a;

sn

which proves

be the

sn

__
1 -f

according as

therefore

Let

yn =

then

Hence log(l-fx) lies between


n n
But
n+l-n = (~l) ^

Therefore y n

Theorem.

series,

(ii)

then

Proo/.

the

cosfea;=w

as
(Of.

for every n.

as W-^QO,

n->oo
Ex.

XXIX,

which x = 1 has been dealt with in Art.

8.)

10.
B.C.A.

LOGARITHMIC SERIES

316

When x<0, changing

(iii)

the sign of

has to be shown that

x, it

3
Xn
X
~ X
+
-x) = x + + -+...+
2

0<x<l,

if

Let y n = -log

therefore y n

>0

-log

(1

-x)-s n9 where

(1

yn =

then

series;

then

sn

x = 0,

when

and

~r

n
_ x ~
=

(i

then

'

~5

xn

i-x

~dx

-x

)_
~

'

(T7*)

r^Ti

0<y w < n H- 1

Logarithmic Series.

^i

Changing the sign

and, since

0<x<l,

s n~>-log (1

+# =

log (1

+ x) - log

- x),

(1

x3

./

1+x = n-f
--1
1-x

,,

so that x

=^

4-

(A)

follows that

it

x5
5

-;

/nv

......................... (C)

7,

we nave

2n-fl

7^

.....

//

0<x<l

o:
and sn ~x+ o

a;

4-

If

the,

Rn

value of log

"

is

is less
1

~~

than

...(D)

- +... to

1-fa;

2s n as

-x),

have

/-tv~,i**
71 - 1

3
.

of x,

1+x

Writing
&

-...+ (-I)

("r-lo^

-l<x<l, we

If

log

--

'

thus y n->0 and

since

__
1x =

x n+1

-------

the last expression ->0 as n->oc


which proves the theorem in this case.

and

this

x" +1

17.

n terms of

when x = 0, and

2n

x n+1

Hence

z n <0.

therefore

to

for every n.

n+i
x n+

ofe n

=^

cfx

Zn^yn-"*

Let

sum

the

is

....

2ii\>

terms,

---

+1

the remainder after n terms of the series,

show

that the err.or in taking

CALCULATION OF LOGARITHMS
18. Series

317

which can be summed by the Logarithmic

Series.
Ex.

1.

Ex.2.

The

If k

If

is

a positive integer and x < 1, then


n
xk
f
x2
1
^n=oo' x
\

\x\<l,

series is

find the value of

convergent when \x\

< 1.

