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Name

Date ___________
Circulatory and Immune System

Multiple Choice
Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line
provided.
_____ 1. Which is the correct direction of blood flow?
a. right atriumright ventriclepulmonary artery
b. right atriumleft atriumpulmonary artery
c. left ventricle
pulmonary artery
aorta
d. left ventricle
left atriumaorta
_____ 2. In the heart, the mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood is prevented by
the
a. mitral valve.
c. septum.
b. tricuspid valve.
d. pericardium.
_____ 3. Through which path does blood typically flow through the circulatory system?
a. arteriescapillariesveins
b. veinscapillariesarteries
c. arteries veinscapillaries
d. capillariesarteriesveins
_____ 4. Which of the following is true about blood pressure?
a. It is not affected by atherosclerosis.
b. It is typically lower in veins than in arteries.
c. It drops a great deal when traveling through arteries.
d. Diastolic pressure is higher than systolic pressure.
_____ 5. If the thymus was unable to function, which population of cells would be directly
affected?
a. muscle cells in the heart
b. B lymphocytes
c. T lymphocytes
d. red blood cells
_____ 6. Which of these is a function of the lymphatic system?
a. production of antibodies
b. transport of fat-soluble vitamins to the blood
c. protein absorption through the small intestine
d. all of the above
_____ 7. The sudden death of brain cells when their blood supply is interrupted is called
a. a heart attack.
c. hypertension.
b. a stroke.
d. atherosclerosis.

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8. Which of these structures provide(s) heart muscle with a constant supply of


oxygen?
a. the superior and inferior vena cava
b. the pulmonary artery
c. coronary arteries
d. systemic veins

_____ 9. An infectious disease is one that is caused by


a. heredity.
c. pathogens.
b. pollutants in the environment.
d. hemophilia.
_____ 10 Which of the following diseases is caused by a virus?
a. warts
c. African sleeping sickness
b. athletes foot
d. strep throat
_____ 11.. Which of these adaptations helps spread the bacteria that cause tuberculosis?
a. an ability to cause diarrhea in the host
b. an ability to make the host cough
c. an ability to be carried by vectors, such as bats
d. an ability to survive in contaminated water
_____ 12. How can you prevent the spread of Lyme disease?
a. Wash your hands frequently.
b. Avoid sexual contact.
c. Avoid tall grasses and wooded areas.
d. Cover your mouth with a tissue when you cough.
_____ 13. The inflammatory response can cause
a. permanent immunity.
b. pain, swelling, and fever.
c. antibodies to bind to antigens.
d. cytotoxic T cells to attack infected cells.
_____ 14. The bodys most important nonspecific defense is
a. the skin.
c. the inflammatory response.
b. cell-mediated immunity.
d. permanent immunity.

Figure 351
_____ 15. Which type of immune response is being shown in Figure 351?
a. cell-mediated response c. inflammatory response
b. humoral response
d. autoimmune response

_____ 16. During the winter you become sick with the flu. Shortly after that, you
become sick with strep throat. Will the same type of B-cells that fought the
pathogen that caused the flu fight the pathogen that causes strep throat?
a. Yes. Every B cell is capable of fighting every pathogen with which it comes in
contact.
b. Yes. B cells recognize similar antigens such as bacterial and viral pathogens.
c. No. B cells fight viruses while T cells fight bacteria.
d. No. Each B cell is capable of recognizing one specific antigen.
_____ 17. Which of these are the main working cells of the immune response?
a. self and nonself cells c. antigens and antibodies
b. B cells and T cells
d. histamines and interferons

Figure 352
_____ 18. What type of immune response is shown in Figure 352?
a. nonspecific response c. cell-mediated response
b. humoral response
d. inflammatory response
_____ 19. Which step in Figure 352 shows the destruction of an infected cell?
a. 1
c. 3
b. 2
d. 4
_____20. Which of these is an example of passive immunity?
a. a person develops antibodies to fight off an ear infection
b. antibodies are passed from a pregnant woman to an infant through breast
milk
c. a person develops antibodies against the measles vaccine
d. a person is vaccinated for hepatitis B

