You are on page 1of 66

# ST.

## MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE

(Affiliated to JNTUH & Approved by AICTE, Certified by ISO
9001:2000)

DEPARTMENT
OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS LAB MANUAL
(Course Code: A50487)

Prepared By

Approved By

Asst. Professor

## Assoc. Professor. & HOD

Director
Prof. D. SHOBHA RANI

INDEX SHEET
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

EXPERIMENT NAME
AMPLITUDE MODULATION & DEMODULATION

12

19

23

## SSB MODULATION & DEMODULATION

27

AGC CHARECTERISTICS

31

VERIFICATION OF SAMPLINGTHEOREM

35

39

43

47

## TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING & DE-MULTIPLEXING

51

SPECTRUM ANALYZER

55

FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER

57

PAGE NO.

MULTIPLEXING

59

## 1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

1.1. Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is modulation?
2. Why to modulate the analog signals?

1.2. Objective:
To study amplitude modulation and demodulation and to calculate modulation
index by changing the modulating signals amplitude.

1.3. Resources:
1. Amplitude Modulator and Demodulator Kit
2. Signal Generator
3. CRO
4. BNC Probes

1.4. Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Apply the 100 KHz carrier signal and amplitude of 6V(p-p) to the input of AM
modulator at 100 K pot and 1 KHz of modulating signal to the AM modulator at
100 K pot as shown in the circuit diagram.
3. Apply the power supply of 12V as shown in the circuit diagram.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated wave synchronization with the modulating
signal on a dual trace CRO following figure shown the connections.
5. Adjust the 10 K linear pot for carrier suppression and 100K linear pot for
proper modulation i.e. 100%.
6. Now by varying the amplitude of the modulating signal, the depth of modulation
varies.

1.5.Circuit Diagram:
1.5.1. AM Modulator

1.5.2. AM Demodulator

Calculate the maxima and minima points of modulated wave on the CRO and calculate
the depth of modulation using formula.

1.7.Waveforms:
Inputs:

## Fig A:Message Signal

Fig B:Carrier signal

## 1.7.1. Different Types of AM modulated waves

1.7.2.Demodulated Waveform:

1.8. Result:
Amplitude modulated signal is generated and original signal is demodulated from
AM signal Depth of modulation is calculated for various amplitude levels of modulating
signals.

## 1.9. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. What is the effect of Am and Ac on Amplitude modulated Signal?
2. What is the resonant frequency of the tank circuit?
3. What is the roll of the diode in demodulator circuit?

## 1.10. Post-Lab Questions:

1. How many types of analog Modulation are there?
2. What is the disadvantage of amplitude modulation?

## 2. FREQUENCY MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

2.1. Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is frequency range for speech information?
2.

What are the reasons to modulate the analog signal or low frequency
Signal?

## 3. Define modulation index in FM?

2.2. Objective:
To study the process of frequency modulation and demodulation and to calculate
the depth of modulation by varying the modulating voltage.

2.3. Resources:
1. Frequency modulation and demodulator Kit
2. Signal Generator (2)
3. CRO
4. BNC Probes

2.4. Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Check the circuit properly and apply the power supply to the circuit.
3. Observe the carrier signal from the FM modulator at pin 2 of the IC 8038, which
is 82KHZ.
4. Apply the modulating signal frequency of 4KHZ, 6Volts (p-p) from the function
Generator to the FM input at pin 8 as shown in the figure below.
5. Trigger CRO with respect to CH1 adjust amplitude of the modulating signal until
we get Undistorted FM output. It is difficult to trigger FM on analog CRO.
6. That is why you adjust modulating signal amplitude until small distortions notified
in Fm output.
7. Calculate maximum frequency and minimum frequency from the FM output and
calculate modulating index using table shown in below.

## 2.5. Circuit Diagram:

2.5.1Frequency Modulator using IC 8038

## 2.5.2. Frequency Demodulator using LM 565

2.6. Waveforms:
2.6.1.Modulated Waveform:

## 2.6.2. Demodulated Waveform:

2.7. Result:
The frequency modulated signal is generated and original signal is demodulated and
modulation index is calculated for FM signal.

## 2.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Effect of the modulation index on FM signal?
2. In commercial FM broadcasting, what is highest value of frequency deviation and
audio frequency to be transmitted.

## 2.9. Post-Lab Questions:

1. What is band width requirement for FM ?
2. What are the Advantages of frequency modulation, FM ?
3. What are the disadvantages of frequency modulation, FM ?

## 3. DSB-SC MODULATOR & DE-MODULATOR

3(A). BALANCED MODULATOR
3.A.1 .Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is a balance modulator ?
2.

