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TECHNOLOGY OF MODERN CIVILIZATION: THE CHALLENGE TO GLOBAL

PEACE IN THE
21st CENTURY

Abstract
The daunting thoughts that have occupied the minds of humanity over the
Centuries have been the direction of human civilization and its compatibility
with ethical moral standards in relation to the advancement of science and
technology. The paper examines the trends in science and technological
advancement from its earliest time to its present dispensation; its positive
and negative impacts on humanity vis a vis inventions and discoveries that
have made life more comfortable and meaningful to humanity; the unbridled
passion and gratification of sensual pleasure; the escalating Wars with
sophisticated Arms and weaponry that have de-humanized humankind
sequel to the sacrilege of human dignity and sanctity; the anthropogenic
disasters that are offshoots of humankinds struggles to conquer nature and
master his environment etc. The paper further analyses qualitatively and
quantitatively the Global Peace Index on some selected indicators from
which inferences are made. The paper concludes that: technology of modern
civilization is moving to stage where probably artificial intelligence will undo
man in all sphere of life and the emergent of first cloned man; technology of
modern civilization is a blessing to humanity and compatible with morality;
the status of global peace has fairly improved. Although, with much disasters
and pressures. The paper suggests moral revolution and assimilation of
culture of Peace, mutual respect for one another, respect for the rule of law
and respect for human dignity and sanctity for better and constructive
utilization of scientific and technological knowledge in the 21st Century.

Key words:
Ethics

Advanced Technology

Modern Civilization

Introduction

Global Peace

The complexity of human society given its laudable achievements in scientific


and technological breakthrough has portend serious challenge to human kinds
peaceful Coe-existence .The complexity transcends the grasp of individual, groups,
society, nations and regions. Paradoxically, as Marx had earlier asserted that the
history of mankind was the history of increasing control of man over nature at the
same time was a nature of increasing alienation of man (Ollman, 1971).B y this

view, Marx sees alienation in this contest as a condition in which forces of


mankind creation dominate man and confront him as alien powers. Perhaps,
this assertion can be further illustrated with the Second World Wars massive
destruction by the nuclear bomb; devastating the Japanese cities of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August, 1945.Little did Albert Einstein know that
the nuclear bomb, a creation of his (mankind) would continually confront
mankind as alien power. However, four decades later, Albert Einstein
commented on the reverberations of the unbridled use of technology
especially with respect to lethal violence:
The importance of securing international Peace was recognized by the
really great men of former generations. But the technical advances of our
times have turned this ethical postulate into a matter of life and death for
civilized mankind today, and made the taking of an active part in the solution
to the problem of Peace a moral duty which no conscientious man can shirk
(Einstein, 19 84:43).
Today, individual, groups, society, nations, boastfully claim and
demonstrate the cutting edge research

and breakthrough in science and

technology which ranges from bio-tech/ genetic engineering and its


concomitant bio-ethical violations to the proliferation of sophisticated Arms
and weaponry, escalating armed conflicts, genocide, politicide and mass
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murders that have desecrated human lives, human dignity and sanctity .This
is coupled with inordinate ambitions of despotic and tyrant leaderships who
lack respect for human dignity and sanctity, who shy away from moral
responsibility, but abuse grossly, power and authority and possibly turn the
World to a theatre of violence and anarchy. Peace is a cherished value in its
positive or negative connotation that individual, society, nations, regions and the
global world at large yearn for. Conversely, violence seems to take the edge over
peace, violence has pervaded the entire globe in the 20th Century.
The boastful acquisitions of weapons of mass destruction such as; biological,
chemical and nuclear weapons by Iraq, Iran and North Korea under the leadership of
the Late Saddam Hussein and Kim Jong-il and in recent time, Basher Assard
respectively are cases in point. The massive destruction of lives and property in the
Arab spring political imbroglio such as that of Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and
Bahrain is a crystal clear indication of gross violations of human rights and
international laws leading to War crimes. Besides, Rwanda, Sudan, Democratic
Republic of Congo, Kenya, Somali , Central African Republic, Zaire to mention a few
also had their shares on global violence. This armed uprising, although, is a
direct/lethal violence but have a structural violence undertone is a threat to global
peace and progress and even the existence of human kind. Terrorism, dictatorship
and the spread of nuclear weapons are issues requiring serious attention in the 21 st
century. The global world is still ravaged by small and tribal scale wars and other
violent conflicts, catalyzed by stiff competition over resources, ethnicity and political
power. Power grunted tyrants and despotic leaderships continued drives to the
development of nuclear power have increasingly become unabated. Sadly enough,

