FIQH AND OTHER RELIGIOUS FOOD CONCEPTS CTU 696

BY ZAINAL SAMICHO (ASSOC. PROF. DR.) FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCES UiTM, SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR zainal147@salam.uitm.edu.my H/p no: 012-2537976 Tel. no: 03-55444452

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Fiqh 1. Fiqh translated as Jurisprudence is the understanding of how that which we know as fact occurs and why. This is difference between Fiqh and µIlm. 2. Ilm is the knowledge that something fact. 3. Fiqh is the operation of what we know. 4. Fiqh is the complete comprehension, and the intricate and methodical understanding of why and how things are the way they are and operates thee way they do (Abdul Quddoos al-Azhari, 2006)

1. Fiqh yang diterjemah sebagai ilmu hukum ialah kefahaman tentang bagaimana sesuatu yang kita ketahui sebagai fakta itu berlaku dan mengapa ia berlaku. Inilah perbezaan antara fiqh dengan ³Ilm 2. Ilm ialah pengetahuan bahawa sesuatu itu adalah fakta 3. Fiqh ialah perlaksanaan apa yang kita ketahui 4. Fiqh ialah kefahaman menyeluruh, terperinci dan tersusun tentang mengapa dan bagaimana sesuatu itu berkeadaan demikian dan bertindak seperti adanya. (Abdul Quddoos al-Azhari, 2006)

Sumber-sumber hukum Islam
1. 2. 3. 4. Al-Quran Hadis Ijma¶ Qiyas

Al-Quran
1. Erti Al- Quran:Al-Quran ialah wahyu Allah swt yang merupakan mu¶jizat yang diturunkan kepada Nabi Muhammad saw sebagai sumber hukum dan pendoman hidup bagi pemeluk Islam Dalam Al-Qulran terdapat beberapa macam kedudukan ayat antara lain perintahnya jelas, tetapi caranya (sholat) atau ukuran (zakat) tidak jelas Kalau kita menjumpai ayat-ayat semacam ini, maka perlu sekali adanya penjelasan lebih lanjut. Penjelasan ini tidak ada yang berhak memberikanya, kecuali Nabi saw semata-mata sebagaimana firma Allah; ³Dan Kami turunkan kepadamu Muhammad Al-Quran, agar kamu menerangkan kepada ummat manusia´ (Surah 16, an-Nahl, ayat 44)

2.

3.

Sunnah
‡ Erti Sunnah: Sunnah menurut bahasa ertiny perjalanan, pekerjaan atau cara. Sunnah menurut istilah syara¶ ialah perkataan Nabi Muhammad saw, perbuatannya dan keterangannya yaitu sesuatu yang dikatakan atau diperbuat oleh sahabat dan ditetapkan oleh Nabi, tiada ditegurnya sebagai bukti bahawa perbuatan itu tiada terlarang hukumnya

Pembahagian Sunnah
Sunnah itu dibagi menjadi tiga 1. Sunnah Qauliyah, yakni sabda-sabda Rasullah 2. Sunnah Fi¶liyah, yakni perbuatan Rasullah 3. Sunnah Taqririyah, yakni diamnya Rasullah atas ucapan atau perbuatan sahabat

Ijma¶
1. Erti Ijma¶: Ijma¶ menurut bahasa, ertinya: sepakat, setuju atau sependapat, sedang menurut istilah ia Kebulatan pendapat semua ahli ijtihad ummat Muhammad, sesudah wafatnya pada suatu masa, tentang suatu perkara (hukum) 2. Ijma¶ itu menjadi hujjah (pegangan) dengan sendirinya ditempat yang tidak didapati dalil (nash), yakni Al-Quran dan Hadis

Qiyas
1. Erti Qiyas: Qiyas menurut bahasa, ertinya ³mengukur sesuatu dengan lainnya dan mempersamakannya´ 2. Menurut istilah, ³Qiyas ialah menetapkan sesuatu perbuatan yang belum ada ketentuan hukumnya, berdasarkan sesuatu hukum yang sudah ditentukan oleh nash, disebabkan adanya persamaan di antara keduanya.´ 3. Qiyas menurut para Ulama adalah hujjah Shariah yang keempat sesudah Al-Quran, Hadis dan Ijma¶ berdasarkan firman Allah; ³Hendaklah kamu mengambil I¶tibar (ibarat=pelajaran) hai orang-orang yang berfikiran.´ (Surah 59, al-Hasyr; ayat 2)

2.0 Classification of food and drinks
2.1 Halal

Definition: The meaning of the word halal is; permitted, allowed, authorised, approved, sanctioned, lawful, legal and legitimate

2.2 Tayyiba Definition: The meaning of the word tayyiba wholesome and good to be consumed

O mankind ! Eat of that which is lawful and wholesome in the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Lo he is an open enemy for you.
Surah 2, Al Baqarah; ayah 168 (Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall, 2001)

O mankind ! Eat of what is lawful and good on the earth, and do not walk in Satan¶s footsteps, for he is an open enemy for you.
Surah 2, Al Baqarah; ayah 168 (Uthman El-Muhammady et al, 2006)

³Wahai manusia! Makanlah dari (makanan) yang halal lagi baik yang terdapat dibumi, dan janganlah kamu mengikut jejaki langkah-langkah setan. Sungguh setan itu musuh yang nyata bagi kamu´ Surah ke 2, Al-Baqarah : ayat 168 (Abu Hasan Din al-Hafiz, 2008)

Eat of that which Allah hath bestowed on you as food lawful and good, and keep your duty to ! Allah in Whom ye are believers.

Surah 5, Al-Maidah: ayah 88 (Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall, 2001)

And eat of the good and lawful things which Allah has given you; and be conscious of Allah, in ! whom you believe.

Surah 5, Al-Maidah: ayah 88 (Uthman El-Muhammady et al, 2006)

Dan makanlah dari apa yang telah Diberikan Allah kepadamu sebagai rezeki yang halal lagi baik dan bertakwalah kepada Allah yang kamu beriman kepadaNya.

Surah ke 5, Al-Maidah: ayat 88
(Abu Hasan Din al-Hafiz, 2008)

So eat of the lawful and good food which Allah hath provided for you, and thank the bountry of your ! Lord if it is Him ye serve

Surah 16, Al-Nahl: ayah 144 (Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall, 2001)

Therefore, (O believers) eat of the lawful and good things that Allah has provided for you, and be grateful for His favours, if it is true that you only! worship Him

Surah 16, Al-Nahl: ayah 144 (Uthman El-Muhammady et al, 2006)

Maka makanlah yang halal lagi baik dari rezeki yang telah Diberikan Allah kepadamu; dan syukurilah nikmat dan Allah, jika kamu hanya menyembah kepadaNya
Surah ke 16, Al-Nahl: ayat 144
(Abu Hasan Din al-Hafiz, 2008)

2.3 Haram Definition: The meaning of the word haram is ³Not permitted, not allowed, unauthorized, unapproved, unsanctioned, unlawful, illegal, illegitimate or illicit´

2.4 Makruh Definition: The meaning of the word makruh is to encourage not to consume due to its potential of hazardous.

2.5 Syubhah/Mashbooh
1. 2. 3. i. ii. iii. Definition: Mashbooh is an Arabic term which means ³SUSPECTED´ If one does not know the halal or non-halal status of a particular item such as food or drink, such food or drink is doubtful To ensure either food is halal or non-halal check ingredients of the product ± compare with handbook halal food additives ask document mentioning the source of ingredient is halal or non-halal by recognized Islamic body or scientific analysis ask to carried analysis done by accredited laboratory

2.6 Najs
2.6.1 Najs according to Shariah Law are: a) things that are themselves not permissible such as pig (khinzir) and all its derivatives, blood and carrion; b) halal food that is contaminated with things that are non-halal; c) halal food that comes into direct contact with things that are non-halal; d) any liquid and objects discharged from the orifices of human beings or animals such as urine, excrement, blood, vomitus, pus, sperm and ova of pigs and dogs except sperm and ova of other animals; and e) carrion or halal animals that are not slaughtered according to Shariah Law. 2.6.2 There are three types of najs: a) Mughallazah which is considered as severe najs which are dogs and pigs (khinzir) including any liquid and objects discharged from their orifices, descendants and derivatives; b) Mukhaffafah which is considered as light najs. The only najs in this category is urine from baby boy at the age of 2 years and below who has not consumed any other food except fed by his mother¶s milk; and c) Mutawassitah which is considered as medium najs which do not falls under severe or light najs such as vomit, pus, blood, alcoholic drinks (khamar), carrion, liquid and objects discharged from the orifices, etc.

Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swineflesh, and that which hath been dedicated unto any other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the dead through falling from a height, and that which hath been killed by (the goring of) horns, and the devoured of wild beasts, saving that which ye make lawful (by the deathstroke), and that which hath been immolated unto idols. And (forbidden is it) that ye apportion by the divining arrows. This is an abomination. ««

Surah 5, Al-Maidah: ayah 3

³Diharamkan bagimu (memakan) bangkai, darah, daging babi, dan (daging) hewan yang disembelih bukan atas (nama) Allah, yang tercekik, yang dipukul, yang jatuh, yang ditanduk dan yang diterkam binatang buas kecuali yang sempat kamu sembelih. ««.
Surah ke 5, Al-Maidah: ayat 3

2.7 Darurat Definition: The meaning of the word darurat is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, and not transgressing

³He has forbidden you only Al-Maitah (meat of a dead animal), blood, the flesh of swine, and any animal which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols or on which Allah¶s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, and not transgressing, -- then, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Surah 16, An-Nahl; Ayah 115

³And say not concerning that which your tongue put forth falsely: ³This is lawful and this is forbidden,´ so as to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah will never prosper.´
Surah 16, An-Nahl; Ayah 116

Keterangan ayat 114-116. Dalam ayat-ayat ini Allah menerangkan, bahawa rezeki yang halal lagi baik dan lazat rasanya halal dimakan, hanya yang diharamkan Allah, ialah mayat (bangkai), darah, daging babi, dan yang disembelih kerana lain daripada Allah (kerana berhala). Tetapi diwaktu darurat (terpaksa, kerana tak ada yang akan dimakan selain daripadanya), maka halal dimakan. Maka yang haram dimakan ialah segala tersebut dalam ayat ini, iaitu empat perkara. Haiwan yang mati kerana berlaga, kerana digiling kenderaan dsb. Maka masuk hukum mayat, kerana tiada disembelih dengan nama Allah. Sebab itu kita tidak boleh mengatakan: ³Ini halal dan itu haram´,

menurut kemahuan lidah kita sendiri, kerana yang berhak menghalalkan dan mengharamkan itu ialah Allah semata-mata, sedangkan Nabi Muhammad hanya menyampaikan kepada umatnya. Sebab itu menurut kata setengah ulama¶, hanya yang empat macam itulah yang haram dimakan, yang lain halal, kecuali jika mudarat memakannya kepada jasmani. Tetapi menurut kata kebanyakan ulama¶ selain dari yang tersebut dalam ayat ini, ada lagi yang haram dimakan, iaitu yang tersebut dalam hadis Nabi S.A.W. diantaranya binatang yang buas, seperti harimau dan binatang-binatang yang menerkam dengan taringnya seperti kucing, dsb. Begitu juga burung yang menangkap dengan cakarnya seperti helang. Maka semua itu juga haram dimakan, meskipun tiada tersebut dalam ayat ini, tetapi diterangkan hukumnya oleh Nabi S.A.W. dan kita wajib mengikut Allah dan RasulNya.

««Allah desireth for you ease: He desireth not hardship for you «..

‡ Surah 2, Al-Baqarah, ayaht 185

««Allah menghendaki kemudahan bagimu, dan tidak menghendaki kesukaran bagimu «..

‡ Surah ke 2, Al-Baqarah, ayat 185

««Allah tasketh not a soul beyond its scope «..

‡ Surah 2, Al-Baqarah, ayah 286

««Allah tidak membebani seseorang melainkan sesuai dengan kesanggupannya «..

‡ Surah ke 2, Al-Baqarah, ayat 286

3.0: Source of food, drinks and food additive 3.1 Animal 3.1.1 Land animals
All land animals are halal as food except the following: 1. animals that are not slaughtered according to Shariah Law; 2. pigs (khinzir) and dogs and their descendants; 3. animals with long pointed teeth (canines) or tusks which are used to kill prey such as tigers, bears, elephants, cats, monkeys, etc; 4. birds with talons or predator birds ; 5. pests such as rats, centipedes, scorpions and other similar animals; animals that are forbidden to be killed in Islam such as bees (alnahlah) woodpeckers (hud-hud), etc; and 6. creatures that are considered repulsive such as lice, flies, etc. lizards, snails

Halal animals
‡ Domesticated animals such as cows, bull, buffalos, sheep, goats, camels, rabbits, chicken, geese, ducks and turkeys ‡ Wild animals such as deer, wild cows, zebras ‡ Non-predatory birds such as pigeons, sparrows, quail, starlings, herons, ostrich ‡ locusts

3.1.1.1 Non- halal animals
1. Animals not slaughtered in a halal manner 2. Pig, dog, donkey or carnivores 3. Dead animals due to strangulation, a blow to the head (as in clubbing), a headlong fall, natural causes (carrion), being gored or attacked by another animal 4. Animals having protruding canine teeth such as monkeys, cats and lions, wolves, tigers, panthers, jackals, bears, foxes, squirrels 5. Amphibious animals such as frogs, crocodiles and turtles 6. Undesirable insects such as worms, files and cockroaches, ants, wasps 7. Birds of prey with talons such as owls and eagles 8. Blood

Muslims are prohibited to consume pork
1. Al-Quran; Surah Al-Baqarah, 2; ayah 173, Surah Al-Maidah, 5; ayah 3, Surah Al-An,aam, 6; ayah 145, Surah Al-Nahl, 16; ayah 115, e.g; Surah 16 (An-Nahl), Ayah 115 ³He has forbidden, you only Al-Maitah (meat of a dead animal), blood, the flesh of swine, and any animal which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols or on which Allah¶s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, and not transgressing, «then, Allah is OftForgiving, Most Merciful.

2 i. ii.

iii.

iv.

v. vi.

Effects of pork consumption pig¶s bodies contain many toxins, worms and latent disease modern veterinarians say that pigs are far more predisposed to these infestations than other animals. This could be because pigs like to scavenge and will eat any kind of food, including dead insects, worms, rotting carcasses, excreta (including their own), garbage, and other pigs influenza (flu) is one of the most famous illnesses which pigs share with humans. This illness is harboured in the lungs of pigs during summer months and tends to affect pigs and humans in the cooler months. Sausage contains bits of pigs¶ lungs, so those who eat pork sausage tend to suffer more during epidemics of influenza pig meat contains excessive quantities of histamine and imidazole compounds which can lead to itching and inflammation; sulphurcontaining mesenchymal mucus, which leads to swelling and deposits of mucus in tendons and cartilage, resulting in arthritis, rheumatism etc. sulphur help cause firm human tendons and ligaments to be replaced by the pig¶s soft mesenchymal tissues, and degeneration of human cartilage eating pork can also lead to gallstones and obesity, probably due to its high cholesterol and saturated fat content pig is the main carrier of the taenia solium worm, which is found in its flesh. This type of tapeworm can pass through the intestines and affect many other organs, and is incurable once it reaches beyond a certain stage. Eating pork contain trichia worms cause trichinosis. These worms are not noticed during meat inspections, nor are they killed by salting or smoking. Few people cook the meat long enough to kill the trichinae

Al-Hadith mentioning about non-halal food
1. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Every fanged beast of prey is unlawful for food. Muslim 2. Ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah prohibited every beast having a fang and every bird having a talon. - Muslim 3. Abdur Rahman-b-Shibi reported that the Prophet prohibited the eating of the meat of lizards. - Abu Daud 4. Jaber reported that the Prophet prohibited the eating of cats and taking its price. - Abn Daud Tirmizi

3.1.2 Aquatic animals i. Aquatic animals are those which live in water and cannot survive outside it, such as fish. ii. All aquatic animals are halal except those that are poisonous, intoxicating or hazardous to health. iii. Animals that live both on land and water such as crocodiles, turtles and frogs are not halal.

3.2 Plants
‡ All types of plants products and its derivatives are halal except those that are poisonous, intoxicating or are hazardous to health

3.3 Mushroom and microorganisms
i. All types of mushroom and microorganisms (i.e. bacteria, algae and fungi) and their by-products ii. and/or derivatives are halal except those that are poisonous, intoxicating or hazardous to health.

3.4 Natural minerals and chemicals All natural minerals and chemicals are halal except those that are poisonous, intoxicating or hazardous to health.

