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CHEN 410 Unit Operations Lab

Lab Reports

Your report will be evaluated on:

Quality of writing (25 % of each report grade),


Content of report (25 % of each report grade),
Analysis of your data (25 % of each report grade),
Discussion of results (25 % of each report grade),

The following should serve as a guideline on how to write and present a good report:

1.1 Usual Sections


Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Tables, Abstract, Introduction, Theory,
Experimental, Discussion of Results, Conclusion, Bibliography, Appendix A (sample
calculations, raw data).

1.2 Equations
Equations are centered with the number in brackets and right-justified. Symbols are in italics.
Referred to in text as Equation (1).

(1)

where, P = absolute pressure, kPa;


T = temperature, K;
H = heat of vaporization, kJ/kmol;

1.3 Table Making


No shading, no colour. Title at the top. Put table as close as possible to its reference in the
text; i.e. either right after or the top of the next page. Numbers are centered.
Table 1: Boiling temperature at various pressures
Temperature, T () Pressure, P (kPa)
9.5
26.9
37.8
67.3
105.4
101.2

1.4 Graphs and Figures


Graphs and figures should be close to the text; no problem having graphs, tables and figures
on the same page as text. Titles normally below the graph or figure. Avoid colour. No extra
boundary lines around the figure.

1.4.1 Graphs
Several important rules:

Tick marks inside;


Label axes with units;
Use log scale when appropriate (i.e., dont take log and then plot on linear axis);
No grid lines;
For function lines, use heavier style than axes;
Use 103 rather 1.0E3 for axis labeling;
120

Pressure, kPa

100
80
60

40
20
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Temperature, C
Figure 1: Pressure as a function of temperature
1.4.2 Figures
Rough schematic or sketch is fine. Use appropriate legend when necessary. Title on bottom.

1.5 Other Tidbits


1. Dont pluralize or periodize abbreviations; lb not lbs.;
2. Somme common abbreviations: Btu (not BTU); h (not hr or hrs.); k (103) no K; kWh;
kmol (or kg-mol);
3. Paragraphs are never indented;
4. Page numbers either at center bottom or bottom right corner;
5. but K (no degree sign);
6. Margins: about 1 inch, all sides;
7. Dont use headings or footings on pages;
8. Avoid the first person (I and we);
9. Watch significant figures; normally 3 is enough, maximum 4. Note that Excel outputs
will usually have to be edited to adhere to this;
10. Font style: Times New Roman; Font size: 12;
11. Spacing: 6 pt before, 0 pt after; 1.5 lines spacing.