nations, regions etc, are continually and increasingly producing intellectual giants
that are moral dwarfs.
In view of the above, the research questions this paper raises and attempts
to answer are as follows: where is human civilization heading to in relation to
science and technology? Is technology of modern civilization a blessing or a curse?
Is morality compatible with technology of modern civilization? What is the status of
global peace in the wake of 21st century? One cannot deny the fact that

world

leaders, nations, regions, civil societies etc, have roles to play to make the global
world a safe and peaceful haven for mankind. It is against this backdrop that this
paper

examines

the

relationships

between

Mans

technological

civilization/

advancement and his struggles to master his environment within the scope of his
moral values to either his detriments or benefits which is rooted in direct/structural
violence or positive/negative peace; the latter however, is a necessity for social,
cultural, economic and political development of the global world.
TECHNOLOGY AND PEACE: A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW
On the one hand, the term technology can be traced to the Greek word
art/craft which according to Ogunremi (1989) refers to the means or activity by
which man seeks to change or master his environment. Technology is the total
means employed by a people to provide materials essential to human existence and
comfort through the acquisition of a technical method to achieve a practical
purpose (Olaoye, 2003).One can argue that technology is not a native of any society
or nation rather every society of the global world possesses one technology or
another in varying sophistication and complexity given their diverse environmental
challenges tackled by the available skills and techniques at the disposal of the
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people and more so, peculiar to their environment .In view of this, technology has
both universal and environmental concept (ibid).
On the other hand, the term peace according to Miller (2005) connotes a
political condition that ensures justice and social stability through formal and
informal institutions, practices, and norms. By extension, Miller (ibid) posits that
elusively, peace connotes more than mere absence of War or hostilities and deriving
from the Latin pax, peace in Western world is considered as a contractual
relationship that implies mutual recognition and agreement. The idea of peace as
the absence of War was further modified by Wright (1941 as cited in Cheffou and
Manga, 2012) to suggest that peace was dynamic balance involving political, social,
cultural and technological factors. Wright (ibid) argued that war takes place when
this balance breaks down.
Galtung (1969) shifted the frontiers of the conceptual understanding of peace
with the modification of Wrights conceptual view by categorizing peace as positive
peace and negative peace. Galtung (ibid) marshal out his argument that positive
peace was the absence of structural violence and that Negative peace was the
absence of War. Thus, if people starve to death when there is food to feed them
somewhere in the world, or die from sickness when there is medicine to cure them,
then, structural violence exists. Alternative structures could, in theory, prevent such
death and misfortunes. Peace under this rubric involves both the positive and the
negative peace being present (Cheffou and Manga, 2012).
The feminist movement during the 1970s and 1980s developed a new
paradigm ushered in by feminist peace researchers who extended both the positive
and the negative peace to incorporate direct violence and structural violence to the
individual level. Then, the new definition of peace included not only the abolition of
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macro level of organized violence, such as War but, also doing away with micro level
unorganized violence such as rape during War or at home (Cheffou and
Manga,2012). Koffi Anan, the U.N. Secretary (1998) noted that:

