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Hanuman Chalisa

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Hanuman Chalisa

Hanuman singing bhajan


Author

Tulsidas

Country

India

Language

Awadhi

Genre

Bhakti literature (Devotional poetry)

The Hanuman Chalisa (Devanagari: ; Hindi pronunciation: [nman talisa];


literally Forty chaupais on Hanuman) is aHindu devotional hymn (stotra) addressed to Hanuman.[1]
[2]
It is traditionally believed to have been authored by 16th-century poetTulsidas in
the Awadhi language,[1] and is his best known text apart from the Ramcharitmanas.[3][4] The word
"chls" is derived from "chls", which means the number forty in Hindi, as the Hanuman
Chalisa has 40 verses (excluding the couplets at the beginning and at the end). [1]
Hanuman is a vanara (a monkey-like humanoid deity), a devotee of Rama, and one of the central
characters in the Sanskrit epicRamayana. Folk tales increasingly eulogise the powers of Hanuman,
and he is considered by many to be an avatar of the godShiva.[5] The qualities of Hanuman his
strength, courage, wisdom, celibacy, devotion to Rama and the many names by which he was

known are detailed in the Hanuman Chalisa.[5] There are more temples devoted to Hanuman than
any other deity in India, and recitation or chanting of the Hanuman Chalisa is a common religious
practice.[6]

Contents
[hide]

1 About the work


o

1.1 Author

1.2 Language

1.3 Deity

2 Text
o

2.1 Introductory Dohas

2.2 The Chalisa

2.3 Concluding Doha

2.4 Commentaries

3 Review

4 In popular culture
o

4.1 Classical and folk music

4.2 Bollywood

5 Notes

6 References

7 External links

About the work[edit]

The authorship of the Hanuman Chalisa is attributed to Tulsidas, a poet-saint who lived in the 16th
century CE. He says in the last stanza of the Chalisa that whoever chants it with full devotion to
Hanuman, will have Hanuman's grace. Amongst the Hindus of Northern India, it is a very popular
belief that chanting the Hanuman Chalisa invokes Hanuman's divine intervention in grave problems,
including those concerning evil spirits.

Author[edit]

The most common picture of Tulasidas


Tulsidas (Devanagari: , Hindi pronunciation: [ttulstidt st], also known as Goswami Tulsidas),
[7]
(1497/15321623 CE) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher renowned for his
devotion for the god Rama. A composer of several popular works, he is best known for being the
author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayana in the vernacular Awadhi.
Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original
Ramayana in Sanskrit.[8] Tulsidas lived in the city of Varanasi until his death.[9] The Tulsi Ghat in
Varnasi is named after him.[7] He founded the Sankatmochan Temple dedicated to Hanuman in
Varanasi, believed to stand at the place where he had the sight of Hanuman. [10] Tulsidas started
the Ramlila plays, a folk-theatre adaption of the Ramayana.[11]He has been acclaimed as one of the
greatest poets in Hindi, Indian, and world literature.[12][13][14][15] The impact of Tulsidas and his works on
the art, culture and society in India is widespread and is seen to date in vernacular language,
Ramlila plays, Hindustani classical music, popular music, and television series.[11][16][17][18]

Language[edit]
The language is very simple and rustic conforming to the popular belief that it was created by the
boy Tulsidas.[19] There are 2 couplets in the beginning and one couplet at the ending between the 40
verses of Chalisa.[20] The Chalisa details Hanuman in the order of his knowledge, devotion to Rama
and man without any desire.[21] As with the case of devotional literature, Tulsidas starts the poem with
two couplets praising his Guru (teacher).[22] The language of Chalisa is in the refined Avadhi
language.[23]

Deity[edit]
The Hindu deity to whom the prayer is addressed, Hanuman (Sanskrit: , Hanumn), is an
ardent devotee of Rama, the seventh Avatar of Vishnu, and a central character in the Indian
epic Ramayan. A general among the vanaras, Hanuman is a disciple of Lord Rama in the war
against the demon king Ravan. Hanuman's exploits are much celebrated in a variety of religious and

cultural traditions,[24] particularly in Hinduism, to the extent that he is often the object of worship
according to some bhakti traditions,[25] and is the prime deity in many temples known as Hanuman
Mandirs.

