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Department Of Civil Engineering

De Salle University - Manila


LBYCVD2
Computational Exercise No. 5

Name of Student: Lexter Strike Ibasco


Section: EW2
RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF EXERCISES:
CRITERIA

EXEMPLARY
4
(90% - 100%)

Structure and
quality of the
report (40%)

The report is well


structured and
written in a coherent
manner. It is neat, in
proper format and
appropriate notation
and terminologies
were used. Quality of
the report is
exemplary.
The report uses the
correct theory and
carries out accurate
calculations. Tables
and graphs are also
shown and are
exemplary.

Mathematical
processes and
computation
(50%)

Commitment
(10%)

Student showed full


commitment

SATISFACTOR
Y
3
(80% - 89%)
There is some
structure in the
report. Some
notation or
terminologies
were incorrect.
Quality of the
report is
satisfactory.
The report uses
the correct
theory. Some
calculations are
inaccurate.
Tables and
graphs are also
shown but labels
are incomplete
Student showed
satisfactory
commitment

DEVELOPING
2
(70% - 79%)

BEGINNING
1
(60% - 69%)

There is some
structure in the
report or
appropriate
notation or
terminologies
were
used.Quality of
the report is
poor.
The report uses
the correct
theory or the
calculations are
inaccurate. No
Tables or
graphs are
shown.

There is no
attempt to
structure the
report.

Student showed
little
commitment

Student showed
no commitment

REMAR
KS/
RATING

Incorrect theory
is used and
calculations are
incorrect.

TOTAL:

I.

OBJECTVIES

Students are expected to design the framing plan (which consists of beam and girder)
with a steel member. Design criteria to be inspected is the flexural strength of the member. ASD
and LRFD scenario are to be used in designing the steel members of the frame. More research
about tributary load and one way/ two way must be also done.

II.

INTRODUCTION and THEORETICAL BACKGROUND


Steel beams are designed with an assurance that the member will not fail at any
type of scenario. For this exercise, flexural design is to be focused on. For flexural, there
are 3 types of failure mode namely, Full Yielding, Inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, and
Elastic lateral-torsional buckling. This has been discussed in CIVDES2. Loadings are still
the same since the first exercise ranging from ASD (No factor) and LRFD (Factored).
These are the 2 methods in designing.
Beams are placed over the girders, which means the girder carries all the weight
that is carried by the beam (if one way slab is being considered). The girder may also
carry some weight of the slab that is not carried by the beam (two way slab). This will be
discussed further on the tributary area.
Tributary Area is an imaginary area that shows a particular boundary that will be
carried by a particular member. One way slab tributary area is only a rectangular in shape
as shown below. As seen from the figure, it is solely to be carried by the beam itself. Two
way slabs tributary area

Figure 2.1 Tributary Area of a single way slab.


is a little bit more complicated. There are parts that is being carried by the beam and by the
girder. The tributary area can be seen below.

Figure 2.2 Tributary Area of a two way slab.


Finally this exercise will be utilizing a one way slab due to the dimension ratio.
According to studies and experience, if Short/Longer >2, then it will be considered as a single
way slab. With one way slab, reinforcement is only applied in a single direction.
With various sources, studies, experimentation, it was seen that the beam does carry the
whole area (1 way slab) thus the beam will experience a uniform load. While the girder will
experience point loads from the beam, which carried the tributary area.

III.

Figure 2.3 Force distribution towards the system (Source: UWPLATT. EDU)
EQUATIONS, COMPUTATION AND FIGURES

Figure 3.1. Schematic diagram of the framing plan


Table 1. Given Parameters
Parameter
Girder Span (per section)
Total Girder Span

Values
4.5 m
13.5 m

Beam Span
Concrete Slab Thickness
Live Load
Steel Type : A36

12.6 m
150 mm
7.5 kPa
fy = 248 MPa

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of the structure showing the tributary area that is being carried by
the interior beam
Table 2. Load Computation for Beam Section
Dead Load
Live Load
Q ASD
Q LRFD
W ASD
W LRFD

Q (Kpa)
23.6 X .15
Given

Q (ASD) and Q (LRFD)


qDL+qLL
1.2 qDL+1.6 qLL

3.54 kPa
7.5 kPa

11.04 kPa
16.25 kPa

W (Uniform Loading for ASD and LRFD)


q ASD X Shorter L .
49.68 kN /m
q LRFD X Shorter L .

Table 3. ASD Method Design for Beam Section (Interior Beam)

73.12 kN /m

The beam is subjected to a uniform load due to the tributary area that it carries around
it.
Parameter & Equation
Value
Maximum Moment Obtained
49.68 X 12.62
=985.9 Knm
8
w X L2
Mmax=
get GRASP
8
Get Zx Value
Zx=

Mmax
0.6 X fy

985.9 X 1000
=6625.67 cu .mm
0.6 X 248

Get at least 5 W Section that has a Zx greater than the computer


Weig
Section Zx
Area
ht
5280
W12X27
7880
0
415
9
4780
W12X25
7010
0
375
2
4420
W14X23
7140
0
347
3
3630
W18X19
7240
0
286
2
W21X1
3150
66
7080
0
248
Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx
248 X 9.81
2.43 kN /m
Weight=
1000
New W ASD=W ASD+ Weight
Mmax=

w X L2
get GRASP
8

Zx '=

Mmax
0.6 X fy

52.11 kN /m
1034.18 kNm
6950.135 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.
(Zx<Zx)
For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion
Get the reaction forces of the beam Ry = 328.29 kN

Table 4. LRFD Method Design for Beam Section (Interior Beam)