"Even in the midst of war; women have kept family life going; they have cared
for the sick and wounded; they have fetched water and firewood, grown crops
and tended animals. It is an injustice and outrage that women who are the
most likely to argue for peace, are also the ones most severely punished in
Conflicts usually created by men (Koffi Anah, 1998: 1).
The Gaia theoretical perspective on peace views peace from the relationship of humankind to his
biological and environmental systems. This holistic approach to peace discourses does not put
into considerations a spiritual dimension, thus peace is conceptualized in terms of all physical
violence against people and the environment. Webel (2007) extended the understanding of peace
to the spiritual level where inner, esoteric dimension of peace is essential. This spirituality based
concept stresses the centrality of inner peace, believing that all aspects of peace from the
individual to the environmental levels must be hinged upon the inner peace.
Miller (2005) identified six prerequisite conditions for peace to be reached and maintained in a
society;
-Balance of political power among various groups within a society, regions and most ambitiously
the world.
-Legitimacy for decision making for decision makers and implementers of decision in the eyes of
their respective groups as well as those of external parties dully supported through transparency
and accountability.
- Recognized and valued interdependent relationships among groups, fostering long-term
cooperation during periods of agreement, disagreement, normality and crises.
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-Reliable and trusted institutions for resolving conflicts.


-Sense of equality and respect in sentiment and in practice, within and without
groups and in accordance with international standards.
-Mutual

understanding

of

rights,

interest,

intents

and

flexibility

despite

incompatibility.

TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT FROM ITS EARLIEST TO PRESENT STAGE:


AN EVALUATION
Technology is as old as mankind, today; one can argue that it is the bedrock
of socio-economic development of nations and the global world at large. The
Primitive period of both the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages confronted man with the
forces of nature. Man was faced with the challenges of survival and in the bid to
survive; the early man resorted to reasoning and experimentation in order to tame
and master his environment. Consequently, man was able to develop some
techniques which enabled him to conquer his environment (Forbes, 1968). The
discovery of fire happened to be the first technological breakthrough of man. The

emergence of the technique of how to make and use fire made early man to blaze
the trial in technological activities (Olaoye, 2003).
Hunting technology started with man as he was the first tool making primate
(Forbes, 1968), this was followed by technology of domestication of animal and the
cultivation of crops which laid the foundation for the technology in animal
husbandry and agriculture owing to the use of iron tools (Abubakar, 1984).The
architectural technology of building and construction which according to Stride and
Ifeka (1971) made it possible for man to have a place of settlement such as that of
farm settlements and villages. It is an axiom that necessity is the mother of
invention. This indeed had spurred man to take control and master his environment,
thus in historical perspective, textile technology was the out-growth of mans early
experimentation with the use of fabric materials to cover his body. The early mans
technological aptitudes reveals the existence of technology in the long stretch of
human history when man began to utilized the gains of his experiments to repshape his natural environment (Olaoye, 2003).
The industrial revolution of 18 th century in Europe otherwise known as the
Renaissance set the stage for new initiatives in science and technology which could
be said to have ushered in the first face of modern technology, man not only have
the freedom to learn, experiment, invent, and innovate but also to carry technology
to the next level. The invention of new machines that were larger and stronger than
those

hitherto

used

provided

the

drive

for

advanced

technology

and

industrialization (Henderson, 1972).The 20th century had witnessed tremendous


strides for human technology, the gains of which are consolidated in modern times.
Thus, today man has made great progress in areas such as engineering;

pharmaceutical; medical sciences; information and communication technology


automobile; computer; petro-chemical and weaponry etc. (Olaoye, 2003).
FUNCTIONAL

AND

DYSFUNCTIONAL

DIMENSIONS

OF

ADVANCED

TECHNOLOGY: AN EVALUATION
Transportation:
Accelerated scientific understanding, more efficient communication and
faster transportation changed the entire world in the 20th century more rapidly and
widely than any previous one. The advancement in science and technology started
with the use of animals such as camel (the desert sheep) and donkeys, simple
automobile and freighters, but ended with high speed rail such as the electricity
powered tunnel train, cruised ships, global commercial air travel and the space
shuttle(Ashton, 1973) . Interestingly, animals, the basic means of transportation
were replaced by automobiles. These developments became possible sequel to the
advancement in petroleum technology, large scale exploitation of fossil fuel
resources i.e. crude oil offered large amounts of energy in an easily portable form.
Conversely, this also caused widespread concerns about pollution and its long term
impact on the environment.

