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Striated Muscle Tissue composed of long, cylindrical, multinucleate muscle fibers, each with transverse
bands and longitudinal striae visible with light microscopy
- not a cell but a syncytium formed during histogenesis when myoblasts become
aligned end to end and unit, contributing nuclei and protoplasm to the elongated
syncytium contained within a delicate plasma membrane, the sarcolemma

Myofibrils parallel threadlike within the fiber that caused the longitudinal striations in muscle fibers

Sarcomeres composes the myofibril

- when shortened, myofibrils bulge and thus, the entire muscle shortens and thickens

Motor End Plate portion of the sarcolemma with receptors for neurotransmitters
- initiates stimuli along the sarcolemma that result in biochemical interactions
between the actin and myosin that result in shortening the sarcomeres

Motor Unit a functional group of muscle fibers that contract simultaneously

- the larger the number of motor units stimulated, the greater will be the effect of the

Cardiac Muscle Tissue unique variety of striated muscle tissue

- regularly depolarizes (myogenic) and conducts impulses through its own
system of fibers
- autonomic nerves modify the rhythmicity of this myogenic activity
- contains myofibrils and filaments of actin and myosin arrayed similarly to those
in skeletal muscle fibers
1) Cells are generally uninucleate.
2) Cells are separated by unique boundaries (intercalated disks)
3) It can contract without nervous stimulation.
4) It is innervated by fibers of the autonomic nervous system.

Intercalated discs link cytoplasms of adjacent cells, facilitating ion transport and thereby the rapid
passage of action potentials

Smooth Muscle Tissue cells are fusiform, uninucleate, have myofibrils but lack cross striations
- unlike striated muscle tissue, it occurs most often in sheets as part of an organ
- like cardiac muscle, it is innervated by the autonomic nervous system
Somatic Muscles orient the body (soma) of the organism in the external environment
- they are striated muscles that are attached to the ligaments, tendons, and bones of
the axial skeleton to the appendicular skeleton and to the skeletal components of the
lateral and ventral body walls
- innervated by spinal nerves, excepting the small number that operates the tetrapod
- said to be voluntary if they can be contracted at will
- they are derivatives, either ontogenetically or phylogenetically of the myotomes of
mesodermal somites
- often referred as myotomal or samitic muscles

Visceral Muscles maintain an appropriate internal milieu

- they are smooth muscles of hollow organs, vessels, tubes, and ducts, the intrinsic
musculature of the eyeballs, and the erector muscles of feathers and hair
- also include the cardiac muscle
- derived chiefly from splanchnic mesoderm and are innervated by the autonomic
nervous system
Branchiomeric Somatic Muscles belong to the pharyngeal arches and their ontogenic or phylogenetic
derivatives from fishes to human beings
- they are striated skeletal muscles
- myotomal in origin, but they are derived from the most anterior
somites and unsegmented paraxial mesoderm in the head

Somitomeres individual subdivisions in the paraxial mesoderm, which shows incomplete

- unlike somites of the body, they do not fully segment and lack sclerotome and
dermatome components (the derivatives of these missing components are derived
from the neural crest in the head)
- innervated by cranial nerves
- although somatic, they are typically considered separately because they do not
directly assist in orienting the body in the external environment

Contrast between Somatic and Visceral Muscles

Somatic Muscles
Visceral Muscles
Striated, skeletal, voluntary
Smooth, nonskeletal, involuntary
Primitively segmented
Arise mostly from lateral mesoderm
Mostly in body wall and appendages
Mostly in splanchnopleure
Primarily for orientation in external environment
Regulate internal environment
Innervated directly by spinal nerves III, IV, VI and XII
Innervated by postganglionic fibers of autonomic nervous system

Skeletal Muscles as Organs
o Skeletal Muscles consist of muscular and tendonous portion
Epimysium muscle fascia
- tough, glistening fibrous sheath, that surrounds a muscle
- consists chiefly of collagenous connective tissue and elastic fibers in small
amounts that vary with the muscle

Perimysium surrounds the mahor bundles of muscle fibers (fascicles) within the muscle
- penetrates the bundles to encapsulate smaller fascicles

Endomysium continuation of perimysium

- very fine collagenous reticulum that supports the muscular, neural and
vascular components of each functional unit
- surrounds each individual muscle fiber superficial to the sarcolemma

Tendons are continuations of the muscle beyond the site where fascicles end.
Collagenous bundles of the perimysium and epimysium continue into and become part of the
At the attachment of the tendon to the skeleton, the collagenous bundles of the tendon
continue into and contribute to the perichondrium or periosteum of the bone to which they are

