ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 03: Pipeline Hydraulics

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@engr.mun.ca

Lecture 03 Objective
To provide an overview of flow assurance To provide simple tools for assessing single phase flow pipeline hydraulics

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Overview Flow Assurance
System Deliverability
Line sizing Production rate Pressure profile and boosting

Thermal Behaviour
Temperature profile Passive or active mitigation

Product Chemistry
Waxing, asphaltenes Hydrates Scaling, erosion, corrosion

Operability Characteristics
Steady-state, transient Shut-down, start-up

System Performance
Mechanical integrity System reliability
Ref: Watson et al. (2003) Ref: McKechnie et al. (2003) ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Flow Assurance Hazards
Mechanical
Corrosion Erosion

Flow
Slugging Emulsion
Ref: Hydro (2005)

Deposition
Scaling Sand Wax & asphaltenes Hydrates
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Ref: BakerHughes (2005)

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Flow Assurance Strategies
Mechanical
Hydraulics • Line sizing • Pumping, compressor • Chillers, heaters Ref: Hydro (2005) Processing • Dehydration • Chemical removal Intervention • Inline pigging • Plug removal
Ref: Rosen (2005); Paragon (2005)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Flow Assurance Strategies
Thermal
Burial Insulation Heating
Ref: Hydro (2005)

Panarctic Drake F-76 Flowline Bundle

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Overview Flow Assurance
Lecture Focus
Overview of steady-state, single phase flow

Associated Technical Issues
Multiphase, dense flow Transient flow Start-up, shut-down conditions Risk and mitigation strategies

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Key Engineering Factors
Pipeline Hydraulics
Line Sizing

• Primary function for product transport
Steady-State Conditions

• Operating pressure & temperature profile
Facilities Design

• Slug catcher, tank farm

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Drivers
Production Rate
Flow rate, throughput Velocity, pressure

Operating Cost
⇓ D ∝ losses & Δpressure

Construction Cost
⇑D
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Hydraulics – Key Input Parameters
Product Characteristics
Phase & composition Chemical constituents

Pipeline Configuration
Route length Nominal diameter Bathymetric & topographic profile

Thermal Profile
Pipeline, soil conductivity Air, water temperature

Initial Boundary Conditions
Inlet pressure, temperature Outlet pressure, temperature
Ref: Terra Nova DPA

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Fluid Mechanics
Single Phase Flow
Oil, gas or water Newtonian fluid
Pressure Term

Nominal Pipeline Radius

• Some heavy oils
are non-Newtonian

Velocity Profile

Shear Stress

Constant Flow Rate
Pressure Gravity
Elevation Elemental Length

Ref: White (1986)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Single Phase Flow Mechanics
Uniform Velocity
dZ π r dP + τ ( 2π r dL ) + ρ gπ r dL =0 dL dP 2τ dZ =− − ρg =0 dL r dL
2 2

Pressure Term

Pipeline Radius

Shear Stress
f ρ u2 τ= 2
f •u •ρ
• Elevation

Velocity Profile

Shear Stress

≡ Fanning friction factor ≡ mean velocity ≡ fluid density

Elemental Length

dP f ρ u2 dZ ∴ =− − ρg =0 dL r dL
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Ref: White (1986) ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Integral Formulation
If Constant Over dL
Diameter Velocity Friction (viscosity) Density (gas flow)
Elevation Pressure Term

Pipeline Radius

Velocity Profile

Shear Stress

dP f ρ u2 dZ Elemental =− − ρg =0 Length dL r dL f ρ u2 P2 − P = − ( L2 − L1 ) − ρ g ( Z 2 − Z1 ) = 0 1 r
Ref: White (1986)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Integral Form Not Practical
Variation in Properties
Velocity, density, friction coefficient

Oil and Gas Flow
Heat loss • f ∝ Re ≡ μ(T)

Gas Flow
Density • Δρ ∝ ΔP ≡ ΔQ & Δz Constant mass flow rate • ΔU ∝ Δρ Compressibility Joule-Thompson (⇓T ∝ ⇓P)
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Frictional Losses
Assumptions
Smooth, uniform internal diameter Incompressible fluid Function of Reynolds number

• μ ≡ viscosity (Pa s) ρU D Re = μ

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Frictional Losses (cont.)
Friction Coefficient
Fanning [f]

• • • • •

Hydraulic radius Diameter m = 4f Reynolds number, Re Surface roughness, k
k ≈ 0.05mm Corrosion, erosion, wax, etc.

