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Forthcoming Guidebook titles:

Bandhavgarh, Kanha, Periyar and Ranthambhore


Sanctuary publications:
The Kaziranga Inheritance
The Bharatpur Inheritance
The Sundarbans Inheritance
The Corbett Inheritance
The Bandhavgarh Inheritance
The Periyar Inheritance
Forever Stripes
India Naturally
Wild Maharashtra

The Sanctuary Guide to

Kaziranga

Forthcoming Sanctuary publications:


The Kanha Inheritance
The Ranthambhore Inheritance
The Tadoba Inheritance
To obtain copies, log on to:
<www.sanctuaryasia.com>
admin@sanctuaryasia.com

Director, Kaziranga National Park, Bokakhat 785 612, Assam, India.


Tel.: +91 3776 268095, Email: dir.kaziranganp@gmail.com
Deputy Director, Kaziranga National Park, Bokakhat 785 612, Assam, India.
Tel.: +91 3776 268007, Email: dfo.eawl@gmail.com

A child of the Brahmaputra river, the Kaziranga


Biosphere Reserve is one of the most incredible
ecosystems in the world. The interplay of the river and
its tributaries results in a mosaic of tall elephant grass
and forests that give rise to a vast diversity of insects,
birds and animals. This magical land is synonymous
with the great Indian one-horned rhinoceros a
name that inspires awe and pride in the minds and
hearts of the Assamese people. This is also tiger and
elephant country. In Kaziranga, you can hear the call
of the hoolock gibbon and observe the aerial mating
ritual of the Bengal Florican. The park also plays
host to the Asiatic wild buffalo, swamp deer, sambar,
hog deer and an astounding 500+ species of birds.
Every nook and cranny of this emerald wonderland
is special. But even more than the sight of a rhino,
tiger or elephant, it is the parks indescribable peace
and quiet magic that feed the soul and remain with
visitors forever.
This compact field guide from Sanctuary offers
a snapshot of Kaziranga replete with insider tips on
where to enjoy the best sightings and places to stay.
With pages to jot down notes and memories, this is
an ideal companion to take along as you explore the
natural paradise of Kaziranga.
Note: The information contained in this guidebook
was correct at the time of going to press in February
2014. Visitors are advised to double-check information
just prior to making a trip so that they are aware of
changes in rules and access. For more information visit
www.sanctuaryasia.com.

How to get there:


By air: Jorhat (90 km.) is the nearest airport and is well connected to Kolkata, Delhi and
Guwahati (200 km.). The park is around two hours by road from Jorhat and six hours from
Guwahati.
By rail: Furketing (75 km.) is connected to Guwahati, New Delhi and Kolkata. Guwahati is
the nearest major railway station and is well connected with the rest of India.
By road: Bokakhat (23 km.) is the closest town. Get down at Kohora on the GuwahatiJorhat route. State transport buses and private taxies are available from Guwahati. If visiting
Kaziranga after a trip to Arunachal Pradesh, Tezpur is the best approach route.

Front cover, Tiger


Steve Winter

ANUPAM NATH

in association with

THE WILDLIFE GUIDE THAT TAKES YOU


TO ROADS LESS TRAVELLED.

Back cover, Rhino


Niladri Sarkar
DEBASISH ROY

Produced by

FLORA AND FAUNA


BIRDING
HISTORY
ACCOMMODATION
MAP
CONSERVATION

Tiger

Rhino

Indian Water Buffalo

Front

Hind

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Sloth Bear

The Sanctuary Guide to

GOBIND SAGAR BHARDWAJ

Kaziranga

Produced by

in association with

Kaziranga

CONTENTS
THE KAZIRANGA
INHERITANCE 4
A LIVING HERITAGE
PROTECTING
PARADISE
WHAT A FOREST!

EDITOR
Bittu Sahgal
EXECUTIVE EDITOR
Lakshmy Raman
EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
Anirudh C. Nair
EDITORIAL INPUTS
Jennifer Scarlott
SCIENCE, NATURAL HISTORY AND PHOTOGRAPHY
Dr. Parvish Pandya, Head
Gaurav Shirodkar, Coordinator

ABOUT KAZIRANGA 8
BIOGEOGRAPHY
HISTORY
VEGETATION

ART DIRECTION
Umesh Bobade & Qamruddin Shaikh
IMAGE EDITING
Qamruddin Shaikh
PRINTING
Sel Print India Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai

While the information contained in this guide is


accurate to the best of our information, it is
vital that visitors double-check all key facts and
new rules, if any, before their visit.