Tension produced by muscle contraction is transmitted throughout the entire organ and from
one skeletal attachment to another.
Twitch and Tonic Muscle Fibers
Twitch Fibers predominant fiber in mammals with tonic fibers restricted to the extrinsic eye
muscles and ear muscles
- perform a wide range of functions with the slow twitch fibers paralleling the
function and low fatigue of the tonic fibers in amphibians and reptiles

Slow Twitch Fibers associated with a richer blood supply and large amounts of myoglobin
(thus their dark color)

Fast Twitch Fibers glycolytic

- represent those that are capable of great power in the absence of
oxygen during periods of heavy exertion

Androgens predominant gonadal hormones of males

- cause amino acids to be linked together into polypeptides and proteins
- produce larger muscles in males in such that muscles is 80% protein
Fiber Type Variations within Twitch Fibers

Slow Twitch
(Type I of Mammals)
Posture or slow repetitive movements

Fast Oxidative
(Type IIA of Mammals)

Fast Glycolytic
(Type IIB of Mammals)
Powerful and fast

Fatigue slowly

Fatigue slowly

Fatigue quickly

Large number of mitochondria

Large number of mitochondria

Few mitochondria

High oxygen storage proteins (myoglobin),

red muscle

ATP formed by

ATP formed by glycolysis with

possible oxygen debt

Dark meat of fish and fowl

Bird flight muscles


White breast of domestic fowl

Origins, Insertions and Muscle Shapes

Anatomic Origin of a Muscle site of attachment that remains fixed under most functional
- the bone on which it originates is not displaced when the muscle
Example: When a biceps muscle of the upper arm contracts, the forearm is flexed. The origin
of the biceps is therefore somewhere above the elbow.
Insertion of a Muscle site of attachment that is usually displaced by contraction of the muscle
- muscle may cause displacement of the bone of origin instead of the bone
of insertion if the former is immobilized by other muscles
Example: The geniohyoid muscle, which extends between the hyoid bone and the lower jaw
at the chin, either lowers the lower jaw or draws the hyoid forward, depending on which bone
is immobilized at the time.

Aponeuroses tough, thin, sheetlike expanses of mammalian tendons and ligaments

Galea Aponeurotica major component of the mammalian scalp

- lying in intimate association with the integument
- common tendon of insertion for a number of thin, broad integumentary
muscles of the forehead, temporal, and occipital regions

Raphes long, seamlike tendons such as the linea alba in the ventral midline of the trunk
- muscles inserting on raphes often compress a cavity and the organs within it

Tendonous Inscriptions fine nonmetameric and myoseptalike

- transverse many straplike muscles or broad muscular sheets, adding

tensile strength to the muscle

- prominent in the rectus abdominis of humans and in the broad oblique
and transverse muscle sheets of the abdomen of anurans and many
Actions of Skeletal Muscles
o Extensors tend to straighten two segments of a limb or vertebral column at a joint
o Flexors tend to draw one segment toward another
o Adductors draw a part toward the midline
o Abductors cause displacement away from the midline
o Tensors make a part such as the eardrum more taut
o Constrictors compress internal parts
Sphincters constrictors that make an opening smaller
Dilators constrictors that make an opening bigger
Example: Tongue or Hyoid
Protractors cause a part to be
thrust forward or outward
Retractors pulls back
Levators raise a part
Depresors lowers the part

Example: Plam
Rotators cause rotation of a part on its axis
Supinators rotators that turn the palm upward
Pronators make it prone (turn it downward)

Frequently, the muscles act in functional groups and also synergistically with other functional
groups that have an opposing action.
While one group is contracting, the opposite group must relax simultaneously and at the same
rate, otherwise, a stalemate would be the minimum effect.
For both muscle groups to function smoothly, they must be under reflex regulatory control of the
cerebellum, which dispatches motor impulses to appropriate muscles on receiving sensory
feedback from proprioceptive receptors located in the muscles, in their tendons, and in the bursas
and capsules of affected joints.
Names and Homologies of Skeletal Muscles
Direction of fibers oblique, rectus
Location or Position thoracis, supraspinatus, superficialis
Number of subdivisions quadriceps, digastric
Shape deltoid, teres, serratus
Origin or Insertion xiphihumeralis, stapedius
Action levator scapulae, risorius
Size majo, longissimus
- skeletal muscles of the trunk and tail
- extend forward beneath the pharynx as hypobranchial muscles and; in amniotes, as tongue muscles
- do not include branchiomeric or appendicular muscles

Metamerism increasingly obscured as locomotion by lateral undulation was superceded by

locomotion by limbs
- segmental because of their embryonic origin:
They arise from segmental mesodermal somites.
Mesenchyme cells from the myotome of each somite stream into the
embryonic lateral body wall and migrate ventrad while undergoing repeated
cell division.
They cease migrating when they reach the midvental line, where the linea
alba develops.

