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RECAPITULARE

1. Pronumele negativ no, nobody, nothing:

I have no time now. - Acum nu am timp.

Nobody came to visit us. - Nu a venit nimeni sa ne viziteze.

I have nothing. - Nu am nimic.

2. There is/there are:

There is a car in the street. - Este 0 ma~ina in strada.

There are some dogs in the garden. - Sunt cativa caini in gradina.

3. Prepozitia for exprima durata actiunii:

I haven't seen him for a week. - Nu I-am vazut de 0 saptamana.

Prepozitia since indica momentul din trecut in care a inceput actiunea:

She hasn't met him since last year. - Ea nu s-a intalnit cu el de anul trecut.

4. Constructiile as... as ~i not so... as folosite pentru compararea obiectelor sau a persoanelor:

as... as - Ia feI, a~a de, ... tot a~a de


(in propozitie afirmativa)
not so... as - nu a~a... ca ~i (in propozitie
negativa), nu atat

My car is as expensive as yours. - M~ina mea este Ia fel de scumpa ca ~i a tao


He is not as old as me. - Nu e a~a de batran ca mine.
Nu are aceea~i varsta ca mine.
LECTIA
, 17 PARTEA INTA.I

Sa incepem lectia cu setul de cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i urmariti


traducerea lor in limba romiina:

job > [djob] - munca, ocupatie, slujba

wages > [Ueidjiz] - salariu

raise > [reiz] - marire, cre~tere


(a salariului)

labourer > [lelbaraf ] - muncitor


unemployment > [animploimant] - ~omaJ

colleague > [koli:g] - coleg

trade-union > [treid iu:nian] - sindicat

member > [membar] - membru

negotiations > [nigau~iei~anz] - negocieri

employee > [emploii:] - angajat, salariat

strike > [straik] - greva

management > [mEnidjmant] - conducere, administratie

Sa exersam acelea~i cuvinte, dar intr-o alta ordine:

strike > [straik] - greva

member > [membar ] - membru

raIse > [reiz] - marire, cre~tere


(a salariului)

unemployment > [animploimant] - ~omaJ

wages > [Ueidjiz] - salariu

job > [djob] - munca, ocupatie, slujba

management > [mEnidjmant] - conducere, administratie

trade-union > [treid iu:nian] - sindicat

employee > [emploii:] - angajat, salariat

labourer > [lelbara T


] - muncitor

negotiations > [nigau~iei~anz] - negocieri

colleague > [koli:g] - coleg

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lata cuvintele noi in propozitii:

I have many colleagues. >[ai hEv meni koli:gz] - Am multi colegi.

The negotiations will be >[DZa nigau~iei~anz uil bi: - Negocierile vor fi maine.
tomorrow. tamorau]

We are waiting for >[Ui: a:' Ueitin(g) fo: r - A~teptam conducerea.


the management. DZa mEnidjmant]

He has lost his job. >[hi: hEz lost hiz djob] - El ~i-a pierdut slujba.

The employees want to talk. >[DZa emploii:z Uont tu to:k] - Salariatii vor sa vorbeasca.

I got a raise yesterday. > [ai got a reiz iestardei] - Ieri am primit 0 marire de salariu.

He is a member of >[hi: iz a memM' av - EI este membru de sindicat.


a trade-union. a treid iu:nian]

We have great >[Ui: hEv greit - In Romania ~omajul


unemployment in Romania. animploimant in ru:meinia] este foarte mare.

They are talking about >[ DZei a: r to:kin lg ) abaut - Ei vorbesc despre
the last strike. DZa la:st straik] ultima greva.

Do you think my wages >[ du iu: TSm(g)k mal Ueidjiz - Crezi ca salariul meu
are high? a.' hai] este mare?

Is he a labourer m >[ iz hi: a lelbara r in - El este muncitor in


this factory? DZis fEktari] aceasta fabrica?

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Ai ve~ti despre greva? - Have you the news about the >strike?

~tiu despre aceste negocieri. - I know about these >negotiations.

Iti place munca ta? - Do you like your :::job?

Anul trecut am avut mai multi membri. - Last year we had more >members.

Ei obtin in fiecare an 0 marire de salariu. - They get a >raise every year.

Colegii mei rna vor ajuta intotdeauna. - My :::colleagues will always help me.

Ce ~tii despre ~omajul din tara ta? - What do you know about
:::unemployment in your country?

Peste 0 luna salariile noastre vor fi mai mario - In a month our >wages will be higher.

Administratia fabricii noastre este - The :::management of our factory is


foarte buna. very good.

Toti muncitorii au ~edinta miercuri. - All >labourers have a meeting on Wednesday.

Toti angajatii tai au familie? - Have all your ::oemployees families?

E~ti membru al acestui sindicat? - Are you a member of this :>trade-union?

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Traduceti in limba engleza noile cuvinte:

munca, slujba > job

coleg > colleague

angajat > employee

salariu > wages

conducere > management

membm > member

muncitor > labourer

> unemployment

sindicat > trade-union

salariu > wages

negocieri > negotiations

greva > strike

marire a salariului > raIse

administratie > management

Gramatica lecfiei se referii la utilizarea timpului trecut perfect (Past Perfect Tense). Acest timp se
folose~tepentru a descrie 0 aCfiune care s-a desfii~urat inaintea unei alte aCfiuni trecute, aceasta din
urmii exprimiindu-se cu timpul Simple Past (trecutul simplu). Complementele circumstanfiale utilizate
cu Past Perfect Tense sunt:

after > [a:ftaf] - dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce,


ulterior

before > [bifo: f] - inainte de, inaintea, dinaintea

Urmiirifi structura propozifiei:

Subiect + verb auxiliar + forma a Ill-a +


a verbului principal

She had read this book ...

They had built the house...

lata cum este folosit Past Perfect Tense in propozitii:

I had eaten breakfast before >[ai hEd Un brekfast bifo: f - Am luat micul dejun inainte
I went to work. ai Uent tu ua:fk] de a merge la lucm.

After the employees had got >[a:fta f DZi emploii:z hEd got - Dupa ce salariatii au obtinut 0
a raise they started to work. a reiz DZei sta:ftid tu ua:fk] marire de salariu, au inceput
sa lucreze.

4
Before I visited my mother > [bifo: f ai vizitid mai maDZa f - Inainte de a 0 vizita pe mama
I had bought her flowers. al hEd bo:t ha: f tlauih] i-am cumparat flori.

She went to bed after she > Uent tu bed a:fta r


[~j: ~i: - Ea s-a dus 1a culcare dupa ce
had watched that film. hEd Uot;;t DZEt film] s-a uitat la filmul acela.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Inainte de a cumpara aceasta ma~ina am lucrat > Before I bought this car I had worked
mult timp intr-o banca. in a bank for a long time.

Dupa ce s-a intors acasa el a mancat > After he had returned home he ate
ni~te paine. some bread.

Am i'ncercat aceasta haina inainte > I had tried on this coat before
de a 0 cumpara. I bought it.

Ea a inceput sa se ingrijoreze dupa ce > She started to worry after


a primit aceasta scrisoare. she had got this letter.

lata acum cateva verbe noi. Retineti traducerea lor:

to negotiate > [tu nigau~ielt] - a negocia, a duce tratative

to raise >[tureiz] - a spori, a mari

to apply for > [tu apJai fo:f] - a cere, a solicita

to earn > [tu a:fn] - a ca~tiga (bani prin munca)

to reduce > [tu ridiu:s] - a reduce, a mic~ora

to fire > [ttl faia f] - a concedia

Sa exersam verbele ~i intr-o alta ordine:

to apply for > [tu aplai fo:f] - a cere, a solicita

to reduce > [tu ridiu:s] - a reduce, a mic~ora

to fire > [tu faia f] - a concedia

to negotiate > [tu nigau~ieit] - a negocia, a duce tratative

to earn > [tua:fn] - a ca~tiga (bani prin munca)

to raise > [tu reiz] - a spori, a mari

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Sa introducem nOlle verbe in propozitii:

I think we must raise > [az Pin(g)k Ui: mast relz - Cred ca trebuie sa marim
wages. Ueidjlz] salariile.

Yes, our employees have > [ies aua r emploli:z hEy - Da, salariatii no~tri au solicitat
already applied for this. o:lredl aplaid fo:' DZls] deja asta.

They say they earn to little. > [DZei sei DZei a:rn tu: Utl] - Ei spun ca ei cii~tiga prea
putini bani.

We will negotiate It > [Ui: ull nigau~ieit it - Yom negocia asta cu ei.
with them. uiDz DZEm]

The management wants > [DZa mEllld]mant Uonts - Conducerea vrea


to fire a hundred of them. tu faia r a handnd ov DZem] sa concedieze 0 suta dintre ei.