3.5 Drinks/Beverages - Intoxicating substances
1. A beverages is a drinkable liquid, consumed for a variety of reasons  Thirst quenching - water  Stimulant effect ± caffeinated drinks (cocoa, coffee, tea)  Alcoholic content ± beer & wine  Health value ± milk & fruit & veg. juices  Enjoyment ± carbonated soft drink 2.Nutrients are substances in beverages that when absorbed into the body, are used for specific functions like growth, maintenance & repair of tissue 3. Water content;  instant coffee is close to 100%  orange juice is below 90%  alcoholic beverages can contain even less water

4. Ethyl alcohol/liquor drink 5. Four alcoholic beverages;  Light beer is lower in calories compared to beer, mainly because of a lower carbohydrate content. However, alcohol contents are similar 
   

Wine and vodka contain much higher levels of alcohol per fluid once than beer Beer 12 fl oz, 13 g of alcohol Light beer 12 fl oz, 11 g of alcohol Red wine 3.5fl oz, 9 g of alcohol Vodka1.5 fl oz, 16 g of alcohol

Alcohol group
1. An alcohol (OH) group is not the same as a hydroxide ion (OH-) 2. The OH group is called a hydroxyl group, and it does not ionize 3. Food alcohol compounds contain hyroxyl functional group e.g  Ethanol, C2H5OH  produced by;  hydrolyzing the starch in potatoes  fermenting the sugars in molasses  Glycerol, CH2OH ± CHOH ± CH2OH  derived from animal fats & veg. oils  is a slightly sweet  water-soluble alcohol 4. Synthetic flavour (esterification process); Formic acid + ethanol p ethyl formate (has a characteristic rum aroma)

3.6 Genetic modified foods (GMF)
‡ Food and drinks containing products and/or by-products of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or ingredients made by the use of genetic material of animals that are non-halal by Shariah law are not halal

3.7 Food additives
Addition of materials to obtain a numbers of reasons 1 Preservative  To control the growth of the mould, bacteria & yeast increase the shelf life of food 2 Colouring substances  To make food appealing & help to stimulate appetite 3 Falvour substances/enhancers  To savoury flavour 4 Food conditioners  For a technological purpose to obtain the desired food  Smooth texture ± emulsifier  Prevent separation stabiliser  Antifoaming agent to stop liquid from becoming frothy 5 Antioxidant  To prevent oxidation process/rancidity

Halal Food additives
‡ From halal (plant/halal animals slaughtered according to Shariah law) sources ‡ Fit to consume (containing no toxin/hazardous) ‡ According to Shariah law ‡ Under permitted level ± Food regulation ‡ List of halal food additives ± handbook from JAKIM

Food additives ± halal/non-halal?
³E´ number E120 E160a E471 E472 (a-e) E473 E474 E475 E476 E477 E478 E570 E572 E631 E640 Description Cochineal ± derived from the cochineal beetle Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-Carotene ± haram if non-halal gelatine is added to it Mono and Di-glycerides of fatty acids ± when glycerol is used, one has to find out the source whether animal or synthetic Lactic acid esters of mono- and D-glycerides of fatty acids, prepared from esters of glycerol Sucrose esters of fatty acids prepared from glycerol and sucrose Sycroglycerides prepared by reaction of sucrose on natural triglycerides, derived from palm oil, lard etc Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, prepared in the laboratory Polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil, prepared from castor oil and glycerol esters Propylene glycol of fatty acids Prepared from esters of glycerol and lactic acid Stearic acid, naturally occurring fatty acid found in animal fats and vegetable oils, used as anticaking agent Prepared synthetically from commercial stearic acid Prepared from insect, meat and fish extract Same source as E631

4.0 Concept and objective of diet in Islam ‡ Definition ‡ Principle ‡ Diet

4.2 Objectives of diet in Islam
1) To preserve the purity of religion - halal & non-halal must be unchanged as stated in Al-Quran - any changing will be decided by Fatwa Committee after get information from certain groups e.g scientists 2) To safeguard worship - To ensure muslims think permanently according to religion - give decision on the halal states based on Islamic mentality and knowledge 3) To preserve biological needs - halal food is fit and safe to consume therefore can prevent people from poisoning and toxicity - to maintain the healthy of people and maintain life accordingly 4) To safeguard physical and spiritual health -Our body is belong to ourselves that should be looked after by ourselves by taking halal food to safeguard our body from hazardous - if our body in good condition therefore we can performed well in other jobs 5) To safeguard future generations -If we are not healthy due to take unfit food, this will give effect to our hormones and to our kids and future generation - to ensure future generation always in good healthy and not handicap mentally and physically 6) To maintain self-respect and integrity - By obeying rule of Islam meaning that we are feeling respect ourselves e.g by practising halal slaughtering that means we are learning to respects animal automatically to train us to respect ourselves and each others - Integrity means that we are firm if the food is halal or non-halal without be influenced or to force to say halal or to give halal certificate even though the food is non- halal

5.0 Slaughtering 5.1 Slaughtering (MS1500:2004)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. slaughtering shall be performed only by a Muslim who is mentally sound & he shall not be in ihram the act of slaughtering shall be done with niyyah (intention) & the slaughterman is well aware of his action the purpose of slaughtering is only for Allah and not for other purpose the animal to be slaughtered has to be an animal that is halal the animal to be slaughter shall be alive or deemed to be alive (hayat al-mustaqirrah) at the time of slaughter animals to be slaughter shall be healthy and have approved by the competent authority the phrase (In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful) has to be invoked immediately before slaughtering slaughtering lines, tools and utensils shall be dedicated for halal slaughter only slaughtering knife or blade shall be sharp slaughtering shall be done only once. The sawing action of the slaughtering is permitted as long as the slaughtering knife or blade is not lifted off the animal during the slaughtering bones, nails and teeth shall not be used as slaughtering tools the act of halal slaughter shall begin with an incision on the neck at some point just below the glottis (Adam¶s apple) and after the glottis for long necked animals the slaughter act shall sever the trachea (halqum), oesophagus (mari¶) and both the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain) to hasten the bleeding and death of the animal. The bleeding shall be spontaneous and complete a trained Muslim inspector shall be appointed and be responsible to check that the animals are properly slaughtered according to the Shariah law

5.1.1 : Shahih Slaughtering - Conditions of lawful slaughtering
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. slaughtering shall be performed only by a Muslim who is mentally sound and know rukun-rukun and also conditions of sah slaughtering slaughtering shall be performed only by a Muslim or ahli kitab the act of slaughtering shall be done with niyyah (intention) of Allah the act of slaughtering shall not be done with niyyah (intention) of other than Allah the animal to be slaughter shall be alive the animal to be slaughtered has to be an animal that is halal slaughtering tool shall be sharp not nails, teeth and bones the slaughter act shall sever the trachea (halqum) and oesophagus (mari¶) death of the animal with once slaughtering

(JAIS, 2008)

Figure 1. Slaughtering part for chicken

Figure 2. Method of slaughtering chicken

Figure 3. Slaughtering part for cattle

Figure 4. Method of slaughtering cattle

5.1.2; Sunnah during slaughtering
1. the phrase (In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful) has to be invoked immediately before slaughtering 2. animal facing towards µkiblat¶ 3. invoked µselawat ke atas Nabi¶ 4. the slaughter act shall sever both the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain) 5. slaughtering knife shall be sharp 6. the animal laying on left side of rusuk 7. promptly slaughtering after animal laying 8. clean or µsuci¶ from µhadas kecil and hadas besar¶ (JAIS, 2008)

Carotid artery
1. Either of the two arteries in the neck that branch and provide the BLOOD supply to the head and neck 2. The paired common carotid arteries arise from the AORTA (the major large artery of the body which carries BLOOD to all areas) on the left side of the heart and from the innominate artery (branch of the AORTA) on the right 3. These continue up on either side of the neck and branch into the internal CAROTIOD BODY and the external carotid body

Carotid body
1. A small area of specialised reddish-coloured tissue situated one on either side of the neck where the common CAROTID ARTERY branches to form the internal and external carotids 2. It is sensitive to chemical changes in the blood, containing CHEMORECEPTORS that respond to oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen levels 3. If the oxygen level falls, impulses are transmitted to the respiratory centers in the brain, resulting in an increase in the rate of respiration and heartbeat

Jugular vein
1. Any of the VEINS ( vessel that carries the blood to heart/any blood vessel) in the neck, particularly the anterior, internal and external. 2. The anterior jugular veins is an offshot of the external jugular vein and runs down the front of the neck 3. The external jugular itself drains the scalp, face and neck 4. The larger internal jugular vein drains the face, neck and brain and is sited vertically down the side of the neck

5.1.3: Makruh during slaughtering
1. 2. 3. 4. sharping knife in front of animal slaughtering until cut of animal¶s neck the act of slughtering performed by girl/woman the act of slughtering performed by µorang yang fasik¶ 5. µberhadas besar¶ during slaughtering 6. torture the animal to be slaughtered (JAIS, 2008)

5.2 Rules of Slaughtering
5.2.1
1) 2) 3)

Requirements of the animals to be slaughtered:

The animal to be slaughtered has to be an animal that is halal. A certificate must be issued by a Veterinary Authority which attests that animals to be slaughtered are healthy. The animal to be slaughtered shall be alive or deemed to be an alive at the time of slaughter. The slaughtering procedure should not cause torture to animals and should be done with animal welfare consideration. For a certain period before slaughtering, animals should be fed with halal food. This period is minimum 3 days for halal animals. Feeding of animals should be cut down for a period of 6 hours before slaughtering. If animals have arrived from long distance, they should first be allowed to rest before slaughtering.

4)

5)

(OIC, 2009)

5.2.2 Slaughtering tools and utensils
1) Slaughtering lines, tools and utensils shall be clean and used for the purpose of halal slaughter only. 2) Slaughtering tools shall be sharp and made of stainless steel. 3) Bones, nails and teeth shall not be used as slaughtering tools. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.3 Slaughterer
1) The slaughterer shall be a Muslim who is mentally sound and fully understands the fundamental rules and conditions related to the slaughter of animals. 2) The slaughterer shall have a certificate of Halal slaughtering issued by a competent authority supervising matters relating to health, hygiene, sanitation and rules of halal slaughtering. 3) A slaughterer performed by religiously observant Jews or Christians who properly meets all halal requirements described herein may be used when a Muslim slaughterer is not available and not with persons from other religion. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.4 Slaughtering places
Slaughter places shall satisfy the requirements of prerequisite programmes as defined in Codex CAC/RCP 1 or ISO 22000. Physical conditions of slaughtering places shall be fulfilled the national legal requirements. 1) 2) 3) 4) Landing area which allows convenient space for health checks. At the entrance a special slaughtering area, electrically operated automatic or manually operated roller chain system that is used to hang the animal Automatic, movable or manually operated rail system equipped with roller chain, which sequences flow of work. Fixed or movable loading platform and landing area specially designed for cattle and sheep-goats, which help workers, handle skinning and carcass preparation with ease and efficiency. Weighing area. Carcass washing premises (pressure water, preferably automatic) Vessel which contains hot water at all times for the purpose of washing, disinfecting or sterilizing dirty tools (knives, hanger etc.), cuvettes holding antiseptic liquid and for hands sink fitted with a tap operated by foot or knee or by photocell. Clean and pressure water supply should be made available at all times. All disinfectant and antiseptic liquids shall be suitable for the use in halal food sector.

5) 6) 7)

8) 9)

(OIC, 2009)

5.2.5 Slaughtering procedure
5.2.5.1 Slaughtering procedure of animals In addition to Clause 3.2.1, the following requirements are applied. 5.2.5.1.1 Health checks of animals before slaughtering 1) In addition to ante mortem control, the following requirements are also applied. 2) Animals to be slaughtered shall undergo health checks. 3) These checks include assessment of veterinary medicine residues, age, pregnancy, diagnosis of diseases which hinder slaughtering (such as anthrax and rabies and etc.), communicable diseases or any feverous diseases. 4) Those animals which are found sick or suspected to be sick shall immediately be segregated in an isolation area and legal formalities should be fulfilled. 5) Animals which have completed 1/3 of their pregnancy shall not be slaughtered. NOTE - Diseases such as tetanus or rabies can be detected more easily when the animal is still alive and that such diseases may go unnoticed after the slaughtering. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.1.2 Cleaning and washing of animals
1) Animals sent for slaughter should be free of faeces, urine and mud. 2) Dirty animals should be cleaned in paddocks where available or in areas set aside for washing purposes. 3) It is important to refrain from slaughtering animals when they are still wet.

5.2.5.1.3 Prevention of mixing of different animals
Special care should be taken to avoid mixing of different group of animals during their transfer to paddocks, cleaning and transfer to slaughter area.

5.2.5.1.4 Leading animals to slaughtering area
1) Animals to be slaughtered shall be led into the slaughter area by qualified personnel through a corridor. 2) Giving a light slap to legs with a stick or slight twisting of tail in the case of cows and use of low voltage electrical operated device are considered as normal practices. 3) At the end of the corridor that animals are led through for slaughtering, it should be ensured that animals waiting in the line are prevented from seeing those being slaughtered, with the help of a movable curtain or a partition system. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.1.5 Procedure
1) The animal may be slaughtered, after having been hung or laid preferably on its left side facing Kiblah (the direction of Mecca). Care shall be given to reduce suffering of the animal while it is being hung or laid and not to be kept waiting much in that position. 2) At the time of slaughtering the animals, the slaughterer shall utter ³BISMILLAH WALLAHUAKBAR´ which means ³In the Name of Allah Almighty Great´ and he should not mention any name other than Allah otherwise this make it non-halal. Mentioning the name of Allah should be on each carcass ³Zabaha´ (killed by slaughter) or on each group being slaughtered continuously and if the continuous process is stopped for any reasons he should mention the name of Allah again. 3) Slaughtering shall be done only once to each animal. The ³sawing action´ of the slaughtering is permitted as long as the slaughtering knife shall not be lifted off the animal during the slaughter. 4) The act of halal slaughter shall begin with an incision on the neck at some point just below the glottis (Adam¶s apple) and after the glottis for long necked animals. 5) The slaughter act shall sever the trachea (halqum), oesophagus (mari) and both the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain) to hasten the bleeding and death of the animals. The bleeding shall be spontaneous and complete. The bleeding time must be not less than 2.5 minute to insure fully bleeding.

(OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.1.6 Health inspection of carcass and giblets
In addition to post mortem control, the following requirements are also applied. 1) A veterinary expert shall without delay make a general inspection on the carcass and examine its specific parts. 2) Carcasses which have been found unsuitable for consumption or diagnosed with certain ailments or suspected cases on which a definite judgment has yet to be made are immediately segregated; where necessary, internal organs and head shall be subject to inspection in order to compare results. 3) Head, trotters, lungs, hearts, skin, livers, spleen, kidney, stomach, tripe and intestines shall be examined both visually and by hand. 4) Where necessary, head, liver, heart and lymphatic nodule any other organs shall be inspected by making cut. 5) In case that carcass inspection produces suspicious results, consultation shall be made. 6) In cases where physical examination does not suffice to reach a diagnosis, suspected substance or sample shall be sent to the laboratory. A decision should be made in accordance with laboratory testing results. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.1.7 Washing and stamping the carcass
1) Carcass shall be washed and kept in hanging position for sometime for the purpose of draining the excess water 2) After this procedure carcass shall be sent to chilling room (< 4°C). 3) Following that stage, each part shall be marked in accordance with the stamping method as identified in the national and/or regional and/or international legal regulations. 4) This procedure shall be suitable for use in halal food sector. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.2 Slaughtering Procedure of Poultry
In addition to Clause 3.2.1, the following requirements are also applied.

5.2.5.2.1 Reception of the Poultry at the Slaughterhouse and Transfer for Slaughter
1) Poultry received at the slaughterhouse shall be transferred for slaughter in the shortest time 2) Poultry should be slaughtered within 6 hours start from loading birds in to crates.

5.2.5.2.2 Health checks of animals before slaughtering
In addition to ante mortem control, the following requirements are also applied. ‡ Animals to be slaughtered shall undergo health checks. These checks include assessment of veterinary medicine residues, diagnosis of diseases which hinder slaughtering (such as Newcastle and etc.), communicable diseases or any feverous diseases.

‡

Those animals which are found sick or suspected to be sick shall immediately be segregated in an isolation area and legal formalities should be fulfilled. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.2.3 Procedure
1) Slaughterer should grab the head by left hand, stretching it down tightly and shall cut the throat by a sharp slaughtering knife held in the right hand. 2) The sharp edge of knife which used for slaughter should be not less than 12 cm. 3) Additionally, religious rules set out in Clause 3.2.6.1.5 shall be complied with. (OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.2.3.1 Mechanical slaughter
1) 2) 3) The operator of the mechanical knife shall be a Muslim. The slaughterer shall recite ³BISMILLAH WALLAHUAKBAR´ prior to switching on the mechanical knife and shall not leave the slaughter area. Should the slaughterer leave the slaughter area, he shall stop the machine line and switch off the mechanical knife. To restart the operation he or another Muslim slaughterer shall recite ³BISMILLAH WALLAHUAKBAR´ before switching on the line and mechanical knife. The knife used shall be of single blade type and shall be sharp. The slaughter act shall sever the trachea (halqum), oesophagus (mari) and both the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain) to hasten the bleeding and death of the animals The slaughterer is required to check that each poultry is properly slaughtered and any birds that missed the mechanical knife shall be slaughtered manually. A backup slaughterer with knife shall be ready to check any neck not cut well during mechanical slaughtering and rapidly cut it manually. Bleeding period shall be minimum 60 seconds but during winter this period shall be increased by 5-10 seconds.

4) 5)

6) 7) 8)

(OIC, 2009)

5.2.5.2.4 Plucking
1) 2) The carcass should be plucked after being held in water at the temperature of 50°C to 65°C for a period of 1,5 to 2,5 minutes. Other validated alternative methods such as hot air scalding are accepted.

5.2.5.2.5 Health Inspection of Carcass
1) 2) In addition to post mortem control, the following requirements are also applied. Each carcass, after having been washed, shall be inspected. The inspection shall be done according the meat inspection regulations or standards of veterinary services of the member states. Cachectic carcass as well as those with wounds, haematoma, abscess, oedema, and tumour shall be discarded. In cases where physical examination does not suffice to reach a diagnosis, suspected substance or sample shall be sent to the laboratory. A decision should be made in accordance with laboratory testing results.

3)

(OIC, 2009)

5.3 Stunning methods 5.3.1 Electrical stunning
1) 2) The electrical stunner shall be of the type allowed by the competent authority in-charge of slaughter. The type of stunner used for slaughter of halal animals shall be µhead only stunner¶ type, where both electrodes are placed on the head region. Electrical stunning of poultry is allowed using µwater bath stunner¶ only. The strength of current used shall be supervised by a trained Muslim and monitored by competent Islamic Authority or Halal Certification Authority.

3) 4)

Table: Guideline parameters for electrical stunning
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type of stock Chicken Lamb Goat Sheep Calves Steers Cow Bull Buffalo Ostrich Current (A) 0.25-0.5 0.5-0.9 0.7-1.0 0.7-1.2 0.5-1.5 1.5-2.5 2.0-3.0 2.5-3.5 2.5-3.5 0.75 Duration (s) 3.0-5.0 2.0-3.0 2.0-3.0 2.0-3.0 3.0 2.0-3.0 2.5-3.5 3.0-4.0 3.0-4.0 10

5.3.2 Pneumatic stunning
1) Pneumatic stunning or air combustion stunning is allowed in halal slaughter 2) It is a device operated by electrical power along with air pressure. Air pressure powers the stunner which knocks the ³atlanto-occipital´ region rendering the animal unconscious for a few second.

5.3.3 Guidelines on mechanical slaughter of poultry
1. The operator of the mechanical knife (slaughterman) shall be a Muslim. 2. The slaughterman shall recite (In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful) prior to switching on the mechanical knife machine and shall not leave the slaughter area. 3. Should the slaughterman leave the slaughter area, he shall stop the machine line and switch off the mechanical knife. To restart the operation he or another Muslim slaughterman shall recite (In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful) before switching on the line and mechanical knife; 4. The knife used shall be of single blade type and shall be sharp. 5. The slaughter act shall sever the trachea (halqum), oesophagus (mari¶) and both the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain) to hasten the bleeding and death of the animal; 6. The slaughterman is required to check that each poultry is properly slaughtered. He or other Muslim slaughterman shall slaughter manually any birds that missed the mechanical knife.