These myotomal cells give rise to blastemas for body wall muscles.
Because the somites are metameric, the blastemas are initially metameric.
Blastemal cells, having become myoblasts, unit to form striated muscle
fibers, and the body wall muscles.
Blastermal cells, having become myoblasts, unite to form striated muscle
fibers, and the body wall muscles commence to take shape.
Myosepta myocommata
- separate the muscle of one body segment from the next in the myomeres
Anurans and Amniotes:
It does not form in the abdominal region of anurans and amniotes. Their abdominal
musculature consists of broad sheets strengthened by tendonous incriptions. These sheets are
innervated by as many spiral nerves as these were somites that contributed to them.

Trunk and Tail Muscles in Fish

- consists of myomeres separated by myosepta to which the longitudinally directed muscle fibers attach
- first and foremost role is locomotion
- typically, there is myomere for each vertebra and a spinal nerve for each myomere

Horizontal Skeletogenous Septum a fibrous sheet that divided the myomeres into dorsal and
ventral masses (epaxial and hypaxial)
- anchored to dorsal ribs when the latter are present and
stretches between the vertebral column and the skin along the
entire length of the trunk and tail
Myosepta is zigzag when the skin is removed, but deeper within the wall, the myosepta
are elaborately folded, the angles of each zigzag being elongated forward or backward to
form muscular cones that fit into the cones of adjacent myomeres like stacked dunce
caps. The cones become longer toward the tail, and the apices of caudally directed
cones near the end of the trunk are often continues as tendonous extensions that insert
on caudal vertebrae.

Oblique Fibers think sheet that lies superficial to the main hypaxial mass ventrolaterally in many
- a thin ribbon of still more superficial fibers parallels the linea alba on each side
Metamerism of the hypaxial muscles of fishes is interrupted where the pectoral and
pelvic girdles are built into the body wall and by the gills.
Dorsal to the gill, the epaxial muscles continue to the skull as epibranchial muscles.
Beneath the gills, the hypaxials extend to the lower jaw as hypobranchial muscles.

Trunk and Tail Muscles of Tetrapods

- retained the primitive metamerism of epaxial and hypaxial muscles
- metameric axial musculature unaccompanied by a well-developed appendicular musculature is illsuited for locomotion on land
- disappearance of epaxial myosepta in amniotes gave rise to long, straplike or pinnate bundles
disposed above the transverse processes, leaving only a vestige of metamerism in the deepest
Expaxial Muscles of the Trunk
- extend from the base of the skull into the tail for varying distance
- collectively function in straightening (extending) the vertebral column and in lateral flexion of the body
Amphibians (except anurans):

The epaxials retain their primitive metamerism, arising and inserting on myosepta and
transverse processes, constituting collectively the dorsalis trunci.
Amniotes (except rhynchocephalians):
Most epaxials are long bundles, some of which extend over many body segments.

- divided into four groups:

1) Intervertebrals deepest epaxial muscles and the only ones that to retain their primitive
- extend between two successive transver processes (intertransversarii), two
neural spines (interspinales), two neural arches (interarcuales), or two
successive zygapophyses (interarticulares)
- participate with longer epaxials in maintaining a vertebral posture appropriate
to the need of the momments
2) Longissimus occupy the lateral position above the transverse processes
- named because it is the longest epaxial mass
- consists of bundles that, with their tendons, may extend over body segments
Capitis bundles insert on the skull and assist in movements of the head
Cervicis bundles in the neck
Dorsi bundles in the trunk
Longissimus is the dominant extensor. Lateral undulation is minimal. Plays a vitually no
role in generalized mammalian locomotion. In the lumbar region, it consists of three
district bundles. Medial bundle continues into tail.
3) Spinales occupy the medial position above the transverse processes
- include long and medial bundles that connect neural spines or transverse
processes with neural spines several or many segments cephalad and
transversospinales that connect transverse processes with the neural spines of the
second vertebra forward
- often grouped with lumbar intervertebrals; collectively called multifidus spinae
Their chief role is to assist in maintaining stability (temporary rigidity) of the column in
whatever degree of extension or other vertebral muscles impose flexion.
Spinales consist other bundles in maintaining upright posture while standing.
4) Iliocostales lateral to the longissimus
- constitute a thin sheet arising o the ilium and passing forward to insert on the
ribs and uncinate processes
They are the dominant epaxials because their lateral location their insertions along the
length of the column provide leverage for lateral undulation.
Lateral undulation rotates the pectoral girdle on a vertical axis, thereby increasing the
length of the stride of both pairs of limbs. It continues forward into the neck but not
caudad into the tail.
In turtles and birds, epaxials are prominent only in the neck because the vertebral column, and in
turtles, the ribs are immobilized by fusion with the synsacrum or carapace.
One of the epaxials of birds, complexus, inserts on the interparietal bone and provides power for
cracking the eggshell with the beak during hatching.