But remember we must > [bat rimemba l 1I 1: mast - Aminte~te-ti insa ca trebuie
reduce unemployment. ridiu:s animplollnant] sa reducem ~omajul.

How can we do it If they > [hau kEn lIi: du: it if DZei - Cum putem sa facem asta daca
want to fire people? lIont tu fala r pi:pl] ei vor sa concedieze oameni?

Completati urmatoarele propozitii cu verbele corespunzatoare:

Inainte de a reduce ~omajul ei au construit - Before they> reduced unemployment they


fabrici noi. had built new factories.

Ne vor mari salariile? - Will they > raise our wages?

Cati muncitori au concediat deja? - How many labourers have they already
> fired?

Inainte de a solicita 0 slujba noua, - Before I > applied for a new job
am lucrat intr-un birou. I had worked in an office.

Ei ca~tiga mai putin decat parintl1 no~tri? - Do they> earn less than our parents?

Nu vom negocia aici. - We will not> negotIate here.

Sii vedem cum se jormeazii interogativul $i negativulla Past Perfect Tense.

Propozitia interogativii se jormeazii prin inversarea ordinii subiectului $i a verbului auxiliar:

They had been here before I came.

Had they been here before I came? > [hEd DZei bi:n hia r bifo: r ai keim]

He had bought a book before he went home.

Had he bought a book before he went home? > [hEd hi: bo:t a buk bifo: 1 hi: lIent haum]

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Riispunslll ajirmativ seformeazii cu ajlltorul adverbului yes, alpronumeluipersonal $i al verbului auxiliar
had. Nega!ia se compune din: cuwintul no, pronumele personal, verbul auxiliar had $i adverbul not.

Structura had not poatejiprescurtatii hadn't [hEdnt].

lata cateva exemple:

Had you been here before I came?

Yes, I had. > lies ai hEd]

No, I had not. > [nau ai hEd not]

No, I hadn't. > [nau ai hEdnt]

Had he written the letter before he went to the post-office?

Yes, he had. > lies hi: hEd]

No, he had not. > [nau hi: hEd not]

No, he hadn't. > [nau hi: hEdnt]

In exerci!iul urmator formulati intrebari, raspunsuri afirmative ~i negative la urmatoarele propozi!ii:

They had seen this film before > Had they seen this film before
we visited them. we visited them?
- Yes, >they had.
- No, >they hadn't.

He had been in England before he returned. > Had he been in England before he returned?
- Yes, >he had.
- No, >he hadn't.

They had applied for the job before > Had they applied for the job before
I started to work there. I started to work there?
- Yes, >they had.
- No, >they hadn't.

Construc!ia negativii hadn't se poate folosi $i in propozi!ii afirmative:

They hadn't seen Mary before > [DZei hEdnt si:n meari - Ei n-au vazut-o pe Maria inainte
she visited them. bifo:' ~i: vizitId DZem] ca ea sa-i fi vizitat.

They hadn't known > [DZei hEdnt naun abaut - Nu au ~tiut despre asta inainte
about it before I told them. it bifo:' ai told DZem] ca eu sa Ie fi spus.

Traduce!i urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Ai fost aici inainte de a se intampla asta? > Had you been here before it happened?

Dupa ce m-am sculat m-am dus in bucatarie. > After I had got up I went to the kitchen.

7
Nu am vazut acest tablou inainte de a sosi aici. > I hadn't seen this picture before I arrived here

Ai incercat sa negociezi inainte ca ei > Had you tried to negotiate before


sa te concedieze? they fired you?

Dupa ce administratia le-a marit salariile, > After the management had raised wages
angajatii au fost foarte bucuro~i. the employees were very glad.

Nu m-am gandit la asta inainte sa fi citit > I hadn't thought about it before I read
aceasta carte. this book.

Sa invatam alte ciiteva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie:

contents > [kontents] - cuprins, continut

oats > [auts] -ovaz

proceeds > [prousl:dz] - cii~tig (dintr-o activitate)

riches > [rit~iz] - avere, bogatie

thanks > [TSEn(g)ks] - multumiri, recuno~tinta

surroundings > [saraundin(glz] - imprejurimi, vecinatate

savings > [seivin(glz] - economii (bani economisiti)

Cuvintele invatate anterior sunt la plural, la fel ca ~i cuviintul wages pe


care il cunoa~tem deja.

Repetati cuvintele noi intr-o ordine diferita:

proceeds > [prousi:dz] - cii~tig (dintr-o activitate)


contents > [kontents] - cuprins, continut
thanks > [TSEn(glks] - multumiri, recuno~tinta

surroundings > [saraundin(glz] - imprejurimi, vecinatate


oats > [auts] - ovaz
savings > [seivin(glz] - economii (bani economisiti)
riches > [rit~iz] - avere, bogatie

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Unde este cuprinsul acestei carti? > Where are the contents of this book?

Cailor Ie place sa manance ovaz. > Horses like to eat oats.

Ce cii~tig anual ai? > What proceeds have you every year?

Imi tin economiile acasa. > I keep my savings at home.

Cum ~i-a cii~tigat el averea? > How has he earned his riches?

8
Le-am transmis multumirile mele. > I gave them my thanks.

Imprejurimile sunt frumoase. > These are nice surroundings.

Iar acum sa recapitulam aceasta parte a lectiei rezolvand urmatorul exercitiu. Traduceti propozitiile
In limba engleza:

Te-ai Intalnit deja cu salariatii noi? > Have you already met the new employees?

Inainte de a-I cunoa~te pe John am lucrat cu Peter. > Before I met John I had worked with Peter.

Continutul acestei cutii este interesant. > The contents of this box are interesting.

Negocierile vor fi foarte dificile, dar trebuie > The negotiations will be very difficult, but
sa obtinem marirea salariilor. we must get a raise.

EI a cumparat 0 casa noua dupa ce a Inceput > He bought a new house after he had started
sa cii~tige mai mult. to earn more.

EI ca~tiga prea putin ca sa ~i economiseasca. > His earns too little to have savings.

Ai mai lucrat Inainte de-a solicita > Have you ever worked before you applied
aceasta slujba? for this job?

Muncitorii no~tri sunt membri > Our labourers have been members of a
ai sindicatului de cinci ani. trade-union for five years.

Dupa greva conducerea a concediat > After the strike the management fired
multi angajati. many employees.

Trebuie sa facem ceva ca sa reducem > We must do something to reduce


~omajui. unemployment.

"I keep my savings at home."

9
LECTIA
, 17 - PARTEA A DOUA

Sa continuam lectia invat1ind 0 serie de cuvinte noi legate de cumparaturi.


Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie:

supermarket > [su:parma:rkit] - supermarket


trolley > [troli] - carucior
customer > [kastamaT] - cumparator, client
shop-assistant > [~op asistant] ::.. vanzator, vanzatoare
receipt > [risi:t] - chitanta
shopping-list > [~opin(g) list] - lista de cumparaturi
cash-desk > [kE~ desk] - casa (lntr-un magazin)
shop-window > [~op Uindau] - vitrina
exit > [egzit] - ie~ire

bargain > [ba:Tgin] - vanzare la un pret


favorabil, chilipir,
afacere
discount > [diskaunt] - reducere de preturi
sales > [seilz] - vanzare, reduceri,
vanzarea soldurilor
shopping-bag > [~opin(g) bEg] - saco~a de cumparaturi

lar acum recititi cuvintele cu voce tare, intr-o alta ordine:

shopping-list > [~opin(g) list] - lista de cumparaturi


shop-window > [~op Uindau] - vitrina
supermarket > [su:parma:'kit] - supermarket
sales > [seilz] - vanzare, reduceri,
vanzarea soldurilor
exit > [egzit] - ie~ire

bargain > [ba:rgin] - vanzare la un pret


favorabil, chilipir,
afacere
shopping-bag > [~opin(g) bEg] - saco~a de cumparaturi
discount > [diskaunt] - reducere de preturi
receipt > [risi:t] - chitanta
customer > [kastamaT] - cumparator, client
shop-assistant > [~op asisUint] - vanzator, vanzatoare
cash-desk > [kE~ desk] - casa (intr-un magazin)
trolley > [troli] - carucior

10
Sa folosim cuvintele noi in propozitii:

Have you already been > [hEy iu: o:lredl bi:n - Ai fost deja in
in the new supermarket? in DZa niu: su:pa'ma:'kit] noul supermarket?

Yes, they have a lot of > [ies DZei hEy a lot av - Da, au foarte
customers there. kastama'z DZea'] multi cumparatori.

You can take a trolley > [iu: kEn teik a troli - Poti sa iei un camcior
in this supermarket. in DZis su.pa'ma:'kit] in acest supermarket.

Oh, yes. And they often > [au ies End DZei ofn - Da. ~i au des reduceri.
have sales. hEy seilz]

Yesterday I bought a lot of > [iesta'del al bo:t a lot av - leri am cumparat 0 multime
things at discount. T'in(g)z Et diskaunt] de lucruri la pret redus.

