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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE

GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND
ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
REPRODUCTION AND
PREGNANCY

A critical analysis of the literature concerning Glyphosate including the extent of the issue in the
public sector, with an overview of current management strategies, stakeholder responsibilities and
future research agendas
by David Mueller (October, 2015)

A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
REPRODUCTION AND PREGNANCY

Contents
1.0 Critical Literature Review on Glyphosates health effects
1.1 Hazard ID
1.2 Dose-Response
1.3 Exposure assessment
1.4 Risk characterisation

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2.0 Assessment for Australian pregnant women
2.1 Exposure of Australian pregnant women to Glyphosate
2.2 Health outcome of Glyphosate exposure for pregnant women

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3.0 Managing

Page 16

4.0 Conclusion

Page 17

5.0 References

Page 18

6.0 Appendix

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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
REPRODUCTION AND PREGNANCY

Introduction
Glyphosate, an unknown health risk for pregnant women?
Glyphosate is considered “a once in a century herbicide” and is the most common used herbicide
worldwide in agriculture (Stephen & Stephen, 2008). Alone in Australia it use approaches 15,000
tonnes per annum (Department of Environment, 2014). Because of its widespread use throughout the
Australian society the exposure of the public and possible health threads has to be thoroughly
investigated. Glyphosate functions as an enzyme suppressor on the biosynthesis of tryptophan,
phenylalanine and tyrosine. These substances are only found in plants, fungi and bacteria. Humans
and animals do not poses these biomolecules (Campbell, 2014) and they should be therefore not
threatened from the chemical. Nevertheless, many studies prove that there is a major impact from
Glyphosate on human and animal organisms.
The aim of this report is to critically analyse the literature surrounding Glyphosate and its most
common commercial form Roundup©. Furthermore this paper will try to make a clearer picture about
the exposure of the broad public and resulting health outcomes. A deeper look is taken at the
reproduction level and the exposure and expected pathological health outcomes of pregnant women
and developing foetuses. To gain these information this report will have a look at international and
national literature, different exposure pathways and varies effects on the human health in the DoseResponse section. It will review managing risk strategies and identify gaps in knowledge. Suggestions
for future research agendas, which may lead to better management of the issue and to further reduce
the risk, are also covered in this paper.

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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
REPRODUCTION AND PREGNANCY

1.0 Critical literature review on Glyphosates health effects
1.1 Hazard ID
There is quite a debate about the herbicide Glyphosate (CAS No. 1071-83-6), commonly known as
Roundup©, and its degradation by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid, known as AMPA (CAS No.
1066-51-9) (Campbell, 2014).

Fig.1: chemical structure Glyphosate (left) and AMPA (right)