Epaxial muscles became increasingly hidden by the expansion dorsad of the appendicular muscles
and associated lumbodorsal aponeuroses as a derived condition in amniotes.
Hypaxial Muscles of the Trunk
1) Subvertebrals longitudinal bundles beneath the transverse processes in the roof of the coelom
2) Oblique Sheets
3) Transverse Sheets located in the lateral body wall (parietal muscles)
4) Rectus Abdominis Muscles longitudinal straplike muscles on either side of the linea alba
Subvertebral Muscles
- form a longitudinal band of fairly powerful flexors of the vertebral column lying beneath the transverse
processes from the atlas to the pelvis
The portion in the neck is known as longus colli. Subvertebrals are meager in the thorax but become
prominent again in the lumbar region where they are represented by the quadratus lumborum.
The portion of the neck is also called longus colli. Subvertebrals are meager in the thorax but
become prominent again in the lumbar region where they are represented by quadratus
lumborum and the psoas minor.
Quadratus Lumborum originates on the centra of several of the last thoracic vertebrae
- bases of their ribs on the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae
- inserts on the ventral angle of the wing of the ilium, with variations
depending on the species.
Psoas Minor commercially known as tenderloin
- connects the lumbar vertebrae with the pelvic girdle
Representative Somatic (Myotomal) Muscles of Head, Trunk, and Forelimbs of Mammals
Head and neck



Superior oblique
Inferior oblique
Medial rectus
Lateral rectus
Superior rectus
Inferior rectus
Branchiomeric Muscles
Mandibular muscles
Hyoid muscles
Other branchial muscles
Epaxial Muscles
L. capitis
L. cervicis
L. dorsi
Extensor caudae lateralis
S. dorsi
S. cervicis
S. capitis



Hypaxial Muscles
Longus colli
Quadratus lumborum
Psoas minor
Oblique group (parietals)
Internal and external intercostals
Internal and external obliques of abdomen
Serratus dorsalis
Levatores costarum
Transversus costarum
Transverse group (parietals)
Transversus thoracis (subcostal)
Transversus abdominis
Rectus muscles


Secondary appendicular
Levator scapulae
Serratus ventralis
Primary appendicular
Latissimus dorsi

Rectus abdominis
See table - (Chief Intrinsic Muscles of the
Pectioral Girdle and Forelimbs of
Mammals | Homolgues in Reptiles)

Oblique and Transverse Muscles

- along with the rectus muscles, it supports the abdominal viscera in a muscular sling and they
compress the viscera for such functions as egg laying, delivery of mammalian young and emptying of
the digestive tract
- play a major role in external respiration in most amniotes (intercostal)
Aquatic Urodeles:
External oblique muscle is split into
superficial and deep parts.
Crocodilians and some Lizards:
All three layers consist of two sheets
Internal oblique is sometimes missing.

All sheets are thin.
They are less than thin (vestigial)
Muscle slips from the inferior border of the
internal oblique. Cremaster muscle forms from
the transverse abdominal muscle.

Cremaster Muscle loops around the spermatic cord commencing at the inguinal ring and inserts
on a fibrous sheath in the wall of the scroyum below the testes
Supracoastal Muscles divisions that assist the intercoastals in differentiating the surface of the rib
cage (scalenus, serratus dorsalis, levatores costarum, transversus

Rectus Muscles of the Abdomen

- extends longitudinally on either side of the linea alba between the pubic symphysis and the sternum
- assists in flexing the trunk and in supporting the abdominal viscera in a muscular sling
It is extremely segmental.

Anurans and Amniotes:

It exhibits irregular transverse tendonous inscription.