Text[edit]
The work consists of forty-three verses two introductory Dohas, forty Chaupais and one Doha in
the end.[1] The first introductory Doha begins with the word shr, which refers to Sita, who is
considered the Guru of Hanuman.[26] The auspicious form, knowledge, virtues, powers and bravery of
Hanuman are described in the first ten Chaupais.[27][28][29]Chaupais eleven to twenty describe the acts
of Hanuman in his service to Rama, with the eleventh to fifteenth Chaupais describing the role of
Hanuman in bringing back Lakshman to consciousness.[27] From the twenty-first Chaupai, Tulsidas
describes the need of Hanuman's Kripa.[30] At the end, Tulsidas hails Hanuman[31] and requests him to
reside in his heart and in the heart of Vaishnavas.[32] The concluding Doha again requests Hanuman
to reside in the heart, along with Rama, Lakshman and Sita.[33]
The translation below follows the English and Hindi translations by Gita Press, Rao, Mehta
and Rambhadracharya.[28][34][35][36]

Introductory Dohas[edit]
Before the Chalisa are two Dohas.

Devanagari

Hunterian
shrguru charana saroja raja nija m
baranau raghubara bimala jasu jo

Cleansing the mirror in the form of my mind with the pollen of the lotus-feet of the Guru, I describe
the unblemished glory of Rama, which bestows the four fruits.[26][34]
Gita Press translation interprets the four fruits as the four Purusrthas Dharma, Artha, Kma,
and Moksa.[34] Rambhadracharya comments that the four fruits refer to any of the following
1. The four Purusrthas Dharma, Artha, Kma, Moks a

2. The four types of Mukti Slokya, Smpya, Syujya, Srpya


3. Dharma, Jna, Yoga, Japa

Devanagari

Hunteria
buddhihna tanu jnikai sum
bala budhi bidy dehu mohi h

Knowing my body to be devoid of intelligence, I remember Hanuman, the son of Vyu. Give me
strength, intelligence and knowledge and remove all ailments (kalesa) and impurities (bikra). [28][34][35]
[37]

Gita Press interprets kalesa as bodily ailments and bikra as mental maladies.[34] Rambhadracharya
comments that kalesa (Sanskrit klea) refers to the five afflictions (Avidy, Asmit, Rga, Dves a, and
Abhinivea) as described in the Yoga Sutras, and bikra (Sanskrit vikra) refers to the six impurities
of the mind (Kma, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada, and Mtsarya). [37] Rambhadracharya adds that

these five afflictions and six impurities are the eleven enemies, and Hanuman is capable of removing
them as he is the incarnation of the eleven Rudras.[37]

The Chalisa[edit]
Devanagari

Hunter
jaya hanumna gy
jaya kapsa tihu lok

O Hanuman, the ocean of knowledge and virtues, may you be victorious. O the chief
amongst Vanaras famous across the three Lokas (Ptla, Prithvi (earth) and Svarga), may you be
victorious.[29][34][38]
Rambhadracharya comments that Hanuman is called ocean of knowledge by Tulsidas as the Valmiki
Ramayana describes him as one who knows the three Vedas (Rgveda,Yajurveda, and Smaveda)
and Sanskrit grammar.[38]

Devanagari


Hunteria
rma dta atulita b
anjani putra pavanasu

You are the trusted messenger of Rama and you are the abode of incomparable strength. You are
known by the names of Anjaniputra (son of Anjana) and Pavanasuta (son of Vyu).[28][29][39]
Hanuman is called Anjaniputra as he was born from the womb of Anjana, who was an Apsara with
the name Pujikasthal and was born as a Vanara by the curse of Agastya.[39]Hanuman is called
Pavanasuta since Vyu carried the divine power of Shiva into Anjana's womb, and since the Valmiki
Ramayana calls Hanuman as Vyu's own son (mrutasyaurasah putrah ).[39][40]