It was a great bargain. > [it "oz a greit ba:'gin] - A fost 0 adevarata afacere.

My shopping-bag was full, > [mai ~opin(g) bEg U az ful - Saco~a mea era plina
and I didn't spend End ai didnt spend ~inu am cheltuit
too much money. tu: mat~ mani] prea multi bani.

And the shop-assistants are > [End DZa ~op asistants a:' - ~i viinzatorii sunt gata
always ready to help you. o:lueiz redl tu help iu:] intotdeauna sa te ajute.

You can always get a receipt > [iu: kEn 0: IU eiz get a risi:t - Poti obtine intotdeauna
at the cash-desk. Et DZa kE~ desk] o chitanta la casa.

You can also give the > [iu: kEn olsau giv DZa - Poti, de asemenea, sa-i dai
shop-assistant your ~op asistant 10:' viinzatoarei iista ta
shopping-list and wait ~opm(g) list End Ue1t de cumparaturi ~i
near the eXIt. nia' DZi egzlt] sa a~tepti liinga ie~ire.

She will bring you > [~I: ull brm igl IU - Ea iti va aduce
your shopping. 10:' ~opmlg)] cumparaturile.

And they always have > [End DZei 0:lue1z hEy - ~i au intotdeauna
beautiful shop-windows. biu:tifal ~op uindauz] vitrine minunate.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare:

Ciite case aveti in magazin? - How many >cash-desks have you


in the shop?

Imi place sa cumpar la viinzarea soldurilor. - I love to buy at >sales.

Caruciorul meu este plin. - My >trolley is full.

Am doar 0 saco~a pentru cumparaturi. - I have only one >shopping-bag.

11
Acest supermarket este cel mai bun - This >supennarket is the best
din ora~ul nostru. in our town.

Aici sunt patru ie~iri. - There are four >exits here.

Acest vanzator este foarte dragut. - This >shop-assistant is very nice.

Multi cumparatori pleaca acum. - Many >customers are leaving now.

Am pierdut chitanta. - I have lost the >recelpt.

Aceasta casa este la un pret foarte bun. - This house is a >bargain.

Ai facut deja !ista de cumparaturi? - Have you already made the >shopping-!ist?

In vitrina este un radio dragut. - There is a nice radio in the >shop-window.

Facem mari reduceri. - We give large >discounts.

Traduceti in !imba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte:

vanzare la pret favorabil, afacere > bargain


saco~a (de cumparaturi) > shopping-bag
vitrina > shop-wmdow
vanzator, vanzatoare > shop-assistant
le~lre > exit
!ista de cumparaturi > shopping-hst
reducere de preturi > discount
carucior > trolley
vanzarea soldurilor, reduceri > sales
cumparator > customer

12
chitanta > receipt

casa (lntr-un magazin) > cash-desk

supermarket > supermarket

Desigur vd mai amintili de pronumele some (catva, cativa, ceva, ni~te, unii, putin):

I have some books. - Am citeva carti.

I have some sugar. - Am ceva zahar.

La forma negativa ~i interogativa in locullui some se folose~te pronumele


any[cm].

Acest pronume se folose~te in urmatoarele cazuri: la singular ~i la plural,


cu substantive care au plural ~i cu cele care nu au forma la plural ~i in
propozitii interogative ~i negative (in unele cazuri ~i in cele afirmative).

lata cateva exemple:

Have you any bread at home? > [hEv iu: eni bred Et haum] - Ai (ni~te) paine acasa?

Has she any coffee? > [hEz ~l: eni kofi] - Ea are (ni~te) cafea?

Have they any children? > [hEv DZCl eni tsildran] - Au copii?

Have we any tea at home? > [hEv lli: eni ti: Et haum] - Avem (ni~te) ceai acasa?

in limba eng/ezd pronumele any nu poate fi omis din propoziliile interogative. in limba romtinii
traducerea acestui cuviint nu este necesarii. Uneori se traduce totu$i, mai ales ciind se referii la
cantitiiti miCl (vezi exemplele anterioare).

Puneti la forma mterogativa urmiHoarele propozitii:

He saw some cars. > Did he see any cars?

My parents have some friends. > Have my parents any friends?

Her sister has some good books. > Has hcr sister any good books?

Mary has some customers in her shop. > Has Mary any customers in her shop?

Dacd rdspundem afirmativ la intrebarea in care apare pronumele any, atunci riispunsul poate
cuprinde: a lot of, some, a little, a few ~i/sau alte pronume care fac referire la cantitate.

Have you any receipts? Yes, I have some. - Da, am cateva.

Has she any milk? Yes, she has a little. - Da, (ea) are putin.

Have they any cars? Yes, they have a lot of cars. - Da, au 0 multime de ma~ini.

Have you any trolleys? Yes, we have a few. - Da, avem cateva.

13
Daca raspunsul este negativ, atunci putem folosi doua constructii:

Have you any - No, I haven't any - No, I have no - Nu am chitanta.


receipts? receipts. receipts.

Have you any time? - No, I haven't any - No, I have no time. - Nu am timp.
time.

Have they any - No, they haven't - No, they have - Nu au bani.
money? any money. no money.

Nu uitati ca not any ~i no inseamna acela~i lucru - a nu avea deloc.

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza. In cazul negatiilor folositi ambele forme:

Au cativa caini. > They have some/a few dogs.

Nu avem tablouri (nici un tablou). > We haven't any pictures.


> We have no pictures.

Ai caini? > Have you any dogs?

Nu vad oameni aici (pe nimeni). > I see no people here.


> I don't see any people here.

Am putin unt. > I have some/a little butter.

Nu cunosc dactilografe (nici 0 dactilograili). > I know no typists.


> I don't know any typists.

lata alte cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie:

important > [impo:'tant] - important, semnificativ

satisfied (with) > [sEtisfaid] - satisilicut, multumit (de)

hardly > [ha:'dli] - abia, mai deloc, prea putin

hardly any > [ha:ldli eni] - abia, putin/un pic

hardly ever > [h a r dII e\ alJ - nu prea, mai niciodata, foarte rar

true > [tru ] - adevarat

even > [i \ n] - chiar, pana ~i, nici macar

How much is ... ? > [h,ll! ll1at~ IZ] - Cat costa... ?

cash > [kE~] - bani gheata, bani in numerar

unskilled > [anskild] - necalificat

useful > [iu:sfal] - folositor

14
Acum repetati cuvintele intr-o ordine diferita:

true > [tnt:] - adevarat

unskilled > [anskild] - necalificat


hardly ever > [ha:fdli evaf] - nu prea, mai niciodata, foarte rar

useful > [iu:sfal] - folositor

How much is ... ? > [hau mat~ iz] - Cit costa... ?

hardly any > [ha:fdh eni] - abia, putin/un pic


satisfied (with) > [sEtisfaid] - satisfacut, multumit (de)
even > [i:vn] - chiar, pfma ~i, nici macar
hardly > [ha:'dli] - abia (daca), mai deloc, prea putin
important > [impo:'tant] - important, semnificativ

cash > [kE~] - bani gheata, bani in numerar

Adverbul hardly exprima 0 negatie. De aceea, alaturi de el nu se folose~te


alt cuvant de negatie:

I have hardly any friends. - Abia daca mai am vreun prieten.

Sa mtroducem cuvintele noi in propozitii:

How much is this clock? > [hau mat~ iz DZis klok] - Cat costa acest ceas?

Were all customers >["a:f 0:1 kastama'z - Au fost satisfacuti toti


satisfied? sEtlsfald] consumatorii?

I am hardly ever III thIS > [al Em haofdil e\ a' III DZis - Vin foarte rar in acest
shop. :'l'p J magazm.

Is that story true? >[IZ DIEt sto n tru.] - Este adevarata povestea aceea?

He always buys useful > [hI: oYelz balz IU sfal - EI cumpara intotdeauna
things. Pm,glz] lucruri utile.

There is hardly any salt. > [DZea' iz ha:'dlJ em so:lt] - Nu este sare mai deloc.

This car is even cheaper. > [DZis ka:' iz i:vn t~i:paf] - Aceasta ma~ina este chiar
mai ieftina.

You must pay in cash. > [iu: mast pei in kE~] - Trebuie sa plate~ti cu bani gheata.

They will fire ten unskilled > [DZei Uil faia' ten anskil - Vor concedia zece muncitori
labourers. leibarafz] necalificati.

I have hardly any money. > [ai hEy ha:'dli cni mani] - Abia daca mai am ceva bani.

Retineti urmatoarea expresie:


to pay in cash - a plati cu bani gheata,
a plati in numerar

15
Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

E~ti multumit de locul tau de munca? - Are you >satisfied with your job?