1 = 4 log10 Re f − 0.4 f
Loss ∝ D

(

)

Manning [m] Parameters
Loss ∝ U

f = 40.0014 + 0.125 Re−0.32

f =

Re 16

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Analysis of Turbulent Flow
Theoretical Treatment
Empirical coefficients Sensitive to surface roughness
0.241L ρ 0.75 μ 0.25 Q1.75 ΔP = D 4.75

Ref: White (1986)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Pipeline Hydraulics Calculations
Energy Balance per Unit Length

m
Δh ΔEPE ΔEKE ΔQT ΔW

mass flow rate change in enthalpy change in potential energy change in kinetic energy heat loss external mechanical work
= 0

(kg/s) (J/kg) (J/kg) (J/kg) (W) (W)

m (Δh + ΔEPE + ΔEKE ) + ΔQT + ΔW
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Line Sizing – Gas Flow
Panhandle A Formula
Empirical Large diameter pipelines Relatively low pressure (7MPa)
−3 ⎛ To ⎞ Q = 438 × 10 E ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ po ⎠ 1.07881

⎛ p1 − p2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ LT ⎠

0.5394

G −0.4606 D 2.6182
L •T •G •D

Q •E • po • To • p1 • p2

≡ Flow rate (m3/day) ≡ efficiency factor (typically 0.92) ≡ Reference pressure (MPa) ≡ Reference temperature (K) ≡ Upstream pressure (MPa) ≡ Upstream pressure (MPa)

≡ Pipeline length (km) ≡ mean temperature (K) ≡ gas gravity (air = 1) ≡ pipeline diameter (mm)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Line Sizing – Oil Flow
Rule of Thumb
Trade-off CAPEX ⇔ OPEX

D ≡ in; Q ≡ BBL/day
1 BBL = 42 US gal = 35 Imp gal 1 BBL = 158.97 L
D= Q 500

D ≡ mm; Q ≡ m3/s
D = 840 Q
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-01
Calculate the line size (nominal diameter) for a horizontal, single phase oil pipeline
Flow rate, Q = 0.342 m3/s Fluid density, ρ = 950 kg/m3 Viscosity, ν = 2 ×10-5 m2/s = 20 centistokes Surface roughness, k = 0.006mm Pipeline segment length, L = 100m Head loss, hf = 8m
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-01 (cont.)
Modified Moody Chart

Ref: White (1986)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-01 (cont.)
Using Modified Moody Chart
kν = 3.51× 10−9 Q

128ghQ 3 β= = 2.012 × 10−11 π 3 Lυ 5

Corresponds to smooth wall
Re = 1.43 β 0.416 = 72,100

Line size
Re = UD

ν

=

4Q π Dν

⇒ D = 0.302m

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-02
Consider the following pipeline system transporting 100kBBL/day single phase oil
Oil density, ρ = 850 kg/m3 Viscosity, μ = 0.01 Pa·s = 10 centipoise Inlet pressure 5MPa Arrival pressure 1MPa

Calculate the line size for a 25km pipeline

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-02 (cont.)
Line Sizing Rule of Thumb
D= 100000 Q = = 14.1" 500 500 ⇒ 358mm

Using API 5L (2007)
Select D = 12″ (12.75″) = 323.9mm

• Guess WT = 12.7mm
Q 0.184 m 3 / s = 2.63 m / s U= = A π 0.3239 - 2 × 0.0127 2 m 2 ( ) 4