Glyphosate is a chemical agent used as an herbicide and is mostly sold as Roundup©. Since its
introduction as a cheap and effective herbicide in the 70`s, researchers are concerned about any
potential adverse health effects on the public or on the environment. There is growing evidence that
both substances are causing genotoxicity/carcinogenicity effects on human and animal organisms. The
World Health Organisation (WHO) considered Glyphosate and AMPA to have a low toxicity level. The
recommended safe to use dose is calculated from the ADI of AMPA and is currently at 0.9 mg/litre for
AMPA alone. If mixed with Glyphosate this value drops to 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The observed
NOAEL is at 32 mg/kg of body weight per day (WHO, 2004).
In some chemicals the toxicity increases if mixed with other substances and the solution can than even
affect new structures or even different organism. Studies agree that Roundup© is more toxic than its
single active ingredient Glyphosate (Benachour et al., 2006) (Ugarte, 2014). Even that Glyphosate
should only attack plants, bacteria and fungi, there are varies health effects on the human DNA,
placental cells, aromatase and the endocrine system (Campbell, 2014) (Ugarte, 2014) (McQueen et al.,
2012) and this will effect pregnancy significantly (Benachour et al., 2006) (Richard et al., 2005). There
is also a strong link to reproductive problems in regions with strong agriculture use and therefor
Roundup© exposure to the residents (Garry et al., 2002).
Of another concern is the increased bioavailability and bioaccumulation of Glyphosate if applied as
Roundup©, because this form will multiply Glyphosates natural toxicity on cells (Ugarte, 2014). Living
beings other than plants, bacteria and fungi may come in contact with Roundup© in the environment.
The sold herbicide is more toxic than its active ingredient Glyphosate and when applied by agriculture
practices or in a private environment the residue can enter the food chain, rivers and groundwater.
To find a link between the use of Roundup© and adverse health effects, epidemiology studies in the
USA confirmed that there are significant issues with pregnancy among farmers who use Roundup for
their crops. This is probably caused by a toxic effect on human placental JEG3 cells and the same
results are seen on placental cells in animals (Richard, Moslemi, Sipahutar, Benachour & Seralini, 2005).
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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
REPRODUCTION AND PREGNANCY
Another study that took place in the USA detected a significantly risen rate of birth defects in a
extensively used agriculture area in the late 1990`s. The results were that children who were exposed
to a pesticide that has an influence on the development of male offspring, which is the case with
Glyphosate, have an increased risk of birth defects (Garry, Harkins, Erickson, Long-Simpson, Holland,
Burroughs & Barbara, 2002). The major risk of the broad population is through the contamination of
food with Roundup, because it is used widely in the agriculture industry. A minimum of 75% of food
samples are contaminated, which indicates a high risk of exposure (McQueen, Callan & Hinwood,
2012).
Because experiments on human are unethical, scientist rely on cell line studies to find any interactions
of the chemical with the human endocrine system. With a cell line experiment on human placenta and
equine testis cells, the inhibition of aromatase could be confirmed and therefore that Glyphosate has
an endocrine effect. Which means Glyphosate may has the potential to affect human reproductive
and foetal development (Benachour, Sipahutar, Moslemi, Gasnier, Travert & Seralini, 2006).
Other animal and cell line studies confirmed the adverse health effect of Roundup© and Glyphosate
and that they are significant (Benachour et al., 2006) (Richard et al., 2005) (Marc et al., 2002). The
LD50 was calculated to be 1.8 folds lower for Roundup© than for the pure chemical on placental JEG3
cells when used with the recommended concentration of Roundup© of 2%. The effect is similar to
aromatase with an IC50 of 0.8% for Roundup and 2% for Glyphosate concentration (Benachour et al.,
2006).
Glyphosate even alters the development of animal’s foetuses. Studies on urchins demonstrated that
a 0.8% Roundup concentration effects first cell cleavage, which leaves doubt about the safety of
glyphosate and Roundup© on the human health (Marc et al., 2002). Another experiment on Daphnia
magna with different exposure concentrations and times resulted in clear toxic and genotix data.
(Raipulis et al., 2009).

But there are not only physical
health effects on humans. The
use of Glyphosate can also be
linked to the rise of Autism
over the last years (Nevison,
2014). Figure 2 on the left
illustrates this problem.

Fig.2: Correlation Glyphosate and Autism

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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
REPRODUCTION AND PREGNANCY
The application of Roundup© can have even physical effects on the soil structure if applied to a field.
Because Glyphosate effects the metallic cations and breaks them down. (Peixoto, Bauerfeldt, Herbst,
Pereira & da Silva, 2015). Which may results in a change of soil quality and therefore has an effect on
the harvest, because the root system of the plants cannot access enough moisture from the soil.
To safe the public from over exposure of the chemical the guidelines are very conservative. The
Canadian guidelines for Glyphosate in drinking water is 0.28 mg/L (280 µg/L) (Health Canada, 2010).
This is called the interim maximum acceptable concentration (IMAC). This is a low dose, but one has
to take into consideration other exposure pathways, as seen later in this report, and the more
potential adverse health effects of Roundup compared to Glyphosate.
The ADI for Glyphosate from the WHO is 0.3 mg/kg body weight. But the guideline only concentrates
on the exposure through drinking water. As we seen before, most Glyphosate will not reach the water
table (Source Watch, 2012) and is most common on food (EWG, 2014) and in the soil (Laitinen et
al.,2009) (Source Watch, 2012).
As seen in the literature there are varies health effects on humans and animals and there is also an
effect on the soil. To investigate all the possible adverse effects of Glyphosate is not in the frame of
this report. Therefore it concentrates on the effects on reproduction and pregnancy among Australian
women. Because this group needs special consideration due to their special circumstances and
responsibility for a new growing human life. And because the foetus is especially sensitive to
environmental toxins as can be seen with tobacco smoke and alcohol.
A sanity table is attached to the paper in the Appendix. This allows for a quick overview of the sources
and to what they relate to.

