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You are on page 1of 6

1) The stress state at a point is

3 1 1

[ ] = 1 0 2 MPa

1 2 0

Obtain the normal stress along the direction {2 1 2}T. Determine the principal stresses and

their respective directions.

2) The condition det([] [I]) = 0 must be imposed in order to find the principal stresses.

Algebraically, this condition leads to the polynomial equation 3 I12 I2 I3 = 0, where

I1, I2 and I3 are the invariants of the stress state. Show that the invariants do not change

under any transformation of the reference system.

3) A square matrix [A] can always be decomposed into symmetric and antisymmetric terms

such that [A] = [A]s + [A]a, where [A]s = ([A] + [A]T)/2 and [A]a = ([A] [A]T)/2. Show that

the contribution of [A]a to {x}T[A]{x} is null, i.e., show that {x}T[A]a{x} = 0.

4) Show that the three roots of det([] [I]) = 0 must necessarily be real.

5) Consider that a given stress state [] is described in another reference system as ['].

Show that the eigenvalues of [] and ['] must be the same.

6) Show that, if a stress state satisfies x + y + z = 0, then it corresponds to a pure shear

stress state. In other words, show that there exists a reference system x'y'z' such that x' = y'

= z' = 0 provided x + y + z = 0 holds.

7) A homogeneous transformation changes the configuration of the cube as show in the

figure below. Fibers parallel to X remain parallel to X and do not stretch. Determine the

deformation gradient, the transformations x = x(X, Y, Z), y = y(X, Y, Z), z = z(X, Y, Z) and

the displacement field u = u(X, Y, Z), v = v(X, Y, Z), w = w(X, Y, Z).

Z

c(0,6,6)

z

e(2,8,6)

E

y

B

Y

x

a(0,3,3)

b(0,5,3)

D

X

d(2,3,3)

8) Determine the Green strain tensor and the small strain tensor for the solid of problem 7.

9) At a certain instant of time the displacement field in a solid is given by

u = X 2 , v = YZ , w = 2 XZ + X 2

Determine:

(a) The Green strain tensor.

(b) The strain at point X = Y = 1, Z = 0.

(c) The normal strain along direction {2 2 1}T at point X = Y = 1, Z = 0.

(d) The angle change between the perpendicular directions {2 2 1}T and {3 0 6}T.

(e) The angle change between directions {2 2 1}T and {3 0 4}T.

10) A cube with unit length edges undergoes the transformation x = a1(X + 2Y), y = a2Y, z =

a3Z, where a1, a2, a3 are constants.

Determine:

(a) the length of the diagonal AB after

deformation;

(b) The relation among a1, a2, a3 such that

there is no change in the angle between

AB and AC.

represent the same strain state

5

[ ] = 3

1

3 1

3 2 0

4 0 , [ ] = 2 6 2

0 2 2

0 2

G12= G13 = 4.4 GPa, G23 = 3.2 GPa, 12 = 13 = 0.25 and 23 = 0.46. Write the constitutive

matrix [C].

13) Show that the principal stress directions coincide with the principal strain directions for

a linear elastic isotropic material.

14) Obtain the stresses in an aluminum alloy with E = 72 GPa and G = 27 GPa knowing

that the strains are 1 = 200106, 2 = 300106, 3 = 0, 12 = 100106, 13 = 0 and 23 =

400106.

15) Using the equations of lamina stiffness transformation, prove that the quantity Q11 +

Q22 + 2Q12 is invariant, i.e., it is independent of axes orientation, by showing that, for any

angle , the following relation holds: Q11 + Q12 + 2Q12 = Q11 + Q12 + 2Q12 .

16) A specimen is made by joining along one edge two unidirectional laminae at 0o and 45o

to the loading axis, as shown below. How is the specimen going to deform in the transverse

direction for a material with E1 = 145 GPa, E2 = 10.4 GPa, G12 = 7.6 GPa and 12 = 0.28?

Sketch the deformed equilibrium configuration.

x

17) Knowing E1, E2, 12 and (Ex)45 (modulus at 45o to the fiber direction), determine G12

exactly. Find an approximation for G12 using high stiffness composites.

18) Knowing E1, E2, G12 and 12 for a unidirectional lamina determine (xy)45. Find an

approximation for (xy)45 using high stiffness composites.

19) Determine Poisson's ratio xy at angle = 30o with the fiber direction for material with

the following properties: E1/E2 = 3, G12/E2 = 0.5 and 12 = 0.25.

20) A unidirectional lamina is loaded at angles = 30o and 60o with the fiber direction and

the corresponding moduli (Ex)30 and (Ex)60 are obtained. Determine a relationship between

those two moduli and E1 and E2.

21) A woven composite has identical moduli and Poisson's ratio in longitudinal and

transverse direction, E1 = E2 and 12 = 21 = 0.02. Determine the maximum value of

Poisson's ratio, (xy)max, shear coupling coefficient (sx)max and the corresponding angles .

22) Using the transformation relation for Ex, determine its maximum and minimum values

(by using derivatives of Ex with respect to ). Prove that Ex can have a maximum for some

value of (0o < < 90o) when 2G12 > E1/(1 + 12). This means that for some orthotropic

materials, the off-axis modulus Ex can be higher than E1.