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-02 (cont.)
Reynolds Number
3 ρ U D ( 850 kg m ) ( 2.63 m s )( 0.3239m − 2 × 0.0127m ) Re = = = 6.67 × 10 4 μ 0.01Pa ⋅ s

Fanning Friction Factor
Assume k = 0.001

• f = 0.0059

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-02 (cont.)
Check Erosion Velocity
Reduces wall thickness Generates noise Empirical expression
Umax = 122

ρ

=

122 850 kg m3

= 4.2

m s

U = 2.63

m s

<

Umax = 4.2

m s

∴ ok

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-02 (cont.)
Pressure Drop
dP f ρ u2 dZ =− − ρg =0 dL r dL

Friction loss only
ΔP = f ρU L = r
2

0.0059 850 kg m 3 ( 2.63 m s ) ( 25000m )
2

(

)

0.14925m

= 5.81MPa

Allowed ΔP = 5MPa – 1MPa = 4MPa

∴ Reselect D

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-02 (cont.)
Using API 5L (2007)
Select D = 14″ = 355.6mm • Assume WT = 12.7mm
Q m ⎛ 0.2985m ⎞ m U = = 2.63 ⎜ = 2.15 A s ⎝ 0.3302m ⎟ s ⎠
3 ρ U D ( 850 kg m ) ( 2.15 m s )( 0.3302m ) = = 6.03 × 10 4 Re = μ 0.01Pa ⋅ s 2

ΔP =

f ρU L = r
2

0.006 850 kg m 3 ( 2.15 m s ) ( 25000m )
2

(

)

0.1651m

= 3.57MPa

Acceptable ΔP
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Example 3-02 (cont.)
Field Life Scenario
Reduced production rate • 10 years • 20kBBL/day Produced water • CO2, H2S
U= Q m ⎛ 20kBBL day ⎞ m = 2.15 ⎜ = 0.43 ⎟ A s ⎝ 100kBBL day ⎠ s

Potential • Water drop out • Extensive corrosion at clock position 6 and low spots
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Multiple Phase Flow
Phase
Gas Liquid (oil, water) Solid (sand)

Flow Regime
Multiple modes Irregular flow Vibration

Emulsion
Oil and water mixture ⇑ Viscosity ∝ ⇑ ΔP

Ref: Hydro (2005)

Slugging
Hydrodynamic, elevation induced Process upset, shut down

Surge

⇑ Volumetric, mass flow rates

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

Reading List
1.

Cochran,S. (2003). Recommended Practice for Hydrate Control and Remediation. World Oil, September, pp.56-65. [2003_Cochran_RP_Hydrate_Control_Remediation.pdf] McKechnie, J.G.and Hayes, D.T. (2003). Pipeline Insulation Performance for Long Distance Subsea Tie-Backs. 14p. [2003_McKechnie_Insulation_Performance_Long_Distance_Tie_ Backs.pdf] Wasden, F.K. (2003). Flow Assurance in Deepwater Flowlines/Pipelines. Deepwater Technology, October, pp.35-38. [2003_Wasden_FA_Deepwater_Flowlines.pdf] Watson, M., Pickering, P. and Hawkes, N. (2003). The Flow Assurance Dilemma: Risk versus Cost? E&P, May, 4p. [2003_Watson_Flow_Assurance.pdf]

2.

3.

4.

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

References
API 5L (2007). Specification for Line Pipe, Forty-fourth Edition. 44th Edition. BakerHughes (2005). http://www.bakerhughes.com/bakerpetrolite Hydro (2005). http://www.hydro.com/ormenlange/en Paragon (2005). http://www.paraengr.com Rosen (2005). http://www.roseninspection.net Ridao, M.A. (2004). “Optimal use of DRA in oil pipelines”. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, pp.6256-6261. Watson, M., Pickering, P. and Hawkes, N. (2003). The Flow Assurance Dilemma: Risk versus Cost? E&P, May, 4p. White, F.M. (1986). Fluid Mechanics. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-069673-X, 732p.

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 03

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