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November2009

ExcavationOverview

AShortCourseon

DEEPEXCAVATIONS
By
WONG KaiSin
ckswong@ntu.edu.sg

November/December2009
NewZealand
ExcavationOverview

Session 1
Overview
Time
Session Topic
p
09:00 10:30
1
Overview
Coffee Break
10:30 11:00
11:00 12:30
2
Design (Part 1)
Lunch
12:30 - 01:30
01:30 03:00
3
Mohr-Coulomb Soil Model &
Design (Part 2)
Coffee Break
03:00 03:30
03:30 05:00
4
How to reduce wall deflection
ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

November2009

ExcavationOverview

Overviewof
BracedExcavation
Typesofwalls
Methodsofexcavation
Modesoffailure

ExcavationOverview

AnatomyofaBracedExcavation
wall
struts
walers

kingposts
walers

struts

wall

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

November2009

ExcavationOverview

TypesofRetainingWallsforExcavation

CantileverWall

Anchoredor
ProppedWall

BracedWall

ExcavationOverview

WallTypesofDeepExcavations
DiaphragmWall
Diaphragm Wall
SheetpileWall
BoredPileWall
SoldierPileWall
DCMorGrout
MixedPileWall

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

November2009

WongKaiSin

ExcavationOverview

ExcavationOverview

ExcavationOverview

November2009

ExcavationOverview

ConcreteDiaphragm
Wall

Stopends&waterproofs

WongKaiSin

ExcavationOverview

ExcavationOverview

10

November2009

ExcavationOverview

BracedExcavationwithSheetpileWall
wall
struts
walers

kingposts
walers

struts

wall

ExcavationOverview

11

Sheetpile
Installation

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

12

November2009

ExcavationOverview

BoredPileWalls

ContiguousBoredPileWall

SecantBoredPileWall

ExcavationOverview

13

18.5mCantileverCBPwallatNUS

ContiguousBored
PileWall

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

14

November2009

ExcavationOverview

ConstructionofSecantBoredPileWall

ExcavationOverview

15

BracedExcavationwithSoldierPileWall

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

16

November2009

ExcavationOverview

ConstructionofDCMorGroutMixedPileWall

ExcavationOverview

17

GroutMixedPileWall

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

18

November2009

ExcavationOverview

wall
struts
walers

kingposts
walers

Conventional
BottomUp
BottomUp
Excavation
Method
ExcavationOverview

struts

wall

19

TopDown
Excavation

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

20

10

November2009

ExcavationOverview

TopDownExcavationatBoonKengStation

ExcavationOverview

21

UpDownConstructionMethod

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

22

11

November2009

ExcavationOverview

UpDown
Construction
Method

ExcavationOverview

23

IslandMethodofExcavation

ExcavationOverview

WongKaiSin

24

12

November2009

ExcavationOverview

UnderWater
Excavation
at
at
MarinaSouth

WongKaiSin

ExcavationOverview

25

ExcavationOverview

26

13

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

WallandGroundMovementsinExcavation
200to300m
Damage??
Damage??

Damage??
FILL
MARINE CLAY

SAND
OLD ALLUVIUM

Deformation&FailureModes

MainCauseofWallDeflection

UndrainedShearDistortioninClay
Vaterland1,Oslo(NGI,1962)

As

Ad

As
Ad

Novolumechange!