Energy and the Physical Environment:


The dominant and increasing use of fossils and nuclear power is today
considered the conventional energy sources. Widespread use of petroleum in
industry as chemical precursor to plastic and as a fuel for the automobile and air
planes has led to the geo-political importance of the resources. The Middle East,
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home of many of the worlds oil deposits became a centre for geo-political and
military tension throughout the latter half of the 20 th century. For example, oil was a
factor in Japans decision to go to War with the United states in 1914 and the oil
cartel OPEC used an oil embargo of sorts in the wake of Yom Kippur War in the
1970s(UNESCO,2008). The vast consumption caused smog and other forms of air
pollution, global warming and global climate change.
In fact, according to recent studies, Black carbon is responsible for 18% of
global warming, almost half of that of the 40% contribution from CO2 emissions
(www.ciir.org), pesticides, herbicides and other toxic chemicals accumulated in the
environment, including the bodies of humans and other animals. All these,
diminished the quality of the environment, and a sacrilege to the sanctity of human
dignity in forming the Kyoto Treaty. The anthropogenic induced global warming has
resulted in economic and ecological costs and if these cultural trends persist, it may
lead to losses in biodiversity and ecosystem services except socio-political changes
are introduced particularly in pattern of mass consumption and transportation the
costs of ignoring climate change have been estimated at more than that of the
World Wars and the Great Depression put at 5% to 20% of GDP (Developments
Magazine, 2009)
Medicine, Bio-technology/Genetic Engineering and Ethics
The project on genetic engineering started in the half of the 20 th century,
when genetics was unanimously accepted and significantly developed. In 1953,
James Waston, Francis Crick Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins determined the
structure of DNA following the development of techniques which facilitated the
reading of DNA sequences that culminated in the commencement of the Human
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Genome Project and the cloning of the first mammal in 1996 (Nobel prize.org;
Chemheritage.org). In 1997 and 1998 respectively, there was a successful cloning
of

Dolly

the

sheep

and

the

production

of

mouse

clones

(Weasel

and

Jensen,2005).This feat gives support to medical potential of the therapeutic cloning


of human, although, nations of the world are still struggling on the implications of
the newly viable scientific

technology, besides, opponents of the genetically

modified foods are focusing on the possible danger of genetically modified food to
ecosystem(New York Science Times,2007). The role of sexual reproduction was
understood

and

bacterial

conjugation

was

discovered,

Placebo-controlled,

randomized, blinded clinical trials became a powerful tool for testing new medicine
(Chemheritage.org). Anti biotic drastically reduced mortality from bacterial diseases
and their prevalence, vaccines were developed for polio and worldwide epidemic
effective vaccines were also developed for a number of other infectious diseases
including influenza, diphtheria, pertussis(whooping cough), tetanus, measles,
rubella ,Hepatitis A and B(Kent,2000). X-ray also became powerful diagnostic tool
for wide spectrum diseases from bone fracture to cancer, new psychiatric drugs
were developed such as anti psychotic for treating hallucination and delusion and
anti depressant for treating depression (ibid). By extension, the development of
blood typing and blood banking facilitated the transfusion of blood safe and widely
acceptable. Similarly, the development of immunosuppressive drugs and tissue
typing made organ and tissue transplanting a clinical reality in the 20 th century.
Advanced medical technology improved the welfare of many people with global life
expectancy increasing from 35 years to 60 years Years to... years.Given these
laudable technological successes, scientific research on human being is potentially
valuable; it also can be dangerous and harmful to the people who are being studied.

