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MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

FUNCTION
SKELETAL SYSTEM Provides a framework for the body and allows the body to be weight bearing or upright. Supports the surrounding tissues Assists in movement through muscle attachment and joint formation. Protects vital organs ± heart and lungs. Manufactures blood cells in red bone marrow Provides storage for mineral salts (calcium, phosphorus)

FUNCTION 

PRIMARY FUNCITON OF SKELETAL MUSCLE IS MOVEMENT OF THE BODY AND ITS PARTS.

SKELETON

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

SKELETON 

AXIAL PORTION 
 

Cranium Vertebrae Ribs Limbs Shoulders Hips 

APPENDICULAR PORTION 
 

TYPES OF BONES 
  

Long Short Flat Irregular

TYPES OF BONES

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

SPONGY BONE 


Located in the ends of long bones and the center of flat and irregular bones Can withstand forces applied in many directions

DENSE (COMPACT) BONE 
 

Covers spongy bone Cylinder around a central marrow cavity Can withstand force predominantly in one direction

SPONGY BONE AND COMPACT BONE

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES of the body  Support and protect structures 
 

Provide attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments Contain tissue in the central cavities which aids in the formation of blood cells Assists in regulating calcium and phosphate concentrations

BONE GROWTH
Bone growth is a result of the ossification of the epiphyseal cartilage. Bone growth stops between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The width of bone growth is a result of the activity of osteoblasts. Bone growth slow down with the aging process Bone absorption around the bone marrow continues throughout life. Bones become weaker with aging    

TYPES OF JOINTS 

SYNARTHROSIS 


Fibrous or fixed joints No movement associated with these joints Cartilaginous joints Slightly movable joints 

AMPHIARTHROSIS 


TYPES OF JOINTS 

DIARTHROSIS 


Synovial joints Ball-andBall-and-socket joints Freely movable joints Allow frictionless, painless movement 

CONDYLOID 


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JOINTS  Allow the movement between bones 
    

Formed where two bones join Surfaces are covered with cartilage Enclosed in a capsule Contain a cavity filled with synovial fluid Ligaments hold the bone and joint in the correct position Articulation is the meeting point of two or more joints

SYNOVIAL FLUID 
 



Found in the joint capsule Formed by synovial membrane, which lines the joint capsule Lubricates the cartilage Cushion for shocks

SYNOVIAL JOINT

From Applegate E: The Anatomy and Physiology Learning System, ed. 2, Philadelphia, 2000, W.B. Saunders.

SYNOVIAL JOINT OF THE KNEE

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

ANTERIOR VIEW OF MAJOR MUSCLES

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

POSTERIOR VIEW OF MAJOR MUSCLES

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

SKELETAL MUSCLE

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLES 
  

Made up of bundles of muscle fibers Provide the force to move bones Assist in maintaining posture Assist with heat production

PROCESS OF CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION  Muscle contraction and relaxation require   

large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Contraction also requires calcium, which functions as a catalyst Acetylcholine released by the motor end plate of the motor neuron initiates an action potential Acetylcholine is then destroyed by acetylcholinesterase

PROCESS OF CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION  Calcium is required to contract muscle fibers
and acts as a catalyst for the enzyme needed for the sliding together action of actin and myosin Following contraction, ATP transports calcium out, in order to allow actin and myosin to slide apart and allow the muscle to relax 

SKELETAL MUSCLES 
  

  

Are attached to two bones and cross at least one joint The point of origin is the point of attachment on the bone closest to the trunk The point of insertion is the point of attachment on the bone farthest from the trunk Skeletal muscles act in groups Prime movers contract to produce movement Antagonists relax Synergists contract to stabilize Nerves activate and control the muscles

ORIGIN OF INSERTION ANTAGONISTS

From Herlihy, B. & Maebius, N. (2000). The human body in health and illness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.