Devanagari

Hunter
mahbra bikram
kumati nivra sumat

You are the great hero, you are endowed with valour, your body is as strong as Indra's Vajra. You
are the destroyer of vile intellect, and you are the companion of one whose intellect is pure. [28][29][41]
Rambhadracharya explains the word bajarang to come from Sanskrit Vajrg and gives two
meanings of the word bikrama based on the root kram in Sanskrit and usage of the verb
form vikramasva in Valmiki Ramayana [41]
1. Hanuman is endowed with special progression of sdhan (penance).
2. Hanuman is endowed with the special action of going over or across, i.e. the crossing of the
ocean

Devanagari

Hunterian
kanchana barana bir
knana kundala kunch

Your complexion is that of molten gold, and you are resplendent in your handsome form. You wear
Kundalas (small earrings worn in old times by Hindus) in your ears and your hair is curly.[42]
Noting that in the Ramcharitmanas Tulsidas calls Hanuman as Subes a (one with an handsome
form), Rambhadracharya comments that this verse describes the form of Hanuman when he took
the appearance of a Brahmin, which happens three times in the Ramcharitmanas. [42]

Devanagari

Hunteria
htha bajra au dhv
kdhe mnja jane

You have the Vajra and the flag in your hands, and the sacred-thread (Yajnopavita) made of
the Munja grass adorns your shoulder.[43]
Rambhadracharya gives two meanings for the first half of the verse [43]
1. The flag signifying the victory of Rama shines forth in Hanuman's Vajra-like powerful hand
2. The Vajra-like powerful Gad and the victory flag of Rama shine forth in Hanuman's hands
He also gives the variant reading chhjai ( ) instead of sjai ( ) in the second half.[43]

Devanagari

Hunterian
shankara suvana kesa
teja pratpa mah jaga b

O son of Shiva (or son of Vyu carrying the power of Shiva), the delighter of Kesari, your aura and
majesty is great and is revered by the whole world.[28][29][40]
Rao and Mehta explain the first half as Hanuman is the son of Kesari and Shiva.[28]
[29]
Rambhadracharya gives two variant readings for the first part[40]
1. shankara svayam which is explained as Hanuman is Shiva himself, as Vyu carried the
power of Shiva himself in Anjana's womb from which Hanuman was born. Tulsidas mentions
Hanuman as an Avatar of Shiva in the Vinayapatrika.
2. shankara suvana which is explained as Hanuman is the son of Vyu, who is one of the eight
manifestations of Shiva as per Kalidasa. An alternate explanation is that the word suvana is
used in the sense of Ama as per the Puranic narrative of Vyu carrying Shivas power to
Anjana's womb.
Rambhadracharya explains kesar nandana as the Ks etraja son of Kesari, which is one of the twelve
kinds of offspring recognized in the ancient Hindu law.[40]

Devanagari

Hunte

bidyvna gun
rma kja karibe

You are the praiseworthy abode of the eighteen types of Vidy (knowledge), all virtues reside in you,
and you are exceedingly clever.[44] You are ever eager to perform tasks for Rama.[44]

Devanagari

Hunteri
prabhu charitra sun
rma lakhana st ma

You delight in listening to the acts of Rama (Ramayana). [45] Rama, Lakshmana and Sita reside in
your mind.[45] Alternately, you reside in the minds of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita [owing to their
affection towards you].[45]

Devanagari

Hunteria
skshma rpa dhari si
bikata rpa dhari lank

You assumed an extremely minute form and saw Sita in the Ashok Vatika. You assumed a very
large and scary form and burnt the city of Lanka. [46]

Devanagari

Hunterian
bhma rpa dhari as
rmachandra ke kja

You assumed a frightening form and destroyed the demons in the army of Ravana. You carried out
all the tasks of Rama.[47]
Rambhadracharya comments that the word bhma is an allusion to the event in
the Mahabharata when Hanuman showed the same frightening form to Bhima.[47]
Hanuman fetches the herb-bearing Sanjivini mountain