Lafaz Tasmiyyah
1. µJumhur fuqaha¶ berpendapat bahawa bacaan tasmiyyah hanya mencukupi dengan membaca lafaz µbismillah¶ tetapi yang paling afdal ialah dengan disertai takbir iaitu ³Bismillahi Allah Akbar´  Ini berdasarkan riwayat berikut: Maksudnya; Dari Anas r.a. katanya Rasullulah s.a.w menyembelih kurban dua ekor kibasy putih yang bertanduk. Beliau menyembelih dengan tangan sendiri sambil membaca Bismillah dan Takbir dan dengan menginjakkan kaki beliau di pangkal leher biri-biri itu (Riwayat Muslim no.1912 (Jafri Abdullah, 2006)

1) Bacaan tasmiyyah juga perlu memenuhi syarat-syarat berikut; i. Tasmiyyah tersebut dibaca semata-mata kerana sembelihan bukan atas tujuan lain ii. Dimaksudkan dengan menyebut nama Allah ialah membesarkannya, tidak boleh dalam bentuk doa seperti (Allahumma) ini tidak dikira tasmiyyah iii. Hanya menyebut semata-mata nama Allah tidak disertai dengan nama lain sekalipun nama Rasullah (Bismillah Rasullullah) kerana ini dikira sembelihan atas nama selain dari Allah 2) Imam Malik berpendapat bahawa tidak harus membaca ³Bismillah hirrahman nirrahim´ kerana lafaz ³al-Rahman al-Rahim´ bererti rahmat dan sembelihan adalah merupakan azab.Maka adalah tidak sesuai menyebut lafaz al-Rahman dan al-Rahim dalam tasmiyyah. (Jafri Abdullah, 2006)

Waktu bacaan tasmiyyah
Bacaan tasmiyyah dibahagikan kepada 2 bahagian sembelihan 1. Sembelihan Ikhtiyariyyah Waktu bacaan tasmiyyah bagi sembelihan ikhtiyariyyah ialah semasa sembelihan dilakukan, tidak boleh mendahului bacaan tasmiyyah kecuali dalam masa yang singkat sahaja 2. Sembelihan Idhtirariyyah atau pemburuan Bacaan tasmiyyah bagi sembelihan idhtirariyyah atau pemburuan ialah semasa melancarkan anak panah atau melepaskan anjing bagi pemburuan. Ini berdasarkan sabda Rasulullah s.a.w kepada µAdi bin Hatim r.a ketika bertanya nabi tentang pemburuan dengan anak panah dan anjing. ³Apabila kamu melancarkan anak panah dan dibaca nama Allah maka makanlah. Dan apabila kamu melepaskan anjing engkau yang diajar dan dibaca nama Allah maka makanlah. (Jafri Abdullah, 2006)

Bacaan tasmiyyah bagi sembelihan dalam jumlah yang besar
³Sesungguhnya sembelihan di dalam jumlah yang besar daripada ayam dan itik adalah mencukupi dengan membaca tasmiyyah sekali sahaja ketika permulaan, sekiranya sembelihan tersebut dibuat secara berterusan tanpa berhenti. Sekiranya berhenti, dengan apa sebab sekalipun, maka penyembelih perlu membaca tasmiyyah semula bagi baki sembelihan seterusnya´. Dr. Sulaiman al-Asyqar ± ahli anggota Majlis Fatwa Kerajaan Kuwait; Fatwa Kerajaan Kuwait (Jafri Abdullah, 2006)

6.0 Processing, handling and distribution of Halal food
6.1 Processed food
All processed food is halal if it meets the following requirements: 1. the product or its ingredients do not contain any components or products of animals that are non-halal by Shariah Law or products of animals that are not slaughtered according to Shariah Law 2. the product does not contain anything in any quantity that is decreed as najs by Shariah Law 3. the product or it¶s ingredients are safe and not harmful 4. the products are prepared, processed or manufactured using equipment and facilities that are free from contamination with najs 5. during its preparation, processing, packaging, storage or transportation, it shall be physically separated from any other food that does not meet the requirements specified in items 1), 2),3) and/or 4) or any other things that are decreed as najs by Shariah Law.

6.2 Sanitation of devices, utensils, machines and processing aids
Hygiene and sanitation
1. Hygiene and sanitation are prerequisites in the preparation of halal food. It includes the various aspects of personal hygiene, clothing, equipment and the working premises for processing or manufacture of food. Producers shall implement measures to: a) control contamination from air, soil, water, feedstuffs, fertilizers (including natural fertilizers), pesticides, veterinary drugs or any other agent used in primary production; b) protect food sources from pest, faecal, contamination from microorganisms and other contamination; c) manage waste effectively; and d) store harmful substances appropriately. Halal food shall be processed, packed and distributed under strict hygienic condition in premises licensed in accordance with good manufacturing practices (GMP) or good hygiene practices (GHP) as specified in the Guidelines on Good Hygiene Practices for Small and Medium Scale Food Industries Towards HACCP and public health legislation currently enforced by the competent authority in Malaysia.

2.

3.

6.2.1 Cleanliness in Islam
1. Devices, utensils, machines and processing aids used for processing halal food shall not be made of or contain any materials that are decreed as najs by Shariah Law and shall be used only for halal food 2. Devices, utensils and machines which were previously used or in contact with najs almughallazah shall be washed and ritually cleansed (dibagh) as required by Shariah Law 3. In the case of converting najs al-mughallazah line or processing line containing najs almughallazah into halal production line, the line shall be washed and ritually cleansed (dibagh) as required by Shariah Law 4. This procedure shall be supervised and verified by the competent Islamic Authority 5. Upon conversion, the line shall be operated for halal food only. 6. Repetition in converting the line to najs al-mughallazah line and back to halal line, shall not be permitted

6.2.2 Najs
1. Najs according to Shariah Law are: a) things that are themselves not permissible such as pig (khinzir) and all its derivatives, blood and carrion b) halal food that is contaminated with things that are non-halal c) halal food that comes into direct contact with things that are nonhalal d) any liquid and objects discharged from the orifices of human beings or animals such as urine, excrement, blood, vomitus, pus, sperm and ova of pigs and dogs except sperm and ova of other animals e) carrion or halal animals that are not slaughtered according to Shariah Law. 2. There are three types of najs: a) Mughallazah which is considered as severe najs which are dogs and pigs (khinzir) including any liquid and objects discharged from their orifices, descendants and derivatives b) Mukhaffafah which is considered as light najs. The only najs in this category is urine from baby boy at the age of 2 years and below who has not consumed any other food except fed by his mother¶s milk c) Mutawassitah which is considered as medium najs which do not falls under severe or light najs such as vomit, pus, blood, alcoholic drinks (khamar), carrion, liquid and objects discharged from the orifices, etc.

6.2.3 Washing and cleansing ritual
Method of washing and ritual cleansing (dibagh) according to Shariah Law for najs al-mughallazah 1. General requirements The najs, whether visible (µainiah) or invisible (disappeared or dried up etc.) is name hukmiah. 2. To cleanse najs i. it is required to wash seven times, one of which shall be water mixed with soil; ii. the first wash shall be to clear the existence of najs, even if a few washes are needed. iii. the water from first cleaning shall not remain behind and the next wash shall be counted as the second wash iv. the amount of soil used is just enough to make a suspension. 3. Condition of the soil The conditions of the soil are: i. free from najs ii. free from other impurities like oil iii. not musta¶mal soil (which had been used for dry ablution (tayammum)) except after subject to heavy rain. 4. Condition of the water The conditions of the water are: i. shall be natural (mutlaq) ii. not musta¶mal Note. Musta¶mal water is the water that less than 2 qilllah (approximately 270 litre) that had been used for cleansing. iii. free from najs

7.0: Other religious food concepts 7.1:Vegetarianism 7.1.1: Concept of vegetarian
1. 2. Vegetarians can meet their protein and other nutrients needs Foods must be selected to ensure adequate intake of complete protein, vitamins (particularly vitamin B12), and minerals, especially calcium and iron The purpose of vegetarian intake because to reduce the risk of non-halal food and due to health reason Requested halal vegetarian restaurant whereby all foods based on vegetable e.g soybean Halal vegetarian food can be issued after the others ingredients they used in the product were confirmed halal

3. 4. 5.

7.1.2: Buddhism
1. The medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002 were studied 2. 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). 3. Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. 4. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

5. Recently, interest has been expressed in the nutritional and medicinal effects of the traditional temple food of Korean Buddhism. 6. The diversity of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism is very high, although it is relatively small compared with the total number of plant species on the Korean Peninsula. 7. Various plant parts have been used for temple food. 21 parts were identified; the sprouts, leaves, fruits, and roots of these plants were used most frequently. Temple food can provide a substantial vegetarian or vegan menu because the types of food preparation, 8. The medicinal efficacy of the plants recorded is rather varied, although it was relatively small compared with the total number of Korean medicinal plants. Because several different plants could treat one disease, new food medicine could be developed through further research. Of particular note are the 15 species that showed medicinal efficacies for more than 7 kinds of health problems. Most species showed medicinal efficacies for more than four kinds of diseases.

7.2: Kosher
7.2.1: Concept of kosher There are five (5) major classes of kosher labels

1. Glatt kosher
Glatt kosher means that all the lungs of every animal (excluding fowl and poultry) were inspected and found to be virtually free adhesions, which are indications of previous disease ii. It indicates a healthy animal iii. If there are too many adhesions, then the meat is pulled off the line and packed and sold as non-kosher, or under some circumstances, as non-glatt kosher iv. Poultry is sometimes marketed as glatt even though every birds is not similarly inspected i.

v. Certain rules in the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) have been interpreted to mean that kosher consumers are not supposed to eat milk and meat together vi. There are various customs as to how much time must pass between eating a dairy product and a meat product vii. Generally, kosher consumers can eat meals, since dairy is digested more quickly than meat viii. The waiting period is anywhere from minutes to an hour ix. However, the wait is more restrictive and longer (up to 6 hours) if meat is consumed first

2. Kosher-Dairy

i.

Means that some milk product or milk by-product is included in the item ii. Example, non-dairy creamer is labeled with a kosher symbol followed by a ³D´ since an ingredient such as sodium caseinate may be in the product iii. Milk chocolate is always dairy iv. Most margarine is dairy, although pareve margarines are available

3. Kosher-dairy equipment
i. Kosher-dairy equipment means that while there are no meat or milk ingredients in the products It was produced on a piece of equipment that previously ran dairy and the machinery was not ³koshered´ ± cleaned and left idle for 24 hours This is similar to many products labeled today as ³May contain peanut´, even though peanuts are not listed in the ingredient panel. Consumers with allergies want to know if the product was produced in a plant that processes peanuts or if it was produced on equipment which previously produced peanuts

ii.

iii.

4. Kosher-Pareve i. Means that there are no milk or meat ingredients used ii. Parave means ³neutral´ iii. It includes items such as kosher fish, eggs, grains, honey and all plant materials iv. Vegetarians who will not eat fish or eggs need to watch the ingredients panels for these two ingredients, since the kosher market considers eggs and fish as ³neutral´ v. The parave label can simply their search for qualifying products

5. Kosher for Passover
i. ii. Kosher for Passover means that product meats even more detailed rules Passover products can be consumed during the eight days of this religious holiday, when regularly labeled kosher products are not considered adequate Passover products do not contain chometz ingredients ± wheat (except that used for matzoh), barley, rye, oats, spelt or any flours, oils, alcohols, or other by-products of these ingredients. Making bread is not allowed for this period of time. Only specifically prepared unleavened bread, matzoh ± made according to very strict rules to assure that it remains unleavened ± is allowed. Most Jews also prohibit the consumption of kitniyos ± rice, beans, peas, lentils, buckwheat, mustard, corn, peanuts, soy and all byproducts of these ingredients.

iii.

iv. v.

vi.

Kosher Certification
1. ³Kosher certified´ means that a religiously observant individual trained in religious law and production methods has determined that the food was processed in accordance with the expected religious standards. Certain products require a rabbi on-site for all aspects of production. This means from time the doors are opened in the morning, through the plant cleaning, the plant koshering (boiling or steaming of all equipment between kosher and non-khosher production and between types of kosher production, e.g dairy and meat), production, packaging of all finished products, to closing of the plant overnight. Other products only require periodic on-site supervision. These include producers making the same products day after day, using the exact same production methods and ingredients. The rabbinic supervisor reviews and approves all ingredients and suppliers used establishes production standards with the plant, and then only monitors the production through frequent visits, both announced and surprise If the plant runs both kosher and non-kosher products, or runs any combination of dairy, pareve, or meat items, then more rabbinic work and supervision are required. There are even laws which prohibit the use of the word ³kosher´ on a product which has not been properly certified as such.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Rabbi qualification/reputation

‡

A rabbi¶s reputation comes from his family history, his own accomplishments, and his actions. Sometimes a rabbinic organization¶s certification is rejected only because the chief rabbi of the organization does something in his personal life which is not approved by the community.

7.2.2: Kosher slaughter
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Kosher slaughter of meat, fowl and poultry is considered a complicated business Kosher indicates that any meat item contains only products from kosher animals, e.g; beef, lamb and goat, slaughtered according to specific requirements Every animal and bird is slaughtered by hand not machine The slaughterman (shochet) must be trained and experienced in the slaughtering process strong and not faint of heart There are strict rules about the sharpness of the knife, which is periodically inspected by a trained supervisor Heat makes feathers easier to remove but cannot be added to kosher process, as is also usually done in non-kosher production Animals cannot be stunned, as is also done in non-kosher production Blood vessels, nerves and some fats are removed (traibering) Then to removed the blood quickly, the meat is soaked and salted within 72 hours of slaughter

10. a phrase like "ritual slaughter," or "kosher slaughter," that this refers to a better kind of killing. 11. the act is done with respect for the dignity of the animal, and concern that it suffer as little as possible. 12. kosher ways of slaughter are more compassionate than "ordinary" slaughterhouse deaths. 13. the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 requires, for sanitary reasons, that no slaughtered animal may fall in the blood of a previously slaughtered animal. Animals must be killed while suspended from a conveyer belt, rather than while lying on the floor. 14. In actual practice, kosher deaths have become a hideous perversion of the original intent of the dietary laws; the procedure adds incalculably to the agony they must suffer³

15. Animals being ritually slaughtered in the United States are shackled around a rear leg, hoisted into the air, and then hang, fully conscious, upside down on the conveyer belt for between two and five minutes-and occasionally much longer if something goes wrong on the killing line before the slaughterer makes his cut 16. It is difficult for us to imagine what these poor animals must suffer. The cows are exhausted and terrified to begin with 17. The animal upside down with ruptured joints and often a broken leg, twists frantically in pain and terror, so that it must be gripped by the neck or have a clamp inserted in its nostrils to enable the slaughterer to kill the animal with a single stroke, as religious law prescribes 18. for meat to be passed as kosher by Orthodox Rabbis, it is not enough for the animal merely to have been conscious when killed and to have its throat slit in the required way.

19. A kosher Jew is also forbidden to consume the blood of an animal, so the veins and arteries must be cut out of kosher meat. 20. In many parts of a cow, however, removing the blood vessels is very costly, and so the meat packers have resolved this difficulty by removing the blood vessels only from those parts of the animal from which they can be cut out inexpensively. Thus, even though the whole animal was killed kosher, only these parts are then sold as kosher meat. 21. In other words, there's a lot of meat left over. This means that a great deal of the meat in our supermarkets and restaurants, while not labeled kosher

7.3: Fasting
7.3.1. Definition Fasting/Puasa/Shiyam 1. Menurut bahasa Shiyam/puasa bererti ³menahan diri´ 2. Menurut syarak ialah ³Menahan diri dari segala sesuatu yang membatalkannya dari mulai terbit fajar hingga terbenam matahari, kerana perintah Allah sematamata, dengan disertai niat dan syaratsyarat tertentu

7.3.2 Facts on compulsory fasting
O believers Fasting is enjoined upon you, as it was enjoined upon those before you, so that you might remain conscious of God (Surah 2, Al-Baqarah: Ayah 183)

Fasting (that is enjoined) is for a certain number of days, but if anyone of you is sick or is on a journey, (he can break his fast), but will still have to fast the same number of days later on; and for those who find it extremely difficult to fast* (because of old age or grievous illness) there is an expiation (fidyah), that is, the feeding of a poor man. He who does good (pay the expiation) of his own account more than the stipulated amount, that is better for him; but (nevertheless) to fast is better for you (than submitting an expiation), if you but knew it. (Surah 2, Al-Baqarah: Ayah 184) * Orang sakit berat, orang yang sangat tua, orang yang hamil atau menyusui  Fidyah is meant for feeding one poor or needy person as an expiation for each day of obligatory fasting

(Fasting that is enjoined to you) shall be during the month of Ramadhan, in which the Qur¶an was revealed as a guidance for whole of mankind and as self-evident proof for the true guidance, and the Criterion (a guidance to distinguish right from wrong). Therefore, those of you who sight the moon (or know it), let him fast. And whoever is sick or on a journey (can break his fast), but shall fast the same number of days later on. (With this decree), Allah desires your wellbeing, not your discomfort. He requires you to fast the whole month (of Ramadan) so that you may magnify Allah for giving you His guidance, and that you may be thankful to Him (Surah 2, Al-Baqarah: Ayah 185)

On the authority of Ab µAbd al-Rahmãn µAbdullãh bin µUmar bin al-Khattãb (radiyallãhu µanhumã)* who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu µalayhi wasallam) say: ³Islam has been built upon five things ± on testifying that there is no god save Allah, and that Muhammad is His Messenger; on performing salãt (ritual prayer); on giving the zakãt; on Hajj to the House; and on fasting during Ramadãn.´ [ Both al-Bukhãr and Muslim relate this] Had th 3 of Forty Had th Imam Nawawi¶s Collection of Forty Had th (2008),

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Islam ditegakkan atas 5 dasar; Bersaksikan bahawa tiada Tuhan (patut disembah) melainkan Allah dan Muhammad s.a.w. utusanNya Mengerjakan solat Mengeluarkan zakat Mengerjakkan haji Berpuasa pada bulan Ramadhaan (Riwayat Bukhari, Muslim dan Ahmad) « H. Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

Dan dari Abu Hurairah r.a. berkata: Rasulullah s.a.w. bersabda: Allah telah berfirman: Semua amal kelakuan anak Adam dapat dicampuri kepentingan hawanafsu, kecuali puasa, maka itu melulu untukKu dan Aku sendiri yang akan membalasnya. Dan puasa itu sebagai perisai, maka jika seorang sedang berpuasa, janganlah berkata keji atau ribut-ribut, dan kalau seorang mencaci maki padanya, atau mengajak berkelahi maka hendaknya dikatakan padanya: Aku ini berpuasa. Demi Allah yang jiwaku ada ditanganNya, bau mulut orang yang berpuasa bagi Allah lebih harum dari bau kasturi. Dan untuk orang puasa dua kali masa gembira, yaitu ketika akan berpuasa, dan ketika ia menghadap Tuhan akan gembira benar, menerima pahala puasanya. (Riwayat Bukhari dan Muslim)«. H. Mohamad Rifai,1988)

