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Universiti Kuala Lumpur

Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology


Lab Report 2015
Reaction Engineering (CKB 20104)

Experiment 3A:Effect of
Residence Time on the
Reaction in a PFR
No.

Name:

1.

Che Wan Irsyaduddin Bin Che Wan Takwa

55201214005

2.

Muhammad Ashrul Bin Mohd Nasir

55201214008

3.

Mohammad Hazziq Bin Selamat

55201214147

4.

Yasser Arafat Bin Mamat

55201214257

Lecturer Name:Miss Nur Rabiyah


Submitted Date: 27/11/2015
Group : 4 (LO1-P1)

ID No.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Content

Page Number

1.0 Summary

2.0 Data and Results

4-7

3.0 Analysis and Discussion

4.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.0 Tutorial

10-11

6.0 References

12

7.0 Appendices

13

1.0 SUMMARY

The main objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of residence time in a Plug
Flow Reactor (PFR). Two values of flowrate were set up for this experiment which were 100mL/min
and 350mL/min with a mixture of 0.1M Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.1 M Ethyl Acetate, Et
(Ac). The calibration curve of NaOH against conductivity was constructed and used to determine the
inlet and outlet concentration of NaOH in the reactor and also the conversion for the reactor. Based on
the results obtained, it was found that the concentration will affect the rate of reaction where the rate
of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of NaOH. It was also found that the
conversion is directly proportional with the time elapsed for the reaction despite the inconsistency of
the readings at 100mL/min at the interval time from 20 to 25 minutes. As a comparison, the highest
conversion value at flowrate 100mL/min is 64.35 which is significantly higher than the highest
conversion at 350mL/min that is 34.04%. The discrepancies that arose at some points of the
experiment were likely to be caused by human errors during the preparation of the reactants and also
the initial cleanliness state of the reactor. The reaction rate constant, k were found to be 0.087 L/mol.s
and 0.024 L/mol.s at flowrate 100mL/min and 350mL/min respectively which was in accordance to
the theory as k value increased with the conversion. While rate of reaction values were found to be
2.514 x 10-5 mol/L.s and 1.499 x 10-6 mol/L.s at flowrate 100mL/min and 350mL/min respectively
which was obay the theory that the reaction rate should be increased with the increasing the flowrate.

From the experiment, it can be concluded that the conversion rate increases as the residence
time increase which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

2.0 DATA AND RESULTS


PFR FLOWRATE 100 mL/min
Reactor Volume
Temperature

= 1.5 L
= 30 oC

Time

Temperature

Flow rate

Total flow rate of

Residence time,

(min

(C)
Inlet
Outlet

(mL/min)
NaOH
Et(Ac)

solutions, F0

(min)

)
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Avg

29.1
29.5
29.7
29.7
29.8
30.1
30.1
30.1

28.4
28.6
28.7
28.8
29.1
29.3
29.4
29.4

104
104
104
104
103
102
103
103

Flow rate =100 mL/min

108
109
108
103
99
98
97
97

Conductivity (mS/cm)

(mL/min)
212
213
212
207
202
200
200
200
205.75

7.08
7.04
7.08
7.25
7.43
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.30

Inlet

Outlet

11.62
11.43
11.21
11.17
10.94
10.86
10.73
10.73

8.92
7.97
7.34
6.84
6.53
6.51
6.34
6.34

Intlet

Outlet

Conversion,

concentration

concentration

X (%)

of NaOH,

of NaOH,

C NaOH (M)
0.054
0.053
0.052
0.051
0.050
0.049
0.048
0.048

C NaOH (M)
0.035
0.028
0.024
0.020
0.018
0.018
0.017
0.017

PFR FLOWRATE 350 mL/min


Reactor Volume
Temperature

= 1.5 L
= 30 0C

Flow rate at 50 C =350 mL/min

35.19
47.17
53.85
60.78
64
63.26
64.58
64.58

Time

Temperature

(min
)
0
0
5
10
15
Avg

Inlet
30.1
30.3
30.4
30.4

(C)
Outlet
29.6
29.8
29.9
30.1

Flow rate

Total flow rate of

Residence time,

Conductivity

Intlet

Outlet

Conversion,

(mL/min)
NaOH
Et(Ac)

solutions, F0

(min)