_____ 21. Antibiotics are effective at treating


a. a common cold, but not genital warts.
b. a tapeworm infection, but not botulism.
c. strep throat, but not the flu.
d. athletes foot, but not an ear infection.
_____ 22. The misuse of antibiotics has led to the re-emergence of which disease?
a. tuberculosis
c. smallpox
b. measles
d. bird flu
_____ 23. Autoimmune diseases result when the immune system
a. fails to distinguish self from nonself.
b. overreacts to certain antigens.
c. is weakened by asthma.
d. all of the above
Completion
Complete each statement on the line provided.
24. Mosquitoes that carry disease-causing organisms from person to person are called
.
25. Chemicals known as
increase the flow of blood and fluids to the affected
area as part of the bodys inflammatory response.
26. When your body is infected with the cold virus, antibodies tag the pathogens ,
which are found on their outer surface, for destruction by immune cells.
27. A
T cell activates other T cells and B cells, whereas a killer T cell
binds to infected cells.
28. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the immune system attacks the bodys tissues
around joints. This is an example of a(n)
disease.
Short Answer
In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided.
29. Why should people avoid drinking tap water in areas where the water is not
sanitized?
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30. What role do interferons play in the immune system? Are they effective against all
pathogens?
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31. In general, what is the difference between the bodys primary immune response and
the bodys secondary immune response?
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32. In the past, doctors would sometimes prescribe antibiotics for infections, even when
they couldnt determine if the infection was bacterial or viral. How did this contribute
to the misuse of medication?
___________
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33. Helper T cells are critical to the function of the immune system. If they are destroyed
by an HIV infection, how will this affect the bodys humoral immunity?
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Using Science Skills
Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines provided.
A scientist used a mathematical model that describes the interaction of the human
immune system with HIV to simulate the effect of HIV drugs on HIV-infected patients. Her
goal was to determine the optimal time to begin treating HIV-infected patients. Graphs A,
B, and C in Figure 352 show some of the results of the scientists simulation.

Figure 352
34. Interpret Graphs What do the two lines on Graph A in Figure 352 represent?
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35. Compare and Contrast Look at Figure 352. Compare Graphs A and B. What do
they show?
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36. Interpret Graphs Based on Graphs A and B in Figure 352, what happens to T cell
concentration between days 800 and 1200 during an HIV infection?
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37. Predict Look at Graph A in Figure 352. Predict the T cell concentration of an HIVinfected person at 1000 days after infection. Give a range for your answer.
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38. Draw Conclusions Look at Graphs B and C in Figure 352. Based on these two
graphs, what conclusion can you draw about the optimal time to begin drug
treatment after a person becomes infected with HIV? Keep in mind that these drugs
are damaging to the body and unpleasant to take. Use the data in Graphs B and C to
support your answer.
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Using Science Skills
Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines
provided.
39. Interpret Visuals What does Figure 353 represent?

40. Interpret Visuals Which part of the immune response is shown in Figure 353? How
do you know?

41. Interpret Visuals What does label B represent in Figure 353?

Figure 353

42. Apply Concepts Based on Figure 353, how is an antibody able to recognize a
specific antigen?

43. Apply Concepts How do antibodies act as signal flags to other part of the
immune system?

Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the underlined word or
phrase to make the statement true.
_____ 44. The enzyme hemoglobin converts soluble plasma proteins into insoluble, sticky
filaments that form a clot.
_____ 45. When your body is exposed to the bacteria that cause strep throat, B
lymphocytes produce antibodies that fight the infection.
_____ 46. In your lungs, diffusion of oxygen from alveoli into capillaries stops when
oxygen concentrations in the blood are equal to oxygen concentrations in the
alveoli.
Using Science Skills
Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines provided.

Figure 335
47. Interpret Visuals In Figure 335, identify the four chambers of the heart. Then use
them to describe the path through which blood travels in the heart.
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48. Apply Concepts What type of muscle makes up the organ shown in Figure 335?
Why is structure F more muscular than structure G?
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49. Apply Concepts What is the function of the structures labeled D, E, H, and K in
Figure 335?
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50. Apply Concepts What are the roles of the structures L and I in Figure 33-5?
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51. Predict In Figure 335, what would happen if structure A were blocked?
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Essay
Write the answer to each question in the space provided.
52. Hemophilia is an inherited blood disorder in which an affected person may bleed
continuously even after a minor injury. For people with hemophilia B, the disease is
caused by a lack of the protein thromboplastin. Why would the lack of thromboplastin
cause a person to bleed for a longer time than normal?
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