Puasa Sunnat
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pada hari ³Arafah; yaitu tanggal 9 Dzulhijjah, iaitu bagi orang yang tidak mengerjakan Haji Hari µAsyura; iaitu tanggal 10 Muharram, dan Tasu¶a iaitu tanggal 9 Muharram Enam hari pada bulan Syawal; iaitu hari-hari sesudah hari raya fitri Hari Isnin dan Khamis Hari Mi¶raj Nabi s.a.w. dan puasa bulan Sya¶ban Puasa tiga hari pada tiap-tiap bulan

³Dari Abu Qatadah al-Anshari r.r: Bahawasanya Rasullulallah s.a.w. pernah ditanya dari hal puasa µArafah, beliau bersabda: Puasa itu menghapuskan dosa tahun yang lalu dan tahun yang akan datang. Dan beliau ditanya dari hal puasa µAsyura, beliau bersabda: Menghapus dosa tahun yang lalu. Dan beliau ditanya lagi hal puasa Isnin, beliau bersabda: Hari itu adalah hari dimana aku dilahirkan, dan dimana aku dijadikan Rasul dan diturnkannya padaku wahyu.´ Riwayat Muslim (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

Dari Abu Ayyub al-Anshari r.a. bahawasanya Rasulullah s.a.w. bersabda: Barangsiapa yang berpuasa Ramadhan, kemudian diikutinya puasa itu dengan puasa enam hari pada bulan Syawal, maka pahalanya akan sama dengan puasa satu tahun.´ Riwayat Muslim (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

³Abu Hurairah r.a. berkata: Rasulullah s.a.w bersabda: Amal perbuatan itu diperiksa tiap hari Isnin dan Khamis, maka saya suka diperiksa amalku sedang saya berpuasa. Riwayat Termidzi (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

³Dari Abu Dzar r.a., ia berkata: Rasulullah s.a.w. menyuruh kami berpuasa tiga hari dalam sebulan; tanggal 13,14 dan 15 Riwayat Nasa¶I, Termidzi dan disahkan oleh Ibnu Hibban (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

Hari-hari yang diharamkan berpuasa 1. Hari raya µIdil Fitri, iaitu 1 Syawal 2. Hari raya µIdil Adha; iaitu 10 Dzulhijjah 3. Tiga hari Tasyriq; iaitu tanggal 11, 12 dan 13 Dzulhijjah

³Dari Abu Said al-Khudri r.a.: Bahawasanya Rasulullah s.a.w. telah melarang puasa pada dua hari: hari µIdul Fitri dan hari µIdul Adha.´ (Muttafaq µalaih) (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

³Dari Nubaisyah al-Hudzali r.a. ia berkata: Rasulullah s.a.w. bersabda: Hari-hari Tasyriq itu adalah hari makan dan minum, dan hari zikir kepada Allah µAzzawajalla.´ Riwayat Muslim (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

Hari-hari yang dimakruhkan berpuasa
1. Hari Juma¶at, kecuali telah berpuasa sejak hari sebelumnya 2. Puasa ´wishal´, iaitu seorang yang melakukan puasa, tidak berbuka hingga waktu sahur 3. Puasa ³Dahri´ iaitu puasa yang terus-menerus 4. Seorang isteri berpuasa sunnat, dengan tidak seizin suaminya

³Dari Abu Hurairah r.a. dari Nabi s.a.w., beliau bersabda: Jangan kalian mengistimewakan malam Juma¶at untuk sembahyang daripada malam-malam lainnya, dan jangan kalian mengistimewakan hari Juma¶at untuk berpuasa daripada hari-hari lainnya, kecuali bagi seseorang diantara kalian yang kebetulan harus berpuasa dihari itu.´ (Riwayat Muslim) (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

³Daripadanya pula r.a. bahawasanya Rasulullah s.a.w. bersabda: Jangan sekali-kali seseorang diantara kamu berpuasa di hari Juma¶at, kecuali ia berpuasa pula satu hari sebelumnya atau sesudahnya.´ (Muttafaq µalaih) (Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

³Dari Abu Hurairah r.a., ia berkata Rasulullah s.a.w. telah melarang berpuasa tidak berbuka (wishal), maka berkata seorang laki-laki dari kaum Muslimin: Tapi engkau berwishal ya Rasulullah? Beliau menjawab:Siapa di antara kamu yang seperti aku; di waktu malam aku diberi makan dan minum oleh Allah. Ketika mereka enggan berhenti dari wishal, beliau ajak mereka berwishal satu hari, kemudian satu hari lagi, kemudian mereka melihat wishal, beliau bersabda: Kalaulah wishal itu lambat datangnya, aku akan tambah wishal buat kamu, sebagai memberi pelajaran kepada mereka tatkala mereka enggan berhenti, dari wishal.´

(Muttafaq µalaih)
(Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

³Dari Abdullah bin Umar r.a. ia berkata; Rasulullah s.a.w. bersabda: Tidak dianggap berpuasa orang yang berpuasa selama-lamanya

(Muttafaq µalaih)
(Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

³Dari Abu Hurairah r.a., bahawasanya Rasulullah s.a.w. bersabda: Tidak halal bagi wanita berpuasa sedangkan suaminya ada di rumah, kecuali dengan seizinnya. ³ Muttafaq µalaih dan lafaz ini dalam riwayat Bukhari, Abu Daud menambah: ³Kecuali puasa Ramadhan´

(Mohamad Rifai, 1988)

Hikmat Puasa
1. Mendidik para Mu¶min supaya berperangai luhur dan agar dapat mengawal seluruh nafsu dalam keinginan manusia biasa 2. Mendidik jiwa agar biasa dan dapat menguasai diri, sehingga mudah menjalankan semua kebaikan dan meninggalkan segala larangan 3. Membiasakan orang yang berpuasa bersabar dan tahan uji 4. Mendidik jiwa agar dapat memegang amanat sebaik-baiknya kerana orang berpuasa itu sebagai seorang yang mendapat amanat untuk tidak makan dan minum atau hal-hal yang membatalkannya. Sedang amanat itu harus dapat dipegang teguh, baik dihadapan orang ramai maupun dikala sendirian 5. Untuk mendidik manusia agar jangan mudah lekas dipengaruhi oleh benda sekalipun ia dalam keadaan sengsara/kelaparan dapat mempertahankan peribadinya dan peribadi Islam hingga tidak lekas terjerumus ke jurang maksiat dan sebagainya 6. Dari segi kesihatan, puasa sangat berguna untuk menjaga dan memperbaiki kesihatan 7. Untuk menyuburkan rasa syukur kepada Allah atas kurnia yang telah diberikan kepada hambaNya 8. Menanam ³rasa cinta kasih´ sesama manusia, terutama terhadap orang-orang miskin, orang-orang yang menderita kelaparan dan kesengsaraan. Dengan berlatih lapar dan dahaga setiap hari selama satu bulan, orang yang mampu dapat merasakan nasib fakir dan miskin

7.3.1 Islam
1. Fasting is the fourth of the Five Pillars of Islam and involves fasting during Ramadan, which is probably the most notable time for fasting among non-Muslims. 2. In Islam, fasting for approximately one month is an obligatory practice during the holy month of Ramadan, from fajr (dawn), until the maghrib (dusk). 3. Muslims are prohibited from eating, drinking (including water), engaging in sexual activity, becoming angry, and smoking while fasting. 4. Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the Pillars of Islam, and thus one of the most important acts of Islamic worship. 5. By fasting, whether during Ramadan or other times, a Muslim draws closer to Allah by abandoning body pleasures, such as food, drink.

6. This makes the sincerity of their faith and their devotion to God (Arabic: Allah) all the more evident. 7. The Qur'an states that fasting was prescribed for those before them (i.e., the Jews and Christians) and that by fasting a Muslim gains taqwa, which can be described as the care taken by a person to do everything God has commanded and to keep away from everything that He has forbidden. 8. Fasting helps prevent many sins and is a shield with which the Muslim protects him/herself from jahannam (hell). 9. The month of Ramadan is the month in which the Koran was sent down, a guidance for the people, and clear verses of guidance and criterion. [For more information, consult the Islamic holy book, the Quran, specifically Chapter 2, 183.]

10. Muslims believe that fasting is more than abstaining from food and drink. It also includes abstaining from any falsehood in speech and action, from any ignorant and indecent speech, and from arguing and fighting, and lustful thoughts. Therefore, fasting strengthens control of impulses and helps develop good behavior. 11. During the sacred month of Ramadan, believers strive to purify body and soul and increase their taqwa (good deeds and Godconsciousness). This purification of body and soul harmonizes between the inner and outer spheres of an individual. 12. Muslims aim to improve their body by reducing food intake and maintaining a healthier lifestyle. Over indulgence in food is discouraged and eating enough to silence the pain of hunger is encouraged. Muslims should be active, tending to all their commitments and never falling short of any duty.

13. On a moral level, believers strive to attain the most virtuous characteristics and apply them to their daily situations. They try to show compassion, generousity and mercy to others, exercise patience, and control their anger. In essence, Muslims are trying to improve their moral character and cultivate good habits.[19] 14. Fasting also inculcates a sense of fraternity and solidarity, as Muslims feel and experience what their needy and hungry brothers and sisters feel. However, even the poor, needy, and hungry participate in the fast. Moreover, Ramadan is a month of giving charity and sharing meals to break the fast together. 15. The Siyam is intended to teach Muslims patience and self-control, and to remind them of the less fortunate in the world. The fast is also seen as a debt owed by the Muslim to God. Faithful observance of the Siyam is believed to atone for personal faults and misdeeds, at least in part, and to help earn a place in paradise. It is also believed to be beneficial for personal conduct, that is, to help control impulses, passions and temper. The fast is also meant to provide time for meditation and to strengthen one's faith.

While fasting in the month of Ramadan is considered Fard (obligatory), Islam also prescribed certain days for non-obligatory, voluntary fasting, such as:

1. each Monday and Thursday of a week 2. the 13th, 14th, and 15th day of each lunar month 3. six days in the month of Shawwal (the month following Ramadan) 4. the Day of Ashura (10th of Muharram in the Hijri calendar), (Most Muslim sects observe a fast on this day, although most Twelver Shi'ites consider it forbidden)

Fasting is forbidden on these days
1. Eid Fitr (1st Shawwal) and Eid Adha (10th Dzulhijjah) 2. Tashriq (11th, 12th, 13th Dzulhijjah) 3. the Day of Arafat (9th of Dhu al-Hijjah in the Hijri(Islamic calendar),(Only pilgrims to Mecca are forbidden from fasting.)

Although fasting is fard (obligatory), exceptions are made for persons in particular circumstances:
1. Prepubescent children; though some parents will encourage their children fast earlier for shorter periods, so the children get used to fasting. 2. Serious illness; the days lost to illness will have to be made up after recovery. 3. If one is traveling but one must make up any days missed upon arriving at one's destination. 4. Women who are pregnant or nursing. 5. A woman during her menstrual period; although she must count the days she missed and make them up at the end of Ramadan. 6. An ill person or old person who is not physically able to fast. They should donate the amount of a normal persons diet for each day missed if they are financially capable. 7. A mentally-ill person

Penalty of purposefully breaking fast at Ramadan 1. For elders who will not be able to fast, a lunch meal (or an equivalent amount of money) is to be donated to the poor or needy for each day of missed fasting. 2. If an adult who is sane, men or women, breaks his/her fast intentionally and without any excuse, he or she must make up one month for each missing day(s) at the end of Ramadan.

7.3.2 FASTING IN CHRISTIAN

Introduction
‡ Bible is divided into two parts; Old Testament -Hukum Taurat New Testament -Injil Fasting is mention both testaments

Old Tastement
1. Genesis 2. Exodus 3. Leviticus 4. Numbers 5. Deuteronomy 6. Joshua 7. Judges 8. Ruth 9. 1 Samuel 10.2 Samuel 11.1 Kings 12.2 Kings 13.1 Chronicles 14.2 Chronicles

Old Tastement
15.Ezra 16.Nehemiah 17.Esther 18.Job 19.Psalms 20.Proverbs 21.Ecclesiates 22.Song of Songs 23.Isaiah 24.Jeremiah 25.Lamentations 26.Ezekiel 27.Daniel 28.Hosea

Old Tastement
29.Joel 30.Amos 31.Obadiah 32.Jonah 33.Micah 34.Nahum 35.Habakkuk 36.Zephaniah 37.Haggai 38.Zechariah 39.Malachi

New Tastement
1. Matthew 2. Mark 3. Luke 4. John 5. Acts 6. Romans 7. 1 Corinthians 8. 2 Corinthians 9. Galatians 10.Ephesians 11.Philippians 12.Colossians 13.1 Thessalonians 14.2 Thessalonians

New Tastement
15.1 Timothy 16.2 Timothy 17.Titus 18.Philemon 19.Hebrews 20.James 21.1 Peter 22.2 Peter 23.1 John 24.2 John 25.3 John 26.Jude 27.Revelation

µFasting¶ Old Tastement
‡ Joel 2: 12 ‡ That is why the LORD says, ³Turn to me now, while there is time. Give me your hearts, Come with fasting, weeping, and mourning

Fasting New Tastement
‡ Matthew 6: 16 And when you fast, don¶t make it obvious, as the hypocrites do, for they try to look miserable and disheveled so people will admire them for their fasting. I tell you the truth, that is the only reward they will ever get ‡ Matthew 6: 17 But when you fast, comb your hair and wash your face ‡ Matthew 6: 18 Then no one will notice that you are fasting, except your Father, who knows what you do in private. And your Father, who sees everything, will reward you

Fasting New Tastement
‡ Acts 13: 2 One day as these men were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, ³Dedicate Barnabas and Saul for the special work to which I have called them ‡ Act 14:23 Paul and Barnabas also appointed elders in every church. With prayer and fasting, they turned the elders over to the care of the Lord, in whom they had put their trust

Fasting - Not in the bible
‡ Good Friday once a year e.g 10/4/2009 ‡ Don¶t take meat on Friday - Isa ‡ Take once a little meal per day - Khatolik

7.3.2 Christian
1.   2.    Christianity The "acceptable fast" is discussed in The biblical Book of Isaiah, chapter 58:3-7. In essence, it means afflict the soul through abstaining from fulfilling the needs or wants of the flesh. The opening chapter of the Book of Daniel, vv. 8-16, describes a partial fast and its effects on the health of its observers. Fasting is a practice in several Christian denominations or other churches. Some denominations do not practice it, considering it an external observance, but many individual believers choose to observe fasts at various times at their own behest. The Lenten fast observed in the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church is a forty-day partial fast to commemorate the fast observed by Christ during his temptation in the desert. This is similar to the partial fasting within the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (abstaining from meat and milk) which takes place during certain times of the year and lasts for weeks.

Biblical accounts of fasting
1.   2. Moses fasted for forty days and forty nights, twice back-to-back; the first, immediately before he received the tablets on the mountain with God. And the second, after coming down, seeing the Israelites practicing idolatry, and breaking the tablets in anger. (Deuteronomy 9:7-21) King David fasted when the son of his adulterous union with Bathsheba was struck sick by God, in punishment for the adultery and for David's murder of Bathsheba's husband, Uriah the Hittite. Nevertheless, the son died, upon which David broke his fast (2 Samuel 12:15-25). King Jehoshaphat proclaimed a fast throughout Judah for victory over the Moabites and Ammonites who were attacking them (2 Chronicles 20:3). The prophet Joel called for a fast to avert the judgment of God. The people of Nineveh, in response to Jonah's prophecy, fasted to avert the judgment of God (Jonah 3:7). The Jews of Persia, following Mordechai's example, fasted because of the genocidal decree of Haman. Queen Esther declared a three-day fast for all the Jews prior to risking her life in visiting King Ahasuerus uninvited (Esther 4).

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

Saul, later Paul, did not eat or drink anything for 3 days after he converted on the road to Damascus. Jesus fasted for forty days and forty nights while in the desert, being tempted by Satan to turn stones into bread and eat them, among other tempations. (Matthew 4:2, Luke 4:2). The prophetess Anna, who proclaimed the baby Jesus to be the Messiah, prayed and fasted regularly in the Temple (Luke 2:37). There are indications in the New Testament as well as from the Didache that members of an Early Christian Church fasted regularly. Jesus teaches on the outward appearance and demeanor of a fasting person (Matthew 6:16). It is also an assumed action of the believer (see: "And when you pray..." Matthew 6:5 - "When you fast..." Matthew 6:16) David used fasting as an act of humbling his soul (Psalm 35:13). The church in Antioch were worshipping the Lord and fasting when the Holy Spirit told them to send Barnabas and Saul for work (Acts 13:2). Paul and Barnabus appointed elders with prayer and fasting (Acts 14:23

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

Biblical teaching on fasting
1. The prophet Isaiah chastised the Israelites in Isaiah 58 for the unrighteous methods and motives of their fasting. He clarified some of the best reasons for fasting and listed both physical and spiritual benefits that would result (Isaiah 58:3-13). 2. Jesus warned his followers against fasting only to make others admire them. He provided practical steps on how to fast in private. (Matthew 6:16±18). 3. The Pharisees in Jesus' time fasted regularly and asked Jesus why his disciples did not. Jesus answered them using a parable (Matthew 9:14-15, Mark 2:18-20, Luke 5:33-39, see also Mark 2). 4. In some manuscripts Jesus ascribes the Disciples inability to cast out spirits to a lack of prayer and fasting.(Mark 9)

Roman Catholicism
1. For Roman Catholics,  fasting is the reduction of one's intake of food to one full meal (which may not contain meat during Fridays in Lent) and two small meals (known liturgically as collations, taken in the morning and the evening).  Eating solid food between meals is not permitted.  Fasting is required of the faithful on specified days.  Complete abstinence is the avoidance of meat for the entire day.  Partial abstinence prescribes that meat be taken only once during the course of the day.  To some Roman Catholics, fasting still means consuming nothing but water. 2. Pope Pius XII had initially relaxed some of the regulations concerning fasting in 1956.  In 1966, Pope Paul VI in his apostolic constitution Paenitemini, changed the strictly regulated Roman Catholic fasting requirements. He recommended that fasting be appropriate to the local economic situation, and that all Catholics voluntarily fast and abstain.  In the United States, there are only two obligatory days of fast - Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.  The Fridays of Lent are days of abstinence: those observing the practice may not eat meat.  Pastoral teachings since 1966 have urged voluntary fasting during Lent and voluntary abstinence on the other Fridays of the year. The regulations concerning such activities do not apply when the ability to work or the health of a person would be negatively affected.