1.2 Dose-response
To calculate the average daily potential exposure of a chemical through ingestion, the used formal is:
DI = C × (IR / BW) × (EF × ED / AT)
where:
DI = daily intake of chemical (mg/kg-d)
C = concentration of chemical in an environmental medium (e.g., mg/kg for soil or food, mg/L for water, mg/m3 for air)
IR = intake rate of the environmental medium (e.g., kg/day for food or soil, L/day for water, m3/day for air)
BW = body weight (kg)
EF = exposure frequency (days/yr)
ED = exposure duration (years)
AT = averaging time (days)
(Epa, 2015)

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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
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Monsanto states a concentration of 1-2% Roundup© if mixed with water. A study investigated the
implication of a 2% strength mixture of Glyphosate and Roundup© in 18-, 24- and 48 hours on human
placental JEG3 cells, as illustrated in Figure 3. If we have a look at the 0.8% concentration, we can see
that the negative effect is 8 times higher between 24- and 48 hours. Based on the results, it can be
calculated that Roundups© median lethal dose (LD50) was 1.8 folds lower than Glyphosates in its pure
form.

Fig.3: Effects of Roundup (A) and equivalent quantities of glyphosate (B) on JEG3 placental cell viability in a serum-containing medium. This
was evaluated by the MTT assay, the results are presented as percentages compared with nontreated cells. Cells were incubated with
increasing concentrations of Roundup or equivalent concentrations of glyphosate for 18, 24, or 48 hr (n = 9). The LD50 is indicated by a
dashed line. Error bars indicate SE.
*p < 0.05;
**p < 0.01.

Figure 4 tested human JEG3 placental cell viability at different levels of added Roundup© to
Glyphosate. The results were conversable, because the drastic reduction of cell viability by 90% after
48 hours stand in no relation to 23% after 18 hours in regards to the pH level of the tested substance.
Drastic outcomes on cell viability on all tested timescales were observed when even smallest
quantities of Roundup© were added to Glyphosate (Benachour et al., 2006).
Fig.4: Effects of Roundup and equivalent quantities of glyphosate on JEG3 placental cell viability in serum-free medium. The incubation was

for 1 hr (A) or 18 hr (B). The addition of 0.02 or 0.1% Roundup shows adjuvant effects (n = 9). Error bars indicate SE.
**p < 0.01.

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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
REPRODUCTION AND PREGNANCY
Studies obtained the same negative results when they investigated Roundups© and Glyphosates
effect on microsomal aromatase activity as seen in Figure 5. Here the use of 1% Glyphosate results in
a drastic decline of Aromatase activity. This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of testosterone
to oestrogen (MedicineNet, 2015) and plays a role in the sexual development of the embryo.

Fig.5:: Effects of Roundup and equivalent quantities of glyphosate on
microsomal aromatase activity. Human placental microsomes were
incubated with Roundup or glyphosate at 37°C for 15 min (n = 9). The IC50
is indicated by a dashed line. Similar results were obtained with equine
testicular microsomes. Error bars indicate SE.
**p < 0.01.

A 0.8% concentration of Roundup© leads to problems in the first cell cleavage of sea urchin embryos.
Undertaken studies resulted in a delayed cleavage of the organism and based on the results
connections were made to possible adverse health effect on human embryonic development (Marc,
Mulner-Lorillon, Boulben, Hureau, Durand & Bellé, 2002).
Another study investigated the toxic and genotoxic effect of the chemical on Daphnia magna (a
freshwater flea species), using the Escherichia coli SOS chromotest. A LD50 at a concentration of
0.22g/l and a LD100 at 0.5g/l were observed after 24 hours. The results for 48 hours were 0.19g/l and
0.25g/l for the LD 100. These results confirmed that there is indeed a toxic and genotoxic effect of
Glyphosate and its commercial form Roundup© (Raipulis, Toma & Balode, 2009).
Figure 6 refers to a study on male
rats. The animals were given a
percentage of Glyphosate into
their food and then a sperm
count was conducted. The results
indicate that there is a direct link
to sperm count and therefore
reproduction potential of a male
and the exposure to Glyphosate.
Fig.6: sperm count in rats after applying Roundup to the food
Source: dontspraycalifornia.org