A pyramidalis muscle in the ventral wall of the marsupial pouch is a slip of the rectus abdominis.
Eutherian mammals may have vestiges of the pyramidalis as a species characteristic or as an

Mammalian Diaphragm
o Central tendon constitutes the diaphragm with a pair of semilunar extensions and a muscular
Muscular Portion converges on the tendonous portion from a circumferential perimeter,
arising on the xiphoid process ventrally (sternal portion), on the
caudalmost ribs or their coastal cartilages laterally (costal portion), and
from several lumbar vertebrae dorsally (vertebral portion)
Muscles of the Tail
continuation of the epaxial and hypaxial musculature of the trunk

Extensor Caudae Lateralis tail section of the longissimus

- arises from sacral and caudal vertebrae
- inserts on distal tail vertebrae by many long slender tendons
- extend the tail and arch it upward

Caudofemoralis constitutes the fleshy part of the tail (in urodeles and reptiles)
- connects several caudal vertebrae at the base of the tail with the femur, being
secondarily an extrinsic appendicular muscle
- exerts a powerful backward pull on he hind limb and during locomotion of lizards
and crocodilians
Hypobranchial and Tongue Muscles
- derived from the anteriormost trunk somites
- supplied by cervical spinal nerves, or with respect to the tongue muscles, by the last cranial nerve
(hypoglossal), a cervical spinal nerve that became trapped within the amniote skull

Hypobranchial muscles extend forward from the coracoid region of the pectoral girdle (via
coracoarcuales), to insert on Meckels cartilages (coracomandibularis), basihyals
(coracohyoideus), and the ventralmost segments of the gill cartilages (coracobranchials).
They assist the branchiomeric muscles in respiration and feeding movements by expanding
the pharynx and gill pouches, moving parts of the hyoid skeleton, and depressing the lower
Hypobranchial muscles became longer and straplike. They stabilize the hyoid apparatus
and larynx and draw these cephalad or caudad, depending on the concurrent actions of
other muscles inserting on these same structures.
Tongue is essentially a mucosal sac anchored to the hyoid skeleton and stuffed with
hypobranchial muscles.
The chief extrinsic tongue muscles of mammals are the hyoglossus, styloglossus, and
- those that insert on the girldes, fins, or limbs

Paired fins arise in embryos as fin folds that protrude from the lateral body wall. Thereafter, hollow
muscle buds sprout from the lower edges of a series of embryonic myomeres near the base of
each fin fold.
The buds split into dorsal and ventral moieties, invade the developing fin, and establish blastemas
from which dorsal and ventral muscle masses are formed.
Dorsal blastemas form extensors (elevators) of the fin; ventral blastemas form flexors (depressors).
The resulting musculature establishes attachments to the girdles, basalia, radialia and the fascia
overlying the base of the fin rays.
The appendicular muscles of tetrapods are far more complex than those of dishes because of the
joints in tetrapod limbs.
Extrinsic Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Forelimbs
Dorsal Group

Latissimus Dorsi most constant dorsal extrinsic appendicular muscle of tetrapods

- inserts on the humeros
It is a delicate triangular muscle arising from the superficial fascia that overlies the epaxial
myomeres of the shoulder region.
It spread dorsad to acquire a firm attachment to the tough fascia that is anchored to neural
spines, and it broadened its axial origins by spreading still father caudad.
It rises from the neural spines of most of the thoracic vertebrae caudal to the first few, and from
the tough fibrous lumbodorsal fascia that overlies the lumbar vertebrae and extends all the way
to the base of the tail,
Three Extrinsic Muscles That Insert on a Scapula:
Levator Scapulae Ventralis origin on the transverse processes of the atlas or
on the basioccipital bone
Levator Scapulae Dorsalis origin on the transverse processes of the number
of posterior cervical vertebrae
Rhomboideus group arises from the occiput and neural spines of a series of
cervical and anterior thoracic vertebrae


Serratus Ventralis arises by many separate prominent tendonous slips from a series of ribs near
their junction with the costal cartilages
Trapezius superficial muscle of the shoulder region
- survivor of the cucullaris muscle of fishes
- acquired attachments to the pectoral girdle and then underwent the same expansion
as the latissimus dorsi
- eventually became subdivided into several components including cleidotrapezius
(cleidocervical), acromiotrapezius (cervical trapezius), and spinotrapezius
(thoracic trapezius)
- receives its motor innervationvia banchiomeric nerves

Ventral Group
The ventral extrinsic muscles of the forelimb, is subsumed under the general term, perctoral
These fan-shaped muscles, originating primitively on the coracoid cartilages or bones and
associated midventral raphe, extended their origins to include the epicoracoid, the entire length of
the midventral raphe of the neck.