3.

## Limitations of Amplitude Modulation (DSB-SC) ?

3.A.2. Objective:
1. To construct and properly adjust a balanced modulator and study its operation.
2. To observe that the output is a double sideband with a suppressed carrier
signal.
3. To adjust it for optimum carrier suppression.
4. To measure carrier only output and the peak side- band output and to calculate
the carrier suppression.

3.A.3.Resources:
1. Balanced Modulator Kit
2. Signal Generator (2)
3. CRO
4. BNC Probes

3.A.4.Procedure:
1. Switch on the trainer kit.
2. Connect 200Hz sine wave and 100 kHz square wave from the function generator.
Adjust R1, (1k linear pot).Connect oscilloscope to the output.
3. Vary R1 (1K) both clock wise and counter clock wise (1k linear pot).
4. Disconnect the sine input to R1 (1k).The output should be nearly zero.
5. Increase the oscilloscope vertical input sensitivity to measure the output voltage
Eout carrier only.
6. Set the vertical input control to 1v/cm .Connect the sine input to R1(1k) and
adjust R1 for maximum output without producing clipping measure the peak side
band output voltage.

## 7. calculate the carrier suppression in dB

DB=-20 log (Epk sideband/Eout carrier only)

## Balanced modulator using IC 1496

Observations:
1. AF signal frequency= 200 Hz.
2. RF signal frequency = 100 KHZ.
3. Varying R1 , DSBC amplitude (p-p) proportionally.
4. After disconnecting Sine input to R1.
5. Eout carrier only = 20 mV (p-p).
6. Epk sidebands = 2.4V (p-p).
7. Carrier suppression in db = 20 log EPK Sideband / Eout carrier only =41.5

3. A.6.Waveforms:

## Input and output waveforms of balanced modulator

3. A.7.Result:
The Double side band suppressed carrier signal is obtained (Balanced output i.e.,
100% modulation is obtained).

## 3. A.8.Lab Assignment Questions:

1. What is the efficiency of the DSB-SC modulating system?
2. What are the applications of balanced modulator?
3. What is the effect of amplitude of message on DSB-Sc signal?

## 3. A.9.Post Lab Questions:

1. What is up conversion?
2. What is the BW of DSB-SC signal?

## 3(B). SYNCHRONOUS DETECTOR

3.B.1.Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is Synchronous Detection ?
2. Considerations of Synchronous Detection ?
3. What are the demodulation methods for DSB-SC signals?

3.B.2.Objective:
To obtain the demodulating (or) message signal using DSB or SSB synchronous
or coherent detector.

3.B.3.Resources:
1. Synchronous Detector Kit
2. Signal Generator (2)
3. CRO
4. BNC Probes

3.B.4.Procedure:
1. A connection was made as per circuit diagram.
2. A balanced modulator circuit was connected for both Transmitter and Receiver.
3. Carrier signal was same and was applied to two balanced modulator circuits.
4. Apply the power +12V to pin 8 of both the circuits.
5. The output of the Receiver balanced modulator circuit was connected to low
pass filter.
6. Low pass filter circuit was designed according to the requirement.
7. And the modulating signal was obtained at the LPF.

3.B.5.Circuit Diagram:

3.B.6.Wave Forms:
3.B.7.1.AM-SC Wave Form:

3.B.7.2.Demodulated signal:

3.B.8.Result:
Thus the modulating signal obtained from the DSB detector.

## 3.B.9.Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Write the applications of synchronous detector?
2. What are the drawbacks of synchronous detector?
3. What is the Effect of Carrier signal on output signal?

## 3. B.10.Post Lab Questions:

1.Why Synchronous detection?
2.What is the difference between detector and demodulator?

## 4. PRE-EMPHASIS AND DE-EMPHASIS

4.1. Pre-lab Questions:
1. What is pre-emphasis and de-emphasis ? Why is it required ?
2. What is the necessity of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis ?
3. What is the role of this two concepts in Communication ?

4.2. Objective:
To study the frequency response of the Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis
circuits and draw
the graphs.

4.3.Resources:
1. Pre-Emphasis & De-Emphasis Kit
2. Signal Generator (2)
3. CRO
4. BNC Probes

4.4.Procedure:
2. Construct the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
3. Observe the I/P waveform on the CRO in channel.
4. Adjust the amplitude of the sine wave using the amplitude knob to a particular
voltage,

## say 4V or 6V or 10V etc.

5. Measure the O/P voltage in the CRO and note down in the observation table.
6. Calculate the attenuation and Log f values as shown in the observation table.
7. Draw the graph frequency (X-axis) and attenuation in db (Y-axis) to show the
emphasis curves on a semi log graph.
8. Various values of R and C are available so that the time constant in suitably
selected
9. depending upon the application.