Toata lumea spline ca este 0 poveste adevarata. - Everybody says it is a >true story.

Cat costa aceasta bicicleta? - > How much is this bicycle?

Nici macar nu I-au concediat. - They didn't >even fire him.

Nu vrem angajati necalificati. - We don't want >unskilled employees.

Platim intotdeauna cu bani gheata. - We always pay >m cash.

Este foarte important pentru mine. - It is very >important for me.

Ea nu a vorbit mai deloc. - She >hardly spoke.

Nu merg aproape niciodata la meciuri. - I >hardly ever go to matches.

Traduceti urmatoarele expresii in limba engleza:

foarte putinl un pic > hardly any


util > useful
important > Important
abia, mai deloc > hardly
Cat costa... ? > How much is ... ?
necalificat > unskilled
mai niciodata > hardly ever
satisIacut (de) > satisfied with
adevarat > true

pana ~i > even


bani gheata > cash

Acum sa fnVli{am formele compuse ale pronumelui some:

something - ceva

somebody >[sambadi] - cineva

somewhere - undeva

lata cateva exemple:

I have something to tell you. > [ai hEy samTsin(g) tll tel iu:] - Am ceva sa-ti spun.

It must be somewhere. > [It mast bi: samUea'] - Trebuie sa fie undeva.

Somebody is standing > [sambadl 1Z stEndin{g) - Cineva sm langa


near our car. ma' aua' ka:'] ma~ina noastra.

16
in propozi!iile interogative in locullui some se folosesc formele compuse ale pronumelui any:

Do you know anybody here? > [ du IU: nau enibadi hia r ] - Cuno~ti pe eineva aici?

Did he give you anything? > [did hi: giv iu: eniTSm(g)] - Ti-a dat eeva?

Do you see Mary anywhere? > [du iu: si: meari eniUeaf ] - 0 vezi undeva pe Maria?

Dacii riispunsul este negativ, atunci folosim formele compuse ale cuvdntului any, iar verbul din
propozi/ie va ji la forma negativii. Cdnd folosim formele compuse ale lui no, atunci verbul va ji la
forma ajirmativii. Nu uitali cii in limba englezii nu existii dub Iii negalie.

Sa exemplifieam explieatia anterioara:

Do you know anybody here?


No, I don'(know anybody > [nau al daunt nau enibadi
here. hlaf ]

No, I know' nobody here. > [nau ai nau naubadi hia r ] - Nu eunose pe nimeni aiei.

Did he give you anything?


No, he didn't give me > [nau hi: didnt glV mi:
anything. eniTSin(g)]

No, he gave me > [nau hi: geiv mi: - Nu mi-a dat nimie.
nothing. naTsm(g)]

Do you see Mary anywhere?


No, I don't see her > [nau ai daunt si: ha: f
anywhere. eniUear ]

No, I see her nowhere. > [nau ai si: ha: f nauUea r ] - Nu 0 vad nieaieri.

Traducetl in lImba engleza urmatoarele propozitii. Pentm propozitiile negative folositi ambele structuri:

Nu vreau sa \orbesc cu mmem. > 1 don't want to talk to anybody.


> I want to talk to nobody.

Le-ai vazut undeva pe aceste fete? > Have you seen these gIrls anywhere?

Nu-mi place de nimeni. > I don't like anybody.


> I like nobody.

Poate cineva sa plateasca cu bani gheata? > Can anybody pay in cash?

Sora mea este undeva in Anglia. > My sister is somewhere in England.

Acest om nu iube~te pe nimeni. > This man doesn't love anybody.


> This man loves nobody.

Ai intiilnit acolo pe cineva important? > DId you meet anybody important there?

17
Iar acum sa recapitulam intreaga lectie. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Colegii no~tri solicita 0 marire de salariu. > Our colleagues are applying for a raise.

Trebuie sa reducem ~omajulin Romania. > We must reduce unemployment in Romania.

Salariatii ~i conducerea se intalnesc maine > The employees and the management are
sa negocieze salariile. meeting tomorrow to negotiate wages.

Membrii sindicatului nostru ca~tiga mai mult. > The members of our trade-union earn more.

Cati muncitori au concediat in ultima vreme? > How many labourers have they recently fired?

Ai vazut ceva interesant in > Have you seen anything interesting


imprejurimi? in the surroundings?

Ca~tigullui este foarte mare. > His proceeds are very high.

Inainte de a cumpara aceasta carte > Before I bought this book I had asked
m-am interesat de continutul ei. about its contents.

Saptamana viitoare vor fi reduceri In > There will be sales in our


supermarketul nostru. supermarket next week.

Vei primi chitanta la casa. > You will get the receipt at the cash-desk.

Clientii no~tri sunt intotdeauna satisIacuti > Our clients are always satisfied
de cumparaturile avantajoase. with their bargains.

Inainte de a merge la cumparaturi am scris > Before I went shoppmg I had written
o lista de cumparaturi. a shopping-list.

Pot sa primesc 0 reducere? > Can I get a discount?

Ai ceas acasa? > Have you any clock at home?

Nu prea ascult muzica. > I hardly ever listen to music.

Cat costa aceasta fusta? > How much is this skirt?

Nu voi spune nimanui despre asta. > I won't tell anybody about it.

> I will tell nobody about it.

Dupa ce am inceput lucrul a venit John. > After I had started work John came.

Urmeaza un exercitiu de pronuntie. Literele accentuate din fiecare coloana desemneaza sunete identice:

[E] [0] [u:] [ei]


cash trolley true sales
cat job blue day
hat clock do pay
can sock boot say

18
RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI

17
17.1. The Past Perfect Tense - timpul trecut perfect

17.1. 1. Utilizare

II folosim in cazul a doua actiuni din trecut, pentru a indica actiunea care s-a petrecut
mai devreme. Acest timp indica faptul ca prima actiune s-a terminat deja. Cea de-a
doua actiune se exprima cu timpul Simple Past.

Complementele circumstantiale cel mai des utilizate alaturi de acest timp sunt:
after - dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce, ulterior
before - inainte, in fata, dinaintea

17.1.2. Constructia propozitiei:

subiect + verb + forma a III-a a +


auxiliar verbului principal
She had read this book ...
They had built the house ...

17.1 3. Formarea interogativului

Interog,ativul se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii subiectului ~i a verbului auxiliar:


,,~ \
They had been here before I came. - Had they been here before I came?

17.1.4. Raspunsuri afirmative ~i negative

Raspunsurile afirmative se alcatuiesc cu ajutorul adverbului "yes", a pronumelui


personal ~i a verbului auxiliar "had". Negatiile se formeaza cu ajutorul cuvantului
de negatie "no", a pronumelui personal, a verbului auxiliar "had" ~i a adverbului
"
"not.

Expresia "had not" se prescurteaza "hadn't":


Had you been here before I came? - Yes, I had.
- No, I had not.
- No, I hadn't.

17.1.5. Structura negativa "hadn't" se poate folosi ~i in propozitii afirmative:

They hadn't seen Mary before - Nu au vazut-o pe Maria inainte


she visited them. ca ea sa-i fi vizitat.

17.2. Urmatoarele cuvinte apar de obicei la plural:

contents - continut, cuprins


oats - ovaz
proceeds - ca~tig (dintr-o activitate)
riches - avere, bogatie
thanks - multumiri, recuno~tinta
surroundings - imprejurimi, vecinatate
savmgs - economii, bani pu~i de 0 parte
wages - salariu

19
17.3. "Some, any, no"

I have some books. - Am cateva carti.

I have some sugar. - Am cevalputin zahar.

In propozitiile interogative in locullui "some" folosim adverbul "any".

Acest adverb se folose~te alaturi de substantive care au sau nu au plural; atat la singular ~i
plural.

Have you any bread at home? - Ai acasa paine?

Has she any friends? - Ea are vreun prieten?

In cazul unui raspuns negativ, se folosesc doua structuri:

Have you any receipts? No, I haven't any receipts. - Nu, nu am chitante.
No, I have no receipts.

Retineti ca "not any" ~i "no" inseamna acela~i lucru "nici un, nici 0, a nu avea deloc".

17.4. Fonnele compuse ale lui "some, any, no"

something - ceva

somebody - cineva

somewhere - undeva

In propozitii interogative in locullui "some" folosim formele compuse ale lui "any":

Do you know anybody here? - Cuno~ti pe cineva aici?

In cazul unui raspuns negativ se folosesc fonnele compuse ale lui "any" iar verbul are fanna
negativa, sau formele compuse ale lui "no" ~i verbulla fonna afinnativa:

Do you know anybody No, I don't know - Nu cunosc pe nimeni aici.


here? anybody here.
No, I know nobody
here.

