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You are on page 1of 13

LBYCVD2

Computational Exercise No. 5

Section: EW2

RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF EXERCISES:

CRITERIA

EXEMPLARY

4

(90% - 100%)

Structure and

quality of the

report (40%)

structured and

written in a coherent

manner. It is neat, in

proper format and

appropriate notation

and terminologies

were used. Quality of

the report is

exemplary.

The report uses the

correct theory and

carries out accurate

calculations. Tables

and graphs are also

shown and are

exemplary.

Mathematical

processes and

computation

(50%)

Commitment

(10%)

commitment

SATISFACTOR

Y

3

(80% - 89%)

There is some

structure in the

report. Some

notation or

terminologies

were incorrect.

Quality of the

report is

satisfactory.

The report uses

the correct

theory. Some

calculations are

inaccurate.

Tables and

graphs are also

shown but labels

are incomplete

Student showed

satisfactory

commitment

DEVELOPING

2

(70% - 79%)

BEGINNING

1

(60% - 69%)

There is some

structure in the

report or

appropriate

notation or

terminologies

were

used.Quality of

the report is

poor.

The report uses

the correct

theory or the

calculations are

inaccurate. No

Tables or

graphs are

shown.

There is no

attempt to

structure the

report.

Student showed

little

commitment

Student showed

no commitment

REMAR

KS/

RATING

Incorrect theory

is used and

calculations are

incorrect.

TOTAL:

I.

OBJECTVIES

Students are expected to design the framing plan (which consists of beam and girder)

with a steel member. Design criteria to be inspected is the flexural strength of the member. ASD

and LRFD scenario are to be used in designing the steel members of the frame. More research

about tributary load and one way/ two way must be also done.

II.

Steel beams are designed with an assurance that the member will not fail at any

type of scenario. For this exercise, flexural design is to be focused on. For flexural, there

are 3 types of failure mode namely, Full Yielding, Inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, and

Elastic lateral-torsional buckling. This has been discussed in CIVDES2. Loadings are still

the same since the first exercise ranging from ASD (No factor) and LRFD (Factored).

These are the 2 methods in designing.

Beams are placed over the girders, which means the girder carries all the weight

that is carried by the beam (if one way slab is being considered). The girder may also

carry some weight of the slab that is not carried by the beam (two way slab). This will be

discussed further on the tributary area.

Tributary Area is an imaginary area that shows a particular boundary that will be

carried by a particular member. One way slab tributary area is only a rectangular in shape

as shown below. As seen from the figure, it is solely to be carried by the beam itself. Two

way slabs tributary area

is a little bit more complicated. There are parts that is being carried by the beam and by the

girder. The tributary area can be seen below.

Finally this exercise will be utilizing a one way slab due to the dimension ratio.

According to studies and experience, if Short/Longer >2, then it will be considered as a single

way slab. With one way slab, reinforcement is only applied in a single direction.

With various sources, studies, experimentation, it was seen that the beam does carry the

whole area (1 way slab) thus the beam will experience a uniform load. While the girder will

experience point loads from the beam, which carried the tributary area.

III.

Figure 2.3 Force distribution towards the system (Source: UWPLATT. EDU)

EQUATIONS, COMPUTATION AND FIGURES

Table 1. Given Parameters

Parameter

Girder Span (per section)

Total Girder Span

Values

4.5 m

13.5 m

Beam Span

Concrete Slab Thickness

Live Load

Steel Type : A36

12.6 m

150 mm

7.5 kPa

fy = 248 MPa

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of the structure showing the tributary area that is being carried by

the interior beam

Table 2. Load Computation for Beam Section

Dead Load

Live Load

Q ASD

Q LRFD

W ASD

W LRFD

Q (Kpa)

23.6 X .15

Given

qDL+qLL

1.2 qDL+1.6 qLL

3.54 kPa

7.5 kPa

11.04 kPa

16.25 kPa

q ASD X Shorter L .

49.68 kN /m

q LRFD X Shorter L .

73.12 kN /m

The beam is subjected to a uniform load due to the tributary area that it carries around

it.

Parameter & Equation

Value

Maximum Moment Obtained

49.68 X 12.62

=985.9 Knm

8

w X L2

Mmax=

get GRASP

8

Get Zx Value

Zx=

Mmax

0.6 X fy

985.9 X 1000

=6625.67 cu .mm

0.6 X 248

Weig

Section Zx

Area

ht

5280

W12X27

7880

0

415

9

4780

W12X25

7010

0

375

2

4420

W14X23

7140

0

347

3

3630

W18X19

7240

0

286

2

W21X1

3150

66

7080

0

248

Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx

248 X 9.81

2.43 kN /m

Weight=

1000

New W ASD=W ASD+ Weight

Mmax=

w X L2

get GRASP

8

Zx '=

Mmax

0.6 X fy

52.11 kN /m

1034.18 kNm

6950.135 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.

(Zx<Zx)

For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion

Get the reaction forces of the beam Ry = 328.29 kN

The beam is subjected to a uniform load due to the tributary area that it carries around

it.