DEBASISH ROY

ISBN 978-81-906953-3-6

HOW AND WHAT TO


LOOK FOR 14
ASIAN ELEPHANT
RHINO
TIGER
SWAMP DEER
WATER BUFFALO
THE LITTLE THINGS
DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

BIRDLIFE 19
TIPS FOR
BIRDERS

No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any
means without the prior written permission of the publisher.
First published in India in 2014 by:
Sanctuary Asia
146, Pragati Industrial Estate,
N. M. Joshi Marg, Lower Parel, Mumbai 400 011.
www.sanctuaryasia.com
Text Sanctuary Asia
All rights reserved.

PREPARING FOR
YOUR TRIP 24
CHARTING YOUR
COURSE
CLOTHING
DONT FORGET!
JUNGLE ETIQUETTE
WHEN YOU ARE OUT
BIRDWATCHING

Kaziranga

INSIDE
INFORMATION 28
HOW TO GET IN 29
BEYOND THE RHINO
AND TIGER 30
HIDDEN SIGNS
WHAT YOU CAN DO
IN AND AROUND
KAZIRANGA 32
WHERE TO STAY 34
FOREST REST HOUSES
QUALITY LODGES
OR RESORT
ACCOMMODATION

YES! YOU CAN


TAKE GREAT
PHOTOGRAPHS 42

A CHECKLIST OF
KAZIRANGA 54
BIRDS
MAMMALS
AMPHIBIANS
& REPTILES
BUTTERFLIES

ABOUT THE
SPONSORS 67
YOUR FEEDBACK 69
NOTES 70

NILADRI SARKAR

PHOTOGUIDE 44
BIRDS
MAMMALS
REPTILES &
AMPHIBIANS
BUTTERFLIES

THAKUR DALIP SINGH

CONSERVATION
ISSUES 38

The surpluses from the sale of this guide will be routed through
Amalgamated Plantations Private Limited and the Rhino Foundation,
for the benefit of the keepers of the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve.

Kaziranga

INSIDE
INFORMATION 28
HOW TO GET IN 29
BEYOND THE RHINO
AND TIGER 30
HIDDEN SIGNS
WHAT YOU CAN DO
IN AND AROUND
KAZIRANGA 32
WHERE TO STAY 34
FOREST REST HOUSES
QUALITY LODGES
OR RESORT
ACCOMMODATION

YES! YOU CAN


TAKE GREAT
PHOTOGRAPHS 42

A CHECKLIST OF
KAZIRANGA 54
BIRDS
MAMMALS
AMPHIBIANS
& REPTILES
BUTTERFLIES

ABOUT THE
SPONSORS 67
YOUR FEEDBACK 69
NOTES 70

NILADRI SARKAR

PHOTOGUIDE 44
BIRDS
MAMMALS
REPTILES &
AMPHIBIANS
BUTTERFLIES

THAKUR DALIP SINGH

CONSERVATION
ISSUES 38

The surpluses from the sale of this guide will be routed through the
Amalgamated Plantations Private Limited and Rhino Foundations
for the benefit of the keepers of the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve.

Kaziranga

THE KAZIRANGA INHERITANCE


Protecting a peoples legacy
By Bittu Sahgal
as I savoured the
moment.
A LIVING HERITAGE
I already knew
pretty much all that
had been written
about Kaziranga
before I arrived, but
nothing could
possibly have prepared me for
the aura of the grassland home
of the Indian rhinoceros.
From the earliest days of my
involvement with wildlife in the
1970s, I had heard stories of the
magnificent Northeast from the
likes of the late Dr. Slim Ali and
Humayun Abdulali. I had also
read E.P. Gees The Wild Life of
India from cover to cover. But
sitting on that log and listening
to Ranjit speak about his world
and hearing the slosh of rhinos
and the yelp of otters filled me
with Kaziranga in a way no
book, including this tiny one,
could ever do.
Speaking easily from
knowledge born of years spent in
the Northeast, Ranjit told me
about the Seven Sisters the
political states of India into

COURTESY: E. P. GEE/BNHS

COURTESY: E. P. GEE/BNHS

Ranjit Barthakur
and I sat on a large
log watching otters
fish in the Diphlu
(also spelt Diffolo)
river. We paused a
while, on the way
back from Debeswari, E.P. Gee
to take in the throb of
life that is Kaziranga. We had seen
two Bengal Floricans rise and then
float down like balloons, in a dance
ritual designed to impress females
hidden in the tall grass. We also saw
where a tiger, elephant and turtle had
left telltale footprints when they
crossed a dry, sandy riverbed, no
doubt at different times of the day.
Across the river from where we
now sat in silence, two rhinos made
a quick appearance and then
vanished into their veiled grassland
world. They were followed by a small
herd of elephants whose trumpeting
we heard long before they revealed
themselves. A decidedly fishy smell
and silvery scales strewn about the
log suggested we were not far from
the otters underground holt. The
whole of the Assam valley, the whole
world was once this ordered,
this peaceful, I thought to myself

Elephants have always been used to study and protect rhinos in Kaziranga. The visitors book is
replete with references to the skill of mahouts who rode elephants used to transport Prime Ministers,
Presidents and foreign dignitaries. Above: E.P. Gee conducting an elephant-back survey.