They are subdivided into a varying number of superficial and deep muscle masses that converge to
insert on the proximal end of the humerus.
Two pectoral muscle masses, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus are seen in their primitive state
in a urodele.
Pectoralis chief adductor
Supracoracoideus underlies the procoracoid bone
- able to elevate the wing because its tendon of insertion passes to the
dorsal surface of the humerus
Intrinsic Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Forelimbs
Dorsal Group
Five Postaxial Muscles That Arises from the Scapula
Teres Major
Teres Minor
Long Head of the Triceps Branchii has two additional heads that arise on the humerus
- inserts on the olecranon process of the ulna where it
exerts a powerful pull that extends the forearm

Supinators of the Manus (2) connect the humerus with the radius

Extensors of the Hand and Digits with long distal tendons

- insert on the skeleton of the wrist and digits
- shortest ones are intrinsic to the manus

The mammalian deltoid muscle is probably homologue of the dorsalis scapulae or scapular deltoid
in other tetrapods.
The teres major appears to be a slip of the latissimus dorsi and the teres minor is probably the
muscle that, in reptiles, is called scapulohumeralis anterior.
The mammalia subscapular is an expansion of a muscle in the same location in reptiles.
Ventral Group
Muscles on the Lateral Aspect of the Scapula:
The supraspinatus and infraspinatus are homologues of the supacoracoid of reptiles, a broad
muscle having a ventral anatomic origin over a broad area of the procoracoid bone near the glenoid
The coracobranchialis of mammals originates on the coracoid process of the scapula, the latter
being the sole mammalian remnant of the coracoid bones of reptiles.
A biceps branchii and a branchialis are the major flexors of the forearm of reptiles and mammals.
A small deep anconeus (not homologus with the anconeus of frogs) extends between the distal end
of the humerus and the proximal end of the ulna and a small transverse epitrochleoanconeus
partially encirckes the elbow joint medially. Distal to these, pronators of the manus insert on the
radius and rotate this bone, and flexors of the manus with origins chiefly on the humerus insert by
long tendons on the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Intrinsic to the manus are very short
flexors of the digits.
Present in some mammals is a cleidobranhialis that extends from the clavicle to the humerus or
Chief Intrinsic Muscles of the Pectioral Girdle and Forelimbs of Mammals | Homolgues in Reptiles
Muscles of Girdle


Deltoideus clavicularis

Girdle to humerus, proximally

Muscles of Upper Arm

Girdle of humerus to proximal end of
radius or ulna
Muscles of Forearm
Humerus and proximal end of radius
and ulna to hand
Muscles of Hand

Dorsalis scapulae


Teres minor

Scapulohumeralis anterior





Teres major
Triceps branchii
Biceps branchii

Slip of Latissimus dorsi

Triceps branchii
Biceps branchii

Extensors and flexors of carpus and digits

Supinators and pronators of hand
Extensors, flexors, abductors, adductors of digits

Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Hind Limbs

Pelvic girldles are incapable of independent mobility. They are united with the vertebral column dorsally,
and the two halves meet in a symphysis ventrally.
Pelvic girdle is united with the immobile synsacrum.

Caudofemoralis Muscle extends between some of the proximal caudal vertebrae and the femur
(urodeles and reptiles)
- exerts its pull on the tail
- not locomotor in urodeles

Iliopsoas the puboischiofemoralis internus of reptiles

- appears as a separate iliacus and psoas major muscles (humans and mammals)
The iliac portion arises on the ilium.
The psoas major portion arises from an extensive area of fascia covering the
psoas minor and from a series of lumbar vertebrae.
The two portions unite and insert by a powerful tendon on the lesser trochanter,
a protuberance on the femur near its head. The muscle protracts and rotates the
Three Hip Muscles:
Gluteus the reptilian iliofemoralis
- most powerful
- abducts the thigh and, like the ilipsoas, rotates the femur to turn the foot
Pyriformis thre reptilian caudofemoralis brevis
Gemelli has a wide origin on sacral and caudal vertebrae and on the ilium and
ischium, and inserts a large protuberance, the greater trochanter, near
the head of the femur

Quadratus Femoris arises on the ilium and the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur and
inserts on the ligament in which the patella is embedded

- consists of four muscles (three vasti and a rectus femoris)

Vasti extend the leg
Rectus Femoris adducts the thigh, rotating it to carry the foot forward
Other extensors or adductor of the thigh include the semi-membranosus, adductor
femoris, adductor longus, pectneus, sartorius, and gracilis. They arise on the ilium,
ischium, or pubis, and insert on the shaft of the femur or on the patellar ligament and tibia.
The sartorius, the longest muscle in the human body, is a muscular strap that arises on
the ilium and passes diagonally down the medial aspect of the thigh.