(mS/cm)

concentration

concentration

X (%)

of NaOH,

of NaOH,

C NaOH (M)
0.047
0.045
0.045
0.042

C NaOH (M)
0.031
0.032
0.032
0.032

348
347
346
347

348
346
347
346

(mL/min)
696
693
693
693
693.75

2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16

Inlet

Outlet

10.64
10.29
10.27
9.84

8.40
8.46
8.45
8.45

34.04
28.89
28.89
28.89

Figure 1 : Calibration curve

Figure 2: Graph conversion vs. reaction time for the Flowrate 100 mL/min

Figure 3: Graph conversion vs. reaction time for the Flowrate 350 mL/min

1. Reaction rate, k and rate of reaction, -rA = kCA2 at flowrate 100 mL/min

Reaction rate, k and rate of reaction, -rA = kCA2 at flowrate 350 mL/min

3.0 DISCUSSION

In this experiment a reaction are carry out which is saponification reaction between
Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH and Ethyl Acetate, Et(Ac) in a PFR. The experiment held are to
determine the reaction rate constant and to determine the effect of residence time on the
conversion in a PFR. Residence time measures relatively how much the reactants spent their
time in the reactor in order to undergo the chemical reaction. Theoretically, the higher the
residence time , the more time reactant will spent in the reactor hence react more thus
producing higher conversion rate. Two flowrates used for the feed which are 100mL/min and
350mL/min. All the data were then collected and tabulated accordingly. By referring the
standard Sodium Hydroxide concentration, the conversion value was calculated.
Based from the result, for flowrate 100 mL/min and 350 mL/min, two graph from two
different feed flowrates, of conversion X against reaction time were plotted . For the 100
mL/min, the conversion increases as the time of reaction increases. While for flowrate 350
mL/min the value of conversion in decrease due to the flowrate is not in constant value.
Besides at that flowrate, at 0-5 minutes time, that is optimum time for the reactant to reacted
to produce the product.
Conversion means the numbers of moles of reactant that have reacted per mole of
reactant fed to the system. Based on the result, for flowrate 100 mL/min the highest
conversion, X at average residence time, of 7.30 min is 64.58%. Meanwhile, when flowrate
350 mL/min, the highest conversion, X at average residence time, of 2.16 min is 34.04%. By
comparing both values for two different flowrates, it show that the flowrate 100mL/min had
the highest conversion, X and for flowrate 350 mL/min, it had the lowest Residence time, .
If the inflow and outflow are increased, the residence time of the system will be shorter .
Thus for this theory, the experiment obey the law.
Next, the reaction rate constant, K for flowrate 100 mL/min is mol/Ls and the rate of
reaction, -rA is mol/Ls. For the flowrate 350 mL/min , the reaction rate constant, K is mol/Ls
and the rate of reaction, -rA is mol/Ls. Generally, the rate of reaction will increase as the
flowrate increase and the conversion are also increase. The experiment data again obey the
theory except for the conversion part at flowrates 350 mL/min was decrease because of the
value of conductivity is not stable yet thus this will give effect to the value of reaction rate
constant, K and reaction of rate ,-r A..There are errors occurred in the experiment especially
during 350 mL/min feed flowrate.
4.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The objectives of this experiment are to determine the reaction rate constant, k and to
determine the effect of residence time on the conversion in a PFR. Theoretically, higher
residence time because the reactants can be held together for longer time in the reactor. So
that, the molecules of reactants have sufficient time to react each other. In other to initiate the
reaction, the molecules must collide to each other more frequent in right orientation (effective
frequent collision). Therefore, if the residence time higher, more molecules will collide each
other, increasing the effective frequent collision to occur thus increase the rate of reaction.
From the result, it showed obeys the theory. From the theory, as the rate of reaction increase,
the conversion of the reactant will increase. From the result, it shows the experiment and the
theory is the same. This is proved when the flowrate is increasing the conversion also
increase. Only for flowrate 350 mL/min the conversion is decrease when time is increase
because of flowrate value not constant. So it causes error in experimental. The result also
shows that the residence time is proportional to conversion. This is because, higher residence
time held the reactant longer in the reactor thus increase the change for reaction to happen
and yielding higher conversion. As conclusion, the adjustment in flowrate can affect the rate
of reaction and at the same time affecting the residence time and conversion of PFR.
As recommendation, in order to get the most accurate reading, the solution needs to
flow through the stream thoroughly and left for some time. This is to ensure all the solution is
flowing evenly and an accurate result can be obtained. Therefore, to prevent error during
experimental is carry out specially flowrate. Some modification mechanism is needed to
make sure accurate result can be obtainted. The procedure can be review and make highlight
to the important step to make sure student ease to understand and to prevent error during
experiment.

