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Dystan Medical Supply Company Procedure Proposal

Hunter Schmidt and Mark Van der Merwe


An efficient and effective hot or cold pack is cheap to produce, and raises or lowers the
temperature with a small amount of salt. The Dystan Medical Supply Company has tasked the
lab to determine the most cost effective and efficient salt to use for a hot and cold pack:
ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride, lithium chloride, or potassium chloride.

By performing a calorimetry trial for each salt, the enthalpy of dissolution can be
determined. Calorimetry is the process by which you can measure the heat capacity of a
substance using a difference in temperature. The difference in temperature of a substance before
and after another hot one is added can be mathematically determined. However, it is usually
measured lower than predicted, do to the container absorbing some of the energy. This amount,
called the calorimeter constant, varies for each container, and is integral when performing
calculations for other experiments. After determining the Calorimetry constant, more
experiments can be performed substituting salts for hot water. This will allow the mass of the salt
required to make an effective hot or cold pack to be determined. An effective cold pack must be
able to achieve a temperature of 0, an effective hot pack can reach a temperature of 65,
therefore, a good salt will be able to achieve these temperatures with a small amount of salt.

Additionally, for the company to make a profit, the cost for each hot pack must be less
than $5.00. So the cost for each type of salt must also be considered, by determining the cost for
the amount of salt in each pack, as well as labor, overhead and the bag.

Part A: Determination of the Calorimeter Constant:

Begin by setting up the calorimeter with a MeasureNet temperature probe,
magnetic stirring rod, and begin heating distilled water on a hot plate. Add
approximately 50 mL of room temperature distilled water to the calorimeter, and
record the exact amount used. Measure the temperature of the hot water, making
sure to record the exact temperature, and that it is about 50 degrees C above room
temperature. Then measure the amount of hot water to be added, about 50 mL.

Start recording data for about 5 seconds, then carefully add the measured amount
of hot water to the calorimeter and close the lid. Continue recording data until the
temperature stabilizes. Repeat twice.
Using the data collected during the two trials prepare temperature vs. time
graphs using excel. Using the graph, determine the equilibrium temperature
(temperature which stabilizes), then find the temperature change for the hot and
cold water using the following equations:

Hot water: T(equilibrium) - T(initial

of hot water) = T(hot water)

ii. Cold Water: T(equilibrium) - T(initial
of cold water) = T(cold water)
Then record these values in your Results. To find the calorimeter constant,
use the data you gathered and calculated in the following equation:
q(calorimeter) = -(m(warm water)*C(warm water) *T(warm
water)) (m(cool water)*C(cool water)*T(cool water))
Then use the q(calorimeter) in the following equation to find the calorimeter
constant, C(calorimeter):
C(calorimeter) = q(calorimeter) / T(cool water)
This constant will help with later calculations, record it in your Results.
Part B: Determination of the Molar Heat of Dissolution of a Salt:

Begin by measuring out approximately 1.00g of Ammonium

Nitrate, and record the exact mass in your Results. Use the
calorimeter setup from before to record a thermogram, using
Ammonium Nitrate instead of hot water. and using approximately
50 mL distilled water. Make sure to record the exact amount used
in your Results. Repeat this 7 more times for two trials each of
Ammonium nitrate, Calcium chloride, Lithium chloride, and
Potassium chloride. To perform the calculations to find the
H(dissolution) of each salt, first plot the recorded data into a
temperature vs. time graph and find the equilibrium temperature.
use the data and the following equations to find the Temperature
for the water in the calorimeter:

T(water) = T(equilibrium) -

T(initial temp of water)

Then use the Temperature for the water to find the energy
of reaction using:
-q(reaction) = (m(water)*C(water)*T(water)) +
Then determine the moles of substance dissolved using the next formula:
mol(substance) = m(substance) / molar mass(substance)

Finally find the H(reaction) using:

H(reaction) = q(reaction)/(moles of substance
Repeat calculations for every trial, then average the Heats of Dissolution for
each salt.
To determine the most efficient salt to use in a hot and cold pack, the
following calculations may be performed. In order to determine the moles of
substance used, first we must determine the energy required to raise or lower the
hot/cold pack from 25 degrees (average room temperature) to either 0 degrees or
65 degrees. You will do this once for the cold pack and once for the hot pack. Use
the following equation to determine the energy needed for each pack:
q(pack) = m(pack) * C(pack) * T(pack)
i. m(pack) will be 100g (100 ml
used in pack * 1g/ml).
ii. C(pack) will be C(water).
iii. T(pack) will be the heat
the water in the pack must change.
In order to find how many moles will be used for each reaction use the
moles(salt) = q(pack) / -H(dissolution of
given salt)

Do this four times using different salts depending upon whether or not you are
raising or lowering the temperature, and find out the moles of each you will need.
Given your grams(you need to convert from moles to grams) of each salt
needed and the following information, determine how much each pack will cost
using each given salt:

Ammonium nitrate - $26.20 per 500 g

Calcium chloride - $31.70 per 500 g
Lithium chloride - $65.00 per 500 g
Potassium chloride - $28.19 per 500 g
Labor Cost per unit - $0.73
Capital/ overhead cost per unit - $0.36
Plastic bag cost per unit - $0.19

Lastly, compare these costs to determine which salt works best for each hot
and cold packs. Record your results.

Part A- Determination of Calorimeter Constant
Experimental Data and Calculations - Trial 1

Experimental Data and Calculations - Trial 2

Average Calorimeter Constant ______________J/

Part B - Determination of H of Dissolution for a Salt

Experimental Data and Calculations - Ammonium nitrate - Trial 1

Experimental Data and Calculations - Ammonium nitrate - Trial 2

Experimental Data and Calculations - Calcium chloride - Trial 1

Experimental Data and Calculations - Calcium chloride - Trial 2

Experimental Data and Calculations - Lithium chloride - Trial 1

Experimental Data and Calculations - Lithium chloride - Trial 2

Experimental Data and Calculations - Potassium chloride - Trial 1

Experimental Data and Calculations - Potassium chloride - Trial 2

Which salt should be used for the Cold Packs?____________

Which salt should be used for the Hot Packs?____________

Cost per Cold Pack $_________

Cost per Hot Pack $__________

Will the Dystan Company return a profit?

Zumdahl, Steven S., and Susan A. Zumdahl. Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach. Bellmont,
CA: Brooks/Cole, CENGAGE Learning, 2012. Print.
Stanton, Bobby, Lin Zhu, and Charles H. Atwood. Experiments in General Chemistry Featuring
Measurenet: Guided Inquiry, Self-directed, and Capstone. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage
Learning, 2010. Print.