3.

Prior to the changes made by Pius XII and Paul VI, fasting and abstinence were more strictly regulated. The church had prescribed that Roman Catholics observed fasting and/or abstinence on a number of days throughout the year. In addition to the fasts mentioned above, Roman Catholics must also observe the Eucharistic Fast, which involves taking nothing but water and medicines into the body for one hour before receiving the Eucharist. The ancient practice was to fast from midnight until Mass that day, but as Masses after noon and in the evening became common, this was soon modified to fasting for three hours. Current law requires merely one hour of eucharistic fast, although some Roman Catholics still abide by the older rules. The Catholic Church has also promoted a Black Fast, in which in addition to water, bread is consumed. Typically, this form of fasting was only used by monks and other religious individuals who practice mortifications and asceticism, but all Catholics are invited to take part in it with the advice and consent of their Spiritual Director.

4.    3.  

Anglicanism
1. The Book of Common Prayer prescribes certain days as days for fasting and abstinence,  but since the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, there have been no regulations prescribing the mode of observance of these days, nor is any distinction made between fasting and abstinence.  Observance of fast days declined until the 19th century, when under the influence of the Oxford Movement many Anglicans began once again taking the prescribed fast days more seriously.

2. 

The Book of Common Prayer sets out the prescribed days as follows: A Table of the Vigils, Fasts, and Days of Abstinence, to be Observed in the Year. ± The Evens or Vigils before: ‡ The Nativity of our Lord. ‡ The Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ‡ The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. ‡ Easter Day. ‡ Ascension Day. ‡ Pentecost. ‡ St. Matthias. ‡ St. John Baptist. ‡ St. Peter. ‡ St. James. ‡ St. Bartholomew. ‡ St. Matthew. ‡ St. Simon and St. Jude. ‡ St. Andrew. ‡ St. Thomas. ‡ All Saints.

± ±

Note: if any of these Feast-Days fall upon a Monday, then the Vigil or Fast-Day shall be kept upon the Saturday, and not upon the Sunday next before it. Days of Fasting, or Abstinence. I. The Forty Days of Lent. II. The Ember-Days at the Four Seasons, being the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the First Sunday in Lent, the Feast of Pentecost, September 14, and December 13. III. The Three Rogation Days, being the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, before Holy Thursday, or the Ascension of our Lord. IV. All the Fridays in the Year, except Christmas Day.

3. 

 4.

In the process of revising the Book of Common Prayer in various parts of the Anglican Communion the specification of abstinence or fast for certain days has been retained, though because each province is free to set its own calendar, there is no universal Anglican rule for which days are fast days. Generally Lent and Fridays are set aside, though Fridays during the Easter season are sometimes avoided. Often the Ember Days or Rogation Days are also specified, and the eves of certain feasts. Individual Anglicans are free to determine for themselves what particular measures of abstinence they will follow in the observance of these days, though certain parishes and dioceses are more encouraging of fasting than others. One diocese, that of Sydney in Australia, discourages its people from fasting during the season of Lent. 

Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek-Catholicism
1. For Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christians, fasting is an important spiritual discipline, found in both the Old Testament and the New, and is tied to the principle in Orthodox theology of the synergy between the body (Greek: soma) and the soul (pnevma).  Orthodox Christians do not see a dichotomy between the body and the soul but rather consider them as a united whole, and they believe that what happens to one affects the other (this is known as the psychosomatic union between the body and the soul).  Saint Gregory Palamas argued that man's body is not an enemy but a partner and collaborator with the soul.  Christ, by taking a human body at the Incarnation, has made the flesh an inexhaustible source of sanctification.  This same concept is also found in the much earlier homilies of Saint Macarius the Great. 2. Fasting can take up a significant portion of the calendar year.  The purpose of fasting is not to suffer, but according to Sacred Tradition to guard against gluttony and impure thoughts, deeds and words.  Fasting must always be accompanied by increased prayer and almsgiving (donating to a local charity, or directly to the poor, depending on circumstances).  To engage in fasting without them is considered useless or even spiritually harmful.  To repent of one's sins and to reach out in love to others is part and parcel of true fasting.

Fast days
1. i. ii. iii. iv. There are four fasting seasons, which include: Great Lent (40 days) and Holy Week (7 days) Nativity Fast (40 days) Apostles' Fast (variable length), and Dormition Fast (2 weeks)

2. Wednesdays and Fridays are also fast days throughout the year (with the exception of fast-free periods. In some Orthodox monasteries, Mondays are also observed as fast days (Mondays are dedicated to the Angels, and monasticism is called the "angelic life"). 3. i. ii. iii. Other days occur which are always observed as fast days: The paramony or Eve of Christmas and of Theophany (Epiphany) Beheading of John the Baptist Exaltation of the Cross

Fasting rules
1. ‡ ‡ ‡ 2. 3. ‡ ‡ ‡   4. Fasting during these times includes abstention from: animal products, all dairy products, and²with the exception of some specific days²fish, oil (interpreted variously as abstention from olive oil only, or as abstention from all cooking oils in general), and wine (which is often interpreted as including all alcoholic beverages) It is a sort of periodic veganism. When a feast day occurs on a fast day, the fast is often mitigated (lessened) to some degree (though meat and dairy are never consumed on any fast day). feast of the Annunciation almost always occurs within the Great Lent in the Orthodox calendar: in this case fish (traditionally haddock fried in olive oil) is the main meal of the day. There are two degrees of mitigation: allowance of wine and oil; and allowance of fish, wine and oil. Very young and very old, nursing mothers, the infirm, as well as those for whom fasting could endanger their health somehow, are exempt from the strictest fasting rules.

5.   

6. 

On weekdays of the first week of Great Lent, fasting is particularly severe, and many observe it by abstaining from all food for some period of time. According to strict observance, on the first five days (Monday through Friday) there are only two meals eaten, one on Wednesday and the other on Friday, both after the Presanctified Liturgy. Those who are unable to follow the strict observance may eat on Tuesday and Thursday (but not, if possible, on Monday) in the evening after Vespers, when they may take bread and water, or perhaps tea or fruit juice, but not a cooked meal. The same strict abstention is observed during Holy Week, except that a vegan meal with wine and oil is allowed on Great Thursday. On Wednesday and Friday of the first week of Great Lent the meals which are taken consist of xerophagy (literally, "dry eating") i.e. boiled or raw vegetables, fruit, and nuts. In a number of monasteries, and in the homes of more devout laypeople, xerophagy is observed on every weekday (Monday through Friday) of Great Lent, except when wine and oil are allowed Those desiring to receive Holy Communion keep a total fast from all food and drink from midnight the night before (see Eucharistic discipline). The sole exception is the Communion offered at the Easter Sunday midnight mass, when all are expressly invited and encouraged to receive the Eucharist, regardless of whether they have kept the prescribed fast.

7. 

Oriental Orthodox Churches
1. With exception of the Fifty days following Easter in the Coptic Orthodox Church fish is not allowed during Lent, Wednesdays, Fridays, and Baramon days. Other than that Fish and Shellfish are allowed during Fasting days. 2. The discipline of fasting entails that apart from Saturdays, Sundays, and Holy feasts should keep a total fast from all food and drink from midnight the night before to a certain time in the day usually three O'clock in the afternoon (the hour Jesus died on the Cross).  it is preferred to practice the reduction of one's daily intake of food (typically, by eating only one full meal a day).

Protestant churches
1. In Protestantism, the continental Reformers criticized fasting as a purely external observance that can never gain a person salvation. The Swiss Reformation of the "Third Reformer" Huldrych Zwingli began with an ostentatious public sausage-eating during Lent. 2. In more recent years, many churches affected by liturgical renewal movements have begun to encourage fasting as part of Lent and sometimes Advent, two penitential seasons of the Liturgical Year. 3. Likewise, many Lutheran churches encourage fasting during Lent. It is also considered to be an appropriate physical preparation for partaking of the Eucharist (or Lord's Supper),  as Martin Luther writes in his Small Catechism: Fasting and bodily preparation are in fact a fine external discipline, but a person who has faith in these words, 'given for you' and 'shed for you for the forgiveness of sins,' is really worthy and well prepared. 4. Members of the Anabaptist movement generally fast in private. The practice is not regulated by ecclesiastic authority. 5. Other Protestants consider fasting, usually accompanied by prayer, to be an important part of their personal spiritual experience, apart from any liturgical tradition.  The United Methodist Church fasts according to John Wesley's way of sundown to sundown on Mondays to Tuesdays and Thursdays to Fridays to promote discipline among Christ's followers.

Pentecostal
1. Individuals in mainline Pentecostal denominations undertake both short and extended fasts as they believe the Holy Spirit leads them. Some groups have classified types of fasting. In the "Normal Fast" pure water alone is consumed. During the "Black Fast" nothing, not even water, is consumed. In addition to the Normal Fast and the Black Fast, Pentecostals sometimes undertake what they call the Daniel Fast (or Partial Fast) in which only one type of food (e.g., fruit or fruit and non starchy vegetables) is consumed. In a Daniel Fast, meat is almost always avoided, in following the example of Daniel and his friend's refusal to eat the meat of Gentiles, which had been offered to idols and not slaughtered in a kosher manner. In some circles of Pentecost, the term "fast" is simply used, and the decision to drink water is determined on an individual basis.

2.    

3.

Charismatic
1. For Charismatic Christians fasting is undertaken at the leading of God. 2. Fasting is done in order to seek a closer intimacy with God, as well as an act of petition. 3. Some take up a regular fast of one or two days each week as a spiritual observance. 4. Holiness movements, such as those started by John Wesley, Charles Wesley, and George Whitefield in the early days of Methodism, often practice such regular fasts as part of their regimen.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
For members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,  fasting is total abstinence from food and drink, including water.  Members are encouraged to fast on the first Sunday of each month, designated as Fast Sunday.  During Fast Sunday, members fast for two consecutive meals.  The money saved by not having to purchase and prepare meals is donated to the church as a fast offering, which is to be used to help people in need.  The late LDS President Gordon B. Hinckley asked: ³What would happen if the principles of fast day and the fast offering were observed throughout the world? The hungry would be fed, the naked clothed, the homeless sheltered. « A new measure of concern and unselfishness would grow in the hearts of people everywhere.´  Sunday worship meetings on Fast Sunday include opportunities for church members to publicly bear testimony during the sacrament meeting portion, often referred to as fast and testimony meeting.     Fasting is also encouraged for members any time they desire to grow closer to their Father in heaven and to show self-mastery of spirit over body. Members may also implement personal, family or group fasts any time they desire to solicit special blessings from God, including health or comfort for themselves and/or others. 

Individuals can also use fasting as a part of their repentance process or to show gratitude towards God.

7.3.3 Judaism
1. Fasting for Jews means completely abstaining from food and drink, including water. 2. Brushing teeth is forbidden on the major fast days of Yom Kippur and Tisha B'Av but permitted on minor fast days. 3. Taking medications is generally not permitted, except where a doctor's orders would forbid abstaining. 4. Traditionally observant Jews fast on up to six days of the year. With the exception of Yom Kippur, fasting is never permitted on Shabbat, for the commandment of keeping Shabbat is biblically ordained and overrides the later rabbinically-instituted fast days. 5. Yom Kippur is the only fast day which is ordained in the Torah.

6. Yom Kippur is considered to be the most important day of the Jewish year and fasting as a means of repentance is expected of every Jewish man and boy above the age of bar mitzvah and every Jewish woman and girl above the age of bat mitzvah.  It is so important to fast on this day, that only those who would be put in danger by fasting are exempt, such as the ill, elderly, or pregnant or nursing women, as endangering one's life is against a core principle of Judaism.  Those that do eat on this day are encouraged to eat as little as possible at a time and to avoid a full meal.  For some, fasting on Yom Kippur is considered more important than the prayers of this holy day.  If one fasts, even if one is at home in bed, one is considered as having participated in the full religious service. 

In addition to fasting and prayer, Yom Kippur²as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths" -- has the same restrictions regarding work as the Sabbath, such as striking a fire, carrying objects outside the home, using tools, and so on.  Traditionally, leather shoes are not worn on this day.  Men may wear a white gown (kittel) over their clothes, symbolic of a burial shroud on this Day of Judgment.  Women may either wear all white, or they may simply wear a large white scarf over their heads, and many do not put on make-up or jewelry.  The aura of the day is serious, humble, sacred and repentant, yet happy in the knowledge that sincere repentance brings redemption.

7.     8.

The second major day of fasting is Tisha B'Av, the day nearly 2000 years ago on which the Romans destroyed the Holy Temple in Jerusalem and the Jews were banished from their homeland. Tisha B'Av ends a three-week mourning period beginning with the fast of the 17th of Tammuz. Unlike the fast of Yom Kippur, there are no restrictions on activities, although one should try to avoid doing regular work the first part of the day, sit in a low chair or on the floor, and wear no leather shoes. This is also the day when observant Jews remember the many tragedies which have befallen the Jewish people, including the Holocaust. The atmosphere of this holiday is serious and deeply sad. Both of these holy days are considered major fasts and are observed from sunset to sunset the following day by both men and women. The remaining four fasts are considered minor and fasting is only observed from sunrise to sunset. Men are expected to observe them, and women should observe them, but a rabbi may often give dispensions if the fast represents too much of a hardship to a sick or weak person. On the two major fast days sexual relations are also forbidden.

9.

The four public fast days
1. The Fast of Gedaliah 2. The Fast of the 10th of Tevet 3. The Fast of the 17th of Tammuz, 4. The Fast of Esther, which takes place immediately before Purim

Minor fast days, not universally observed, include:
1. The first Monday and Thursday of the months Marcheshvan and Iyar 2. The day before every Rosh Chodesh 3. The Fast of the Firstborn, on the day before Passover, which applies only to first-born sons; this obligation is usually avoided by participating in a ritual meal that takes precedence over fasting.

10. It is traditional for a bride and groom to fast on their wedding day before the ceremony as the day represents a personal Yom Kippur. In some congregations, repentance prayers that are taken from the Yom Kippur service are included by the bride and groom in the service before the ceremony. 11. Aside from these official days of fasting, Jews may take upon themselves personal or communal fasts, often to seek repentance in the face of tragedy or some impending calamity. For example, a fast is sometimes observed if the scrolls of the Torah are dropped. The length of the fast varies, and some Jews will reduce the length of the fast through tzedakah, or charitable acts. Mondays and Thursdays are considered especially auspicious days for fasting.

Purpose of fasting in Judaism
Judaism views three essential potential purposes of fasting, and a combination of some or all of these could apply to any given fast. One purpose in fasting is the achievement of atonement for sins and omissions in Divine service. Fasting is not considered the primary means of acquiring atonement; rather, sincere regret for and rectification of wrongdoing is key (see Isaiah, 58:1-13, which appropriately is read as the haftorah on Yom Kippur). Nevertheless, fasting is conducive to atonement, for it tends to precipitate contrition in the one who fasts (see Joel, 2:12-18). This is why the Bible requires fasting (lit. self affliction) on Yom Kippur (see Leviticus, 23:27,29,32; Numbers, 29:7; Tractate Yoma, 8:1; ibid. (Babylonian Talmud), 81a). Because, according to the Hebrew Bible, hardship and calamitous circumstances can occur as a result of wrongdoing (see, for example, Leviticus, 26:14-41), fasting is often undertaken by the community or by individuals to achieve atonement and avert catastrophe (see, for example, Esther, 4:3,16; Jonah, 3:7). Most of the Talmud's Tractate Ta'anit ("Fast[s]") is dedicated to the protocol involved in declaring and observing fast days.

1.  

  

Purpose of fasting in Judaism
2. The second purpose in fasting is commemorative mourning.  Indeed, most communal fast days that are set permanently in the Jewish calendar fulfil this purpose.  These fasts include: Tisha B'Av, Seventeenth of Tammuz, Tenth of Tevet (all of the three dedicated to mourning the loss of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem), and Fast of Gedaliah.  The purpose of a fast of mourning is the demonstration that those fasting are impacted by and distraught over earlier loss.  This serves to heighten appreciation of that which was lost. This is in line with Isaiah (66:10), who indicates that mourning over a loss leads to increased happiness upon return of the loss:  Be glad with Jerusalem, and exult in her, all those who love her; rejoice with her in celebration, all those [who were] mourners over her.

Purpose of fasting in Judaism
3. The third purpose in fasting is commemorative gratitude.  Since food and drink are corporeal needs, abstinence from them serves to provide a unique opportunity for focus on the spiritual.  Indeed, the Midrash explains that fasting can potentially elevate one to the exalted level of the Mal'achay HaSharait (ministering angels) (Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer, 46).  This dedication is considered appropriate gratitude to God for providing salvation.  Additionally, by refraining from such basic physical indulgence, one can more greatly appreciate the dependence of humanity on God, leading to appreciation of God's benificience in sustaining His creations.  Indeed, Jewish philosophy considers this appreciation one of the fundamental reasons for which God endowed mankind with such basic physical needs as food and drink.  This is seen from the text of the blessing customarily recited after consuming snacks or drinks:  You are the Source of all blessing, O' Eternal One, our God, King of the universe, Creator of many souls, who gave [those souls] needs for all that which You created, to give life through them to every living soul. Blessed is the Eternal Life-giver.

7.3.4 Buddhism
1. Buddhism as traditionally conceived is a path of salvation attained through insight into the ultimate nature of reality.[2]  Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices that are largely based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (Pali/Sanskrit for "The Awakened One"). 2. Born in what is today Nepal,  the Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern region of the Indian subcontinent and most likely died around 400 BCE in what is now modern India.  Adherents recognize the Buddha as an awakened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings escape the cycle of suffering and rebirth.  The Buddha's teachings provide instructions on how to understand the true nature of phenomena, end suffering, and achieve nirvana.

