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Direct Instruction

Grade Level: 11-12
Subject: United States History
Unit: The American Civil War and Reconstruction
State Standard:
6-12.USH1.1.3.2: Explain how and why events may be interpreted differently according to the
points of view of participants and observers.
Common Core:
RH.11-12.7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media in order to
address a question or solve a problem.
RH.11-12.2: Determine central ideas or themes and analyze their development; summarize the
key supporting details and ideas.
WHST.11-12.2: Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts and information so that
each new element builds on that which precedes it.
Type of Lesson:
Time Frame:

Direct Instruction
1 Week (in class assignment)

Key Vocabulary:

Civil War, Reconstruction, Interpretation

Enduring Understanding:
How can images from the Civil War help clarify the war for people in the 21st century?
Essential Question:
1.) how did images capture particular events of the Civil War and Reconstruction?
2.) What art best represents the Civil War and Reconstruction and why?
3.) How should images best be presented to illustrate the Civil War and Reconstruction?

Goal: To understand why historians use analysis and interpretation by critiquing other students
graphic organizers to figure out why the images were represented in a chosen way.
Objectives: To learn how to analyze and interpret(through the viewing of other student displays)
images by creating graphic organizers of images of the Civil War and/or Reconstruction.

Large sections of paper provided by the teacher
Tape and glue
Crayons, markers, ribbon (etc…)

The teacher will begin this lesson by demonstrating how to analyze and interpret images. These
images do not have to be from the Civil War. (i.e.: present day images, Civil War images,
political cartoons, etc…) The teacher will give students a chance to practice this as a class before
beginning the assignment. (Examples are attached to this lesson plan)
Summary of Lesson: Students will create graphic organizers of images of The American Civil
War and/or Reconstruction. Through the informational tags provided for the images, the student
will demonstrate their analysis of the image. As students are creating their organizers, the teacher
will move around the room to make sure students understand the assignment and provide and
help and clarification needed.
v   Organizer needs to include: 5-10 images, a title, a brief introduction, and accompanying
tags to identify the images.
v   Images need to (a) depict events of the Civil War and/or Reconstruction and (b) depict
themes of the Civil War and/or Reconstruction.
v   Students may choose to use graphic organizers, painting, photos, or drawings. Students
may create their own images or find historical images online or in the library.
v   Students will create informational tags that will accompany the images chosen. The
informational tags should include the following information:
o   Image title
o   Brief summary of how the image relates to the Civil War and/or Reconstruction
o   Media (painting, photo, drawing, etc…)
o   Any other pertinent information
v   Students will need to choose how their images will be organized (chronological order,
perceived theme, location of images, etc…)

v   Students need to review the informational tags and introduction to make sure there is
enough information for the audience to understand the Civil War and Reconstruction

Each student will be provided with a rubric for two reasons: (1) so they know what needs to be
included in their graphic organizer, and (2) so that they can assess 5 other students work.
The point of assessing other students work is to enhance this lesson by seeing what other
students have come up with and how those students chose to display their views.







Exemplary  (8-­‐10pts.)  
Main  concept  easily  
identified;  sub-­‐concepts  
branch  appropriately  
from  main  idea.  Linking  
lines  connect  related  
images  properly.  

Proficient  (5-­‐7pts.)  
Main  concept  is  easily  
identified;  most  sub-­‐
concepts  branch  from  
main  idea.  Most  
linking  lines  connect  

Incomplete  (0-­‐4pts.)  
Main  concept  not  
clearly  identified;  sub-­‐
concepts  do  not  
consistently  branch  
from  main  idea.  Linking  
lines  not  always  
connecting  properly.  
Spelling,  capitalization,   Some  problems  with  
Frequent  errors  in  
punctuation,  grammar  
spelling,  capitalization,   spelling,  capitalization,  
and  usage  are  mostly  
punctuation,  grammar   punctuation,  grammar  
and  usage.  The  
and  usage.  Errors  cause  
problems  sometimes  
limited  comprehension  
cause  the  reader  to  
for  the  intended  
pause  or  become  
Graphics  used  
Graphics  used  
Graphics  used  
appropriately;  greatly  
appropriately  most  of   inappropriately;  
enhance  the  topic  and  
the  time;  most  
graphics  are  poorly  
aid  in  comprehension;  
graphics  selected  
selected  and  do  not  
are  clear  and  well  
enhance  the  topic,  are   enhance  the  topic;  
situated  on  the  display.   of  good  quality  and  are   some  graphics  are  
situated  in  logical  
blurry  and  poorly  
places  on  the  display.  
Reflects  essential  
Reflects  most  of  the  
Does  not  contain  
information;  is  logically   essential  information;   essential  information;  is  
arranged.  Informational   is  generally  logically  
not  logically  arranged.  
tags  give  required  
Information  tags  give  
Informational  tags  give   required  information  on  
required  information  
a  limited  basis  or  not  at  
most  of  the  time.  
Clean  design;  high  visual   Design  is  fairly  clean,  
Cluttered  design;  low  in  
appeal;  images  used  
with  a  few  exceptions;   visual  appeal;  images  
effectively  for  emphasis.   organizer  has  visual  
not  used  effectively  and  
appeal;  uses  images  
effectively  most  of  the   comprehension.