4.5.Circuit Diagram:

4.5.1.Pre-Emphasis:
I/p voltage= 4Volts
Frequency
(Hz)

Output
(volts)

Log f

Attenuation
(db)
20 log eo/ei

4.5.2.De-Emphasis:
I/p Voltage=volts
Frequency in Hz

Output in volts

Logf

Attenuation in db
20 log Vo/Vi

obtained.

## 4.8.Lab Assignment Questions:

1. What is the value of time constant used in commercial pre-emphasis circuit?
2. For which modulated signals pre-emphasis and de-emphasis circuits are used.
3. On what parameters fc depends?
4. Explain the pre-emphasis and de-emphasis characteristics?

4.9.Post-Lab Questions:
1. Which range of frequencies are more prone to noise interference?
2. How to reduce the noise during transmission in FM?
3. Which technique is used at the receiver side to reconstruct the original signal?
4. What should be the time constant for the de-emphasis circuit?
5. Why pre-emphasis is done after modulation

## 5. PHASE LOCKED LOOP

5.1.Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is phase-locked loop (PLL) ?
2. What are the three stages through which PLL operates?
3. Define lock-in range of a PLL?
4. Define capture range of PLL?

5.2.Objective: To determine the Free running range, Lock range and capture range
using PLL.

5.3.Resources:
1. IC LM 565
2. PLL Trainer kit
3. CRO
4. Function Generator.
5. BNC probes.

5.4.Procedure:
1. Connect + 5V to pin 10 of LM 565.
2. Connect -5V to pin 1.
3. Connect 10k resistor from pin 8 to + 5V
4. Connect 0.01 f capacitor from pin 9 to 5V
5. Short pin 4 to pin 5.
6. Without giving input measure (fO) free running frequency.
7. Connect pin 2 to oscillator or function generator through a 1f capacitor, adjust
the amplitude around 2Vpp.
8. Connect 0.1 f capacitor between pin 7 and + 5V (C2)
9. Connect output to the second channel is of CRO.
10. Connect output to the second channel of the CRO.
11. By varying the frequency in different steps observe that of one frequency the
waveform will be phase locked.

12. Change R-C components to shift VCO center frequency and see how lock range
of the input varies.
13. Now compare the theoretical values and practical values using the given
formula.

5.5.Circuit Diagram:

5.6. Waveforms:

5.6.1Theoretical Values:
(a).Lock Range of PLL (fL):
Lock range of PLL is in the range of frequencies in which PLL will remain lock, and this is
given by
fL = 8fo / Vcc

Vcc=Vcc-(-Vcc)
=2Vcc

## (b).Capture Range of PLL (fC):

Capture range of PLL is the range of frequencies over which PLL acquires the lock. This is
given by

## Where fL is the lock range

5.7. Result:
Hence we determine free running frequency, capture range and lock range.
Lock range=_________________
Capture range=_______________
Phase detection=______________

## 5.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Write the application of PLL?
2. What is the capture range of PLL.
3. What is the effect of R1 and C1 values and Vcc on output signal?