Devanagari

Hunterian
lya sajvani lakha
shr raghubra harashi u

You brought the Sanjivini, the life saving herb from Dronagiri in Himalayas, and revitalized
Lakshman. Out of elation, Rama embraced you. [28][48][49]

Devanagari

Hunterian
raghupati knh bah
tuma mama priya bharatahi

Rama, the chief among Raghu's descendants, praised you profusely saying "You are dear to me like
my brother Bharata.[28][48][50]
Rambhadracharya associates the term bh with bharata.[50] In contrast, Rao and Mehta interpret the
second half as Rama said that you (Hanuman) are my dear brother, like Bharata.[28][48]

Hunteria
sahasa badana tumha
asa kahi shrpati kanth

Devanagari

Rao and Mehta's translation Rama also added that a thousand people will praise Hanuman's glory
and embraced him again.[28][48]
Rambhadracharya interprets sahasa badana as the thousand-hooded serpent Shesha.[51] His
translation is The serpent Shesha, who has a thousand mouths, sings and will sing your glory,
saying thus Rama embraces Hanuman again and again. [51]

Hunter
sanakdika brahm
nrada srada sahi
jama kubera dikp
kabi kobida kahi sak

Devanagari



Rao and Mehta translate the two verses as Saints like Sanka, Bramha, Munisa, Narad, Sarad, Sahit
and Ahisa have blessed Hanuman; Yama (God of death), Kubera (God of wealth), Dikpala (Gods of
eight directions), Kavis (poets), Kovidas (folk singers) cannot describe Hanuman's reputation. [28]
[48]
Rambhadracharya associates the verb gvai in verse 13 with verse 14 and first half of verse 15
also, interprets ahs as standing for both Shiva and Vishnu, and kovida as one who knows Vedas.
[27]
His translation reads The celibate Rishis like Sanaka, the Devatas like Brahma, Narada the best
among Munis (sages), Saraswati with Shiva and Vishnu, the eight Dikpalas including Yama and
Kubera all these will sing your glory. To what extent can the mortal poets and scholars of Vedas
speak about your infinite glory?[27]

Hunteri
tuma upakra sug
ram milya rjapad

Devanagari


You did Sugriva a great favour by making him meet Rama and bestowing on him the kingdom
of Kishkindha.[28][48][52]

Devanagari

Hunteria
tumharo mantra bibh
lankeshvara bhae saba j

Your Mantra was accepted by Vibishana, as a result of which he became the king of Lanka.[28][48]
[53]
The whole world knows this.[53]

Hunter
juga sahasra jojan
llyo thi madhura p

Devanagari


The Surya, situated many thousands of Yojanas from the earth, was swallowed by you after you
assumed him to be a sweet fruit.[54]
Though Hanuman does not end up swallowing the Surya in Valmiki's Ramayana, the narrative is
referred to by Tulsidas in the Vinayapatrika.[54] Rambhadracharya ascribes the differences in the
narration by Valmiki and Tulsidas to the difference in the Kalpas.[54]
While there is no mention of how Tulsidas calculated the distance between earth and sun yet the
lines do provide a close approximation of distance between the two.

juga sahasra jojana para bhn : 1 Yug = 12000 years 1 Sahastra = 1000 1 Yojan = 8 Miles Yug x
Sahastra x Yojan which makes it 12000 x 1000 x 8 miles = 96000000 miles.The sun is
1 astronomical unit from earth which is exactly 93000000 miles so quite close to the actual distance
with a margin of error given non existence of scientific equipment at the time.