*-*

~~~

Let

be the sum, then since


3

*"

wehave

TAe method of Ex. 2 can


term

sum any

6e applied to

series of

which the general

is

where

is

a polynomial in n and

a, 6,

19. Calculation of Napierian

k are unequal positive integers.

...

Logarithms.

The number

e is

chosen as the base of the system of logarithms used in theoretical work.


Such logarithms are called Napierian after Napier, the inventor of loga}

rithms.

In theoretical work, log^V means log e

reckoning, log^ means log ]0 jV.


The method of applying the equations

Napierian logarithms
Ex.
T

Let

1.

N;

just as, in practical

of Art. 17 to the calculation of

exhibited in the following example.

is

Calculate Iog e 2 to seven places of decimals.

i+*

.-.=-;

=2;

rt

.-.log, 2

-2

Carrying the reckoning to nine places, we have


333 333
1/3 =0-333
1/3
1/3

8
5

1/3=0-333
3 8 ) =0-012

333

345

679

3 5 ) =0-000

823

045

=0-000

065

321

=0-000
3 11 ) =0-000

005

645

000

513

=0-037

037

037

l/(3

=0-004

115

226

l/(5

=0-000

457

247

I/ (7

=0-000

050

805

I/ (9

=0-000
18
1/3 =0-000

005

645

1/(11

000

627

I/ (13

000

070

1/3

1/3
1/3

11

15

1/3

=0-000

/.

log e 2

3')
3')

3 13 ) =0-000

1/(15.3

15
)

333

000

048

=0-000

OOP

005

=0-346

573

589

0-693

147

178

=0-693147178 nearly.

BORDA'S METHOD

318

The
(i)

this

error in the value obtained for log e 2

We

have taken 2S 8

account

is less

for log e 2.

JL

The

Ex.

the error on

1 of Art. 17,

than

17
(ii)

By

due to two causes

is

>000 000 002.

2SQ

error in the calculated value of

is

numerically

2x8x0-000 000 000 5 = 0-000 000

than

less

008.

Adding the results of (i) and (ii), we see that 0-693 147 178 is an approximate value of log,, 2 with an error numerically less than 0-000 000 01.
V. 0-693 147 168<log e 2<0-693 147 188.
Hence, to seven figures, log e 2 = 0-6931472.
Having found log e 2, the Napierian logarithms of the natural numbers

can be found in succession by using formula of (D) Art. 17.


The logarithms of successive prime numbers may be calculated by the
following method, due to Borda, in which the series employed converge
very rapidly.

Using the identities

x3 -3x + 2 = (x-l) 2 (x-f2)


it will

and

z3

-3z-2

be seen that

(x

+ l) 2 (z - 2)

"

x3 - 3x - 2

~
1

- 2/(z3 - 3z)

-f ...

Putting z = 5,

6, 7, 8,

log
-|

it will

+
-

+ log 5

log 7

Hence

it

log 3

+i

log 5

=0-0181838220

...

=0-0062112599

...

= 0-0040983836

....

= 0-0101013536
log 7

-2 log 2 + 2 log 3 -i log 5


~I

be found that

2-f log 3

log 2

'

log 7

can be shown that

= 0-693147 180
= 1-609437912
log 5
log 2

The logarithms

= 1-098612288
7 = 1-945910149

...

log 3

...

log

of successive primes 11, 13, etc., can


etc., in the formula.

....

now be obtained by

putting z + 2 = ll, 13,

The method

of the

example which

follows, in

which logarithms to a base

10 are calculated without the use of the logarithmic


interest, being one of the methods given by Briggs.

series, is of historical

HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
Ex. 2. Obtain
5 decimal places.

319

by the use of square-roots only,

the logarithm of 7 to the base 10,

to

In the reckoning below, when a square-root has been obtained which is greater than
the square-root of the product of it and the last square-root obtained that was less
than 7 is found next and vice versa. Thus we have
7,

= log ,4 =0-5,
log */T6I=log 5-623413 ... = log J5=:0-75,
=0-875,
Jog ^105 = log 7498942 ... = log
log >/]&;= log 6-493816 ... -log D = 0-8 125,
^0-84375,
log s/'OD^log 6-978305 ... = log
=
7-233941
...
^
0-859375,
log */(7JE=log
=log
log

and so on

until

we

VT6-log 3-162277

arrive at

= 0-845100
= 0-845096

log 7-000032
log 6-399968
thus, Iog 10

...

7=0-84510 to

five places,

and probably

Common

20. Calculation of

...

is

equal to 0-845098 to six places.

We

Logarithms.

have

logjo.V-log.tf/log.10.

The expression
of logarithms and

is

l/(log e 10)
is

modulus of the

called the

denoted by /*.

It

common system

can be shown that, to

fifteen places

of decimals,
/*

Thus Iog 10 tf =/*log

21

tf

0434294481903251.
where

tf,

has the above value.

ju,

The Hyperbolic Functions.

hyperbolic cosine, sine and tangent


and tanh x, are defined by

The functions known as the


and denoted by coshx, sinhx

(1)

of x,

--*
,

The

reciprocals

secant, cosecant

(2)

x
.

=
.

cosh x

cosech
WQViVAU.

x = -r-i
*/

-7-

ax

sinh x

T- cosh x = sinh x,

and we write

of x,

Hence the following equations


cosh 2 x - sinh 2 x == 1
ax

cosh x, sinh x, tanh x are called the hyperbolic

of

and cotangent

sech x =-

*~

A
tannx

sinh x

coth
VVVJLX

x
rf/

--

tanh x

- tanh 2 x = sech 2 x,

cosh

x,

-7-

ax

tanh x = sech 2 x.

ADDITION FORMULAE

320

cosh ( - x) = cosh x, sinh ( - x) = - sinh x, tanh ( - x) = - tanh x,


so that cosh x is an even function, and sinh x, tanh x are odd functions
of x. Graphs of these functions are shown below
rough sketches of the
Also,

two can be constructed quickly from the curves y = ex y^e~ x


(see p. 309), by observing that, in Fig. 61, C is the middle point of AB,
and ED = BC. The ordinate of y = tanh x is equal to the ratio ED/EC

first

this

can be found numerically or by a geometrical construction.

61.

(3)

We

Addition Formulae.

2 cosh x cosh y

have

= \(ex + e~ x
-f-

(e

+ e~ y

= cosh (x -h y) -f cosh (x-y).


Similarly,

= cosh (x + y) - cosh (x-y),


2 sinh x cosh y = sinh (x + y) + sinh (x - ^
2 cosh x sinh y = sinh (x + y) - sinh (x

2 sinh x sinh y

Therefore

(xy