## 5.9. Post-Lab Questions:

1. What are the advantages and applications of PLL?
2. What is the need to generate corrective control voltage?

## 6.1. Pre-Lab Questions:

1. How to generate SSB signal?
2. Define SSB-SC.

## 6.2. Objective: To generate a SSB signal using Balanced Modulator.

6.3. Resources:
1. SSB Trainer Kit.
2. CRO.

3. Function Generator.

## 6.4. Circuit Diagram:

6.5. Procedure:
1. Study the circuit operation of SSB system thoroughly.

2. Observe the output of the RF generator using CRO. There are two outputs from the
RF generator, one is direct output and another is 90 phase shift with the direct
output. The output frequency is 100 KHz and amplitude is 0.2 Vpp
(potentiometers are provided to vary the output amplitude).
3. Observe the output of the AF generator using CRO. There are two outputs from the
AF generator, one is direct output and another is 90 phase shift with the direct
output. A switch is provided to select the required frequency (2K, 4K, and 6K).
AGC potentiometer is provided to adjust the gain of the oscillator (or to select the
output to good shape). And the amplitude is10Vpp (potentiometers are provided
to vary the output amplitude).
4. Measure the RF signal frequency using frequency counter.
5. Set the amplitude of the RF signal to 0.1Vpp and connect 0 phase shift signal to
one balanced modulator and 90 phase shift to another balanced modulator as
shown in figure.
6. Select the required frequency (2K, 4K, and 6K) of the AF generator with the help
of the switch and adjust the AGC potentiometer until output amplitude is10Vpp
(when amplitude controls are in max condition).
7. Measure and record the RF signal frequency using frequency counter.
8. Set the AF signal amplitudes to 8 Vpp using amplitude control and connect to the
balanced modulators as shown in fig.
9. Observe the outputs of both the balanced modulators simultaneously using dual
trace oscilloscope and adjust the balance control until you get the output
waveforms (DSB-SC).
10. To get SSB lower side band signal, connect balanced modulator output (DSB-SC
signals) to substractor.
11. Measure and record the SSB signal frequency using frequency counter.
12. Calculate the theoretical frequency of SSB(LSB) and compare it with the practical
value LSB=RF freq AF freq
13. To get SSB upper side band signal, connect balanced modulator output (DSB-SC
signals) to summer.
14. Measure and record the SSB upper side band signal frequency using frequency
counter.
15. Calculate the theoretical frequency of SSB(LSB) and compare it with the practical
value USB=RF freq + AF freq
16. Connect SSB signal from summer (or) sub-tractor to the SSB signal input of the
synchronous detector and RF signal (0) to the RF input of the synchronous
detector.

17. Observe the detector output using CRO and compare it with the modulating
signal(AF).
18. Observe the SSB signal for the different frequencies of the modulating(AF) signal.

6.6. Waveforms:

6.7. Result:
Thus the SSB signal was generated using balanced modulator.

## 6.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. What are difficulties in practical implementation of SSB-C system?
2. Why SSB-SC is not used in broadcasting?

## 6.9. Post-Lab Questions:

1. What are the advantages of signal sideband transmission?
2. What are the disadvantages of single side band transmission?

## 7. AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL

7.1. Pre-Lab Questions:
1. Define is AGC
2. Classify AGC
3. What are the applications of AGC ?

7.2. Objective:

7.3. Resources:
1. AGC Characteristics Trainer kit.
2. 20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope
3. Patch chords

7.4. Procedure:
1. Select carrier frequency of 1000 KHz, AF frequency of 1KHz and apply AM signal to
the input
of receiver set amplitude to around 1mv.
2. Connect CRO at the output of the audio amplifier.
3. Tune the mixer local oscillator for maximum AF signal output at detector output
and measure
the audio signal.
4. Including the RF level in appropriate steps and note down corresponding output AF
signal amplitude
5. Plot the AF output Vs RF input on graph which will be as shown in figure.

7.6. Result:

## 7.7. Lab Assignment Questions ?

1. What are the functions of IF Amplifier ?

## 7.8. Post-Lab Questions:

1. What is the need for AGC ?
2. What are the drawbacks of AGC and solution?

## 8. SAMPLING THEOREM VERIFICATION

8.1. Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What are the various Sampling techniques?
2. Explain various sampling circuits?

## 8.2. Objective: To verify sampling theorem.

8.3. Resources:
1. Sampling theorem verification trainer (AET-47).
2. C.R.O (20MHz)
3. Patch cords.

8.4. Procedure:
1. Connect trainer to mains and switch on the power.
2. Observe the output of AF generator and pulse generator using CRO and note
that AF signal is approximately 3Vp-p of 100HZ frequency and pulse generator
output is pulse train of 10VP-P with frequency between 200 HZ and 4 KHz.
3. Connect pulse output and AF output to the respective inputs of sampling circuit.
4. Connect one of the inputs of oscilloscope to the sampling circuit output and
another to AF signal.
5. Initially set the amplitude of the AF generator to minimum level and sampling
frequency to 200Hz (by adjusting the potentiometer). Observe the output of
sampling circuit by varying the amplitude of modulating signal. You can notice
the amplitude of sampling pulse is varying in accordance with the amplitude of
the modulating signal.
6. Connect sampling circuit output to reconstructing circuit.

## 7. Observe the output of reconstructing circuit (AF signal) at 200Hz sampling

frequency until you get the original signal. Statement: The Nyquist Theorem

states that in order to recover the original signal from sampled signal when
signal sampled at fs 2fm.

## 8.6. Expected wave forms:

8.7. Result:

Hence verified the sampling theorem and reconstructed the original signal.

## 8.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. State the Shannons sampling theorem.
2. What is Nyquist rate?
3. What is meant by Aliasing?
4. What are the effects of Aliasing?
5. How to avoid Aliasing effect?