20
TEMA PENTRU ACASA 17

A. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana:

I. Have you read anything about that accident?

2. I had stopped smoking before I started to work in this office.

3. Before they fired the unskilled labourers they had talked to them.

4. Do you know the contents of this book?

5. Did you get a receipt at the cash-desk in that supermarket?

6. Do these shop-assistants get higher wages than the management?

B. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

1. Ce creZI despre fratele lui?

2. Ai ceva bani pu~i de 0 parte?

3. Nu am vazut pe nimeni in acest parc.

4. Inainte de a rna uita la film, am baut 0 cea~ca de cafea cu mama.

5. Pot gasi oriunde asemenea farfurii?

6. Cineva ~tie ca nu lucrezi aici.

C. Corectati gre~elile din urmatoarele propozitii:

I. I haven't seen nobody in the street.

2. I was at school before I returned home.

3. This surroundings are very nice.

4. My mother has any friends.

5. He can't hardly cook dinner.

6. They just took a trolley.

21
,.. ,..
LECTIA
, 18 PARTEA INTAI

Sa incepem lectia cu noile cuvinte care definesc articole de uz casnic. Cititi-


Ie cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie:

towel > [taual] - prosop

bucket > [bakit] - galeata

fridge > [fridj] - frigider

mop > [mop] - carpa de ~ters pe jos

sink > [sin(g)k] - chiuveta

tile > [tail] - placa de faiantalteracota

gas-cooker > [gEs kuka f ] - aragaz

tap > [tEp] - robinet

cupboard > [kabad] - dulap de bucatarie

rubbish-bin > [rabi;; bin] - lada de gunoi

saucepan > [so:spEn] - cratita

oven > [ ovn] - cuptor

Iar acum repetati-Ie intr-o alta ordine:

tap > [tEp] - robinet

oven > [ovn] - cuptor

fridge > [fridj] - frigider


I
tile > [tail] - placa de faiantalteracota

gas-cooker > [gEs kuka f ] - aragaz

saucepan > [so:spEn] - cratita

sink > [sin(g)k] - chiuveta

bucket > [bakit] - galeata

cupboard > [kabad] - dulap de bucatarie

towel > [taual] - prosop

rubbish-bin > [rabi~ bin] - lada de gunoi

mop > [mop] - dirpa de ~ters pe jos

22
Sa introducem noile cuvinte In propozitii:

I want to change something > [ai Uont tu t~eindj samTsin(gj - Vreau sa schimb ceva
in the kitchen. in Dza kit~an] in bucatarie.

I will put the fridge near > [ai ull put DZa fridj nia' - Voi pune frigiderul
the door. DZa do:'] langa u~a.

These cupboards will hang > [Dzi:s kabadz uil hEn(g) - Aceste dulapuri vor fi agatate
on the walls. on DZa Uol z ] pe pereti.

And I want to have tiles on > [End a l Uont tu hEy tailz on - ~i vreau sa am faianta pe perete
the wall over the sink. DZa uol auva' DZa sin(g)k] deasupra chiuvetei.

I think we can also > [ai Tsin(g)k ui: kEn olsau - Cred ca putem schimba
change the tap. t~eindj DZa tEp] ~i robinetul.

We will buy a new > [Ui: uil bai a niu: - Yom cumpara un aragaz
gas-cooker and gEs kuka' End nou ~i un cuptor
an electric oven. an ilektrik ovn] electric.

The rubbish-bin and the > [DZa rabi~ bin End DZa - Co~ul de gunoi ~i galeata
bucket with the mop bakit uiD z DZa mop cu carpa de ~ters pe jos
can be put here. kEn bi put hia'] pot fi puse aici.

And the towel can be > [End DZa taual kEn bi - Iar prosopul poate fi agatat
hanged near the smk. hEn(g)d nia' DZa sm(g)k] langa chiuveta.

And what about > [End "ot abaut - ~i ce facem cu cratitele?


the saucepans? D'a so:spEnz]

I must think about it. > [ai mast Pin(g)k abaut it] - Trebuie sa rna gandesc la asta.

23
Completati unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu noile cuvinte:

Curatam podeaua cu carpa de ~ters pe jos. - We clean the floor with a >mop.

Ia co~ul de gunoi. - Take the >rubbish-bin.

De unde pot procura robinete mari? - Where can I get big> taps?

Este ceva in galeata aceea. - There is something in that> bucket.

Frigiderul nostru este vechi. - Our >fridge is old.

Trebuie sa cumparam un aragaz nou. - We must buy a new >gas-cookeI:

Farfuriile murdare sunt in chiuveta. - Dirty plates are in the >sink.

Imi place faianta din acest magazin. - I like the >tiles in this shop.

Aceasta cratita nu este suficient de mare. - This >saucepan is not big enough.

Callta ceaiul in acest dulap. - Look for the tea in this > clipboard.

Ai prosoape curate? - Have you any clean >towels?

Cat costa acest cuptor? - How much is this >oven?

Verificati in ce masura ati reu~it sa va insu~iti cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza unnatoarele
cuvinte ~i expresii:

co~ de gunoi > rubbish-bin

cuptor, ma~ina de gatit > oven

prosop > towel

carpa de ~ters pe jos > mop

dulap > cupboard

aragaz > gas-cooker

cratita > saucepan

robinet > tap

chiuveta > sink

faianta > tile

galeata > bucket

frigider > fridge

in continuare vom fnvii!a regulile de formare a adl'erbelor. Adverbele se potforma din adjective, prin
adiiugarea termina!iei -Iy:

beautiful - minunat beautifully > [blU:t1rah] - minunat, splendid

In acela~i mod, putem fonna adverbe din substantive care exprima timpul:

month -luna monthly >[manTSli] - lunar, in fiecare luna

week - saptamana weekly - saptamanal,


in fiecare saptamana
day - Zl daily >[ dedi] - zilnic, in fiecare zi

Aten!ie: in cuviintul daily litera y s-a transformat in i!

24
Aceastii schimbare intervine ~i dacii litera y este precedatii de 0 consoanii:
easy - u~or easily > [i:zlli] - u~or, cu u~urinta

in multe cazuri, adjectivul ~i adverbul se traduc prin acela~i cuvant in limba romana.
Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu adverbele corespunzatoare:

Ea canta minunat. - She sings >beautifully


Trenul merge foarte Incet. - The train is going very >slowly
El a spus asta foarte trist. - He said it very >sadly
Trebuie sa vorbim cu ei politicos. - We must talk with them >politely
Acest copil scrie groaznic. - This child writes >awfully

in limba engleza, corespondentullui bine este well. Retineti ca gradele


sale de comparatie sunt identice cu ale adjectivului good:

well- bine better - mai bine the best - cel mai bine

in englezd. la leI ca ~i in limba romtinii, unele adverbe au formii identicii cu adjectivele care Ie
corespund

late - tarzlU. eu intarziere high -lnalt, sus


cheap - leftm long - lung, indelungat
wide -larg hard - tare, dur
fast - repede. lute early - timpuriu, devreme

Retmeti ca in cazul lUI cheap ~l wide putem folosi ~i terminatia Iy:


"cheaply, widely".

Sa invatam cateva verbe noi:

to look > [tu luk] - a arata, a parea sa fie

to feel > [tu fi:l] - a simti, a se simti

to smell > [tu smell - a mirosi, a avea miros

to taste > [tu tezst] - a gusta, a avea gust (de)

to sound > [tu saund] - a suna, a rasuna

Doua dintre aceste verbe sunt neregulate:

forma I forma a II-a forma a III-a


feel > [fi:l] felt > [felt] felt > [felt]

smell > [smell smelt > [smelt] smelt > [smelt]

Verbele invatate anterior pot fi urmate doar de adjective. Nu se folosesc


adverbe impreuna cu ele.

25
lata diteva exemple:

I feel very good today. > [ai fi:l veri gud tadei] - Ma simt foarte bine azi.

You look beautiful. > [iu: luk biu:tifal] - Arati minunat.

The dinner tastes great. > [DZa dina' teists greit] - Cina are un gust grozav.

This music sounds good. > [DZis miu:zik saundz gu:d] - Muzica aceasta suna bine.

Mary's flowers smell nice. > [meri:z t1aua'z smel nais] - Fiorile Mariei au un miros placut.

Verificati daca ati inteles cum se folosesc adverbele. Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare:

Sotia mea tricoteaza minunat. > My wife knits beautifully.

Azi rna simt foarte trist. > I feel very sad today.

Ea arata foarte ciudat. > She looks very strange.

Acum trebuie sa mergem repede. > We must go fast now.

De ce lucrezi a~a de mult? > Why are you working so hard?

Cati bani cheltuie~ti pe saptamana? > How much money do you spend weekly?

Tatal meu merge intotdeauna foarte incet. > My father always walks very slowly.

Am cumparat asta foarte ieftin. > I have bought It very cheap/cheaply.

Ea scrie ciudat. > She writes strangely.

Mama mea conduce foarte bine. > My mother drives very well.