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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
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1.3 Exposure assessment

Fig.7: illustration from source to exposure route

Following 5 steps:
1. Source – How does the chemical enters the environment?
Spraying of crop fields.
2. Media – how is the chemical transported away from its source?
When washed down by water, oozed out or by composting of treated plants, Glyphosate can
enter the soil in the area. Its mean half life time in soil is around 32 days (Source Watch, 2012).
19% of the applied Glyphosate to a certain area will remain in the topsoil and residues of the
substance can be found in deeper layers even after 20 month. Even greater amounts, 48%, of
AMPA can be found in topsoil with deposits in lower level. This leads to the conclusion of a
long time deposit of the chemicals in temperate soil. (Laitinen, Rämö, Nikunen, Jauhiainen,
Siimes, & Turtola, 2009).
The exposure pathway over the air is caused by inhaling the chemical after farmland or
gardens are sprayed. Also the exposure through contaminated dust via ingestion is an
important risk factor in areas that are treated with Roundup© (Jurewicz, Hanke, Johansson,
Lundqvist, Ceccatelli, Van Den Hazel, Saunders & Zetterstrom, 2006).
Glyphosate reaches rivers and lakes via drainage water from sprayed areas. The danger of
reaching the groundwater table is minimal, because the chemical is normally absorbed by the
soil and a degradation process will take place that breaks the chemical down. The half-life
time of Glyphosate in water is approximately up to two weeks (Source Watch, 2012).
Entry to the human body through the skin happens when a person is in direct contact with
anything that is treated with the chemicals. Another indirect route would be through the close
contact with a pet, which came into contact with exposed soil for example (Jurewicz et al.,
2006).
Another way of exposure is over the food consumption were 70 percent of genetically
engineered soy plants has high levels of Roundup (EWG, 2014). But like mentioned earlier, 75%
of all food samples are contaminated with the substance and the concentration is especially
high in everyday products like potatoes, apples and wheat. (Jurewicz et al., 2006).
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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
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3. Exposure Point – Where people contact the media.
While eating or drinking contaminated food or water, breathing air with pesticide particles
close to spraying area or through the skin.
4. Exposure Route – How is the chemical entering the human body?
Exposure through drinking, eating, skin contact and breathing
5.

What parts of the population are exposed to the hazard?
Because of the contamination of food, the broad public is exposed. Farmworkers and people
who live close to a field on which Roundup© is applied are also are endangered through
airborne exposure.

1.4 Risk characterisation
There is a lack in the studies on how big the exposure to Glyphosate through the food chain is. As we
seen, strong evidence are there that Roundup© will effect pregnancy and water guidelines are not
enough to protect the society and especially pregnant women. Air borne contamination should be
another focus, as seen in the study of farm workers pregnancy with higher resulting birth defects
(Garry et al., 2002).

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2.0 Assessment for Australian pregnant women

2.1 Exposure of Australian Pregnant Women to Glyphosate
Data about the exposure of Australian women to Glyphosate would be ideal. Because this data is not
available, the use of residue data of Glyphosate in combination with food uptake is used instead.
The exposure of Glyphosate is controlled by the Australian government through guidelines of how
much of the chemicals is safe to consume. Because of a rising use of the herbicide in combination with
genetically modified crops considerations are in place to adjust the current ADi which is at 0.3mg/kg
bw/day and a NOEl of 30mg/kg bw/day at the moment (Food Standards Australia, n.d.).
Table 1: Residue of Glyphosate in different vegetarian dietary items:
Commodity
Soya beans

HRglyphosate
(mg/kg)

PFglyphosate High residue STMRtotal
(mg/kg)
(mg/kg)

17

PFtotal
residue

STMR-P/median
residue (mg/kg)