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In 1997 for example, President Bill Clinton apologized on behalf of the US


government studies that purposively withheld treatment from poor, uneducated
African American men infected with syphilis and by recent revelations of
government studies that exposed unknowing subjects to radiation (Pense, 1995).
The Mass Media, Telecommunication and Information Technology
The information revolution inherent in the 20th century brought a new social
technology, digital revolution continued into the 21 st century with mobile usage and
internet access growing massively.

Computers and the internet made the

knowledge about the world more widely available. The World Wide Web rose popular
Peoples view of the world and their environment changed significantly as they
became much more aware of the struggles for others who have been grossly
dehumanized which became a major concern for human rights movement (Nobel
Media.org). My Face, Face Book, You Tube, Twitters and Google+ emerged as
veritable tools for social networking. However, Blundell (2001) noted that
technological development has made possible much greater social control through
surveillance. Closed Circuit Television CCTV and thumb print detector provides
evidence for use in trials during prosecution. However, this development may have
implications for civil liberties since privacy would have been lost, information control
will be difficult.
Conversely, feminists aptly argued on the cultural effects of the media that
from early childhood a child continues to take messages and images from the media
about what boys and girls, men and women are like and how they should behave.
Thus, because of the content of the media, many people have grown up believing
that a womans place is in the home (Blundell, 2001). In the same vein, Cohen
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(1972), argued that the exaggerated and sensationalized reports usually lead to
what is called moral panic which may inform violence rooted in football
hooliganism, drug ecstasy and asylum seeking. A case in point is in 1993, Two 11year- old boys from Liverpool were found guilty of murdering a 2-year-old boy. The
way the murder was carried out was said to be similar to scenes in a horror film
available on video, Childs play 3 (Blundell: 2001; Barnard et.al, 2004).New crimes
have emerged as a result of changes in technology; today computer crime covers a
range of offences such as hacking, piracy of computer soft ware, stealing credit card
details. Drug traffickers money launderers and terrorists all use the internet,
terrorism espionage and arms dealing are strongly connected to advanced
technology (Blundell, 2001).
War, Terrorism and Disaster
The early arms races of the 20 th century escalated in to a War which involved
many powerful nations in World War I 1914-1918.Technological advancement
changed the manner war was fought, as new inventions such as machine guns,
tanks chemical weapons and military aircrafts modified war tactics and strategies.
Similarly, rapid technological advancement allowed Warfare to reach unprecedented
level of destruction in that century. World War II killed over sixty million people while
nuclear weapons gave human kind the means to annihilate and significantly harm
itself in a very short period of time (UNESCO, 2008). Conversely, the new security of
nuclear power installations may be a priority in rich countries fearing terrorism, but
not necessary in poorer Countries who priorities other problems. Nevertheless,
nuclear accidents sabotage and terror attacks are devastating wherever they occur
ranging from increasing the number of refugee camps, poverty, outbreak of
diseases etc. Consequently, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has
13

welcomed the contribution of around 7 million pound from the European Union to
help to improve the security of nuclear plants and radioactive materials in 35
developing countries, including 27 African States (Developments Magazine, 2007).