3. Buddhists use various methods to liberate themselves and others from the suffering of worldly existence. These include ethical conduct and altruism, devotional practices and ceremonies, the invocation of bodhisattvas, renunciation, meditation, the cultivation of mindfulness and wisdom, study, and physical exercises. 4. Two major branches of Buddhism are broadly recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"). Theravada, the oldest surviving, has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia whilst Mahayana, which is found throughout East Asia, includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon, Tibetan Buddhism and Tendai. In some methods of classification, Vajrayana is considered a third branch. Buddhist schools disagree on the historical teachings of the Buddha and on the importance and canonicity of various scriptures. [3] While Buddhism remains most popular within Asia, both branches are now found throughout the world. Various sources put the number of Buddhists in the world between 230 million and 500 million

Fasting:
1. Buddhist monks and nuns following the Vinaya rules commonly do not eat each day after the noon meal. This is not considered a fast but rather a disciplined regimen aiding in meditation and good health. 2. "Once when the Buddha was touring in the region of Kasi together with a large Sangha of monks he addressed them saying: 'I, monks, do not eat a meal in the evening. Not eating a meal in the evening I, monks, am aware of good health and of being without illness and of buoyancy and strength and living in comfort. Come, do you too, monks, not eat a meal in the evening. Not eating a meal in the evening you too, monks, will be aware of good health and..... and living in comfort.' " (Kitagiri Sutta-Majjhima Nikaya) 3. Fasting is not practiced by lay Buddhists because it is seen as a deviation from the Middle Path. This is because prior to attaining Buddhahood, prince Siddhartha practiced a regime of six years of strict austerity during which he consumed very little food. Henceforth, prince Siddhartha practiced moderation in eating which he later advocated for his disciples. However, on Uposatha days (roughly once a week) lay Buddhists are instructed to observe the eight precepts which includes refraining from eating after noon till the following morning.

Fasting:
1. The Vajrayana practice of Nyung Ne is based on the tantric practice of Chenrezig. It is said that Chenrezig appeared to Gelongma Palmo, an Indian nun who had contracted leprosy and was on the verge of death. Chenrezig taught her the method of Nyung Ne in which one keeps the eight precepts on the first day, then refrains from both food and water on the second. Although seemingly against the Middle Way, this practice is to experience the negative karma of both oneself and all other sentient beings and, as such is seen to be of benefit. Other self-inflicted harm is discouraged. 2. Perhaps because of sectarian differences, some lineages of Buddhism consider taking the eight precepts, even for a limited period of time, to be a fast.[who?] In fact, they are occasionally referred to as "fasting precepts." The eight precepts closely resemble the ten vinaya precepts for novice monks and nuns. The novice precepts are the same with the prohibition against handling money

7.3.5 Hinduism
1.Fasting is a very integral part of the Hindu religion. Individuals observe different kinds of fasts based on personal beliefs and local customs. Some are listed below. 2.Some Hindus fast on certain days of the month such as Ekadasi or Purnima. 3.Certain days of the week are also set aside for fasting depending on personal belief and favorite deity. For example, devotees of Shiva tend to fast on Mondays, while devotees of Vishnu tend to fast on Fridays or Saturdays. 4.Thursday fasting is very common among the Hindus of northern India. On Thursdays devotees listen to a story before opening their fast. On the Thursday fasters also worship Vrihaspati Mahadeva. They wear yellow clothes, and meals with yellow colour are preferred. Women worship the banana tree and water it. Food items are made with yellow-coloured ghee. 5.Fasting during religious festivals is also very common. Common examples are Maha Shivaratri (Most people conduct a fast on Maha Shivratri which includes consuming fruit and milk) , or the 9 days of Navratri (which occurs twice a year in the months of April and October/November during Vijayadashami just before Diwali, as per the Hindu calendar). Karwa Chauth is a form of fasting practiced in some parts of India where married women undertake a fast for the well-being, prosperity, and longevity of their husbands. The fast is broken after the wife views the moon through a sieve.

6.

In the state of Andhra Pradesh, the month of Kaarthika, which begins with the day after Deepavali is often a period of frequent (though not necessarily continuous) fasting for some people, especially women. Common occasions for fasting during this month include Mondays (for Lord Shiva), the full-moon day of Karthika and the occasion of Naagula Chaviti. Methods of fasting also vary widely and cover a broad spectrum. If followed strictly, the person fasting does not partake any food or water from the previous day's sunset until 48 minutes after the following day's sunrise. Fasting can also mean limiting oneself to one meal during the day and/or abstaining from eating certain food types and/or eating only certain food types. In any case, even if the fasting Hindu is nonvegetarian, he/she is not supposed to eat or even touch any animal products (i.e. meat, eggs) on a day of fasting. (Milk is an exception for animal products). In Sri Vidya, one is forbidden to fast because the Devi is within them, and starving would in return starve the god. The only exception in Srividya for fasting is on the anniversary of the day one's parents died.

7.

8.

7.3.5 Sikhism
1. Sikhism does not promote fasting except for medical reasons. 2. The Sikh Gurus discourage the devotee from engaging in this ritual as it "brings no spiritual benefit to the person". 3. The Sikh holy Scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib tell us: "Fasting, daily rituals, and austere self-discipline - those who keep the practice of these, are rewarded with less than a shell." (Guru Granth Sahib page 216).

8.0 Contemporary issues
8.1 Organic food 8.2 Fast food 8.3 Junk food 8.4 Others

8.1 ORGANIC FOOD

INTRODUCTION
‡ Many people choose organic foods not so much for what is in them, but for what is not in them (hormones and antibiotics, pesticides and herbicides residue). ‡ Most organic foods, however, are not totally free of some of these ingredients. ‡ Due to ³pesticide drift´ from sprayed crops, past use of pesticides on farmland, and the leaching of chemicals used on crops into groundwater, organically grown plants may contain traces of pesticides ‡ However, conventionally grown crops are six times more likely to have traces of several pesticides than are organic crops (Brown, 2005)

CONTINUE«
‡ Organic foods at least carry no additional risk of food poisoning (Heaton, 2001). ‡ This has been reflected in an increasing demand for organic produce, which is perceived as less damaging to the environment and to be healthier than conventionally grown foods (Saba and Messina 2002).

CONTINUE«
‡ Popular organic food items include organic tea, organic coffee, organic wine, organic meat, organic beef, organic milk, organic honey, organic vegetables, organic fruits, organic rice, organic corn, organic herbs, organic oils, organic coconut oil and organic olive oil.

DEFINITION
‡ Organic refers to an "earth friendly" and healthsupportive method of farming and processing foods. ‡ Weeds and pests are controlled using environmentally sound practices that sustain our personal health and the health of our planet. The term "organic" applies to both animal and plant foods. ‡ Organic farmers do not use chemicals (pesticides, fungicides or fertilizers) in an environmentally harmful manner.

(Amaditz,1997)

WHAT IS ORGANIC FOODS?
‡ Plant and animal foods that have been grown, harvested, and processed without conventional pesticides, fertilizers, growth promoters, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation (Mcguire and Beerman, 2007)

ORGANIC PRODUCTION
‡ USDA Definition and Regulations: ± The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA), enacted under Title 21 of the 1990 Farm Bill, served to establish uniform national standards for the production and handling of foods labeled as ³organic.´ USDA National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) definition, April 1995: ± ³Organic´ is a labeling term that denotes products produced under the authority of the Organic Foods Production Act. The principal guidelines for organic production are to use materials and practices that enhance the ecological balance of natural systems and that integrate the parts of the farming system into an ecological whole.

‡

CONTINUE«
‡ USDA Consumer Brochure: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts  Organic food is produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations.  Organic food is produced without using most conventional pesticides; fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge; bioengineering; or ionizing radiation.

CONTINUE«
‡ Before a product can be labeled µorganic¶, a

Government-approved certifier inspects the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the rules necessary to meet USDA organic standards. ‡ Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products come from animals that are given no antibiotics or growth hormones. ‡ Companies that handle or process organic food before it gets to your local supermarket or restaurant must be certified, too.

Monitoring Organic Status
‡ Under the NOP (National Organic Program), farm and processing operations that grow and process organic foods must be certified by the USDA. ‡ The certification process includes an on-site inspection to verify that the applicant¶s operation complies with strict national organic standard. ‡ Certifying agents may collect and test soil, water, waste, plant and animal tissues, and processed products. ‡ Certified operation may label its products or ingredients as organic and may use the ³USDA Certified Organic´ seal. (Thomson and Manore, 2005)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NATURAL AND ORGANIC FOOD
Parameter Organic Food Organic food refers to items that are produced using organic means. Natural Food Natural food items are minimally synthesized. Definition

Standards

Stringent standards for organic food production, handling and processing exist throughout the world.

Stringent standards do not exist for natural food products in many parts of the world.

The International Association of Natural Products Producers Many countries have certification (IANPP) is trying to get the bodies, the most prominent being the Certification Bodies definitions for natural food United States Department of Agriculture into place. It should be noted (USDA). that it is not a certification body.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NATURAL AND ORGANIC FOOD
Labels Organic labels have legal implication. A manufacturer should follow the specified rules and regulations before using the organic label. Natural labels are normally used freely by manufacturers due to lack of adequate guidelines.

Demand

The demand for natural food Demand for organic food is more than the is also increasing; however, demand for natural food. not as much as organic food. There is no evidence to prove that organic food is healthier than non organic food. People prefer organic food because they feel it is safer than conventional food as chemicals are not used in its production. However, recent research on the health benefits of organic milk has boosted the spirits of organic food lovers.

Health Benefits

People prefer natural food because they believe excessive processing of food items disturbs their health benefits.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NATURAL AND ORGANIC FOOD
Price Organic food is priced more Natural food is also priced than non organic food. less than non organic food Since it is minimally Shelf life of organic food is processed in many food more than that of natural items, which have high food. You can store it for a water content, the shelf life longer duration. is low. Natural food is available at Organic food is being sold many stores that sell organic food. There are some in almost every super market. There are special special stores that sell stores selling organic food natural food. Further, many and one can purchase stores selling health food organic food online as well. items also sell natural food products.

Shelf life

Availability

Conventional vs. organic farming
Conventional farmers Apply chemical fertilizers to promote plant growth. Spray insecticides to reduce pests and disease. Use chemical herbicides to manage weeds. Give animals antibiotics, growth hormones and medications to prevent disease and spur growth. Organic farmers Apply natural fertilizers, such as manure or compost, to feed soil and plants. Use beneficial insects and birds, mating disruption or traps to reduce pests and disease. Rotate crops, till, hand weed or mulch to manage weeds. Give animals organic feed and allow them access to the outdoors. Use preventive measures such as rotational grazing, a balanced diet and clean housing to help minimize disease.

(USDA, 2001)

ORGANIC FOOD LOGO

INTERNATIONAL

China

ORGANIC FOOD LOGO
United State France

WHAT IS ORGANIC MEAT?
‡ Organic meat is produced with animals raised on land free of pesticides, fertilizers, genetically engineered or irradiated foods. ‡ Farmers keep a detailed record of all methods and materials used in growing or producing the meat. ‡ All feed and pasture on which they are grazed must be organic and not allowed hormones or antibiotics. However, they can be vaccinated. ‡ Animals are considered organic after three months of being raised on an organic farm. 

      

EXAMPLE OF ORGANIC PLANT WHEAT CORN RICE OAT BARLEY APPLE STRAWBERRY TOMATO

Foods
Tomatoes

Chemicals studied
Vitamin C, carotenoids, polyphenols

Results
Organic tomatoes had higher levels of Vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols than conventional when results were expressed as fresh matter Polyphenoloxidase enzyme levels in organic and conventional grapes did not differ; diphenolase activity 2 times higher from organic grapes than conventional grapes Phenolics higher in organic apple pulp than in conventional; no differences between organic and conventional apples with respect to phenolics in apple peels

Referrences
Caris-Veyrat and others (2004)

Grapes

Polyphenoloxidase and diphenolase enzymes

Nunez-Delicado and others (2005)

Apples

Phenolics

Veberic and others (2005)

ORGANIC FOOD IN MALAYSIA
‡Chicken organic produced by MEAT AND MARINE SDN. BHD. MUMTAZ

‡ Beef, mutton and chicken organic produced by HPA ‡ Fulfilled the requirement stated by USDA regulation to issued that the meat and chicken are organic.

PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC MEAT AND CHICKEN
‡ MUMTAZ MEAT AND MARINE FOOD SDN.BHD and HPA INDUSTRIES S/B: > not used antibiotic or hormone to fasten the growth. > not kept the chicken in the hen-house but let them freely move to found out the natural foods. > the feeds mix with the herbs such as pandan leaf , habatussauda, ginger and tumeric which have high antioxidant and antimicrobial function. > the yield: > the meat have high protein and low cholesterol.

EXAMPLE OF ORGANIC FOOD WITH USDA ORGANIC LOGO

EXAMPLE OF ORGANIC FOOD WITH OTHER LOGO

ORGANIC VEGETABLES

ORGANIC FOODS FROM HPA INDUSTRIES SDN BHD

Can organic foods really improve our health?
‡ Yes. Organically grown food is your best way of reducing exposure to toxins used in conventional agricultural practices. ‡ These toxins include not only pesticides, many of which have been federally classified as potential cancer-causing agents, but also heavy metals such as lead and mercury, and solvents like benzene and toluene. - Minimizing exposure to these toxins is of major benefit to your health. - Heavy metals damage nerve function, contributing to diseases such as multiple sclerosis and lowering IQ, and also block hemoglobin production, causing anemia. - Solvents damage white cells, lowering the immune system's ability to resist infections.

‡ In addition to significantly lessening your exposure to these healthrobbing substances, organically grown foods have been shown to contain substantially higher levels of nutrients such as protein, vitamin C and many minerals. (Badgley C et.al,2007)

Do organic foods taste better?
‡ Although no formal research has been conducted, some people, including many chefs, believe organic foods have better taste, color and flavor. ‡ They speculate that this is because organic farming, which starts with the nourishment of the soil, leads to the nourishment of the plants and ultimately to our taste buds. ‡ The use of synthetic nitrate fertilizers in non-organic food crops results in nitrate binding to water, which makes these crops look better but lessens their flavor. ‡ The superior taste of organic foods leads many chefs to choose them for their kitchens. A survey conducted by the National Restaurant Association found that 50% of restaurants with a perperson dinner check of $25 or more now offer organic items on their menus. (Fisher, 1999)

Advantages of Organic Food
‡ The average non organic fruit contains more than 20 pesticides ‡ Organic food is much more rich in vitamins, minerals and fibre and retains the levels of nutrients for much longer ‡ Your body will be more resistant to disease as it will have higher levels of the essential nutrients it needs to fight off infection ‡ You will have more energy through consuming lower levels of toxins and chemicals that slow your body down ‡ If you are eating dairy or farm produce then you are also eating the chemicals, drugs and growth hormones given to the animals ‡ Organic food producers must meet stringent standards ‡ Organic farms respect our water resources and do not leach nitrogen and other pollutants from their soil ‡ Organic food just tastes so much better!

CONTINUE«
‡ More iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin C in organics crops. ‡ Other research suggest that organic farming techniques may enhance beneficial antioxidant levels in fruits and vegetables.

(Insel et al., 2007)

DISADVANTAGES
‡ 


Cultivation
Organic farmers are usually at least partly dependent on cultivation to remove weeds prior to sowing. the structure of agro chemically-deadened soils is weakened by the corresponding loss of soil life and thus unable to maintain its integrity under occasional cultivation.

‡ 

Time
Organic farming requires greater interaction between a farmer and his crop for observation, timely intervention and weed control for instance.

‡ 

Skill
It requires considerably more skill to farm organically

HALAL
‡ Organic food can come from non halal source. For example there are organic food come from swine which was sold legalize in non Islamic country such as USA and New Zealand. Organic food become permissible if all the ingredients in it are lawful according to Islamic Food Law. If this requirement are not fulfill, therefore it become impermissible.

‡

‡

In addition, if the ingredients categories as halal but can cause harmful to consumer, therefore it must consider as non-halal. Although organic food come from various sector either halal or non-halal, but certificate of halal is important . This is prior to prevent muslim people to intake non-halal organic food or mashbooh (something unclearly either halal or non halal) organic food. Hadith: ³What is Halal is clear and what is Haram is clear. Midway between them there are things that many people do not know whether they are Halal or Haram. He who keeps away from them will protect his religion and be saved. He who approaches them will be very near to Haram.´

‡

‡

HALAL AND TAYYIB CONCEPT
‡ Food that is permissible according to Islamic law. Tayyib means wholesome, pure, nutritious and safe. ‡ Great emphasis is placed on ensuring that animals slaughtered for consumption are done so in the Islamic manner (the practice known as Zabiha). ‡ Little to no attention is given to whether or not the animal itself is healthy, free of disease, hormones, antibiotics, and chemicals at the time of slaughter. ‡ kind of food it consumes is not taken into consideration

ISSUE RELATED TO ORGANIC FOOD

‡

Not All Organic Foods Are Certified Only organically certified foods can bear the organic label. This is designed to protect the consumer and assure consistent quality within the industry. When you buy an organic food with the Certified Organic label, you can be assured of purchasing an authentic organic product. There are millions of organic gardeners who have no reason to seek certification because their crops are for their family¶s consumption. Small farmers may use organic methods but be unable to fulfill the requirements to be certified.

‡

‡

‡

Just like organic farming the cultivation of organic plant is very traditional. Nowadays, farmer most prefer to use synthetic chemical ( pesticide and fertilizer) to get faster product. They only think about how to get higher income without think about health of consumer. For example, 20 years ago chicken can be consume more than one year mature, but today with the advance technology within 3 months we can eat it. Commercialization has caused a lot of confusion among consumers with regard to the efficacy and the ability for food to play any significant role in promoting good health or assistance in recovery from disease or ill health. Lack of clear references for organic production and processing standard is concern. In Malaysia, information about organic food is insufficient. Only a few people, like high education and health curious people know about it. Mass media and government also less support in this area.

‡

‡

Producers, retailers and consumers are also not fully aware of the wider extent of organic production and processing standard applicable internationally. Only a few people know about MS 1529: 2001 High price due to high quality food, therefore not everyone affordable to buy it. This shows that there is a strong relationship between education level and income. Survey done in Bangkok, Thailand:

WHY ARE CONSUMERS DEMANDING ORGANIC MILK?
‡ The demand for organic milk has increased all over the world. ‡ Consumers are demanding more organic milk due to its enhanced health benefits. ‡ Research conducted at the University of Aberdeen, and the Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research have shown that organic milk has more Omega 3 than non-organic milk. So consumers can now just replace their regular milk with organic milk and do away with those Omega 3 supplements or fish oil capsules. ‡ Similarly, research conducted at the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences and the University of Newcastle has shown that organic milk is rich in Vitamin A and Vitamin E. Vitamin A is essential for a good eye-sight, and Vitamin E protects body cells from free radicals and delays ageing. ‡ Organic milk also has more Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) than non-organic milk, as it has become mandatory to graze the organic cows on pastures unless weather forces the farmer to interfere. Now cows that graze on pastures have higher concentrations of CLAs in their milk than fodder-fed cows.