## 8.9. Post-Lab Questions:

1. Why you need a hold circuit?
2. What is flat-top Sampling?

## 9. PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION & DEMODULATION

9.1. Pre-Lab Questions:

1. Define PAM.
2. What are the advantages of PAM ?
3. Classify modulation techniques.

9.2. Objective:
1. To study the pulse amplitude modulation and demodulation technique.
2. To study the effect on amplitude and frequency variation of modulation
Signal on the output.

9.3. Resources:
1. Pulse Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation Kit.
2. Oscilloscope 20MHz Dual Channel.
3. Patch Cards.

9.4. Theory:
Pulse Amplitude Modulation is used to transmit analog signals are sampled at
regular intervals. At receiver (Demodulation) the original waveforms may be reconstructed
from the information regarding the samples.
It is the simplest form of the pulse modulation. In PAM the signal is sampled at
regular interval and each sample is made proportional to the amplitude of the signal at the
instant of sampling. The pulses are then sent by either wire cable are used to modulated
carrier.
In PAM sampling has been done by two types --- I ) Natural sampling : in which
finite width pulses are in the modulator but the tops of the pulses are forced to follow the
modulating waveforms.
II) Flat topped sampling: in which finite width pulses are in the modulator but
the tops of the pulses are follow the modulating waveforms as pulse wise rather natural
sampling . it is often used because of ease of generating the modulated.
PAM signals are rarely used for transmission purpose directly and are distorted by
Noise, Cross talk and other forms of distortions.

9.5. Procedure:
9.5.1. Modulation
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
a) Output of the sine wave to modulating signal input TP2 keeping the switch
in 1KHz position and amplitude position to maximum position.
b) 16KHz pulse output to pulse input TP1(keep the frequency plot in
minimum position in pulse generator block.
2. Switch ON or keeping the power supply.
3. Monitor the output at TP5, TP6 and TP7 and also observe the output by varying
amplitude plot.
4. Now vary the frequency solute switch position in modulating signal generator
block to 2KHz position i.e., Maximum.
5. Observe the output TP5,TP6 and TP7 and also observe the output by varying
amplitude plot.
6. Repeat all the above steps for pulse frequency of 32MHz.
7. Switch OFF the power supply.

9.5.2. Demodulation
1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure.
a) Output of Sine wave to modulating signal input TP2 by keeping the Switch in
1KHz position amplitude plot in maximum position.
b) Connect the pulse output to pulse input TP1.
c) c) Sample output, Sample &Hold output Flat Top output respectively to
input of LPF( low pass filter ) TP9 and LPF output to AC amplifier inputTP1.
2. Observe the output of LPF and Ac amplifier at TP10, TP12 respectively
Corresponding to input from TP5,TP6 and TP7.

3. Now set switch position in modulating signal generator to 2 KHz and observe
the output at TP10 and TP12 respectively corresponding input from TP5,TP6 and
TP7.
4. Vary the Frequency of pulse to 32 KHz.

## 9.6. Expected Graph:

9.7.
Result:
Pulse Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation has been done and corresponding
waveforms have been plotted.

## 9.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Compare natural and flat-top sampling with the help of waveforms.
2. What is meant by aperture effect?
3. What is meant by ideally or instantaneous sampled PAM?

## 9.9. Post-Lab Questions:

1. What are the demodulation methods for the flat-top sampled signal?
2. What are the disadvantages of PAM ?
3. Applications of PAM.

## 10. PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM) & DE-MODULATION

10.1. Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What are the different types of Pulse time modulation systems?
2. What are the methods to generate PWM?

10.2. Objective:
1. To study the process of pulse width modulation and demodulation.

PWM output.

10.3. Resources:

## 1. Pulse Width Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit.

2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20 MHz dual channel.
3. Patch Chords.

10.4. Theory:
Pulse Width Modulation is one of the methods of Pulse Time Modulation in which
the amplitude is fixed & starting at each pulse but the width of each pulse is proportional
to the amplitude of the signal at that instant.
PWM will converts varying amplitude message signal into square wave with
constant amplitude & frequency but which changes duty cycles to correspond to the
Strength of the message signal.
It is generated by applying trigger pulses( at sampling rate )to control the starting
time of pulses from a monostable multivibrator and feeding in the signal to be sampled to
control the destination of these pulses. When PWM signals comes at destination the
recovery circuit used to decode the original signal is a sample is a simple Integrator (LPF).
The disadvantage of PWM is of Varying width & power content due to the
transmitter power not enough to handle the maximum width pulses.