Weak and failing states pose a serious challenge to its peoples and the international
community at large. The globalized economy, the information systems and interlaced security
and pressures from a fragile state can have serious repercussions not only for that state and its
people but also for its neighbors and other states across the globe (The Fund for Peace,2012).As
clearly stated earlier in this paper that virtually most direct violence are usually offshoots of
structural violence ,with faults lines emerging between identity groups, defined by language
,religion, race, ethnicity, nationality, class, clan and area of origin. Tension can degenerate into
conflict through a variety of circumstances, such as struggle over resources, fractured or
predatory leadership, corruption or unresolved group grievances (The Fund for Peace, 2012).
Thus, the analysis of failed States can be subsumed under (a) social and economic indicators (b)
political and military indicators according (ibid). First, these criteria for analysis lend support to
the pre-conditions for peacefulness as earlier identified by Miller (2005) and stated in this paper.
Second, the criteria practically reflect on a case study from sub-Saharan Africa where President
William Tolbert failed to accord equal status to the countrys sixteen ethnic groups? Tolbert,
ensured that American-Liberians alone dominated the politics and economy of the country, and
this led to his overthrown by Samuel Doe, a krahn in 1979. Sadly enough, Doe never learnt from
the failure of Tolbert, he gave all top political and military positions to his khran ethnic group; to
the marginalization of others especially the Gio and Mino ethnic groups who eventually
constituted the bulk of force of Charles Taylors National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL)

14

which ousted Doe from power after months of bloody civil War (Ofuatey-Kodjoe, 1994 as cited
in Modo et.al., 2005).
However, by economic indicator, Shocks and stresses rocked the international system
over the last five years. As food crisis swept the globe in 2008 sparking violence and political
turmoil from the Caribbean to Southeast Asia (The Fund for Peace, 2012). This was followed in
2009 by the worst global economic downturn since World War II. Then the earthquake in Haiti
and the flooding in Pakistan and in 2010 was the second most deadly year since the 1980s for
natural disasters. 2011 was the most costly ever recorded, as a result of the earthquake and
tsunami in Japan and a contagion of democracy and civil war was unleashed across North Africa
and the Middle East, inspiring populist movements all over the world (ibid). Within the Political
and Military Indicators, the region that had the most increase in pressure was the Middle East
and North Africa with the Arab Spring. Economic and democratic populism drove millions into
the streets overturning regimes, triggering insurrections and violent crackdowns and beyond the
Arab world; protesters were inspired by the model in places as far as Russia and the United
States (ibid). Within the Social Indicators, the region that underwent the most worsening of
pressure was Southern Africa. Between 2007 and 2011, Mozambique experienced violent
protests over rising food prices and in 2008 Mozambique and Zambia experienced devastating
floods. (ibid) In South Africa, as the economy derailed, xenophobic violence broke out against
migrants in the townships causing thousands to flee home to the neighboring countries of
Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi. HIV/AIDs continue to ravage the populations of most
countries in the region (ibid).
The Table 1 below shows the pressure on the world by failed States Index,
2007-2012
15

Top 10 most Improved Country


Worsened Country
Country

Top 10 Most

2012
score
77.4

CHAN
GE
-10.1

Country

Turkmenistan

2007
Score
87.5

Libya

2007
Score
69.3

2012
Score
84.9

-8.6

Japan

28.5

43.5

52.0

-7.9

Senegal

66.9

79.3

111.4

104.3

-7.1

Yemen

93.2

104.8

Brunei

71.2

64.1

-7.1

88.8

99.2

Moldovia
Antigua

85.5
65.7

78.7
58.9

-7.0
-6.8

33.8
57.4

43.5
66.8

-6.7
-6.6

Guinea
Bissau
Chile
South
Africa
Eritrea
Italy

Chan
ge
+15.
6
+15.
0
+12.
4
+11.
6
+10.
4
+9.7
+9.4

Belarus

84.2

76.6

Barbados

59.9

Iraq

85.5
37.1

94.5
45.8

+9.0
+8.7

-6.6

Tunisia

65.6

74.2

+8.6

Germany
38.4
31.7
BosniaHerzego 84.5
77.9
vina
Lebanon
92.4
85.5
Source: The fund for Peace, 2012

Note: The lesser the score the better the condition

Analysis of Global Peace: Global Peace Index


Table 2 below shows the comparative scores of Sub-Saharan Africa to other regions
on selected indicators, 2012