5.0

Meal

1.0

0.89

4.45

Hulls

4.5

4.1

20.5

Crude oil

< 0.01

< 0.02

< 0.1

1.6

0.19

Maize

3.0

< 0.12

Aspirated
grain dust

1.6

Bran

1.2

3.6

1.2

0.14

Flour

1.1

3.3

1.1

0.13

Meal

1.1

1.1

0.13

Gluten

< 0.05

< 0.33

0.04

Refined oil

< 0.05

< 0.33

0.04

Starch

< 0.05

< 0.33

0.04

Oats

14

4.75

Hull

1.8

8.551

Kernel

0.2

0.951

Rolled oats

0.2

0.951

Sorghum

13

4.8

Bran

5.0

Flour

5.0

24

0.34

0.32

1.5

Germ

0.02

< 0.03

0.14

Grain dust

4.9

4.8

23

Grits

0.47

0.46

2.2

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Starch

0.01

Wheat

9.5

< 0.03

0.14

1.05

Whole meal

0.46

0.46

0.48

Flour

0.105

0.105

0.11

Bran

1.7

1.72

1.8

0.36

0.38

Whole
bread

meal

Cottonseed

16

0.36
28

5.2

Kernels

0.07

0.07

0.36

Hulls

0.33

0.33

1.7

Meal

0.11

0.11

0.57

Crude oil

< 0.1

< 0.1

0.52

Refined oil

< 0.1

< 0.1

0.52

Bleached oil

< 0.1

< 0.1

0.52

Rape

12

0.93

Seedcake

2.5

Crude oil

< 0.1

Refined oil

< 0.1

Sugarcane

2.3a

0.97

0.27

Raw sugar

0.8

0.8

0.216

Refined sugar

< 0.24

< 0.24

0.065

Molasses

8.25

8.65

2.3

Bagasse

0.275

0.275

0.074

8.29

1

Processing factors for total residues were not available, however residue data suggests AMPA is either present at less than 10% of the
glyphosate residue level or not detected at levels above the limit of quantitation. In these cases the glyphosate processing factors and total
residue processing factors would not be significantly different
2

Where residues of AMPA were measured they were< LOQ. The Meeting decided to use the larger database of glyphosate processing factors
to estimate the median processing factor for total residues
Source: FAO, 2005

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Table 2: Residue of Glyphosate in beef and dairy
Residues3 (mg/kg)
Dietary burden (mg/kg)1
Milk
Feeding level [ppm]2
Mean
MRL beef

MRL dairy

STMR beef

STMR dairy

Fat
HR

Muscle
Mean

HR

Liver
Mean

HR

Kidney
Mean HR

(381)

(<
0.05)

(<
0.05)

(0.20)

(3.1)

[400]

< 0.05

< 0.05

0.21

3.3

(381)

(<
0.05)

[400]

< 0.05

Mean

(266)

(<
0.05)

(<
0.05)

(0.29)

(2.9)

[400]

< 0.05

< 0.05

0.43

4.3

(266)

(<
0.05)

[400]

< 0.05

1

Values in parentheses are the estimated residues at the dietary burdens

2

Values in square brackets are the actual feeding levels in the transfer study

3

Residue values in parentheses in italics are obtained from the dietary burden, feeding levels in the transfer study and the residues found
in the transfer study. Mean is mean animal tissue (or milk) residue in the relevant feeding group. The residues for HR calculations are
glyphosate residues while those for STMR calculations are total residues (glyphosate + 1.5×AMPA).
Source: FAO, 2005

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Table 3: Average food intake of 43 Australian pregnant women
Amount of food consumed by major food groups
Selected food groups