Kaziranga

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Kaziranga is best known for its rhinos, but its fortress home has also protected a whole range
of herbivores including this sambar deer seen framed elegantly by its verdant forest.

which this region has been


divided Assam, Arunachal,
Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram,
Nagaland and Tripura. He spoke
of their incredible biodiversity,
their unique human cultures and
their crucial biogeographic
location on the cusp of the
Indomalayan Realm. This river
flowing gently by will turn into a
raging torrent when the waters
from the hills of Karbi Anglong
come hurtling down just a
month from now, he said,
adding that the mighty
Brahmaputra would turn into an
even more wild and untamed
surge when the monsoon struck.
PROTECTING PARADISE
Kaziranga is a child of the
Brahmaputra river valley, which

is in turn locked between the


Eastern Himalaya to the north
and the ranges of Garo, Khasi,
Jayantia, Mikkir, Cachar and
Barail hills to the south. This
climatic and geographic
variation results in a special mix
of plants and animals found
almost nowhere else on Earth.
Here within a 430 sq. km. grass
and forest asylum that is
protected like a fortress,
alongside the rhino, a whole
host of animals have found
refuge. I said a silent prayer for
all those far-sighted people who
lavished protection on
Kazirangas untamed wilderness
down the ages. Following the
sage advice of stalwarts
including Stracey, Milroy, Miri,
Gee and later, Lahan and Deb

I consider myself privileged to have had Kaziranga


as a part of my life over the last five decades. Early
journeys with my parents through the Assam valley
along National Highway 37 always took on a tinge
of excitement as we approached Kaziranga.
Whenever I saw deer darting across the road, or
rhinos and elephants grazing in full sight of us, the
promise of still more mysterious sightings that
awaited those who ventured deeper into the forest
would play on my imagination.
Ranjit Barthakur, Chairman, APPL Foundation
Kaziranga

BERNARD CASTELEIN

A female capped langur with infant in tow, caught in the act of launching a gravity-defying leap
to a nearby feeding tree.

Heritage Site and Project Tiger


Reserve, will soon include the hill
ranges of Karbi Anglong, where
wild animals must go each year
to escape the high flood. The
Park authorities have been
working on such additions for
several years and their greatest
support for this endeavour will
hopefully soon come from the
people of Assam for whom
Kaziranga is a symbol of both
pride and culture.
WHAT A FOREST!
Like a moth to a benign
flame, I have returned time and
again to Kaziranga over the
years only to discover a new
facet, a new personality, with
each successive trip. No one
can be unimpressed with the

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

Roy, Kazirangas protectors had


managed to safeguard the
geographical integrity of a large
swatch of the Brahmaputra
floodplain grassland, swamp
and forest habitat. Nature
responded to such efforts by
rewarding managers with the
highest density of tigers per
square kilometre found
anywhere in the world. Birds too
seemed to approve and began
to congregate each year in
greater numbers on this wild
and inviting piece of land that
was located at the intersection
of the Australasian and IndoAsian flyways.
Hopefully, Kazirangas
progress from a Reserved Forest,
to Game Sanctuary, to Wildlife
Sanctuary, National Park, World

Kazirangas different ecosystems interact dynamically. Nutrients pass between patches of tropical
moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests, wetlands, grasslands and riverine tracts.

Kaziranga

In the early 1930s, Kaziranga was a closed


book, a sort of terra incognita completely left
to itself by the Forest Department. I remember
trying to get permission to go there in 1934,
but the rather lame excuse of the British D.F.O.
was, No one can enter the place. It is all
swamps and leeches and even elephants
cannot go there.
E. P. Gee, tea planter and author of The Wild Life of India
Poaching had once almost
wiped out the rhino. Countering
poachers and managing the
grasslands to ensure the survival
of the rhino, now consumes the
vast bulk of the time and
resources available to the field
staff of Kaziranga. The field staff
of Kaziranga has been
mandated to maintain and
wherever necessary restore the
demographic features relating
to the populations of all
endangered, endemic,
vulnerable and rare species of
animals and plants with special
focus on rhinos, tigers and their
habitat. This and more they
have done. In the process they
have earned for themselves a
well-deserved reputation for
having implemented one of the
most successful conservation
initiatives of the subcontinent in
the past 100 years.