10.5. Procedure:
10.5.1. Modulation
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram
a) Sine wave output of modulating signal generator to modulating signal
Input. Keeping the switch the in 1Khz position and amplitude pot in maximum
position.
b) 16Khz pulse output (by varying the frequency pot in pulse generator block) from
pulse

## 2. Switch ON the Power Supply.

3. Observe the PWM output at TP2 and the different output signal at TP3

## 4. Vary the modulating signal generator frequency by switching the frequency

selector switch to
2KHz.
5. Now again observe the PWM output at TP3.
6. Repeat the above the steps for the pulse frequency of 32 KHz.
7. Switch OFF the Power Supply.

10.5.2. Demodulation
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram
a) Output of the sine wave to Modulating Signal input TP2 in PWM block.
b) 16 MHz pulse output from pulse generator block to pulse output Tp1.
2. Switch ON the Power Supply.
3. Observe the output of LPF and A.C. Amplifier respecting at TP6 and TP8. The
output will be
the replica of the input.
4. Now monitor the amplitude the frequency of sine wave by varying the amplitude
plot and
Frequency selection switches to 2Khz and observe the PPM output.
5. Repeat the steps 10 and 11 for pulse frequency of 32 KHz.
6. Switch OFF the Power Supply.

10.6.Expected Graph:

10.7. Result:

Pulse Width Modulation And Demodulation has been done and corresponding
waveforms have been plotted.

## 10.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. What is the BW of PWM?
2. Applications of PWM?

10.9.Post-Lab Questions:
1. What are the advantages of PWM?
2. What are the disadvantages of PWM?

## 11.1. Pre-Lab Questions:

1. Define PPM
2. How to generate PPM?

11.2. Objective:
1. To Study the generation of PPM signal modulation and its demodulation
2. To observe the effect of Amplitude and the frequency of modulating on its output
and observe the wave form.

11.3. Resources:
1. Pulse Position Modulating and demodulating trainer kit.
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope-20MHz, Dual pin.
3. Patch chords.

11.4. Theory:
Pulse Position Modulation is one of the methods of Pulse Time Modulation .PPM
is generated by changing the position of a fixed time slot.
The amplitude & width of the pulses is kept constant while the position of each
pulse in relation to the position of the recurrent pulse is valid by each instances sampled
value of the Modulating wave.
Pulse position modulation simply obtained from PWM where the locations of the
leading edges are fixed and trailing edges not. Their position depends on width, it is said
that the trailing edges of PWM pulses are in fact position modulated. This has positive
going narrow pulses corresponding to leading pulses and has negative going pulses
corresponding to trailing pulses. If the position corresponding to the trailing edge of an un
modulated pulse is counted as zero displacement then the other trailing edges will arrive
earlier or later .Then they will have a time displacement other than zero. The time
displacement is proportional to the instantaneous value of the signal voltage. The
differentiated

pulses corresponding to the leading edges are removed with a diode clipper or rectifier and
the remaining pulses are position modulated.
PPM has the advantage of requiring constant transmitter power output &
disadvantage is that it depends on the transmitter Synchronization.

11.5. Procedure:
11.5.1. Modulation
1. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram
a) Output of the sine wave to Modulating Signal input (TP1) in PPM block.
b) Keeping the switch in 1 KHz Position and amplitude pot in max position.
2. Switch ON the Power Supply.
3. Observe the PWM output at TP2 and the different output signal at TP8.
4. Now monitor the amplitude the frequency of sine wave by varying the amplitude
plot
and frequency selection switch to 2Khz and observe the PPM output.
5. Switch OFF the Power Supply.

11.5.2. Demodulation
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure.
2. Switch ON the Power Supply
3. Monitor the output at TP3 by varying amplitude plot.
4. Observe the Demodulated signal at the output of Low Pass Filter at TP5.
5. Thus the recovery signal is at output of Low Pass Filter is actual replica of input.
6. Switch OFF the Power Supply.

## 11.6. Expected Graph:

11.7. Result:

Pulse Position Modulation and Demodulation has been done and corresponding
waveforms have been plotted.

## 11.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Define PDM
2. What is the BW of PPM?
3. Applications of PDM and PPM?

## 11.9. Post-lab Questions:

1. What are the advantages of PPM?
2. What are the disadvantages of PPM?

## 12. TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING & DE-MULTIPLEXING

12.1. Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is a multiplexer?
2. A basic multiplexer principle can be demonstrated through.

## 3. Distinguish between the two basic multiplexing techniques?

12.2. Objective:
1. To study of four channel analog multiplexing and de multiplexing techniques.
2. Study the effect of sampling frequency variation on the output.
3. Study the input signal amplitude on the output.