Mean (g/day) Median (g/day) Range (g/day) % of diet

Cereals and cereal products

255.4

184.6

43.3–1386.2 23.9

Cereal based products and dishes

78.0

62.4

15.3–252.5

7.3

Fruit products and dishes

253.3

249.9

55.5–489.2

23.8

Vegetable products and dishes

166.3

147.2

27.6–392.0

15.6

Legume and pulse products, dishes 11.1

6.7

0–47.3

1.0

Total milk and milk products

103.1

111.8

0–291.6

9.7

Meat, poultry products and dishes

90.3

78.2

0–244

8.5

Fish and seafood product and dishes 27.8

22.0

0–108.1

2.6

Egg products and dishes

20.3

12.9

0–60.0

1.9

Snack foods

5.1

2.8

0–41.8

0.5

Sugar products and dishes

13.7

15.2

0–34.0

1.3

Confectionary

14.4

10.4

0.5–70.7

1.4

Seed and nut products and dishes

8.1

5.1

0–44.0

0.8

Fats and oils

15.3

14.0

0–42.0

1.4

Miscellaneous

4.2

2.6

0–20.6

0.4

Total food consumed

1066.4

1011.9

524.6–2436.2 100

Source: McQueen, Callan & Hinwood, 2012

As seen in table 3, the main dietary intake for targeted population are cereal products (23.9%) and
fruit (23.8%). These two sources make nearly half of the daily food consumption and they are the ones
with highest Glyphosate residue as well.
Nevertheless, if the exposure of pregnant women to Glyphosate through food is calculated as a
percentage of the ADI it counts only for a maximum of 2%, which is far below the recommended
exposure for this route (McQueen, Callan & Hinwood, 2012). Only 15 percent of this will reach the
foetus, which is due the filtration ability of the placenta (Mose, Kjaerstad, Mathiesen, Nielsen, Edelfors
and Knudsen, 2008).

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Table 4: Estimated maternal exposure to glyphosate (n = 20).
Estimated dietary intake (mg/day) Estimated dietary exposure (mg/kg bw/day) % ADI
Mean 0.07

0.001

0.4

Median 0.06

9 × 10−4

0.3

Range

2 × 10−5 to 5 × 10−3

0.005–2

Estimated dietary intake, mean analytical results for concentrations of glyphosate in food multiplied by mean food consumption.
Estimated dietary exposure, mean analytical results for concentrations of glyphosate in food multiplied by mean food
consumption divided by mean maternal pregnancy body weight (U.S. EPA, 1992).

Source: McQueen, Callan & Hinwood, 2012

As seen in the table above, the exposure to Glyphosate through dietary intake is very low. But it is
important to consider that Glyphosates concentration on the food sample will be further reduced
through the industry or at the consumer end due to any processing, cleaning or storage of the food.
But there are still residues left over when the food is ready to eat (McQueen, Callan & Hinwood, 2012).
That means Glyphosate is transferred from the field to the plate of the consumer and therefore the
consumer is exposed over a wide range of products to the chemical.
An interesting factor to take into consideration is the different concentrations of the chemical with
the season, as seen in the table below.
Table 5.

Concentration of glyphosate residuea concentrations determined in composite food
samples.
By season
Winter
samples
Spring
samples
All samples

Number

of Mean ± SD

Minimum

Maximum

%

samples

(mg/kg)

(mg/kg)

(mg/kg)

<LOD

5

0.03 ± 0.3

<0.005

0.07

40

15

0.09 ± 0.1

0.005

0.5

20

0.08 ± 0.1

<0.005

0.5

10

samples

LOD = 0.005 mg/kg. Where glyphosate residue concentrations are <LOD, LOD/2 has been used to calculate mean concentrations
(U.S. EPA, 1992).
a
Glyphosate is expressed as the sum of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic as per Australian Pesticides & Veterinary
Medicines Authority (APVMA) residue definition (APVMA, 2008b).

Source: McQueen, Callan & Hinwood, 2012

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A REPORT ON THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSPATE IN FOOD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON
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2.2 Health outcome to Glyphosate exposure for pregnant women
There are several severe health hazards related to Glyphosate from the time of foetal development
to be fully grown up. In this time the organism is at a higher risk to develop congenital malformations,
cancer, malabsorption, immunological dysfunction, endocrine disease, neurobehavioural deficiencies
and a higher risk of female birth if the mother of the growing infant is coming into contact with
Glyphosate (Jurewicz et al., 2006)
Other symptoms related to Glyphosate are:
 Reduced urination
 Cough
 Diarrhea
 Drowsiness
 Swallowing difficulty
 Breathing difficulty
 Nausea
 Vomiting
 Esophageal inflammation
 Blood in vomit
 Stomach inflammation
 Blood in urine
 Reduced blood pressure
 Increased blood potassium level
 Leukocytosis
 Metabolic acidosis
 Nystagmus
 Mouth ulcers
 Goosebumps
 Salivation
 Destruction of red blood cells
 Respiratory failure
 Kidney damage

(Right Diagnose, 2015)
But it is assumed that the exposure to the developing embryo is low and current models are sufficient
to calculate the exposure of the public and ensure the safety of the population (McQueen, Callan &
Hinwood, 2012).