Region

Sub-Saharan Africa
Asia
Central African Republic

PERCEPTIO
N
Of
Criminality

Deaths
from
Internal
Conflict

Politic
al
Terror
Scale

Relation
with
Neighbori
ng State

3.53
2.97
2.86

1.39
1.60
1.07

3.09
3.00
2.19

2.45
2.46
2.55

16

Access
to
Small
Arms
and
Light
Weapon
s
3.71
2.72
3.07

Latin America
3.67
Middle East and North 3.31
Africa
North America
2.00
Western Europe
2.33
Global Average
3.14
Source: The Institute for Economic and

1.30
1.72

2.63
3.03

1.85
3.00

3.49
3.06

1.00
2.00
1.00
1.28
1.33
2.59
Peace (IEP), 2012

1.75
1.17
2.28

2.50
1.94
3.11

Note: the lower the score, the better the Peace condition
The Sub Saharan Africa has all its scores above the global average on the
selected indicators with three of the indicators having scores above 3.00 except for
death from internal conflict and relation with neighboring state with scores 1.39 and
2.45 respectively. This finding signals an obvious series of direct violence in the
region in 2012.The sub-Saharan Africa and North America have their highest score
on access to Small Arms and Light weapons 3.71 and 2.50 and a differential of 0.6
higher and 0.61 lesser respectively when compared with the global average. In fact,
North America and Western Europe have all their scores on the selected indicators
bellow the global average scores. This is a clear indication that these two regions
enjoy relative peace when compared with other regions of the globe in 2.012. More
so, death rate recorded in this regions as a result of lethal violence between 2004
to 2009 was less than 3 per 100,000 (GBVA,2011) . Asia has its highest and lowest
scores on Political terror scale and death from internal conflict with 3.00 and 1.60
respectively. Only on one of the five indicators (perception of criminality) is Asias
score below the global average. The Middle East and North Africa scored from 3.00
and above on the selected indicators except for deaths from internal conflict (1.72).
Besides, the scores of the four indicators from between 3.00 and above are equally
above the global average scores. This finding suggests that the region is volatile
and riddled with direct violence in 2012. In fact, Iraq had a violent death rate of 59.4

17

per 100,000 in 2004 to 2009 when compared to most Countries in Europe, with less
than 3 per 100,000 from lethal violence (GBAV, 2011).
The Central African Republic has its lowest score on death from internal
conflict with a differential score of 0.26 below global average score 1.33 when
compared. Latin America has the highest score on the indicator (perception of
criminality) 3.67 and a differential of 0.53 when compared with global average score
(3.14).This finding gives support to the hypothesis that the region is riddled with
illicit drug trade by multinational industries run by criminal organizations such as
the Sicilian Mafia also known as Cosa Nostra, the Yardies of Jamaica and the drug
cartel

in

Colombia

.Besides,

Jamaica,

Honduras,

Colombia,

Venezuela

and

Guatemala all had violent death rate above 43 per 100,000 (GBAV,2011)

Table 3 below shows the change in Global Peace scores on qualitative


and quantitative indicators, 2009-2012
Qualitative Indicators

2009
18

2012

Chang

Political Terror Scale


Military Capability /Sophistication
Ease Access to Small Arms and Light Weapons
Relations with neighboring Countries
Political Instability
Level of organized Conflict (internal)
Level of Violent Crime
Perceptions of Criminality in Society
Likelihood of Violent Demonstrations
Quantitative Indicators
Estimated Number of Death from Organized conflict
(external)
Number of Armed Services Personnel per 100,000
people
Military Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP
UN Peace Keeping Fund
Volume of Transfers of Major Conventional Weapons as
Supplies (exports) per 100,000 people
Number of External and Internal Conflict Fought
Number of Displaced People as a percentage of
population
Number of Homicide per 100,000 People
Number of Jailed Population per 100,000 People
Number of Internal Security Officers and Police per
100,000
People
Number of Deaths from Organized Conflict (internal)