Ad ~As
Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

WallDeflectionandGroundsettlement
Vaterland1,Oslo(NGI,1962)

Deformation&FailureModes

WallDeflectionandGroundsettlement
Vaterland1,Oslo(NGI,1962)

A
B

AreaA=AreaB+AreaC
Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

WallDeflectionsat
DifferentStagesof
Excavation

Exampleof
questionablewall
deflectionprofiles

Deformation&FailureModes

1 2 -Sep 98
1 1 -N o v 98
1 0 -Jan 99
1 1 -M ar99
1 0 -M ay 99
0 9 -Ju l99
0 7 -Sep 99
0 6 -N o v 99
0 5 -Jan 00
0 5 -M ar00
0 4 -M ay 00
0 3 -Ju l00
0 1 -Sep 00
3 1 -O ct00
3 0 -D ec00
2 8 -Feb 01
2 9 -A p r01
2 8 -Ju n 01
2 7 -A u g 01

Variationsof
PiezometricLevels
withTime

-2

Castingofbaseslab
D raw d o w n (m )

0
2
4
6
8
10
GWP3071
Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

GWP3081

GWP3051-1

GWP3051-2

GWP3051-3
6

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

DevelopmentofStrut
Forcesduring
Excavation

Deformation&FailureModes

DevelopmentofStrut
Forcesduring
Excavation

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

Deformation&FailureModes

DevelopmentofBendingMomentDuringExcavation

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

10

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

MajorFactorsAffectingSoilandWallMovementsinDeepExcavations

Undrainedshearstrength,c
g , u

Depthofpenetration,D
p
p
,

Depthofexcavation,H

Wallstiffness,EI

Widthofexcavation,B

Verticalstrutspacing

Depthtohardstratum,T

Constructionworkmanship

Deformation&FailureModes

11

EffectofShear
StrengthonWall
Deflection

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

12

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

EffectofShear
StrengthonWall
Deflection

Deformation&FailureModes

13

Effectof
ExcavationWidth
onWall
Deflection

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

14

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

EffectofClay
ThicknessonWall
Deflection

Deformation&FailureModes

15

EffectofWall
StiffnessonWall
Deflection
Sheetpile
wall

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

Diaphragm
wall

16

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

ModesofFailure
Collapse

Excessive Deformation

Deformation&FailureModes

17

BasalHeaveStability

qo
qult

Whenqo >qult,failureinimminent.
Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

18

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

BasalHeaveFailureinTaipei

Deformation&FailureModes

19

BasalHeaveFailureduetoStockpiling
ExcessiveSurcharge
q=20kPa

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

20

10

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

BasalHeaveFailureduetoStockpiling
Stockpile

CourtesyofDrLimPC

Deformation&FailureModes

21

BasalHeaveStability
WallRotation

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

22

11

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

BasalHeaveStability
WallRaking

Deformation&FailureModes

23

BasalHeaveStability
LiftingofKingPosts

JetGroutSlab

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

24

12

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

LiftingofKingpostduetoBottomHeave

Deformation&FailureModes

25

BasalHeaveStability
Notallbasalheaveinstability
leadtocatastrophicfailures

Formation
Level

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

26

13

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

Piping
&
LossofFines

Deformation&FailureModes

27

StrutFailure

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

28

14

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

StrutFailures

Deformation&FailureModes

29

Effecton
Adjacent
Structures

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

30

15

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

EffectofExcessiveMovements
DamagedPavement

AfterChoong(2003)
Deformation&FailureModes

31

BuildingsonShallowFoundations

RaceCourseRoad
Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

32

16

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

BuildingsonShallowFoundations

Deformation&FailureModes

33

BuildingonMixedFoundations
(Shirlawetal.,2003)

Sunday
School

Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

New
kindergarten
section

Old
Church,
wrapped in
extension

34

17

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

BuildingonMixedFoundations

Deformation&FailureModes

35

LoweringofGroundWaterTable
Wellpoint

Wellpoint

Causes:
Pumping
Wallleakage
Sand

Marine
Clay

OldAlluvium

Loweringofgroundwatertablewillincreasetheeffective
stressinsoftclayandresultinconsolidationsettlement.
Deformation&FailureModes

WongKaiSin

36

18

November2009

Deformation&FailureModes

EffectofLoweringofGroundwaterTable

WongKaiSin

Deformation&FailureModes

37

Deformation&FailureModes

38

19

November2009

ObservationalMethod

ObservationalApproachinDeepExcavation

Design
Monitoring

Construction

ObervationalMethod

Inaperfectworld.