Devanagari

Hunter
prabhu mudrik me
jaladhi lghi gaye ach

O Lord, placing the ring given by Rama in your mouth, you leaped across the ocean there is no
wonder here.[55]

Devanagari

Hunterian
durgama kja jagat
sugama anugraha tumh

All the unattainable tasks in the world become easily attainable with your grace. [30]

Devanagari

Hunteri
rma dure tuma
hota na gy binu

You are the doorkeeper and protector of the door to Rama's court. Without your command, nobody
can enter the abode of Rama.[56]
Rambhadracharya explains paisre as the Tadbhava form of Sanskrit padasra.[56]

Depiction of Bharata (Lord Rama's Youngest Brother) meeting Lord Rama watched by Hanuman,
Sita and Lakshman.... From Left Hanuman, Bharata, Lord Rama, Sita and Lakshman

Devanagari

Hunterian
saba sukha lahai tum
tuma rakshaka kh ko

Once in your refuge, a Sdhaka obtains all the pleasures. You are the protector, and there is nothing
to be afraid of.[57]

Devanagari

Hunter
pana teja sam
tinau loka hka te

When you roar, after remembering your powers, the three worlds tremble with fear.[58]
Rambhadracharya comments that this verse refers to the narrative of Jambavan reminding
Hanuman of his powers in the Kishkindha Kanda of Ramayana. [58]

Devanagari

Hunteria
bhta pishcha nikat
mahbra jaba nma s

Evil spirits (bhta) and meat-eating ghosts (pishcha) do not come near those chant the Mahvira
name of yours.[59]

Devanagari

Hunteria
nsai roga harai s
japata nirantara hanum

The brave Hanuman, when invoked incessantly by the means of Japa, destroys all ailments and
removes all sufferings.[60]

Devanagari

Hunterian
sankata se hanumna
mana krama bachana dhyn

Hanuman extricates those from all adversities who remember him (or contemplate upon him) in their
heart, by their actions and by their words.[28][61][62]

Devanagari

Hunte
saba para rma
tina ke kja sakala

Rama is the supreme God and a king with Tapas, and yet you executed all his tasks.[28][61][63]
Rambhadracharya explains that the word saba para is from Sanskrit sarvapara, meaning supreme. A
variant reading of this verse is saba para rma rya siratj, on which Rambhadracharya's
commentary says Rama is the supreme God and king of kings.[63]

Devanagari

Hunter
aura manoratha
tsu amita jvana ph

And whoever comes to you with any wish, that wish is fulfilled beyond limits (literally, "they obtain the
unlimited fruit of the wish") in this very birth.[28][61][64]
A variant reading is so amita jvana phala pvai.[64]

Devanagari

Hunteri
chro juga para t
hai parasiddha jagata

Your glory is famous in all the four Yugas, and illuminates the whole world.[28][65][66]
Rambharacharya adds that this verse refers to the immortality of Hanuman, as four cycles of the four
Yugas are believed to have passed since the Avatar of Rama.

Devanagari

Hunteria
sdhu santa ke tuma
asura nikandana rma

You are the protector of Sadhus (mendicants) and Sants (saints). You are the destroyer of demons
and dear as a son to Rama.[67]

Rambhadracharya interprets the word sdhu as Bhaktas who are performing sdhan and the
word santa as Bhaktas whose sdhan is complete.[67]

Hunte
ashta siddhi nau
asa bara dnha jn

Devanagari

You are the bestower the eight Siddhis (supernatural powers named An im, Garim, Mahim,
Laghim, Prpti, Prkmya, itva, and Vaitva) and the nine Nidhis (divine treasures named
Mahpadma, Padma, akha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, Nla and Kharva). Mother Sita,
the daughter of Janaka, has granted you this boon.[68]

Hunteri
rma rasyana tum
sdar ho raghupati

Devanagari

You have the treasure of Rama's Bhakti (rma rasyana) with you. You are, respectfully, the servant
of Raghupati (Shri Raam).[69]
Rambhadracharya explains the term rma rasyana in two ways [69]
1. The treasure of love (Bhakti) towards Rama, with rasa meaning devotion and yana meaning
repository
2. The abode of devotion to Rama (i.e. Ramyana), with rasa meaning devotion
and yana meaning a house or edifice
Some variant readings are sad raho and "sdar tum" instead of sdar ho.