Obturator Muscles (2) they flex, rotate and abduct the thigh
- they arise from the lip of the obturator foramen and from the ischium and
- inserted on the proximal end of the femur
A biceps femoris and a semitendinosus are primarily flexors of the leg, although the
former also abducts the thigh and the latter extends it. They arise on the ischium and
insert on the patella or tibia.
Innervation of Somatic Muscles

Exaxials of trunk and tail

Appendiculars of epaxial derivation

Dorsal rami of spinal nerves

Hypaxials of trunk and tail

Appecndiculars of hypaxial derivation
Mammalian diaphragm

Ventral rami of spinal nerves


Cranial nerve 12


Brachiomeric Muscles
The mesenchyme that provides the stem cells for these muscles come from somitomeres and
anterior somites of the head
Their motor neurons lie within a distinct motor column in the central nervous system
They perform two primitive visceral functions inherited from their filter-feeding ancestors (food
handling within the oropharyngeal cavity and respiration)
They operate the jaws and gill arches.
They still operate the jaws. However, with the loss of the gills, the muscles of the former gill
arches have acquired new dunctions for life on land.
Muscles of the Mandibular Arch
o Levator Palatoquadrati arises on the otic capsule and inserts on the quadrate end of the upper

jaw cartilage
- raises the upper jaw

Adductor Mandibulae arises on the quadrate process and inserts on Meckels cartilage
- raises the lower jaw, thereby closing the mouth during the phase of the
respiratory cycle when the spiracle is closed and water is being forced over
the gills by constriction of the walls of the orobranchial chamber (in
- enables sharks to hold in a viselike grip any prey unlucky enough to be
- most powerful muscle of the first arch in all gnathostomes
Masseter zygomatic arch
Temporalis temporal bone
- inserts on the coronoid process of the ramus of the mandible
Pterygoideus pterygoid fossa
The three muscles on each side constitute a muscular sling for the lower jaw and
provide most of the multidirectional tensile forces that produce the side-to-side, upand-down, forward and back, and rotary chewing movements of such different
mammals as herbivores, carnivores, and rodents.

Intermandibularis extends between Meckels cartilage and a strong midventral raphe in the
pharyngeal floor
- central constrictor that elevates the anterior pharyngeal floor during respiration
and feeding
Their intermandibular muscle is the homologue of the mylohyoideus of tetrapods.
One slip probably gave rise to the digastricus muscle of tetropods (anterior belly, when
there are two bellies).
A slip of the first arch muscle that was attached to the articular bone of therapsids
remained attached when the bone became the malleus. That muscle became the tensor
tympani which tenses the mammalian eardrum.

Spiracularis craniomaxillaris
- slender and inserted on the upper jaw to complete the first arch muscles of Squalus

Muscles of the Hyoid Arch

Levator Hyomandibulae and dorsal contrictor arise on the neurocranium and insert on the
hyomandibula and ceratohyal cartilage.
Branchiohyoideus Muscle arises in the ceratohyal cartilage and inserts on the epibranchial
cartilage of the first gill (in Necturus)
- along with levators, it waves the gills back and forth in the water for
Depresor Mandibulae opens the mouth of the urodeles and many reptiles
Posterior belly of the Digastricus participates in chewing movements (in some mammals)
Stylohyoideus anterior belly when there are two; connects the styloid or jugular process of the
skull with the anterior horn or body of the hyoid in mammals

Sphicter Colli think and overlying the origin of the branchiohyoideus

- adheres the skin of the neck of lower tetrapods

It spreads upward around the rear of the skull to insert on the skin of the head and is called
Platysma spreads forward onto the dace to become the muscles of facial expression, or
facial (mimetic) muscles.
Sphincter Colli is though to be derived from a portion of the interhyoideus.

Stapedius Muscle originates on the posterior wall of the middle ear cavity of mammals and inserts
on the stapes, a homologue of the hyomandibular cantilages.
- contracts to impede extra loud airborne sounds that might injure the cochlea

Muscles of the Third and Successive Pharyngeal Arches

The muscles of the arches of fishes caudal to the hyoid are constrictors (dorsal and ventral),
levators, adductors, and dorsal and lateral interarcuals, which compress or expand the
pharyngeal cavity and gill pouches during respiration.