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3. Managing
Table 6: Stakeholders in regards to Glyphosate

Name

Responsibility

Level

Federal
Government

The Australian Government looks after national health
policy and gives guidelines/standards for the Sates

Nation

States/Territo
ries

Provides links
information.

State

Department
of Health

Undertakes health policy research

National

Food
Standards
Australia New
Zealand

Government agency that develops and administers
the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code,
which lists requirements for foods.

BiNation

World Health
Organisation


to

state

and

territory

health

providing leadership on matters critical Global
to health and engaging in partnerships
where joint action is needed;
shaping the research agenda and
stimulating the generation, translation
and
dissemination
of
valuable
knowledge;
setting norms and standards and
promoting and monitoring their
implementation;
articulating ethical and evidence-based
policy options;
providing technical support, catalysing
change, and building sustainable
institutional capacity; and
Monitoring the health situation and
assessing health trends.

Comment

IGO
=
Inter Government
Organisation

NGO

Research and recommendations

Global,
National,
State

Very
diverse,
often
biased,
some
quality
research

Universities

Research and recommendations

As above

Quality
unbiased

private

Commercial
interest

private

Costs of groceries,
availability

private

Production coast

Industry
Consumer
Farmers

DAVID MUELLER





Production of chemical
Production of alternatives
Choices of product (organic)
Buying local at market
Producing Glyphosate free

study,

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4.0 Conclusion
The aim of this report is to determine the health risk for reproduction and pregnancy from Glyphosate for
Australian women. There is strong evidence that Glyphosate will effect male and female fertility, especially
when it is applied to the environment as Roundup© which multiplies its toxic affect. This is confirmed by
cell line and animal studies, also epidemiology studies suggests that there is a correlation between the
chemical and observed reproductive issues. Because of ethical considerations, whole human organism
trials are no option. Guidelines for the exposure to Glyphosate are very conservative because of this reason,
but future studies should focus their attention on combined exposure from different sources (ie. food,
water, air) and how they can interact on each other. Also specific guidelines for occupations who are often
exposed to the substances should be placed for Work and Safety reasons and education and warnings for
pregnant women should be issued. In all this experiments, Roundup© needs to be tested as well, because
it is the form of the chemical that is available to the public.
These warnings and conservative guidelines should be in place as long as it takes for achieving new data
that can accurately determines a safe daily dose for Glyphosate.

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REPRODUCTION AND PREGNANCY
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Appendix
A Sanity Table
General Information:



Campbell, 2014
Department of Environment, 2014
WHO, 2004
Health Canada, 2010

Animal/Bacterial Testing:

Raipulis, Toma & Balode, 2009

Exposure:






Laitinen, Rämö, Nikunen, Jauhiainen,
Siimes, & Turtola, 2009
Jurewicz, Hanke, Johansson, Lundqvist,
Ceccatelli, Van Den Hazel, Saunders &
Zetterstrom, 2006
Source Watch, 2012
Jurewicz et al., 2006
EWG, 2014
Jurewicz et al., 2006
Peixoto, Bauerfeldt, Herbst, Pereira &
da Silva, 2015

Cell Lines/Genes:





Ugarte, 2014
Benachour, Sipahutar, Moslemi,
Gasnier, Travert & Seralini, 2006
Richard, Moslemi, Sipahutar,
Benachour & Seralini, 2005
Marc, Mulner-Lorillon, Boulben,
Hureau, Durand & Bellé, 2002
Campbell, 2014
Mose, Kjaerstad, Mathiesen, Nielsen,
Edelfors and Knudsen, 2008

DAVID MUELLER

Epidemiology:


Garry, Harkins, Erickson, Long-Simpson,
Holland, Burroughs & Barbara, 2002
McQueen, Callan & Hinwood, 2012
Nevison, 2014

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