MAD COW: IT IS TIME TO
BE ORGANIC AND NATURAL
‡ 75 percent of Halal meat in America produced in the year 2000 came from pork fed cows, according to Dr. Stephen Emanuel, from Agway Feed Company. ‡ The story gets even worse in light of the recent discovery of mad cow disease. The first case ever in America was discovered in Washington state in December 2003. ‡ Mad cow disease in animals is caused by animal cannibalism- the practice of feeding animals used for human consumption with other animals. This practice is a meat industry standard.

CONTINUE«
‡ The truth is that beef, as well as all other animal products, including chicken, dairy, and eggs, are not safe, even without the risk of mad cow disease. Most are jam-packed with fat and cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Loaded with too much protein, they raise the risk of kidney disease and osteoporosis. And given intensive farming and slaughtering processes, they're often contaminated with food borne pathogens. ‡ In the United States the cows are being fed pork based protein, like pork meat byproducts, pork bone meal, explains Mazhar Hussaini, president of the North American Halal Foundation. It is also the same with chicken.

CONCLUSION
‡ Organic food provide the food that safe for human consumption which not involved the chemical and also hormone during handling and production.

References
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . National standards for organic foods proposed. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000 May 1;216(9):1381 2000. PMID:17810. Amaditz KC. The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 and its impending regulations: a big zero for organic food. Food Drug Law J 1997;52(4):537-59 1997. PMID:17820. Badgley C, Moghtadera J, Quinteroa E, Zakema E, Chappella MJ, Avilés-Vázqueza K, Samulona A, Perfecto I. Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 2007 July, 22(2): 86-108. 2007. Badgley C, Perfecto I. Can organic agriculture feed the world. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 2007 July, 22(2): 80-86. 2007. Baker BP, Benbrook CM, Groth E 3rd, Lutz Benbrook K. Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets. Food Addit Contam. 2002 May;19(5):427-46. 2002. PMID:12028642. Baxter GJ, Graham AB, Lawrence JR, Wiles D, Paterson JR. Salicylic acid in soups prepared from organically and non-organically grown vegetables. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Dec;40(6):289-92. 2001. PMID:11876493. Clark T. More vitamin C in organic oranges than conventional oranges. Research presented at American Chemical Society Meeting, Press Release, Science Daily News, June 2, 2002. 2002. Davis DR, Epp MD, Riordan HD. Changes in USDA food composition data for 43 garden crops, 1950 to 1999. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6):669-82. 2004. PMID:15637215. Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Castorina R. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Jun;107 Suppl 3:409-19. 1999. PMID:10346990. Fisher BE. Organic: What's in a name. Environ Health Perspect 1999 Mar;107(3):A150-3 1999. PMID:17830.

‡

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

‡

Pryme IF & Lembcke R (2003) In vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed - with particular regard to ingredients consisting of genetically modified plant materials. Nutrition and Health, 2003, Vol 17, p. 1-8. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health . Robbins C (1991) Poisoned harvest: A consumer's guide to pesticide use and abuse, Victor Gollancz Ltd, p. 300 ± 313. BMA (1992) The BMA guide to pesticides, chemicals and health, Report of the Board of Science and Education, British Medical Association. Sir John Krebs, Chair, Food Standards Agency, Cheltenham Science Festival debate, 5th June 2003. Saba, A. and Messina, F (2002), Attitudes towards organic foods and risk/benefit perception associated with pesticides, Food Quality and Preference 14 (2003) 637±645 von Alvensleben, R., & Altmann, M. (1987). Determinants of the demand for organic foods in Germany. Acta Horticulturae, 203, 235±242

‡ Marion Bennion & Barbara scheule (2004) Introductory Foods, 12th Edition, Pearson Education, inc, New Jersey. ‡ Meguire and Beerman KA. Nutritional Sciences From Fundamentals to Food, (2007). Thomson Wardsworth. ‡ Tompson J.L, Manore MM & Vuughan LA, (2008), The Science of Nutrition. Pearson Education, Inc (son Francisco). ‡ Thompson J. & Manore M. (2005). Pearson Education, Inc (Son Francisco)

REFERENCES
1. 2. Amaditz KC. The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 and its impending regulations: a big zero for organic food. Food Drug Law J 1997;52(4):537-59 1997. PMID:17820. Badgley C, Moghtadera J, Quinteroa E, Zakema E, Chappella MJ, AvilésVázqueza K, Samulona A, Perfecto I. Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 2007 July, 22(2): 86-108. 2007. Brown.J.L., (2005). Understanding Food and Nutrition Label.4th ed.Thomson Learning, Inc.USA Fisher BE. Organic: What's in a name. Environ Health Perspect 1999 Mar;107(3):A150-3 1999. PMID:17830. Meguire and Beerman KA. Nutritional Sciences From Fundamentals to Food, (2007). Thomson Wardsworth. Thompson J. & Manore M. (2005). Pearson Education, Inc (Son Francisco) Saba, A. and Messina, F (2002), Attitudes towards organic foods and risk/benefit perception associated with pesticides, Food Quality and Preference 14 (2003) 637±645 http://gempurhpa.blogspot.com/2008/05/hpa-buka-restoran-radix- friedchicken.html. Retrieved on 10 October 2009. http://ayamkampungorganik.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 10 October 2009. http://www.wordic.com/definitions/organic-food. Retrieved on 10 October 2009. http://www.wordic.com/definitions/organic-food. Retrieved on 10 October 2009.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

8.2 Fast food in Malaysia

WHAT IS FAST FOOD?
A type of meal that is often pre-prepared and serve quickly or a type of food that is quickly made, but of low nutritional value; junk food. Is the term given to food that can be prepared and serve very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with low quality preparation and served to a customer in a packaged form for take out/ take away.
1. 2. http://www.allwords.com/word-fast+food.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fast_food

‡ Fast food industry nowadays has greatly developed in many countries worldwide. Swift pace of life and hectic schedule change people's habits of eating. The great need of fast food leads to the quick rise of many fast food restaurants all over the world.

‡ http://www.artipot.com/articles/312417/advantages-anddisadvantages-of-fastfood.htm

‡

Examples of fast food 
McDonalds  Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)  PizzaHut  Burger King  Marybrown  A&W  Nando¶s  Wendy¶s

Examples of fast food

Burger

French fries Fried chicken

Pizza

Advantages
Generally, people eat fast food for a few main reasons:
1. 



Time and speed saving Modern society with piles of work and activities pushes people to be busy at any time (e.g.: businessmen and officers, students). By coming to fast food restaurant, the customers are quickly served. They can save a lot of time to do other things instead of cooking at home or waiting for the meal to be cooked at restaurant. Fast food helps people to handle the meal as soon and comfortably as possible.

http://www.artipot.com/articles/312417/advantages-and-disadvantages-offastfood.htm

2. It's convenient 3. Cheap 4. Tastes pretty good (satisfying meals) 5. Widely available

Disadvantages
1.Give effect to health  Obesity in children and diseases caused by too much fat in adult's body can be stemmed from fast food eating routine. 2. Less spending time eating with family  Mealtime is considered a family meeting time, all members take turns to talk about their activities and feelings during the day, and therefore mealtime is important under one roof. But nowadays more and more teenagers and young people are engrossed in having fast food with friends and their peers.
http://www.naturalnews.com/023404_food_fast_food_health.html

3. Sodium and Increased Blood Pressure High amount of sodium, will increases and aggravates the risks of high blood pressure. Sodium can also lead to building-up of fluids in case of people who are suffering from people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, or kidney disease. 4. Effects of Cholesterol Meat contains cholesterol molecules that can accumulate in the arteries and lead to clogging or thickening of the arteries which can further lead to an obstructed blood flow and affect the blood pressure. If the artery, which carries blood to the heart, gets clogged, it can result in heart attack or even heart failure in extreme cases where blood flow is completely obstructed. (Uttara Manohar)

There are a few ingredients in fast food that health conscious consumers consider unacceptable: High in calories High sodium content MSG (or free glutamate, or free glutamic acid, including anything hydrolyzed or autolyzed) High fat Trans fats (hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils) Artificial colors Artificial flavors Most preservatives

Top 10 Dangerous Diseases Caused by Fast Food Obesity 
Heart Disease Of all the diseases caused by fast food obesity, heart disease is one of the most common and most devastating. Large amounts of body fat usually result in higher levels of LDL cholesterol and lower levels of HDL. Both factors can increase the risk of heart disease which is the number one cause of death in the United States.  Diabetes One of the fastest growing obesity related diseases is diabetes. With diabetes, pancreas can not produce enough insulin to covert sugars into energy for cells. The rest of the sugar ends up floating around in blood and causing damage. 

Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia could be considered a junk food obesity related illness. That¶s because the disease occurs when LDL levels and triglycerides are abnormally high. Having this condition puts at greater risk of coronary heart disease, and most physicians attribute its development directly to weight gain.  Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women who are overweight or obese have a higher likelihood of developing this disorder which is one of the main causes of infertility in females who are within reproductive age. The condition causes irregular menstrual cycles and excess hair growth. Additionally, the disease is associated with insulin resistance which means it is also a factor in the development of diabetes in women.  Sleep Apnea Many people with weight problems attribute their lack of energy to their size but many of them actually have a disorder known as sleep apnea. While sleeping, people literally stop breathing and this causes them to wake up suddenly. they may be unaware of the sleep disruption but it does prevent from getting a restful sleep and can sometimes be dangerous. 

Arthritis While most people think of arthritis as a disease for older people only, the condition is simply caused by strain on the joints over time. When wear more than the body can handle, the strain is greater and causes arthritis to develop much earlier.  Blount¶s Disease Obesity is especially dangerous to growing children. Blount¶s disease is a condition that develops when too much weight is placed on the growing bones in the lower half of the body. This extra weight can cause growth to be abnormal.  Respiratory Problems Just as being overweight puts more stress on the heart, it also causes the lungs to work harder in order to get the oxygen needed where it needs to faster. Plus, conditions such as plague build-up from high cholesterol in the arteries can make it harder for oxygen to move free through the system. Breathing problems, including asthma, are also more common in obese people. 

Liver Damage Sometimes the body has problems breaking down all of the fatty foods we eat and dealing with the fat appropriately. As a result, fat can build-up around the liver. This condition can end up causing scarring and inflammation of the liver, as well as permanent liver damage.  Stroke A stroke is caused by a blockage in the arteries supplying blood to the brain. When the blood and the oxygen it carries can¶t reach the brain, the cells begin to die off causing permanent brain damage and even brain death. These blockages are more common in overweight people because they are more likely to have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and/or plague build-up which increases the risk of this life-threatening condition.

http://www.nutralegacy.com/blog/general-healthcare/top10-dangerous-diseases-caused-by-fast-food-obesity/

Current issues on fast food
Complaint received by JAKIM on 24/09/2005: Most of the fast food in Malaysia has not been properly prepared (e.g.: KFC) but has the Halal certificate from JAKIM. Some of the issue arisen was: - Chicken slaughtered in hanging situation - Incomplete slaughtering (not totally dead) and then being dip in hot water. - Slaughtered by women. - Found dead during transportation to the slaughtering house/factory but still hanged and slaughtered.

Answer given by JAKIM: KFC has been issued with halal certificate by the JAKIM and was continuously monitored on the slaughtering of the chickens which has been confirmed accordingly to the Syariah law. If the public is still unconfident with the certificate that has been given by JAKIM which is the government authority body, therefore which other halal reference can the public trust?

Question:
± Saya difahamkan JAKIM telah menarik balik pegesahan halal yang diberikan kepada pengusaha ayam dinding. Bagaimana pula, McD dan Nando yang saya diberitahu menggunakan bekalan ayam dari syarikat tersebut? boleh tuan tolong terangkan dan siasat. terima kasih
± Tarikh Aduan :

± 17/01/2006 - 17:49:48

Answer:
± Merujuk kepada tindakan penarikan sijil halal JAKIM ke atas Syarikat Ayam Dinding Sdn. Bhd, tindakan tersebut dibuat kerana semasa pemeriksaan pemantauan yang dilakukan oleh Unit Pemantauan Halal JAKIM didapati telah berlaku beberapa amalan dan proses yang tidak menepati dan tidak selaras dengan Malaysia Standard (MS) 1500:2004. Pihak syarikat telah menggunakan µtracebility system¶ untuk membuat µrecall product¶ ayam sembelihan yang diragui kesahihan sembelihannya bagi memastikan hanya ayam sembelihan yang menepati penyembelihan mengikut hukum syarak sahaja yang berada di pasaran. Tindakan syarikat ini mengiklankan bahawa produk keluaran mereka adalah halal berdasarkan kepada tindakan pembetulan yang telah mereka ambil dan telah mematuhi syarat penyembelihan mengikut hukum syarak dan juga telah mematuhi standard piawaian halal seperti yang telah ditetapkan oleh JAKIM. Bekalan ayam yang dibekalkan kepada rangkaian restoran McDonald¶s oleh syarikat ini tidak melibatkan semua restoran McDonald¶s, hanya restoran yang terlibat sahaja yang telah menghentikan sementara menu berkaitan ayam goreng. Pengguna tidak perlu merasa ragu-ragu dengan hidangan ayam goreng di McDonald¶s kerana pihak pengurusan McDonald¶s telah mengambil tindakan segera menukarkan pembekal ayam kepada pembekal lain yang telah mendapat pengesahan halal dari JAKIM ± http://www.halal.gov.my/aduan_siar_c.php?id=2331&a=U&PHPSESSID=0a5 eb2d9bb31acbf98ffb426cd7455f0

Other Important Halal Issues on Fast Food
1.Slaughtering Animals used in making fast food must be slaughtered according to Shariah law. 2. Ingredients and Additives The sources being added must be according to the specification in food regulation. 3. Premises, Equipments and Utensils It must be clean from filth or najs and not contaminated with non-halal item

Current fast food achievements
McDonald¶s gets Halal award
‡ Dubai -- The 3rd Halal Journal Awards Ceremony realized Dr. Habib M¶Nasria, Quality Assurance Director - McDonald¶s Middle East Development Company as an outstanding Halal practitioner and granted him the Outstanding Personal Achievement Award due to his critical research and continuous efforts in further developing Halal standards and applications. ‡ The award was presented by Malaysia¶s Prime Minister, YAB Dato¶ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi during the Halal World Forum 2008 that took place in Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, Malaysia, on May 12 - 13.
http://www.halaljournal.com/article/1699/mcdonald%E2%80%99s-gets-halal-award

‡ In summary, based on the advantages, disadvantages, and current issues of fast food discussed before, consumers are now more expose in making selection on their food selection whether their prefer cooking food themselves or just buying fast food. ‡ It is important to note that fast food also bring more advantages if only the consumers themselves have a proper manner on eating fast food healthily by not consuming it in excess amount. ‡ Disadvantages might occur if fast food consumed in larger amount exceeding the actual limit.

Suggestion meal (fast food)

‡ Although most of the people prefer fast food from other choices of food, they still must have a reason on why they are more preferring that types of fast food from other fast food. ‡ Thus, there are suggestion on types of fast food you should consumed and a few reason why you must pick them instead of others. ‡ The suggestion are on Mc Donald food.

Pure Halal Beef

‡ McDonald's meat patties are produced from pure halal beef with no additives, preservatives or flavour enhancers. The beef patties are prepared and packaged at McDonald's approved meat plants. ‡ In addition to inspections carried out before the beef arrives at the plants, all the suppliers undertake several separate quality checks on every batch. The beef patties are cooked without the addition of fats or oils.

Potatoes

‡

McDonald's world famous French Fries are produced from only the best quality potatoes specially grown for McDonald¶s at selected farms around the world. The potatoes are specially blanched and processed so that maximum nutrients are retained.

Fish
The fish in McDonald's Filet-O-Fish are skinless fresh wholesome fillets of delicious and mild whitefleshed fish. Upon arrival at the plant in Malaysia, the fish blocks are stored in a temperaturecontrolled environment to maintain their freshness. They are then cut and sliced, battered and breaded without added flavouring or colouring.

Halal Farm-Fresh Chicken Farm-

Their chicken is selected for their wholesomeness - boneless breast and thigh meat that meet all physical and bacteriological specifications. They are shaped to ensure consistency in weight and they are covered in specially seasoned breading and tempura batter.

Fresh eggs

Only farm-fresh, low-cholesterol, premium quality eggs go into delicious egg products. McDonald¶s eggs are washed and cleaned with a special detergent to remove bacteria. The shells are coated with a thin layer of food grade oil so the eggs stay fresh and safe. Eggs are kept chilled and only crack them open just before cooking to make sure they are fresh and hygienically prepared.

Cheese

Dairy products, including cheese, have a role to play in a balanced diet because they contain a wide variety of essential nutrients such as protein, calcium, fatsoluble phosphorous and zinc.

Buns

McDonald's buns are baked locally and delivered fresh several times each week.

Vegetables

Freshly shredded lettuce, slivered onions and pickles are used in all our burgers. Their lettuce heads are grown in Malaysia, Australia, China and USA and are shredded locally.

‡ Apples Their Apple Pies are made from real apple slices blended with cinnamon and then covered in a crisp, short crust pastry. ‡ Oranges An excellent source of Vitamin C, McDonald's imports pure concentrated orange juice with pulp. No preservatives or sugar are added.

Salt
Most of their food contains some salt, in amounts consistent with grocery foods purchased for the home. Their French Fries are salted as part of their preparation process but customers can request them without added salt.

Additives
What they leave out of their food is as important as what they put in. Any additives used are those already included by the suppliers only to maintain quality.

Halal requirement
All food consumed at McDonald¶s comply with Halal requirements. Raw ingredients, cooking utensils and meals conform strictly with the Islamic Halal requirements of the Government of Malaysia.

REFERENCES
http://www.artipot.com/articles/312417/advantages-anddisadvantages-of-fastfood.htm http://www.artipot.com/articles/312417/advantages-anddisadvantages-of-fastfood.htm http://www.naturalnews.com/023404_food_fast_food_health.html http://www.naturalnews.com/023372_food_liver_damage_fast_fo od.html http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/fast%20fo od http://www.medhelp.org/medical-information/show/304/Fastfoods B. Emily, M. Philip, W. Carlene and W. Gary. (2008). Obesity and the effects of choice at a fast food restaurant. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2, 111²117.

8.3 JUNK FOOD

DO YOU RECOGNIZE THESE SNACKS??

Malaysian Snacks or Junk Food!

INTRODUCTION
‡ Junk food is an informal term applied to some foods which are perceived to have little or no nutritional value, or to products with nutritional value but which also have ingredients considered unhealthy when regularly eaten, or to those considered unhealthy to consume at all. ‡ It always related to the unhealthy effect to the consumers. ‡ The Oxford Dictionary by the Oxford University Press defined ³junk food´ as food such as sweets and crisps with low nutritional value  

Islam outlines two important criteria in choosing the types of food. The first is halal or lawful. The other one is tayyib or good quality. Many Muslims are sensitive to the halal issue in the food that they eat (e.g containing additives from animal source, especially pork). In our country, finding halal food is not a big problem since we have regulations and guidelines to oversee issues of halal and haram in food.