Parameter & Equation

Value

Maximum Moment Obtained

73.12 X 12.62

=1451 Knm

8

2

wXL

Mmax=

get GRASP

8

Get Zx Value

Zx=

Mmax

0. 9 X fy

1451 X 1000

=6500.90 cu . mm

0. 9 X 248

Sectio

Weig

n

Zx

Area

ht

5280

W12X27

7880

0

415

9

4780

W12X25

7010

0

375

2

4420

W14X23

7140

0

347

3

W33X1

2400

18

6800

0

176

3150

W21X16

7080

0

248

6

Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx

1.73 kN /m

176 X 9.81

Weight=

1000

New W ASD=W ASD+ 1.2Weight

75.19 kN /m

1492.10 kNm

Mmax=

wXL

get GRASP

8

Zx '=

Mmax

0. 9 X fy

6685.05 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.

(Zx<Zx)

For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion

Get the reaction forces of the beam Ry = 473.70 kN

The girder is subjected to 2 point loads ( reaction force from the beam) placed at 4.5 m

and 9 m respectively

Parameter & Equation

Value

Maximum Moment Obtained

1477.3 Knm

Mmax=get GRASP

Get Zx Value

Zx=

Mmax

0.6 X fy

1477.3 X 1000

=9928.09 cu . mm

0.6 X 248

Weigh

Section

Zx

Area

t

1020 3030

W36X160

0

0

238

1030 3190

W33X169

0

0

251

1110 3620

W30X191

0

0

284

1030 3680

W27X194

0

0

289

1110 4340

W24X229

0

0

341

Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx

2.4 6 kN /m

251 X 9.81

Weight=

1000

Mmax=get GRASP

Zx '=

Mmax

0.6 X fy

1527.12 kN m

10262.9 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.

(Zx<Zx)

For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion

! There are no uniform load in girders since it has been carried

in order to accommodate the weight of the section

Table 6. LRFD Method Design for Girder Section

The girder is subjected to 2 point loads ( reaction force from the beam) placed at 4.5 m

and 9 m respectively

Parameter & Equation

Value

Maximum Moment Obtained

2131.65 Knm

Mmax=get GRASP

Get Zx Value

Zx=

Mmax

0. 9 X fy

2131.65 X 1000

=9550.40 cu . mm

0. 9 X 248

Sectio

Weig

n

Zx

Area

ht

W36X

1020 3030

160

0

0

238

W33X

1030 3190

169

0

0

251

W30X

3280

173

9950

0

257

W27X

1030 3680

194

0

0

289

W24X

3920

207

9930

0

307

Get the lightest section and compute for the new Mmax and Zx

251 X 9.81

2.4 6 kN /m

Weight=

1000

Mmax=get GRASP

Zx '=

Mmax

0.6 X fy

2187.69 kNm

9801.48 cu . mm

Since New Zx is less than the Zx of the section, we can accept the design already.

(Zx<Zx)

For the GRASP result please refer to the end of the report portion

! There are no uniform load in girders since it has been carried

already by the beam. Self-weight is added on the second iteration

IV.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

Table 7. Chosen Steel Member Size

Beam ASD

W21X166

Beam LRFD

W33X118

V.

Girder ASD

Girder LRFD

W33X169

W33X169

This exercise aims to design a steel member by looking at the flexural failure

scenario. Steps are different from the past exercises. It is very important to understand the

concept of tributary load in order to do this exercise correctly.

In this computational exercise, the loadings were solved by looking at the NSCP

provisions. Material specifications were given and to be looked up in the manual. This

can be found on chapter 2 minimum dead load loadings table. Since uniform load is

needed, this is almost the same with exercise 4 except that it will only include one

dimension (rather than 2 dimensions being multiplied with q).

It was computed that the uniform load for ASD was about 49.68 kN/m and for

LRFD was about 73.12 kN/m. This is then applied to the beam members. Beam

members then will be designed and will result to a new reaction force due to the inclusion

of weight. This is then to be used for the loadings in girder.

The final design for ASD (Beam) is W21X166, LRFD (Beam) is W33X118, ASD

and LRFD (Girder) is W33 X169. ASD tends to ask for a higher Zx compared to LRFD.

VI.

OTHER FIGURES

Figure 7.1 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the

section is applied (ASD BEAM)

Figure 7.2 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the

section is applied (LRFD BEAM)

Figure 7.3 GRASP result showing reaction forces of the beam with the weight of the section

being applied also (ASD BEAM)

Figure 7.4 GRASP result showing reaction forces of the beam with the weight of the section

being applied also (LRFD BEAM)

Figure 7.5 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the

section and 2 point loads are applied (ASD GIRDER)

Figure 7.6 GRASP result showing the maximum moment of the beam after the weight of the

section and 2 point loads are applied (LRFD GIRDER)

Figure 7.7 Tributary Area of a one way slab and its corresponding force diagram (Source:

UWPLATT. EDU)

REFERENCES:

[1] System Loadings and Tributary Areas

http://www.engr.uky.edu/~gebland/CE%20382/CE%20382%20PDF%20Lecture

%20Slides/CE%20382%20L3%20-%20System%20Laoding.pdf

[2] Tributary Area PowerPoint from Uwplatt. Edu

[3] Tributary Areas on Girder

http://www.cee.mtu.edu/~raswartz/CEE3202/H7P5.pdf

[4] How Loads Flow Through a Building

http://www.engineersdaily.com/2014/05/how-loads-flow-through-building.html

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