The beam is subjected to a uniform load due to the tributary area that it carries around
it.
Parameter & Equation
Value
Maximum Moment Obtained
73.12 X 12.62
=1451 Knm
8
2
wXL
Mmax=
get GRASP
8
Get Zx Value

Zx=

Mmax
0. 9 X fy

1451 X 1000
=6500.90 cu . mm
0. 9 X 248

Get at least 5 W Section that has a Zx greater than the computer


Sectio
Weig
n
Zx
Area
ht
5280
W12X27
7880
0
415
9
4780
W12X25
7010
0
375
2
4420
W14X23
7140
0
347
3
W33X1
2400
18
6800
0
176
3150
W21X16
7080
0
248
6
Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx
1.73 kN /m
176 X 9.81
Weight=
1000
New W ASD=W ASD+ 1.2Weight

75.19 kN /m

1492.10 kNm

Mmax=

wXL
get GRASP
8

Zx '=

Mmax
0. 9 X fy

6685.05 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.
(Zx<Zx)
For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion
Get the reaction forces of the beam Ry = 473.70 kN

Table 5. ASD Method Design for Girder Section

The girder is subjected to 2 point loads ( reaction force from the beam) placed at 4.5 m
and 9 m respectively
Parameter & Equation
Value
Maximum Moment Obtained
1477.3 Knm
Mmax=get GRASP
Get Zx Value

Zx=

Mmax
0.6 X fy

1477.3 X 1000
=9928.09 cu . mm
0.6 X 248

Get at least 5 W Section that has a Zx greater than the computer


Weigh
Section
Zx
Area
t
1020 3030
W36X160
0
0
238
1030 3190
W33X169
0
0
251
1110 3620
W30X191
0
0
284
1030 3680
W27X194
0
0
289
1110 4340
W24X229
0
0
341
Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx
2.4 6 kN /m
251 X 9.81
Weight=
1000
Mmax=get GRASP

Zx '=

Mmax
0.6 X fy

1527.12 kN m

10262.9 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.
(Zx<Zx)
For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion
! There are no uniform load in girders since it has been carried

already by the beam. Self-weight is added on the second iteration


in order to accommodate the weight of the section
Table 6. LRFD Method Design for Girder Section

The girder is subjected to 2 point loads ( reaction force from the beam) placed at 4.5 m
and 9 m respectively
Parameter & Equation
Value
Maximum Moment Obtained
2131.65 Knm
Mmax=get GRASP

Get Zx Value
Zx=

Mmax
0. 9 X fy

2131.65 X 1000
=9550.40 cu . mm
0. 9 X 248

Get at least 5 W Section that has a Zx greater than the computer


Sectio
Weig
n
Zx
Area
ht
W36X
1020 3030
160
0
0
238
W33X
1030 3190
169
0
0
251
W30X
3280
173
9950
0
257
W27X
1030 3680
194
0
0
289
W24X
3920
207
9930
0
307
Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx
251 X 9.81
2.4 6 kN /m
Weight=
1000
Mmax=get GRASP
Zx '=

Mmax
0.6 X fy

2187.69 kNm
9801.48 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.
(Zx<Zx)
For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion
! There are no uniform load in girders since it has been carried
already by the beam. Self-weight is added on the second iteration

in order to accommodate the weight of the section

IV.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS
Table 7. Chosen Steel Member Size
Beam ASD
W21X166
Beam LRFD
W33X118

V.

Girder ASD
Girder LRFD

W33X169
W33X169

OBSERVATION ,ANALYSIS and CONCLUSION


This exercise aims to design a steel member by looking at the flexural failure
scenario. Steps are different from the past exercises. It is very important to understand the
concept of tributary load in order to do this exercise correctly.
In this computational exercise, the loadings were solved by looking at the NSCP
provisions. Material specifications were given and to be looked up in the manual. This
can be found on chapter 2 minimum dead load loadings table. Since uniform load is
needed, this is almost the same with exercise 4 except that it will only include one
dimension (rather than 2 dimensions being multiplied with q).
It was computed that the uniform load for ASD was about 49.68 kN/m and for
LRFD was about 73.12 kN/m. This is then applied to the beam members. Beam
members then will be designed and will result to a new reaction force due to the inclusion
of weight. This is then to be used for the loadings in girder.
The final design for ASD (Beam) is W21X166, LRFD (Beam) is W33X118, ASD
and LRFD (Girder) is W33 X169. ASD tends to ask for a higher Zx compared to LRFD.

VI.

OTHER FIGURES

Figure 7.1 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the
section is applied (ASD BEAM)

Figure 7.2 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the
section is applied (LRFD BEAM)

Figure 7.3 GRASP result showing reaction forces of the beam with the weight of the section
being applied also (ASD BEAM)

Figure 7.4 GRASP result showing reaction forces of the beam with the weight of the section
being applied also (LRFD BEAM)

Figure 7.5 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the
section and 2 point loads are applied (ASD GIRDER)

Figure 7.6 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the
section and 2 point loads are applied (LRFD GIRDER)

Figure 7.7 Tributary Area of a one way slab and its corresponding force diagram (Source:
UWPLATT. EDU)
REFERENCES:
[1] System Loadings and Tributary Areas
http://www.engr.uky.edu/~gebland/CE%20382/CE%20382%20PDF%20Lecture

%20Slides/CE%20382%20L3%20-%20System%20Laoding.pdf
[2] Tributary Area PowerPoint from Uwplatt. Edu
[3] Tributary Areas on Girder
http://www.cee.mtu.edu/~raswartz/CEE3202/H7P5.pdf
[4] How Loads Flow Through a Building
http://www.engineersdaily.com/2014/05/how-loads-flow-through-building.html