Devanagari

Hunterian
tumhare bhajana rm
janama janama ke dukha

Singing of you (Hanuman), a Bhakta obtains Rama and forgets the adversities and afflictions
of many births.[70]
Rambhadracharya explains using verses from Ramcharitmanas and Kavitavali, that as per
Tulsidas Jna and Vairgya are the two means to obtain Rama, and Hanuman is both Jna and
Vairgya incarnate.[70] Hence serving Hanuman leads to Rama.[70]

Devanagari

Hunteri
anta kla raghuba
jah janma hari bhak

As a result of devotion to you, a Bhakta goes to Sketa Loka (raghubara pura) at the time of their
end (physical death). Once the Bhakta reaches Sketa, wherever they take birth, they are known as
the Bhaktas of Hari.[71]
Rambhadracharya interprets this verse to mean that the Bhakta, even discards the blissful Moksha
to take birth again in this world as a devotee of Hari, as Tulsidas says in the fourth book of
Ramcharitmanas.[71]

Devanagari

Hunterian
aura devat chitta n
hanumata sei sarba sukh

Even one who does not contemplate on any other Devatas in their mind and only serves Hanuman,
achieves all favourable bliss in this world and the next.[72]
Rambhadracharya explains that as per Bhagavad Gita, only Devatas can grant the desired results of
actions, but even if one serves Hanuman and no other Devata, they obtain all worldly and otherworldly bliss.[72]

Devanagari

Hunteria
sankata katai mita
jo sumirai hanumata b

Whoever remembers the brave and mighty Hanuman gets free of all adversities and relief from all
pains.[28][61][73]

Devanagari

Hunteria
jaya jaya jaya hanu
krip karahu gurudev

O Hanuman, the master of senses, may you be victorious, may you be victorious, may you be
victorious. May you shower your grace lovingly, as a Guru does, and reveal to me the knowledge of
devotion to Rama.[28][31][61]
Rambhadracharya interprets the three utterances of jaya to mean that Hanuman is sat-cit-nanda.[31]

Devanagari

Hunterian
jo shata bra ptha
chhtahi bandi mah suk

One who recites Hanuman Chalisa a hundred times (or for hundred days) is released from bondage
and obtains great bliss".[28][74][75]
Rambhadracharya interprets shata as standing for the number 108 and bra (Sanskrit vra) to mean
a day.[75] He explains the words to mean that one who recites the Hanuman Chalisa 108 times daily
for 108 days will be released from of bondages of this world and the next, and will obtain great bliss.
[75]

Hunter
jo yaha parhai hanu
hoya siddha skh

Devanagari

One who reads this Hanuman Chalisa obtains Siddhi (accomplishment or liberation). Shiva himself
bears witness to this statement.[76]
Rao and Mehta explain this as "One who reads Hanuman Chalisa attains siddhis of God Shiva and
becomes his friend."[28][74]

Devanagari

Hunterian
tulasdsa sad har
kjai ntha hridaya mam

Tulsidas is always a devotee of Hari. O Lord, make my heart your abode. [28][74]
Rambhadracharya offers three explanations for this verse in accordance with three different Anvayas
(connection of words)[32] 1. O Hanuman, the lord of Vanaras, you are always in the service of Hari (Rama), may you
reside in the heart of Tulsidas.
2. Tulsidas says O Lord Hanuman, may you ever reside in the heart of the devotees who serve
Hari (Rama).
3. Tulsidas is ever the servant of Hari (Hanuman, as Hari also means Vanara in Sanskrit), may
you reside in my heart.

Concluding Doha[edit]
Devanagari

Hunterian
pavanatanaya sankata harana m
rma lakhana st sahita hridaya

O Son of Vyu, remover of adversities, one with an auspicious form, and the chief among all Devas,
may you reside in our hearts along with Ram, Lakshman and Sita.[28][33][74]
Rambhadracharya explains that Tulsidas addresses Hanuman with four adjectives in this final verse
to indicate that Hanuman helps cleanse the mind (Manas), intellect (Buddhi), heart (Citta) and ego
(Ahakra), and by asking him to reside in the heart of the devotee, Tulsidas ends the work by
implying that the refuge of Hanuman is the supreme pursuit.[33]