2.69
2.58
3.08
2.27
2.45
2.32
2.63
3.00
2.72

2.60
2.57
3.09
2.28
2.50
2.42
2.76
3.14
2.94

e
-0.09
-0.01
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.10
0.13
0.14
0.22

43.23

13.08

-30.15

479.4
2
2.60
1.30
1.71

463.2
3
1.87
1.36
1.78

-16.18

0.78
0.44

0.93
1.20

0.15
0.76

4.83
152.9
7
326.2
9

10.09
160.9
1
160.9
1

5.26
7.94

781.9
0

818.9
7

37.08

-0.73
0.05
0.08

7.94

Source: The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), 2012


Note: the lesser the score, the Peaceful the condition
From the table above, scores of the majority of the indicators worsened in the
last four years. The political terror scale and the military capability/sophistication
indices reveal a better situation when compared to 2009 the base year with
differential scores of-0.09 and -0.01 respectively. This, possibly suggest that political
terrorism has reduced in the last 4 years and that the strategic approach to it by the
security apparatuses of nations of the global world has been commendable and
19

promising. Other indicators aside this two in regard to qualitative assessment


reveals a worsen situation, each indicators score rose within the range of (0.01 to
0.22).This perhaps suggest that institutions of nations of the global world are weak
and more likely to have experienced intense structural violence, especially when
Human Rights are violated or evenly unprotected. Similarly, social contract might
have been weakened by the various competing groups wherein, the States could
not meet the internal domestic obligations to its citizenry

necessitating the

interventions of external actors to provide services and manipulate internal affairs


of some nations in the last four years.
The quantitative indicators reveal that estimated number of deaths from
organized crime (external). The number of armed service personnel per 100,000
people and military expenditure as a percentage of GDP was favorable in the last
four years with their scores differentials ranging from (-30.15 to -0.73). This
indicators support the inference made from the political terror scale and military
capability and sophistication. Other indicators reveal a deteriorating pre-condition
for peace in the last four years. For instance, the differential in the number of
deaths from organized conflict (internal) as compared with external reveals a
mismatch (37.08 and -30.15), the former being negative and the latter being
positive. This also supports the earlier assertion that a prevailing structural
violence is inherent in some nations of the world in the last four years.

20

Conclusion
This paper concludes that modern civilization is technologically driven and is
moving to a phase that Ray Kurzweil termed Technological Singularity of Artificial
Intelligence that will outsmart humanity in all sphere of life and perhaps the first
cloned human may appear. Morality is compatible with technology of modern
civilization because mankind is the architect of technology. Technology only exists
where and when there is a society, the removal of morality from society is to
destroy it and society will cease to exist. Morality and society therefore have the
same foundation and consequently, they are inseparable. Neither can one exist
without the other, as Albert Schweitzer (1961:76) aptly wrote Prosperity of a
society depends on the moral dispensation of its members
Technology of modern civilization is a blessing to humanity because the
culture comes along with Universal Moral Laws that are embedded with
responsibility that goes inseparable with freedom and inviolable dignity of every
man by the fact of being a human being. More so, is self discipline at the expense of
sensual pleasure; therefore, a low degree of morality in humanity with regard to the
utilization of technology is a cog in the wheel of progress, development and Peace.
The status of global Peace in the wake of the 21 st century has been
calamitous. Lethal violence, terrorism, intentional Homicide increased from the year
2000 up to 2008 (See GBAV, 2011) and from 2009 to 2012 global peace has been
21

fairly improved.

Overall, and by regional overview, Western Europe remains

markedly the most peaceful region, majority of the Countries of the region ranked in
the Top 20. (See GPI Index 2012) Although as a region they had both political and
economic pressures. This is followed by North America; Central and Eastern Europe.
The paper suggests moral revolution within the context of Universal values. Further,
the culture of peace should be assimilated by all and sundry and sustained by the
political apparatuses of governments of the global world by strengthening of the
social institutions.
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