Putem face asta foarte u~or. > We can do it very easily.

Sa invatam alte cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie:

to serve > [tu sa:'v] - a servi, a folosi

to wrap (up) > [tu rEp ap] - a impacheta

to deliver > [tu dIliva'] - a distribui, a livra

to stock > [tu stok] - a se aproviziona, a avea marfuri


in stoc

to support > [tu sapo:'t] - a sprijini, a sustine

insulated > [insiuleitid] - izolat

to let > [tu let] - a inchiria, a fi de inchiriat

for sale > [fo:' seil] - de vanzare

out of order > [aut av o:'da'] - stricat, defect

greasy > [gri:si] - unsuros, alunecos

26
Recititi cuvintele, intr-o alta ordine:

to support > [tu sapo:rt] - a sprijini, a sustine

to deliver > [tu diliva r] - a distribui, a livra

greasy > [gri:si] - unsuros, alunecos

insulated > [insiuleitid] - izolat

to let > [tu let] - a inchiria, a fi de inchiriat

to stock > [tu stok] - a se aproviziona, a avea marfuri


pe stoc

to serve >[tu sa:rv] - a servi, a folosi

for sale > [to:' seil] - de vanzare

to wrap (up) >[tu rEp ap] - a impacheta

out of order > [aut av o:rda r] - stricat, defect

Sa introducem cuvintele noi in propozitii:

Is your house insulated? > [jz ia: r haus insillieitid] - Casa ta este izolata?

My sister's house is for sale. >[ mai sistii'z haus iz fa: r seiJ] - Casa surorii mele este de vanzare.

The fridge is out of order. >[DZa fridj iz aut av o:rda r] - Frigiderul este defect.

Don't use this plate. > [daunt iu:z DZis pleit - Nu folosi aceasta farfurie.
It is greasy. it iz gri:si] Este unsuroasa.

There are a few rooms > [DZea r a: r a fiu: ru:mz - Sunt cateva camere
to let. tll let] de inchiriat.

The shop-assistant > [DZa ~ap asisUmt - Vanzatorul ne va servi.


will serve us. Uil sa:rv as]

Can you wrap up >[kEn ill: rEp ap - Puteti impacheta


these books? D1n buks] aceste carti?

They will deliver the > [DZel uJ! dlliva r DZa - Ei vor livra dulapurile
cupboards in the evening. kabadz m DZl i:vnm(g)] de bucatarie deseara.

The trade-union supports > [DZa treld lu:man sapo:rts - Sindicatul sprijina
the labourers. DZa leibararz] muncitorii.

Completati urmataarele propozitii in limba engleza:

La ce ora vei livra acest frigider? - What time will you >deliver this fridge?

Casa noastra este izolata. - Our house is >insulated.

De cat timp nu functioneaza ma~ina? - How long has the car been >out of order?

Acesta unealta se folose~te la taierea lemnului. - This tool >serves to cut wood.

27
Ai mainile unsuroase. - You have >greasy hands.

Ne vei sustine la ~edinta? - Will you >support us at the meeting?

Acest avion este de Inchiriat? - Is this plane >to let?

Am avut asta pe stoc acum cinci ani. - We >stocked it two years ago.

Casa vecinilor no~tri este de vanzare. - Our neighbour's house is >for sale.

Vrei sa Impachetezi aceasta po~eta? - Do you want to >wrap up this handbag?

Verificati daca ati reu~it sa retineti cuvintele noi. Traduceti In limba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte ~i
expresii:

izolat > insulated


a Impacheta > to wrap up
a tine/a avea marfuri pe stoc > to stock
defect > out of order
a livra > to deliver
unsuros > greasy
a servi > to serve
a Inchiria > to let
a sprijini > to support
de vanzare > for sale

Cititi urmatoarea propozitie In limba engleza:

I don't know where this book is. - Nu ~tiu unde este aceasta carte.

Propozi!ia subordonatii scnsa cu caractere ingro!fate se nume!jte intrebare indirecta!ji este introdusa
de un pronume mterogativ (where, who, when), dupa care urmeaza topica obi!jnuita a unei propozi!ii
ajirmative.

De exemplu:

Tell me when they WIll come. - Spune-mi cand vor veni.

Don't tell them where I have put my savings. - Nu Ie spune unde mi-am pus economiile.

Conform exemplelor prezentate anterior, traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza:

~tii cat costa asta? > Do you know how much it is?
Spune-mi dind pot sa te vizitez. > Tell me when I can visit you.
Nu ~tiu cine serve~te aici. > I don't know who serves here.
Peter ne va spune care casa este de Inchiriat. > Peter will tell us which house is to let.
~tii ce fac copiii lui? > Do you know what his children are doing?

28
lata cateva verbe noi:

to mop > [tu mop] - a ~terge (pe jos)

to iron > [tu aian] - a calca (cu fierul)

to dust >[tudast] - a ~terge praful

to peel >[tupi:l] - a coji, a curata (legume, fructe)

to empty > [tu empti] - a goli, a descarca

to tum on > [tu ta:fn on] - a deschide, a da drumul, a aprinde


(lumina)

to tum off > [tu ta:fn of] - a opri, a stinge, a inchide

Sa introducem aceste verbe in propozitii:

I have already mopped > [ai hEv o:lredi mopt - Am ~ters deja pe jos.
the floor. DZa flo:']

Will you iron this shirt > lUi] iu: aian DZis ~a:'t - Vrei sa-mi calci cama~a
for me? fo:'mi:] asta?

We must dust the chairs. > lUi: mast dast DZa t~eafz] - Trebuie sa ~tergem praful
de pe scaune.

Peel the potatoes for dinner. > [pi:l DZa pateitouz fo:' dinaf] - Curata cartofii pentru cina!

Did you empty > [did iu: empti - Ai golit scrumierele?


the ash-trays? DZi E~treiz]

Turn on the TV set, please. > [tcl:'n on DZa ti: vi: set pli:z] - Da drumulla televizor, te rog.

You must turn off the tap. > [IU: mast ta:fn ofDza tEp] - Trebuie sa inchizi robinetul.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

In timp ce calcam fusta, s-a intors - While I was >ironing the skirt my husband
sotul meu. returned.

Inainte de-a incepe sa mananc micul dejun, - Before I started to eat breakfast
am pomit aparatul de prajit paine. I >had turned on the toaster.

Inca mai cureti aceste legume? - Are you still >peeling these vegetables?

Golim co~ul de gunoi in fiecare dimineatlL - We >empty the rubbish-bin every morning.

Trebuie sa ~tergi praful de pe biblioteca tao - You must >dust your bookcase.

Mama, putem sa ~tergem pe jos - Mother, we can >mop the floor


in baie? in the bathroom?

Imi amintesc ca am oprit radioul inainte - I remember that I >had turned off the radio
de-a pleca. before I left.

29
Traduce1i cuvintele ~i expresiile in engleza:

a opn > to turn off

a ~terge pe jos > to mop

a calca (cu fierul) > to iron

a coji, a cura1a > to peel

a deschide > to turn on

a goli > to empty

a ~terge praful > to dust

Existen{a sau prezen{a, respectiv absen{a unei jiin{e sau a unui obiect se exprimii prin construc{ia
there is/there are.

Forma interogativii a acestei expresii se jormeazii prin inversarea ordinii subiectului gramatical
there ~i a verbului auxiliar:

There is a book on the table. Is there a book on the table? - Este a carte pe masa?

There are cars in Are there any cars in - Sunt ma~ini pe strada?
the street. the street?

There has been a meeting Has there been a meeting - A fast a ~edin1a aici?
here. here?

Aceastii expresie poate ji folositii la toate timpurile.

Fonnula1i intrebari pentru unnatoarele propozi1ii:

There were many bicycles in that shop. > Were there many bicycles in that shop?

There is a house for sale in London. > Is there a house for sale in London?

There will be sales in this supermarket. > Will there be sales in this supennarket?

Forma afirmatiwi se formeazii cu adverbul yes, subiectul gramatical there ~i verbul auxiliar. Pentru
forma negativiifolosim cuvantul de nega{ie no, cuvantul there, verbul auxiliar ~i adverbul not:

Is there coffee at home?

Yes, there is. > [les D'ear lZ] - Da, este.


No, there isn't. > [nau DZear iznt] ~ Nu, nu este.

Are there any mops here?

Yes, there are. > lies DZear a:'] - Da, sunt.


No, there aren't. > [nau DZear a:'nt] - Nu, nu sunt.

Will there be a meeting here?

Yes, there will. > [ies DZear Uil] - Da, va fi.


No, there won't. > [nauDZearUount] - Nu, nu va fi.

30
Formulati raspunsuri afirmative ~i negative la urmatoarele intrebari:

Have there been any accidents this month?


Yes, >there have. No, >there haven't.