Allweneedis
oneanalysis&
onedesign!

ObervationalMethod

WongKaiSin

November2009

ObservationalMethod

Intheimperfectworld.withimperfectdesign!
Toomanyuncertainties:
Soil conditions
Soilconditions

Noteasytoaccountforall
theseuncertaintiesinthe
design.

Groundwater
Loading
Constructionsequence
Workmanship
Timedelayy
3Deffect
Proficiencyofdesigner
Limitationsofsoftware

ObervationalMethod

Intheimperfectworld.
Watcheverystepscarefully.
Makeadjustmentswhennecessary.
Improviseasexcavationproceeds.

Design
Monitoring
ObervationalMethod

WongKaiSin

Construction
4

November2009

ObservationalMethod

Role&Responsibility
Design

Monitoringg

Construction

Team

Role and Responsibility

Design

Produce a good design


Monitor performance of system
Modify design
Build
B ild according
di
to
t design
d i
Monitor performance of system
Feedback problems & unusual findings

C
Construction
t ti

Monitoring

Install and monitor instruments


Feedback problems & unusual findings

ObervationalMethod

WhatisObservationalApproach?
Itisacheckandbalanceprocessthat
enableusto:
Checkadequacyofthedesign
Anticipatepotentialproblems
Modifythedesignwherenecessary
Optimise thedesign
Makecontingencyplan
Avoidunnecessarydelay
ObervationalMethod

WongKaiSin

November2009

ObservationalMethod

AnExampleonApplicationofObservationalMethod
(9th RankineLecturebyR.B.Peck,1969)

PecksAPD

Design

ObervationalMethod

ImplementationofObservationalApproach
Modify
Design

Predict
Excavate
Monitor

Wall Deflection (mm )


0

20

40

60

80

Reanalyse

100

Compare

Depth (m )

5
10
15
20

Yes

No

Favourable?

Backanalyse

25
30

ObervationalMethod

WongKaiSin

November2009

ObservationalMethod

Designer,ContractorandInstrumentationSpecialisthavetowork
together!

Modify
Design

Predict
Excavate

20

40

60

80

Reanalyse

Monitor

Wall Deflection (m m)
0

100

0
5

Computed

Compare

Depth (m )

10
15

Measured

Yes

20

Favourable?

25

No

Backanalyse

30

ObervationalMethod

AlertLevel

BackAnalysis: Tocalibrateinputparameterstoproduce
reasonableagreementwithfieldmeasurements.
Modify
Design

Predict
Excavate

Reanalyse

Monitor
Wall Deflection (m m)
0

20

40

60

80

Compare

100

0
5

Depth (m )

10
15

Computed
Design
Measured

Yes

No

Favourable?

Backanalyse

20

BackAnalyzed
25
30

ObervationalMethod

WongKaiSin

10

November2009

ObservationalMethod

ReAnalysis: Usecalibratedparameterstoreanalyse
Wall Deflection (mm)
0

20

40

60

80

100

Modify
Design

Predict

D ep th ((m )

5
10

Excavate

15
20
25

Reanalyse

Monitor

30

Wall Deflection (m m )
0

20

40

60

80

100

Compare

120

0
5

Yes

Depth (m)

10

No

Favourable?

15

Backanalyse

20
25
30

ObervationalMethod

11

DesigningTemporaryWorkisaContinuousProcess
Design&
Analysis
Instrumentation
Monitoring

InitialDesign

FinalDesign

(WorkDrawings)

(AsBuilt)

Start

ObervationalMethod

WongKaiSin

Construction
Control

Excavation

Finish

12

November2009

SiteInvestigation

SiteInvestigation

SiteInvestigation

Howmanyboringsshouldwedrill?
Ingeneral,themorethemerrier!