Contrictors - they lie just under the skin, covered by tough subcutaneous fascia that is not
readily removed, and they attach to strong fascia above and below the gill
- they compress the gill pouches, expelling respiratory water

Cucullaris raises the pharyngeal wall assisted by the levator hyomandibulae of the
second arch

Adductors those deep in the gill arches connect epibranchial and ceratobranchial
cartilages and cause the lateral pharyngeal walls to bow outward when the
muscles contract, thereby expanding the pharyngeal chamber

The ceratobranchials in the floor of the pharynx are hypobranchial, not branchiomeric muscles.
Bony fishes:
Branchiomeric muscles caudal to the hyoid arch are musch reduced as a
consequence of the role of the operculum in moving respiratory water across the gills.
Branchiomeric muscles has pretty mush disappeared. Remaining from arch III are a
stylopharyngeous muscle that is used in swallowing.
Remaining from arch III is a posterior belly of the stylohyoideus. Remining from arch IV
are the intrinsic muscles of the mammalian larynx cricothyroideus, cricoarytenoideus,
and thyroarytenoideus.
Chief Branchiomeric Muscles and Their Innervation in Squalus and in Tetrapods
I Mandibular arch

Pharyngeal Skeleton
in Squalus
Meckels cartilage

Chief Branchiomeric Muscles

Mylohyoideus (anterior part)
Digastricus (anterior part)
Adductor mandibulae

II Hyoid arch


Levator palatoquadrati
Levator hyomandibulae
Dorsal constrictor

Cranial Nerve

Adductor mandibulae
Tensor Tympani
Stylohyoideus (anterior part)
Depressor mandibulae
Digastricus (posterior belly)



Gill cartilages

IV to VI

Gill cartilages

Cucullaris (derived also
from dorsal constrictor

Sphincter colli
Stylohyoideus (posterior part)




nerves in
shark; spinal
roots of XI in

Extrinsic Eyeball Muscles

They are striated, voluntary muscles that arise on the wall of the orbit and insert on the fibrous
sclerotic coat of the eyeball.
In elasmobranchs, their embryonic origin is from preotic somitomeres in the embryonic head.
The most cephalic two somitomeres give rise to eyeball muscles are at the level where the
third cranial nerve emerges from the midbrain. This nerve innervates four eyeball muscles,
the superior, medial, and inferior rectus, and the inferior oblique.
The next more caudal somitomere is at the level where the fourth cranial nerve emerges.
This nerve innervates the superior oblique eyeball muscle.
The last preotic somitomere is at the level where the sixth cranial nerve emerges. This
nerve innervates the lateral rectus eyeball muscle.
In many amniotes, muscles insert on the upper lids and nictitating membrane.
Reptile pyramidalis
Reptiles and Mammals levator palpebrae superioris
Birds quadratus
Protractors and retractors of the eyeballs of reptiles and depressors of the lower lids, when present
are evidently not of similar origin to the eye muscles because they are innervated by the fifth cranial

Chief Extrinsic Eyeball and Eyelind Muscles and Their Innervation

Cranial Nerve Supply
III (Oculomotor)

Extrinsic Eyeball Muscle

Superior rectus
Inferior rectus
Medial (internal) rectus
Inferior oblique

IV (trochlear)

Superior oblique

VI (abducens)

External (lateral) rectus

Retractor bulbi

Eyelid Muscle
Levator palpebrae superioris

Pyramidalis of the eye

Quadratus of the eye

Extrinsic Integumentary Muscles their development and anatomical origins are away from the
- their insertions are along the undersurface of the dermis

Costocutaneous Muscles they are hypaxial integumentary muscles used in locomotion in


Panniculus Cornosus cutaneous maximus

- wraps around the entire trunk of some mammals, enabling armadilos
to roll into a ball when endangered
- forms a sphincter around the entrance to the abdominal pouch of
marsupials, and vigorously shakes flies off horses
- probably started as superficial slips of the pectoral musculature that
became attached to the undersurface of the skin and then spread
- poorly developed in monkeys and absent in humans

Cutaneous Pectoris sheet of pectoral musculature

- maintains its original attachment to the chest wall in anurans

Patagial Muscles slips of pectoral muscled inserted on the skin of the wing membranes (in

Caninus elevates the part of the upper lip that hides the spearlike canine tooth used by
carnivores for ripping flesh

Auricular Muscles direct the pinnas of the ears toward faint sounds (nonhuman mammals)

Facial Muscles innervated by cranial nerve VII, a branchiomeric nerve

Intrinsic Integumentary Muscles develop entirely within the skin, in the dermis

Arrectores Plamarum & Arrectores Pilorum inserted on feather or hair follicles and ruffle the
feathers or elevate the fur
- smooth muscles in nearly all species and are
innervated by the sympathetic nervous system

o Electroplax modified multinucleate muscle fiber embedded in a vascular jellylike extracellular
matrix surrounded by connective tissue
- nerve ending terminating on each disc induce the discharge

Torpedo (Electric Ray):

An electric organ lies in each pectoral fin near the gills. It is of branchiomeric origin, being
supplied by motor fibers of cranial nerves VII and IX.
Raja (Skate) & Electophorus (Electric Eel):
Electric organs lie in the tail and are modified hypaxial muscles