12.3. Resources:
1. Time Division Multiplexing Kit
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 30MHz dual
3. Patch cards

12.4. Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing is used for transmitting several analog message signals
over a communication channel by dividing the time frame into slots, one slot for each
message signal.
In Multiplexing the four input signal all band limited by the input filters are
sequentially sampled the output of which is a PAM waveform containing samples of the
input signals periodically interlaced in time. The samples from adjacent input message
channels are separated by Ts/M where the number of input channels. A set of M pulses
containing of one sample from each of the input M input channels is called a frame.
At De-multiplexing the samples from individual channels are separated by
carefully synchronizing and are critical part TDM. The samples from each channel are
filtered to reproduce the original message signal. There are two levels of synchronization.
FRAME Synchronization is necessary to establish when each group of samples begins and
WORD Synchronization is necessary to property separate the sample within each frame.

12.5. Procedure:
12.5.1. Multiplexing
1. Connect the Circuit diagram as shown in figure.
2. Switch ON the power supply.
3. Set the amplitude of each modulating signal as 5V peak peak.

4. Monitor the output at test points 5,6,7,8. These are natural sampling PAM
outputs.
5. Observe the outputs by varying the duty cycle plot (TP5).The PAM output will
varying with 10% to 50% duty cycle.
6. Try to varying the amplitude of modulating signal corresponding each channel
by using amplitude plotsP1 and P4. Observe the effect on all outputs.
7. Observe the TDM output at pin No:13 of 4052. All the multiplexes channels are
observed during the full period of the clock (1/32 KHz).

12.5.2. De-Multiplexing
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Observe the de-multiplexed outputs attest points 13 to 16 respectively.
3. Observe by varying the duty cycle plot TP5 and see the effect on the outputs.
4. Observe the LPF outputs for each channel at test points 17,18,19,20 and at
sockets channels CH1,CH2, CH3,CH4. these signals are actual replica of the
inputs. These signals have been amplitude.

12.6.Expected Graph:

12.7. Result:

Four channel analog multiplexing and de-multiplexing has been done and
corresponding waveforms have been plotted.

## 12.8. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. What is the function of an enable input on a multiplexer chip?
2. Will multiplexing create additional harmonics in the system?
3. Can I accidentally switch a dimmer to multiplex mode?
4. Why guard bands are used in FDM?
5. Why sync pulse is required in TDM?

## 12.9. Post-Lab Questions:

1. What is difference between Frequency Division multiplexing and Wave Division
multiplexing?
2. In what situation multiplexing is used?

## 13. SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF AM AND FM SIGNAL USING

SPECTRUM ANALYZER

13.1.Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is spectrum analyzer?
2. List the types of spectrum analyzer.

13.2.Objective:
To observe the spectrum of AM and FM signals and obtain the power levels in
dBm of fundamental frequency components by using spectrum Analyzer.

13.3.Resources:
1. Spectrum analyzer
2. AM/FM generator-0.1MHz-110MHz
3. CRO-30MHz

13.4.Theory:
A spectrum analyzer provides a calibrated graphical display on its CRT with
frequency on the horizontal axis and amplitude on the vertical axis. Displayed as vertical
lines against these coordinates are sinusoidal components of which the input signal in
composed. The height represents the absolute magnitude, and horizontal location
represents the frequency. This instrument provide a display of the frequency spectrum
over a given frequency band.

13.5.Block diagram:

## Fig.1 Block Diagram of Spectrum Analyzer

13.6.Procedure:
1. AM signal is given to the spectrum analyzer.
2. Adjust the zero marker to carrier frequency and measure spectrum of AM.
3. For different values of fc and fm, observe the spectrum of AM.
4. Now remove AM signal and give FM signal to the spectrum analyzer.
5. Adjust the zero marker to carrier frequency and observe spectrum of FM.
6. Plot the spectrums of FM and AM.

13.7.Observation Table:
S.No.

fc (MHz)

fm (KHz)

(fm+ fc ) (MHz)

fm (KHz)

(fm+ fc ) (MHz)

## Table2: Readings for FM signal

S.No.

fc (MHz)

13.8.Model Graphs:

Fig.2 AM spectrum

Fig. 3 FM spectrum

13.9.Result:
Spectrum Analyzer is studied.

## 13.10.Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Distinguish between CRO and Spectrum analyzer?
2. What are the functions of span/div control and reference level control?

13.11.Post-Lab Questions:
1. List some application of spectrum analyzer.
2. Differentiate between wave analyzer and Spectrum analyzer.

## 14. FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER

14.1.Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is meant by Frequency Synthesizer ?
2.

14.2.Objective:
To construct a frequency synthesizer circuit.