Are there any cups in the cupboard?


Yes, >there are. No, >there aren'f.

Will there be any good films on TV today?


Yes, >there will. No, >there won't.

Have there been any labourers here?


Yes, >there have. No, >there haven't.

Va prezentam ultimul set de verbe noi din aceasta lectie:

to offer > [tu Ola'] -. a oferi

to permit > [tu pamit] - a permite

to allow >[tualau] - a permite, a da voie,


- a admite

to promise > [tu promis] - a promite

to refuse > [tu rifiu:z] - a refuza, a respinge

Urmantl foloslrea acestor verbe in propozitii:

He promised me a ne\\ car. > [hI. prol1w,t mi' a nlll: ka:'] - El mi-a promis 0 ma~ina noua.

Will they offer you > [-11 D"el or~l' 'u - Iti vor oferi 0 slujba
a better job? 3 bet:l' dwb ~ mai buna?

The managment refused > [0 ,: 1:1EmdJrnant nfiu:zd - Conducerea a refuzat sa-mi dea
to give me a raise. tl. ;1\ ill1: a relz] o marire de salariu.

Mother will not allow you > [m,ID-a' "11 not alau iu: - Mama nu-ti va da voie
to go to the cinema. tu gau tu DZa sinama] sa mergi la cinematograf.

Have they permItted:. ou > [hEv DZei pamitid iu: - Ti-au permis
to bring the dog'> tu brin(g) DZa dog] sa aduci ciiinele?

Completatl propozqiile urmatoare cu verbele corespunzatoare:

Nu-ti permit sa fumezi aici. - I don't> permit/allow you to smoke here.

Ea a refuzat sa rna ajute. - She > refused to help me.

Promite-mi ca te vei intoarce devreme. - > Promise me you will return early.

Pot sa-ti ofer doua apartamente. - I can> otfer you two apartments.

31
Traduceti verbele unnlitoare in limba engleza:

a oferi > to offer

a refuza > to refuse

a permite > to permit

a ingadui > to allow

a promite > to promise

Iar acum sa sintetizam materia din aceasta parte a lectiei intr-un exercitiu. Traduceti in limba engleza
urmatoarele propozitii:

Trebuie sa golim repede frigiderul. > We must empty the fridge fast.

Cand vor livra dulapurile? > What time will they deliver the cupboards?

Ea a spus asta foarte politicos. > She said this very politely.

Poti folosi aceasta galeata. > You can use this bucket.

Cat ca~tigi lunar? > How much do you earn monthly?

Aratati minunat impreuna. > You look beautiful together.

Spune-mi unde sunt aceste cratite. > Tell me where these saucepans are.

Poate cineva sa-mi calce bluza? > Can anybody iron my blouse?

Este paine acasa'J > Is there any bread at home?

EI a condus intotdeauna foarte bine ma~ina. > He has always driven the car very well.

32
LECTIA
, 18 - PARTEA A nOVA

Cititi cu atentie urmatorul dialog fiind atenti la pronuntie ~i intonatie. Cuvintele ~i silabele accentuate
sunt scrise ingro~at:
Peter: Mary, have you heard that a lot oflabourers don't like their jobs?
Mary: No, I haven't. And why don't they like their jobs?
Peter: They say their wages are too low and they must often apply for a raise.
Mary: Well, I have heard about that. But the management has refused their applications so far.
Hardly any employees like the management.
Peter: And the other problem is that there is unemployment in our surroundings. Even John has
hardly worked this summer. The trade-union wants to negotiate about the strike.
Mary: And all our employees are members of this trade-union. The management already knows
about it and wants to fire some of the employees. Do you know how many people they
want to fire')
Peter: No, I don ·t. I think there must be a few. But there are many unskilled workers and they
will not get a job.

John: I must give my thanks to your mother because she has helped me.
Barbara: How did she help you?
John: You know I wanted to buy a car after I had earned more money. But I was still short of
money and she gave me some.
Barbara: Today we must go to the supermarket to do some shopping. There are many things on my
shopping-list. Now you can return this money!
John: Why must we go to the supermarket all the time?
Barbara: Because the shop-assistants are very polite there and they stock almost everything. And
today they have sales there.
John: Good. today I'll take you to the supermarket in my new car.

Tom: Mary, today we have a lot of work to do.


Mary: I know. I must dust the tables, empty the rubbish-bin and iron my father's shirts.
Tom: And I must place the gas-cooker somewhere else, because it cannot stand next to the
fridge.
Mary: But you can't do it today. All of our electric tools are out of order.
Tom: I almost forgot about that. Then I'll go and buy a new electric oven to the kitchen.
Mary: But Tom, we must pay for it in cash and right now we are short of cash.
Tom: Then I will peel the vegetables for dinner.

33
Barbara: Now you can read it, but later I will turn on the radio and we can listen to some music.
Peter: But I want to read this book tonight. You know I read two books daily.
Barbara: What are the contents of that book?
Peter: The contents of this book are very important and useful for a secretary.
Barbara: Then I will also read that book.

Rezolvati urmatorul exercitiu care sintetizeaza intregul material al lectiei. Traduceti urmatoarele
propozitii in limba engleza:

Colegii mei nu vor aceasta greva. > My colleagues don't want this strike.

Ne vom intalni ca sa negociem > Will we meet to negotIate raises?


maririle de salarii?

Angajatii no~tri vor sa schimbe conducerea. > Our employees want to change
the management.

Inainte sa incepem lucrul, i-am a~teptat. > Before we started work we had waited
for them.

Dupa ce am scris 0 scrisoare, am cumparat > After I had written a letter I bought
doua timbre. two stamps.

Cred ca voi solicita 0 slujba mai buna > I think I will apply for a better job
~iun salariu mai mare. and higher wages.

Anul acesta ei vor sa cultive ovaz. > They want to grow oats this year.

Acum doi ani am locuit intr-o > Two years ago we lived in
zona minunata. beautiful surroundings.

Au marit deja salariile? > Have they already raised wages?

Toti clientii sunt satisfacuti de cumparaturile > All customers are satisfied with the shopping
din supermagazinul nostru. in our supermarket.

Nu uita sa iei lista de cumparaturi ~i saco~a. > Don't forget to take the shopping-list and
the shopping-bag.

Fac reduceri doar in perioada > Do they give discounts only during sales?
soldurilor?

Trebuie sa las caruciorulla casa? > Must I leave the trolley at the cash-desk?

El ca~tiga multi bani ~i cumpara numai > He earns a lot and buys only bargains.
la pret redus.

Nu am prieteni in acest ora~. > I haven't any friends in this town.


> I have no friends In thIS town.

Ei nu-~i fac aproape niciodata tema pentru acasa. > They hardly ever do homework.

Crezi ca acest dulap va fi util in bucatarie? > Do you think this cupboard will be useful
in the kitchen?

Aceasta ~tire este foarte importanta. > This news is very Important.

Cat costa aceasta bicicleta? > How much is thIS bycicle?

34
Aceasta poveste nu poate fi adevarata. > This story can't be true.

Ai ceva sa-mi spui? > Have you anything to tell me?

Unde sunt prosoapele? > Where are the towels?

Inainte sa mergem la Mary noi am ~ters > Before we went to Mary we had mopped
pe jos. the floors.

El merge foarte ciudat. > He walks very strangely.

Televizorul nu functioneaza. > The TV set is out of order.

\Tanzatorul tocmai imi impacheteaza > The shop-asslstant is Just wrapping up


cumparatunle. my shoppmg

Intreaba-l cand inchide magazinul. > Ask hIm \\ hen he shuts the shop.

~terge praful de pe mese ~i calca aceste haine. > Dust the tables and Iron these clothes.

Poti sa opre~ti radioul? >Can you tum off the radIO')

Sunt ni~te carti aici? > Are there any books here?

"Don't forget to take the shopping-list and the shopping-bag."

In incheiere, va propunem un exercitiu de pronuntie. Literele de la inceputul coloanelor ~i cele scrise


accentuat indica acela~i sunet:

[i:] [a] [ai] [ei]

peel dust iron sale

seen bucket tile make

leave but wide late

green sun drive date

35
RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI
, 18

18.1. Adverbe

18.1.1. Majoritatea adverbelor se fonneaza din adjective, prin adaugarea tenninatiei ,,-ly":

beautiful - minunat beautifully - minunat


In mod similar se fonneaza adverbe ~i din substantivele care exprima timpul:
month -luna monthly - lunar, in fiecare luna
week - saptamana weekly - saptamanal, in fiecare
saptamana
da~ - Zl daily - zilnic, in fiecare zi
Retineti ca in cuvantul "daily", litera y s-a schimbat in i.
Aceea~i schimbare se petrece ~i in cazul in care litera -y este precedata de 0 consoana:
- u~or easily -u~or

18.1.2. In limba engleza adverbul corespunzator adjectivului "bun" este "well". Retineti:
comparativul ~i superlativul lui "well" sunt identice cu fonnele corespunzatoare
ale adjectivului "good":

well - bine better - mai bine the best - cel mai bme

18.1 .3. In limba engleza, la fel ca in limba romana, mai multe adverbe au fonna identica cu
adjectivele corespunzatoare:

late - tarziu, cu intarziere


cheap - ieftin
wide -larg
fast - repede, iute
high - inalt, sus
long - lung, indelungat
hard - tare, dur
early - timpuriu, devreme
In cazul adverbelor "cheap" ~i "wide" se fo1ose~te ~i terminatia ,,-ly": "cheaply,
widely".