23) Using the same procedure as in problem 22, prove that Ex can have a minimum for

some value of (0o < < 90o) when 2G12 < E1/[(E1/E2) + 12].

24) Using the same procedure as in problem 22, prove that Ex attains its maximum value E1

at = 0o and its minimum value E2 at = 90o when E1/[(E1/E2) + 12] < 2G12 < E1/(1 + 12).

25) A unidirectional lamina is loaded under a uniaxial stress 1 = 0 and the principal

strains 1 and 2 are measured. Compute the transverse strain 2' of the same lamina loaded

under equal biaxial normal stresses 1 = 2 = 0 as a function of 1, 2 and the ratio k =

E1/E2.

26) For a unidirectional lamina in pure shear 0 at 45o with the fiber direction, obtain the

expressions for the three strain components x, y and xy as a function of the basic

engineering constants E1, E2, G12, 12, and the shear stress 0.

45o

2

x

27) An off-axis unidirectional lamina is loaded under biaxial normal loading along the xand y-axes. Find as expression for the ratio of the two normal stresses, k = y/x, such that

there is no shear deformation in the lamina.

y

y = kx

1

x

x

28) An off-axis unidirectional lamina is loaded as shown under uniaxial tension and inplane shear at an angle to the fiber direction. Express the normal strains x and y in terms

of the engineering properties (Ex, Ey, Gxy, xy, yx, xs, ys, sx, sy). What relation must the

engineering properties satisfy, so that for a certain ratio x/s the material behaves as an

infinitely rigid one with x = y = 0? What is the ratio k = s/x in that case?

y

s = kx

1

x

2

with the fiber direction. The basic strength properties of the material are: Xt = Xc = 3Yc = 5S

= 12Yt = 600 MPa. Determine the level x at failure of the lamina according to the

maximum stress theory. What is the failure mode?

30) A unidirectional S-glass/epoxy lamina is loaded at an angle to the fiber direction. Using

the maximum strain criterion, determine the off-axis strength, Fxt, and the fiber orientation

at which the predictions of in-plane shear and transverse failure coincide. Xt = 1280 MPa,

Yt = 49 MPa, S = 69 MPa, 12 = 0.27, 21 = 0.06.

31) For the off-axis lamina under positive and negative shear stress as shown, and using the

maximum strain failure theory, express the positive and negative shear strengths, S+ and S,

in terms of the basic lamina strengths (Xt, Xc, Yc, Yt, S) and material Poisson's ratios.

y

s (+)

s ()

1

1

30o

30o

2

and 60o with the fiber direction. Calculate the ultimate value of 0 using the maximum

strain theory for the following properties: S = Yt = 55 MPa, E1 = 145 GPa, E2 = 10.4 GPa,

G12 = 6.9 GPa, 12 = 0.27, Xc = 1725 MPa, Yc = 207 MPa.

33) Express the Tsai-Hill failure criterion for pure shear loading of a lamina at an angle

with the principal material axes and find an expression for the shear stress at failure s in

terms of X, Y and S.

34) A unidirectional lamina is loaded in pure shear s at an angle = 30o with the fiber

direction. Determine the shear stress at failure s using the TsaiHill failure criterion and the following data: X = 2070 MPA, Y = 228 MPa, S = 69 MPa.

35) Using the Tsai-Hill failure criterion, determine the strength F0 of a lamina under equal

biaxial tension and shear (x = y = 2s = F0) at 45o with the fiber direction in terms of X

and Y.

36) An off-axis lamina is loaded under x = y = F0. Determine F0 at failure using the

Tsai-Hill and maximum failure criteria for a material of the following properties: Xt = 2280

MPa, Yt = 59 MPa, S = 69 MPa, Xc = 1450 MPa, Yc = 228 MPa.

37) The off-axis strength of a unidirectional lamina can be higher than X at some angle

between 0o and 90o. Using the Tsai-Hill failure criterion find a relationship among X, Y and

S such that X > X for some angle 0o < < 90o.

38) For the same conditions of problem 37 find a relationship among X, Y and S such that

X < Y for some angle 0o < < 90o.

39) Using the Tsai-Wu failure criterion, determine the strength of a lamina under the

loading x = y = F0. Obtain the exact solution for the ultimate value of F0 in terms of the

Tsai-Wu coefficients F1, F2, F11, etc. Use = 15o.

40) Using the Tsai-Wu failure criterion for pure shear loading of a lamina at an angle

with the fiber direction, express the shear stress at failure s = Fs in terms of the Tsai-Wu

coefficients. Particularize the expression obtained for = 45o.

41) For the off-axis lamina under positive and negative shear stress as shown, express the

positive and negative shear strengths, S+ and S, using the Tsai-Wu failure theory in terms

of the polynomial coefficients (F1, F2, F11, F22, F12).

y

s (+)

s ()

1

1

30o

30o

2

42) For the off-axis lamina of problem 41, obtain expressions for the coefficient F12 of the

Tsai-Wu criterion in terms of the basic strength parameters and positive or negative shear

strengths S+ and S. Compare the values of F12 based on S+ and S by assuming F1 << F2,

F11 << F22.

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