‡ However, not many of us give due attention to the tayyib requirement as stated in the Quran. Some foods may be halal, but it may not be good for consumption. ‡ A good example of this is junk food. The contents of junk food may be halal, but from the health perspective, it is not good for consumption. ‡ Therefore from the Islamic perspective, the food should not be consumed by Muslims as it does not meet the criteria of halalan tayyiban.

EVIDENCE FROM THE QURAN
Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 172; ³O ye who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided for you and be grateful to Allah, if it is Him ye worship.´ As a Muslim, we are encouraged to eat food that is good to our body physically and mentally, halal and toyyib.

DEFINITION
‡ A high-calorie food that is low in nutritional value. (The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,1999). ‡ Food that is unhealthy but is quick and easy to eat. (Cambridge Advance Learner) ‡ (Cookery) food that is low in nutritional value, often highly processed or ready-prepared, and eaten instead of or in addition to well-balanced meals. (Collins English Dictionary, 2003)

WHY DO PEOPLE CRAVE JUNK FOOD?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Tasty Advertisements ± attractive Cheap ± children can buy Convenient ± can eat anywhere, anytime Has been a culture (junk food society)

CHARACTERISTIC
Most junk food; Úlow in fiber. Úhigh in palatability (that is, it tastes good). Úoffers a high number of calories in a small volume. Úhigh in fat. Úhigh in sugar and salt. The researchers suggested that certain factors inherent to junk food might promote overeating.
(Retrieved from www.webmd.com)

PROBLEM WITH JUNK
FOOD
‡ Acrylamides -- a cancer-causing agent created when foods are fried or grilled ‡ They are not added to food but the agent is a byproduct of cooking starchy food at high temperatures. ‡ Acrylamide levels found in potatoes that are fried or baked at high temperatures which not exist in potatoes that are boiled or mashed. ‡ Acrylamides also form in other starches, such as toasted oats, flour, or sweet potatoes.

ADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ Certain junk foods can actually be good. ‡ Example; ‡ Popcorn Popcorn also helps curb the evening snack craving. A bowl of home-made popcorn is even better as it is low on calories and high on antioxidants. ‡ Dark chocolate brownies Dark chocolate is proven to be good for the heart and if it is paired with a whole wheat brownie and some nuts, it becomes rich in fibre as well.
TNN, 10 Oct. 2009

ADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ Dark chocolate bars Dark chocolate contains high amounts of antioxidants. It helps to lower the blood pressure and decrease the risk of heart disease as well, if you eat around 100 grams a day. ‡ Crackers There are many kinds of whole wheat crackers available, which can be a good and healthy evening munch without the side-effects that other junk foods cause

TNN, 10 Oct. 2009

ADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ Baked snacks The latest in the snack category are baked snacks. They are better than fried chips as they contain no oil. Usually made of whole wheat with a dash of spice, it not only entertains the taste buds but is also healthy for your body. ‡ Processed cheese Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found in many meat, milk and cheese products. But a recent study which concentrated specifically on processed cheese found that CLA has anti-carcinogenic properties and it is also an effective antioxidant. The study says processed cheese contains more CLA than natural cheese, such as cheddar.
TNN, 10 Oct. 2009

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
1. A maternal junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation contributes to the development of hyperphagia and obesity in offspring. ‡ This result obtained from the study done by S.A. Bayol and N.C. Stickland from The royal Veterinary College, London, UK.

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
2. Cause obesity problem ‡ According to Federation of Malaysian Consumer Associations (Fomca) president Datuk N. Marimuthu, in conjunction with the World Consumer Rights Day 2009, at least 22 million children worldwide aged five years and below are obese.

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ New research from the UK shows that an astonishing 73% of 8-to-15 year olds were completely unaware that eating junk food could reduce their lifespan. ‡ According to the research, 45% thought the worst effects of eating junk food were simply getting fat and becoming unpopular (Nutritional illiteracy is rampant among teens). ‡ Nearly a third of teens are overweight or obese, and many have the cardiovascular problems of middle-aged adults. ‡ Because they're consuming diets burdened with toxic chemicals and nutritionally-depleted ingredients that leave them dangerously deficient in nutrients necessary to sustain life.

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ Most young people in the UK are unaware of the serious damage junk food can do to their health, a survey suggests. ‡ The British Heart Foundation poll found 73% of eight to 15year-olds were not aware that a junk food-laden diet could potentially shorten their life. ‡ Instead, 45% thought the worst that could happen was that they would put on weight, develop tooth problems, get spots or become unpopular. ‡ Two thirds of children are predicted to be overweight or obese by 2050. ‡ At present, almost a third of 10 and 11-year-olds are currently overweight or obese. ‡ It is feared that today's children may be the first generation who live shorter lives than their parents.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7745384.stm

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ Health Ministry carried out the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) every 10 years and the latest (NHMS 3) in 2006 showed astounding findings. ‡ For Malaysians aged 30 years and above, 29.1% were found to be overweight and 14% were in the obesity category. This was alarming when compared to figures in the previous survey (NHMS 2) at 16.6 and 4.0% respectively. ‡ NHMS 3 showed 14.9% of Malaysian adults had diabetes (up by 6.6%) while 42.6% were with hypertension, an increase by 12.7%. ‡ The number of patients is expected to increase to 13 per cent in 2020

(Melati Mohd Ariff, BERNAMA News, March 15, 2009).

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
3. Junk food containing unhealthy ingredients / nutrients. ‡ So, the addition of disreputable ingredients (eg fat) can reduce the perceived health value of foods and cause the foods to take on negative qualities (eg, promoters of obesity).
Michael E. O. (2003).

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
4. According to Michael E. O. (2004), foods can also become ³bad´ by adding infamous ingredients and as a consequence the perceived levels of vitamins and minerals often drop.

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
5. ‡ ‡ Addicted to junk foods "Fast food can be as addictive as hard drugs, claims new research³. ± The headline news in UK. Dr. Ann Kelley, professor of neuroscience at Wisconsin University, together with Matthew Will, has been studying rats and diet for a number of years. They found that a high-fat diet appears to alter the brain biochemistry in a similar way to drugs such as morphine. They say this is due to the release of opioids - chemicals in the brain - that reduce the feeling of being full. They also found that rats "love the high-fat food and they eat and eat´
(Newcombe R, 19 July 2003)

‡

‡

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
6. ‡ Sugar addiction Bart G. Hoebel (Jurnal in Obesity Research in June 2002 found; ± Rats that gradually fed with increasing amount of sugar, the more sugar given, the quicker the rats ate it, but when the sugar withdrawn from their food, they experienced "addiction-type"

reactions, such as chattering teeth, anxiety and shaking.

(Newcombe R, 19 July 2003)

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ Dr. Sarah Leibowitz, a neurobiologist at Rockefeller University, New York found, ‡ exposure to fatty foods might reconfigure the hormonal system to want more fat. Her studies have shown that rats fed on a high-fat diet become more resistant to leptin - the hormone that stops eating. At the same time, levels of galanin - a brain peptide that stimulates eating and slows down energy expenditure - increases

(Newcombe R, 19 July 2003)

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
7. Consumption of synthetic colouring ‡ Children were reacted to tatrazine (1 mg) did so with behavioral features like irritability, restlessness and sleep disturbance. ‡ If the doses greater than 10 mg, the duration of effect increase. (Rowe K. S, 1987)

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
8. MSG in junk food. ‡ The effect of the spontaneous ingestion of a 1% MSG solution and water on food intake and body weight in male rats fed diets of varying caloric density, fat and carbohydrate contents was studied. ‡ Fat mass and lean mass in the abdomen, blood pressure, and several blood metabolic markers were also measured. ‡ Rats was given with free access to MSG and water showed a high preference (93±97%) for the MSG solution, regardless of the diet they consumed. Rats ingesting MSG had a significantly smaller weight gain, reduced abdominal fat mass, and lower plasma leptin levels, compared to rats ingesting water alone.
Takashi Kondoh, Kunio Torii (2008)

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
‡ These same effects were observed in a study of adult rats. Together, these results suggest that MSG ingestion reduces weight gain, body fat mass, and plasma leptin levels. Moreover, these changes are likely to be mediated by increased energy expenditure, not reduced energy intake or delayed development. ‡ Conceivably, these effects of MSG might be mediated via gut GLU receptors functionally linked to afferent branches of the vagus nerve in the gut, or the afferent sensory nerves in the oral cavity. ‡ Naso-anal length, lean mass, food and energy intakes, blood pressure, blood glucose, and plasma levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, albumin, and GLU were not influenced by the ingestion of the MSG Kondoh, Kunio Torii (2008) Takashi solution.

DISADVANTAGES OF JUNK
FOODS
9. Heart Diseases Junk foods have been identified as a major cause of heart diseases including myocardial infraction, cardiac arrest and atherosclerosis. This is due to the fact that junk food contains excessive amount of low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol that get deposited on the inner linings of blood vessels. This result in formation of plaques and the heart is required to put an extra effort for pumping blood through the arteries. Presence of fat in the blood also causes reduced oxygen levels. Another harmful factor present in junk foods is excess concentration of sugars and salt. Excessive concentration of sodium ions causes an increased heart blood pressure.
(Jared Lee, 14 Jan 2008)

CURRENT ISSUES
1. Abundant of junk food available on the current market were not labeled as Halal. Although putting on the Halal logo is voluntary but consumers may unconsciously consumed junkies which have non-halal ingredients.

CURRENT ISSUES
2. On 9th Oct 2009, Malaysian government has banned 16 imported dried plum products from China which contained high amount of lead (0.11-30.3ppm) which prohibited under Malaysian Food Act and Regulation, 1985.
Ú Permitted level under this act is 2ppm or mg/kg.
(Article from Kosmo newspaper)

CURRENT ISSUES
‡ Foods that high in fat, salt or sugar are to be banned from meals and vending machines in English schools. The banned was announced by Education Secretary, Ruth Kelly. ‡ Foods likely to be banned are: 1. Sweets including chewing gum, liquorice, mints, fruit pastilles, toffees and marsh mallows. 2. Chocolates and chocolate biscuits 3. Snacks such as crisps, tortilla chips, salted nuts, onion rings and rice crackers News updated on Wednesday, 28 September 2005) (BBC

CURRENT ISSUES
‡ In high schools, the same standards would apply, but snack foods could contain up to 200 calories per serving. ‡ In addition, high school students could purchase diet sodas and sports drinks, and any other drink with up to 66 calories per eight-ounce serving. ‡ After five years, other drinks would be limited to 25 calories per serving

http://www.naturalnews.com/023535_food_lawmakers_junk_foods.html

CURRENT ISSUES
‡ The real failure here, though, isn't the children. It's the corrupt governments and outdated public schools that refuse to teach children the basic facts about nutrition. ‡ All teens think they're indestructible. More and more of them, though, will soon find out they're quite mortal, and in fact their bodies have been aging at an accelerated rate due to the mass biological poisoning effects of a junk food diet. ‡ Few are realy aware on the additive that they consumed in the junk food, such as MSG colouring and etc. ‡ This will significantly affect our health.

‡Mike Adams, November 27, 2008

Recommendation
‡ The governments and public schools that should teach children the basic facts about nutrition. ‡ Parent should take care and look after their children diet and should educate them to choose the right food. ‡ Online game ‡ The charity released an online game, called Yoobot, to help children make healthier food choices. ‡ Users create a mini version of themselves - the Yoobot, and then discover how exercise and diet impacts on life expectancy and wellbeing.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7745384.stm

Conclusion
‡ Most of the junk foods give a lot of bad effects to the consumer especially for children, but at the same time, certain junk foods also can give benefits to them. ‡ Most of the research shows there a lot of healthy effect due to excess consumption of junk foods. ‡ Parents play important roles in educating their children in choosing foods for their daily intake.

Conclusion
‡ In this regard, the ulama should sit down with the scientists to understand the issue. When the ulama properly understand the processes of modifying genes in plants, only then would a corresponding Islamic decree be produced. ‡ The tayyib criterion is often overlooked by Muslims. With regard to junk food, studies need to be carried out so as to ascertain that the food is safe, nutritious and healthy for consumption.

Conclusion
‡ The ulama have to listen to scientific explanations of the processes of modifying genes in plants using foreign genes. The ulama would also have to be informed of the benefits and advantages of junk food. To present a broad picture on junk food, the ulama must also study the implications of junk food on health and the environment.

Conclusion
‡ Only then would Islam be able to make a strong stand on this very important matter. Food is one of the bare necessities of mankind. As such, any issue with regard to food should not be taken lightly, or worse still ignored. In this instance, the Islamic scholars should take a proactive stand in tackling the issues arising from new technologies.

SOLUTIONS
‡ As Muslims, we must be alert of any latest issues regarding food we eat. With advanced technology, more findings about food constituents and their effects to our body have been found. ‡ Find the halal or haram codes of food ingredients on the website or check the product bar codes at www.halal.gov.my . ‡ Eat junk food in little amount. The effects of eating junk food may not appear tomorrow, but it will in 20 or 30 years time.

References
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Michael E. O., (2005) Bad company: The addition of sugar, fat, or salt reduces the perceived vitamin and mineral content of foods, Food Quality and Preference, Vol 16. S.A. Bayol and N. C. Stickland, The Influence of a Maternal Junk Food Diet on The Feeding Behavior and Growth of the Offspring, The Royal Veterinary College, London, NW1 OUT, UK. Michael E. O., Good foods gone bad: µinfamous¶ nutrients diminished perceived vitamin and mineral content of foods, Appetite 42, 2004. Junk Food to be Banned in Schools, BBC News, Wednesday, 28 September 2005. Melati Mohd Ariff, Parents: Watch Out For The Snacks, Junk Food (In conjunction with World Consumer Rights Day),BERNAMA News, 15 March 2009. Elaine Magee, MPH, RD, Junk-Food Facts, 12 October 2009 Rachel Newcombe, reporter for Bupa's Health Information Team, 19 July 2003. Bart G. Hoebel (Jurnal in Obesity Research) in June 2002. Rowe Katherine S, (1987), Survey of consumer attitudes to food additive, Vol. 1, London

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health/junk-foodcan-actually-be-good. Jared Lee, 14 Jan 2008, Harmful Effect of Junkfood, Health and Fitness Nutrition, Nutrition Deficiency Disorders.html http://www.naturalnews.com/023535_food_lawmakers_junk_foods.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7745384.stm Takashi Kondoh, Kunio Torii(2008) , MSG intake suppresses weight gain, fat deposition, and plasma leptin levels in male Sprague±Dawley rats. Physiology & Behavior 95, 135±144 Mike Adams, November 27, 2008, http://www.naturalnews.com/News_000549_junk_food_teens_childrens_he alth.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7745384.stm

References
ISO 2020, Guidelines on Halal Food Compliance. Research Institute of Standards in Islam (RSIS). Jafri Abdullah (2006). Bacaan Tasmiyyah Semasa Penyembelihan. Jurnal Halal, Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (Deparment of Islamic Development Malaysia), Putrajaya, Malaysia. JAIS (Jabatan Agama Islam Selangor) (2008). Phamplet; Panduan Sembelihan Mengikut Syarak, Bahagian Penyelidikan & Pembangunan, Jabatan Agama Islam Selangor, Shah Alam, Selangor. JAKIM (2005). Definition najs their types and Document Majlis Fatwa decision on Genetically Modified Food. Malaysian Standard MS 1500:2004, Halal Food ± Production, preparation, handling and storage ± General guideline (First revision), Department of Standards Malaysia, Putra Jaya. OIC Standards (2009) ± General Guidelines on halal food Rahimy, S.A. (2003). Terjemahan Hadis Sahih Bukhari (Terjemahan oleh; Hamidy, Z., Hs Fachruddin, Thaha, N., Arifin, J. dan Zainuddin, R. A), Darel Fajr Publishing House, Singapore Rahimy, S.A. (2003). Terjemahan Hadis Sahih Muslim (Terjemahan oleh;Daud, M.), Darel Fajr Publishing House, Singapore. Rahman, A. L (2002). Produk Halal: Kepenggunaan, Teknologi dan Prosedur, Jabatan Agama Islam Melaka (JAIM) dan Majlis Agama Islam Melaka(MAIM), Melaka, Malaysia. Yunus, M.H. (2004).Tafsir Quran Karim, Klang Book Centre, Klang, Selangor, Malaysia. .

References
Abdul Quddos al_Azhari (2006). Fiqh Al-Awlawiyat and its role in civilisation building of the ummah. JAKIM, In Prosiding Konvesyen Islam Hadhari, 23-24 Ju 2006, Hotel Legenda, Kuala Lumpur Akta Makanan 1983 (Akta 281) dan Peraturan-Peraturan (2005), International Law Book Services, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Azrai Shuib, 2004. Incentive packages for standard compliance, Halal food standards realization (MS1500:2004) Seminar 2004, Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia (IKIM), Kuala Lumpur. CAC/RCP (1997). General Guidelines for Use of the Term Halal: CAC/GL 24 Department of Islamic Development Malaysia, 2005, Manual procedure of Halal certification Malaysia, Department of Islamic Development Malaysia, Putra Jaya. Fatwa of the State Mufti (2007). Issues on Halal Product. States Mufti¶s Office, Prime Minister¶s Office, Brunei Darussalam. Final Draft of the ASEAN General Guidelines on the Preparation and Handling of Halal Foods, endorsed by the committee at the 20th Senior Officials Meeting of ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry (SOM-AMAF), Hanoi, September 1988. General Guidelines on the slaughtering of animals and the preparation and handling of Halal Food, Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, Putra Jaya, Malaysia. H. Mohamad Rafi. (1988). Ilmu fiqih Islam lengkap. Pustaka Nasional PTE Ltd, Singapura. Imam Nawawi¶s Collection of Forty Had th (2008), Text, Translation and Notes, Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lumpur

‡ Abu Hasan Din al-Hafiz dan lain-lain (2008). Al-Quran dan terjemahan, Dar El-Fajr, Kuala Lumpur. ‡ Mohammed Marmduke Pickthall (2001).The meaning of The Glorious Quran, An Explanatory Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lumpur. ‡ Uthman El-Muhammady, Mohamad Akram, Mohd Shah Jani, Nasimah Husin, Adi Setia Mohd Dom, Mohamed Zain Sulaiman and Saleha Abdullah (2006).Tafsir Ar-Rahman, Interrpretation of The Meaning of The Quran. Edited by Nuraihan Mat Daud, Deparment of Islamic Development Malaysia

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