18.1.4. Alaturi de unele verbe pot sta doar adjective, nu adverbe:

to look - a arata, a parea sa fie


to feel - a se simti, a simti, a avea 0 senzatie sau
un sentiment
to smell - a mirosi, a avea un miros
to taste - a gusta, a avea un anumit gust
to sound - a suna, a rasuna

36
18.2. Intrebari indirecte

I don't know where this book is. - Nu ~tiu unde este aceasta carte.

Propozitia subordonata este introdusa de un pronume interogativ (where, who, what etc.),
dupa care urmeaza 0 propozitie cu structura afirmativa:

Don't tell them where I have - Nu Ie spune unde


put my savings. mi-am pus economiile.

18.3. "There is/there are"

18.3.1. Interogativul

Interogativul se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii subiectului gramatical "there" ~i a


verbului auxiliar:

There is a book on Is there a book on - Este 0 carte pe masa?


the table. the table?

18.3.2. Raspunsul afirmativ se formeaza cu adverbul "yes", subiectul gramatical "there" ~i


verbul auxiliar. Negatia se compune din cuvantul "no", subiectul gramatical "there",
verbul auxiliar ~i cuvantul "not":

Is there coffee at home? Yes, there is. - Da, este.

No, there isn't. - Nu, nu este.

Aceasta structura poate fi folosita la toate timpurile.

37
TEMA PENTRU ACASA 18

A. Traduce!i urmatoarele propozi!ii in limba romana:

1. They haven't delivered the sink and tap so far.

2. Are there any mops to mop the floors?

3. I don't know where they will stock the cupboards.

4. At the moment he is working hard.

5. She had looked beautiful before she cut her hair.

6. My mother is satisfied with the new toaster.

B. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

I. Aceasta suna minunat, dar nu ~tiu cand putem merge acolo.

2. Sunt apartamente de inchiriat in aceasta cladire?

3. £1 a spus asta foarte trist.

4. Ne vei sprijini in timpul negocierilor?

5. Muzica a sunat foarte bine, dar textul nu a fost interesant.

6. Este cineva aici?

C. Corectati gre~elile din urmatoarele propozitii:

I. I didn't feel very well yesterday.

2. There aren't any money in my purse.

3. I know he works very hardly.

4. Can you tell me what time must we be at school tomorrow?

5. There isn't no restaurant in our surroundings.

6. He usually eats one meal dayly.

38
Verbele neregulate din lectiile 17 ~i 18
forma I forma a II-a forma a III-a

feel > [fil] felt > [felt] felt > [felt]

smell > [smel] smelt > [smelt] smelt > [smelt]

39
VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR
, 17 SI
, 18

after > [a:fti'F] - dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce,


ulterior

to allow > [tu alau] - a permite, a da voie, a admite

any > [eni] - orice, oricare

anybody > [enibadi] - oricine, oricare, cineva

anything > [eniTSini g)] - orice, ceva

anywhere > [eniUea r] - oriunde, undeva

to apply for > [tu aplai fa: r ] - a se adresa pentru, a cere, a solicita

application > [ Eplikei~an] - cerere, solicitare

bargain > [ba:rgin] - vanzare la pret favorabil, chilipir,


afacere

before > [bifo: r] - i'nainte (de), i'naintea, dinaintea

bucket > [bakit] - galeata

cash > [kE~] - bani gheatii, bani In numerar

cash-desk > [kE~ desk] - casa (i'ntr-un magazin)

colleague > [koli:g] - coleg

contents > [kontents] - cuprins, continut

cupboard > [kabad] - dulap de bucatane

customer > [kastama r] - cumparator, client

to deliver > [tu diliva r] - a distribui, a livra

discount > [diskaunt] - reducere (de preturi)

to dust > [tu dast] - a ~terge praful

to earn > [tu a:rn] - a ca~tiga bani (prin munca)

employee > [emplaii:] - angajat, salariat

to empty > [tu empti] - a goli, a descarca

even > [i:vn] - chiar, pana ~i, nici macar

exit > [egzit] - ie~ire

to feel > [tLl fi:l] - a simti, a se simti

to fire > [tLl faia r] - a concedia

40
for sale >[fo:Tseil] - de vanzare

fridge > [fridj] - frigider

gas-cooker > [gEs kuka r] - aragaz

greasy > [gri:si] - unsuros, gras

hard >[ha:Td] - tare, dur, greu

hardly > [ha:Tdli] - abia, mai deloc, prea putin

hardly any > [ha:Tdli eni] - abia, putin/un pic

hardly ever > [ha:Tdli eva T] - foarte rar, aproape niciodata,


nu prea

How much is ... >[hau mat~ iz] - Cat costa...

important > [impo:Ttant] - important, semnificativ

insulated > [insiuleitid] - izolat

to iron >[tu aian] - a calca (cu fierul)

job >[djob] - loc de munca, serviciu

labourer > [leibaraT] - muncitor

to let >[tu let] - a inchiria, de inchiriat

to look >[tu luk] - a parea, a arata, a avea aerul

management > [mEnidjmant] - conducere, administratie

member >[memba T] - membru

mop >[mop] - carpa de ~ters pe jos

to mop >[tu mop] - a ~terge pe jos

negotiations > [nigau~iei~anz] - negocieri

to negotiate > [tu nigau~ieit] - a negocia, a duce tratative

nowhere > [noUueaT] - nicaieri, niciunde

oats > [outs] - ovaz

to offer > [tu ofa r] - a oferi, a acorda

out of order > [aut ov o:rda T] - stricat, defect

oven >[om] - cuptor

to peel >[tu pi:!] - a coji, a curata (Iegume/fructe)

to permit > [tu pamit] - a permite

proceeds > [prousi:dz] - ca~tig (dintr-o activitale)

41
to promise > [tu promis] - a promite

raise > [reiz] - sporire, marire

to raise > [tu reiz] - a spori, a mari

receipt > [risi:t] - chitanta, nota de plata

to reduce > [tu ridiu:s] - a reduce, a mic~ora

to refuse > [tu rifiu:z] - a refuza, a respinge

riches > [rit~iz ] - avere, bogatie

rubbish-bin > [rabi~ bin] - co~ de gunoi

sales > [seilz] - reduceri, vanzarea soldurilor

satisfied (with) > [sEtisfaid] - satisIacut, multumit (de)

saucepan > [so:spEn] - cratita

savmgs > [sezvin(g)z] - economii (bani)

to serve > [tu sa:rv] - a servi, a fi folosit

shop-assistant > [~op asistant] - vanzator, vanzatoare

shopping-bag > [~opin(g) bEg] - saco~a sau punga de cumparaturi

shopping-list > [~opin(g) list] - !ista de cumparaturi

shop-window > [~op Uindau] - vitrina

short of (something) > [~o:rt av] - lipsa de (ceva)

sink > [sin(g)k] - chiuveta

to smell > [tu smel] - a mirosi, a avea miros

somebody > [sambadi] - cineva

somewhere > [samUea r] - undeva

to sound > [tu saund] - a suna, a rasuna

to stock > [tu stok] - a aproviziona, a tine/a avea


marfuri pe stoc

strike > [straik] - greva

supermarket > [su:parma:rkit] - supermarket

to support > [tu sapo:rt] - a sprijini, a sustine

surroundings > [saraundintg)z] - imprejurimi, vecinatate

tap > [tEp] - robinet

to taste > [tu teist] - a gusta, a avea gust (de)

42
thanks > [TSEn(g)ks] - multumiri, recuno~tinta

tile > [tail] - faiantalteracota

towel > [taual] - prosop

trade-union > [treid iu:nian] - sindicat

trolley > [troli] - carucior (intr-un supermarket)

true > [tru:] - adevarat

to tum off > [tu ta:rn of] - a opri, a stinge, a inchide

to tum on > [tu ta:1n on] - a deschide, ada drumul, a aprinde


(lumina etc.)

unemployement > [animploimant] - ~omaj

unskilled > [anskild] - necalificat

useful > [iu:stal] - folositor, util

wages > [Ueidjiz] - salariu

well > [Uel] - bine

to wrap up > [tu rEp ap] - a impacheta

43