14.3.Resources:
1. Frequency Synthesizer Kit
2. CRO 0-20MHz
3. Function generator 0-1MHz
4. Regulated Power Supply 0-30V, 1A

14.4.Theory:
The frequency divider is inserted between the VCO and the phase comparator of
PLL. Since the output of the divider is locked to the input frequency f in, the VCO is
actually running at a multiple of the input frequency . The desired amount of
multiplication can be obtained by selecting a proper divide by N network ,where N is
an integer. To obtain the output frequency fOUT=5fIN, a divide by N = 5 network is
needed. One must determine the input frequency range and then adjust the free running
fOUT of the VCO by means of R1 (20k_pot) and C1 (10F) so that the output frequency of
the divider is midway within the predetermined input frequency range. The output of the
VCO now should be 5fIN. The output of the VCO now should be adjusted from 1.5 KHz
to 15 KHz by varying potentiometer R 1 .this means that the input frequency fin range has
to be with in 300Hz to 3KHz. In addition, the input wave form may be applied to inputs
pin2 or pin3. Input output waveforms forms for f OUT= 5fIN. A small capacitor typically
1000pf is connected between pin7 and pin8 to eliminate possible oscillations. Also,
capacitor C2 should be large enough to stabilize the VCO frequency.

14.5.Circuit Diagram:

## Fig.1 Frequency synthesizer circuit

14.6.Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in Fig.1.
2. Measure the free running frequency of PLL (IC565) at pin no.4 with the
input signal set to zero volt.
3. Compare the output with the calculated theoretical value 0.25/RTCT.
4. Set the input signal (say 2 Vp-p, 1KHz square wave form ) using
function generator.
5. Vary the frequency by adjusting the 20K_ Potentiometer till the
PLL(IC565)is locked.
6. Measure (frequency counter) the frequency of the output signal. It must be 5
times the input signal frequency.
7. Observe and note down the waveform and frequency of various signals using
CRO .

Analog Communications
Lab Manual

14.7.Observation Table:

S.No.

f i/p (KHz)

f o/p (KHz)

1.
2.

## Fig.2 Output Wave Forms

61

Analog Communications
Lab Manual

14.9.Result:
Frequency Synthesizer is studied.

## 14.10.Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Applications of Frequency Synthesizer.
2. What are the advantages of digital transmission?

14.11.Post-Lab Questions:
1. How to achieve fout = 2 fin ?
2. What is the effect of C1 on the output frequency?

62

Analog Communications
Lab Manual

## 15. FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

15.1.Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What is FDM?
2. In what situation multiplexing is used?
3. Distinguish between the two basic multiplexing techniques?

15.2. Objective: To construct the frequency division multiplexing and demultiplexing circuit and to
verify its operation.

15.3. Resources:
1. Function Generator 1MHz
2. RPS 0-30v
3. CRO 0-30MHz
4. CRO Probes and Patch cards

15.4.Theory:
When several communications channels are between the two same points significant economics
may be realized by sending all the messages on one transmission facility a process called multiplexing.
Applications of multiplexing range from the vital, if prosaic, telephone networks to the glamour of FM
stereo and space probe telemetry system. There are two basic multiplexing techniques
1. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
2. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
The principle of the frequency division multiplexing is that several input messages individually
modulate the subcarriers fc1, fc2, etc.after passing through LPFs to limit the message bandwidth. We

63

Analog Communications
Lab Manual
show the subcarrier modulation as SSB, and it often is; but any of the CW modulation techniques could
be employed or a Mixture of them. The modulated signals are then summoned to produce the baseband
signal with the spectrumXb9f), the designation baseband is used here to indicate that the final carrier
modulation has not yet taken place.

The major practical problem of FDM is cross talks, the unwanted coupling of one message into
another. Intelligible cross talk arises primarily because of non linearitys in the system, which cause 1
message signal to appear as modulation on subcarrier. Consequently, standard practice calls for negative
feedback to minimize amplifier non linearity in FDM systems

## 15.5. Circuit Diagram:

15.6. Procedure:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The FSK signals are obtained with two different frequency pair with two different FSK generators.

64

Analog Communications
Lab Manual

## 3. The 2 signals are fed to op-amp which performs adder operation.

4. The filter is designed in such a way that low frequency signal is passed through the HPF.
5. Fixed signal is obtained will be equal to the one signal obtained from FSK modulator.

## 15.7. Tabular Column:

15.8. Result:
Observed the Frequency multiplexing and demultiplexing process.

## 15.9. Lab Assignment Questions:

1. Why guard bands are used in FDM?
2. What is the difference between Frequency Division Multiplexing and Wave Division
Multiplexing?

## 15.10. Post-Lab Questions:

65

Analog Communications
Lab Manual
1. What is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing?
2. Will multiplexing create additional harmonics in the system?

66