Itdependsonhowmuchweknowaboutthesiteandthe
It
depends on ho m ch e kno abo t the site and the
natureofproject.Itisaverysubjectivedecision.
Becarefulof PennyWisebutDollarFoolish!
SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Problemofhavingtoofewborings

SiteInvestigation

Problemofhavingtoofewborings

Boring1

Boring2

Bedrock

UnforeseenGroundConditions?
SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Surprise!

SiteInvestigation

Problemofhavingtoomanyborings

$$$
S.I.willtakealongtime
Tightscheduleaffectsquality
Multipledrillersandmultiplelaboratories
DesigncompletedaheadofS.I.

BCAsAdvisoryNote:1boringevery300m2.

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

November2009

SiteInvestigation

SiteInvestigation
Whichoneisbetterpractice?
[A]15borings

[B]45borings

SiteInvestigation

SiteInvestigation
Howmanyborings?Where?

90m

150m

BCAsAdvisoryNote:1boringevery300m2.
Therefore,45boringsover13,500m2.
SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

November2009

SiteInvestigation

SiteInvestigation
Itisbettertoconductitinphases!

90m

150m

Phase1

Phase2

Phase3

SiteInvestigation

ControlSectionforConstructionControl

Control
Section

Fill
E

Fill
E

UMC

UMC

F2 upper

F2 upper
LMC

LMC
JGP1
LMC
JGP2
F2
lower

AdditionalboringsatControlSection!

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

OA N = 20
OA N = 30
OA N = 70

F2

F2 lower
OA N = 20
OA N = 30
OA N = 70
OA N = 100

10

November2009

SiteInvestigation

SiteInvestigation
Typeofsoilsampler

Typeofinsitutests

SPTsplitbarrel

SPT

Shelbytube

FVT

Piston

CPT

Mazier
M i

Pressuremeter
P
t

Thickwalledtube

Permeability

TheDesignermustinstructthedrillerwhattodo!
SiteInvestigation

11

UndrainedShearStrengthofClaycu
LaboratoryTests
(UndisturbedSamples)
UC
UU
CU
CKoUTC
CKoUTE
CKoUDSS
CK UDSS
MiniatureVane
Cone
Torvane
PocketPenetrometer
SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

InSituTests
FVT
SPT
CPT
PMT
DMT
Eachtestgivesa
g
differentcu!
Whichtestshouldwe
do?
12

November2009

SiteInvestigation

WhatshouldwedowiththeFactualReports?

SiteInvestigation

13

Scrutinizethetestresults
TestA
cu=28kPa
u =0

TestB
cu=40kPa
u =0

Whichoneismorereliable?
SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

14

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Properwayoftrimmingsoilsample

SiteInvestigation

15

Anexpedientwaytotrimasample

Howtoprepareadisturbedsample?!

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

16

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Yougetwhatyoupaidfor!

SiteInvestigation

17

Mazier Samples
UntrimmedSample

TrimmedSample
UU

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

CU

18

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Example1 UndrainedStrengthofMarineClay
Cu from UU Tests (kPa)
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

SandFill

UUtestresults
10

UpperMarine
Clay

D e p th (m )

20

30

LowerMarine
Clay

40

OldAlluvium
50

60
SiteInvestigation

19

Example1 Arefieldvanestrengthmorereliable?
Cu (kPa)
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

10
Vane

Depth (m)

20
UU
30

40

50

60

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

20

10

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Howdowedifferentiatebetweengoodandbaddata?
Cu(kPa)
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Mi h t IIncredible?
Most
dibl
HighestIncredible?
dibl ??
10
UU

Vane

Depth(m)

20

30

40

Worst
Incredible?