5.0 TUTORIAL

1.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using PFR reactors in


chemical reaction. Describe an example of industrial applications that utilized
PFR reactors in its process.
Advantages

Disadvantages

Easily maintained since there are no


moving parts.

Reactor temperature difficult to


control.

High conversion rate per reactor


volume.

Hot spots may occur within reactor


when used for exothermic reactions.

Mechanically simple.

Unvarying product quality.

Difficult to control due to temperature


and composition variations.

Good for studying rapid reactions.

Efficient use of reactor volume.

Good for large capacity processes.

Low pressure drops.

Tubes are easy to clean.

Plug flow reactors have a wide variety of applications in either gas or liquid phase systems.
Common industrial uses of tubular reactors are in gasoline production, oil cracking, synthesis
of ammonia from its elements, and the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide. Pictured
below is a tubular reactor used in research on the oxidation of nitrogen compounds. It reaches
temperatures of 800 - 1100C. Tubular reactors can also be used as bioreactors or for small
scale production. The tubular bioreactor shown below is used for the production of algae. The
algae is then compressed and dried and can be used as feed for a biodiesel reactor.

2.

Write a one-paragraph summary of any journal article that studies


chemical reaction in a PFR. The article must have been published within the last
5 years. Explain on the PFR reactor used in the study and its significance to the
study done.

The article titled A Comparative Study of Saponification Reaction written by Danish


M.* and Al Mesfer M. K. During this research, CH3COOC2H5 hydrolysis with NaOH was
examined, and effects of process conditions on steady-state reaction conversion and rate
constant were analyzed for PFR. Reaction progression was tracked by actual-time
conductivity under various process conditions. The results obtained for PFR was analyzed
and compared.. The objectives of the experiments are to examine the effect of process
conditions on steady state conversion and rate constant in a PFR. The variables examined for
comparative study are feed rate, temperature and residence time. Data were collected at
constant concentration of 0.1 M of both the reactants and at a constant pressure of 1
atmosphere. A reaction conversion of 72.8% and specific rate constant of 1.27 L/mol.sec
were obtained for PFR as compared with a decreased value of 48.6% under steady state
conditions. Conversion increases with increase of temperature in case of PFR under studied
range of temperature. Maximum conversion and rate constant of 68.4% and 0.688 L/mol.sec
respectively were obtained for tubular reactor. For PFR with a reactor volume of 0.40 liter,
reaction conversion varies from 50.4 % to 39.2 % corresponding to flow rates of 50 ml/min to
80 ml/min respectively. In PFR, residence time decreases with increased feed rate and this
leads to decreased values of reaction conversion for the reactors. The results obtained in this
investigation may be useful in maximizing the industrial level production of desired product
and to predict the type of flow reactor more suitable for ethyl acetate saponification reaction.
This is because PFRs are widely familiar as continuous tubular reactor play a key role in
chemical industries. In case of requirement of continuous operation, tubular reactors are
frequently used but without back-blending of reactants and products. The plug flow type
continuous reactors offer large volumetric reaction conversion due to lower yield of
undesired product. The advantages of plug flow reactors include high volumetric unit
conversion and capability of running for longer period without maintenance.

6.0 REFERENCES
Internet:
1.

UkEssays.com. Increase of Concentration Of Ethyl Acetate Biology Essay.


[ONLINE]. Available from: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/increase-ofconcentration-of-ethyl-acetate-biology-essay.php.

2.

Raders Chem4 kids.com. Rate of Reaction. [ONLINE]. Available from:


http://www.chem4kids.com/files/react_rates.html.

3.

Jim.C. (2002). The effect of temperature on reaction rates. [ONLINE]. Available


from: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/basicrates/temperature.html.

4.

Wikipedia.

(2013).

Residence

Time.

[Online].

Available

from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Residence_time. [Accessed 22 November 2015].


Journal:
1.

A Comparative Study of Saponification Reaction in a PFR, Danish M. and Al Mesfer


M. K., Vol. 5(11), 13-17, International Science Congress Association Chemical
Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Received
28th September 2015, revised 3rd October 2015, accepted 6th November 2015,
Available online at: www.isca.in, www.isca.me.

7.0 APPENDICES
i.

To find Conversion of NaOH


From calibration curve; the equation of the curve is y = 140x - 4
Therefore, y-axis = y = conductivity and x-axis= x = concentration of NaOH

Example: when y = 11.62 mS/cm


x =(y-4)140
=(11.62-4)140
= 0.054 mS/cm

ii.

To find conversion, X (%) ;

iii.

To find Residence time


Example: at 0 min;