50

Fullyconsolidated

Beforereclamation
60
SiteInvestigation

21

Example1 Resultsoffieldvanetestsfromtwocompanies
Cu (kPa)

Cu (kPa)
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Sandfill

10

10

15

15

Depth (m)

Depth (m)

20
25
Marine Clay

30

60

80

100

120

S dfill
Sandfill

20
25
Marine Clay

30

35

35

40

40
45

45
Old Alluvium

CompanyA

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

40

50

20

50

Old Alluvium

CompanyB
22

11

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Datafrom
CompanyA

Datafrom
CompanyB
Shouldweusetheaverage
valuesfromAandB?
Shouldweengageanother
companyfor3rd opinion?
SiteInvestigation

23

Example2 cu fromCPTU

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

24

12

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Undrained Shear Strength (kPa)


0

20

40

60

80

Depth (m)

20

120

(qt v)
cu =
CPT-1
Nkt

Contractor
Contractor

10

100

Vane

30

ConsultantAN
AC - Nk=12
kt=12
40

ConsultantCN
C
lt Client
t C N- Nk=20
20
kt=20

50

AC - Nk=14
ConsultantBN
kt=14

60

MustcalibrateconefactorNktagainstotherdata
SiteInvestigation

25

Example3 parametersfromauniformsoildeposit
cuCu
(kPa)
(kPa)

po& pc (kPa)
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

P'cfromConsol
P'o
5

10

10

15

15
Depth (m)

Depth(m)

20

30

40

50

60

20

25

80

BH3-UU
BH3-vane
BH3-consol
BH4-consol
0.22*P'o
BH4-UU
BH4-vane
BH1-vane
BH2-vane
BH1-UU
BH2-UU

20

25

30

30

35

35

Datafromentiresite

Datafromentiresite

40

Ifalldatafallwithinanarrowband,wecanusethe
bestfittingcurvefortheentiresite.
SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

70

40

10

26

13

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Example4
Importanceoflocation
specificsoilcondition

cu (kPa)
Cu (kPa)
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

cu (kPa)
Cu (kPa)

80

0
BH3-UU
BH3-vane
BH3-consol
BH4-consol
0.22*P'o
BH4-UU
BH4-vane
BH1-vane
BH2-vane
BH1-UU
BH2-UU

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

BH3-UU
BH3-vane
BH3-consol
BH4-consol
0.22*P'o
BH4-UU
BH4-vane
BH1-vane
BH2-vane
BH1-UU
BH2-UU

10

15
Depth (m)

15
Depth (m)

10

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

SectionAA

EntireSite
SiteInvestigation

27

Example4
Importanceoflocation
specificsoilcondition

cu (kPa)

cu (kPa)
Cu (kPa)
0

10

20

30

40

50

Cu (kPa)

60

70

80

0
BH3-UU
BH3-vane
BH3-consol
BH4-consol
0.22*P'o
BH4-UU
BH4-vane
BH1-vane
BH2-vane
BH1-UU
BH2-UU

10

20

10

15

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

SiteInvestigation

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

A3-UU
A3-vane
A3-consol
A4-consol
0.22*P'o
A4-UU
A4-vane
M2081-vane
M2081A-vane
M2081-UU
M2081A-UU
CPT-CR4-Nkt=30

20

25

EntireSite

WongKaiSin

Depth (m)

Depth (m)

15

10

SectionAA
28

14

November2009

SiteInvestigation

Effective Stress (kPa)


0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

10
11
12
13

Depth (m)

14
15
16

Example5
Importanceoflocation
specificsoilconditionat
areclaimedsite

17
18
po'
19
CPT1
20

Fill

UU-BH1

21

consol - BH1

22

Effective Stress (kPa)


0

40

80

120

160

200

10

240

280

SoftClay

11
12
13

SiltySand/SandySilt

Depth (m))

14
15
16
17

Stressandstrength
ofsoftclayat
reclaimedsitecanbe
veryvariable.

18
19

po'

20

CPT2

21

UU - BH2

22

SiteInvestigation

29

Example6 ReliabilityofSPTblowcount insand

Fill

Marine
Clay

F1
Old
Alluvium

SiteInvestigation

WongKaiSin

N=2
N=2

Equivalent
Equivalent
N~10

30

15