AMANO SAMARPAN

sight of rhinos, water buffalo,


elephants, swamp deer and
gibbons. This is what 50,000
people visit Kaziranga each
year to see. But I do sometimes
wish they could be persuaded
to turn their attention to some
of the less obvious delights on
offer. From where I sat next to
the otters holt, for instance, I
noticed a praying mantis on a
very low bush, no doubt
attracted to the possibility of
snapping up a fly or two from
the hundreds buzzing around
the remnants of the otters fish
meal. Watching over its
waterways from a vantage
point on a fig tree near us, a
Grey-headed Fish-eagle
screamed its domination over
its territory, as if to remind us
that there is more and then still
more to Kaziranga than first
meets the eye.

The Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja, in breeding plumage is said to be particularly attracted
to red flowers.

Kaziranga

ABOUT KAZIRANGA
One hundred years of conservation
Lyrical Bihu harvest songs and dances, motifs that speak of an ancient
history, the life-giving waters of the Brahmaputra, magnificent
elephants and the Indian rhinoceros Kaziranga is all these and
more. Kazirangas history has lessons for modern-day conservationists.
The successes of the past are a beacon for the future. Then, as now, a
few determined people fought against a tide of opposition to protect
an unbelievably valuable heritage.

from Burma to the


Indus river, between
the Himalaya and
the plains. But with
the rise of human
populations,
agriculture and
industry began to
replace these
wildernesses. Today,
only relic patches
remain to remind
us of the bounty that once
existed. One such surviving
enclave is the Kaziranga
Tiger Reserve.
The Brahmaputra waters
and enriches this wilderness,
which is flat with an east-towest slope. The southwest
monsoon and the rich alluvial
deposits that have been washed

COURTESY: E. P. GEE/BNHS

COURTESY: E. P. GEE/BNHS

BIOGEOGRAPHY
In the early
Tertiary period, the
northwardmigrating Deccan
Peninsula first
made contact with
the Eurasian
continent, crafting
much of what we
now recognise as
Northeast India.
This not only created a mix of
semi-evergreen forests,
grasslands and swamps, but
also enabled movement and
exchange between the animals
of the breakaway landmass and
those living further east towards
Malaya. This became one of
the richest biodiversity areas in
the world that once stretched

E. P. Gee with elephants belonging to the Forest Department of Kaziranga and their mahouts. By
closely monitoring elephants, he created a unique record over 13 years of the growth-gradient
of these gentle giants.

Kaziranga

COURTESY: E. P. GEE/BNHS

Rhinos from Kaziranga often found their way to zoos around the world. Pits would be dug on
well-frequented rhino paths or dandis and covered with grass and sticks.

down over millions of years by


this beautiful river greatly
influence the vegetation of this
region. Apart from the
Brahmaputra, which flows eastwest along the northern
boundary, several smaller rivers,
streams and nullahs such as the
Mori Diphlu, Diphlu, Bhengra,
Borjuri, Kohora and Deopani
also drain the terrain. These
water sources feed the many
beels that sustain this park and
its biodiversity. Over centuries,
the plains have been enriched
by silt deposits caused by the
annual phenomenon of
flooding that determines the
way both wildlife and the
people of Assam live.
Nestled between the
Brahmaputra and the Mikkir
Hills, Kaziranga is gifted with a
very diverse terrain. And it is
this diversity that has enabled
so many different types of life
forms to thrive here. The
habitats include a mosaic of
eastern wet alluvial grasslands,
alluvial plains, semi-evergreen
forests, tropical moist mixed
Kaziranga

deciduous forests, eastern


Dillenia swamp forests,
wetlands and sandy chaurs or
river islands caused by the
shifting and erosion of the
Brahmaputra. Grey silt and
sands combine to form a base
for the floodplains. Kaziranga
is bound by the Brahmaputra to
the north and the Karbi
Anglong Hills to the south. It is
this bountiful, fecund and
miraculous ecosystem that
defines Kazirangas character.
HISTORY
Five thousand years ago,
rhinos roamed the Indus river
plains and records exist of these
prehistoric creatures in Kashmir
and Peshawar. Rhino hunts were
commonplace in Moghul times.
When the East India Company
took charge of the Assam valley
in 1826, rhinos must have been
doing very well indeed. But
within 10 years, tea, which used
to grow naturally in Assam, was
discovered by the British. Soon
a combination of cultivation,
grazing and hunting began to
9

take a toll on the great


pachyderms. The advent of
the railways induced labourers
and settlers to migrate in
large numbers to the
Brahmaputra valley. This only
compounded the damage done
by hunting and habitat
destruction. Rhinoceros
unicornis was being inexorably
pushed towards extinction.
10

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

A CHRONOLOGY OF PROTECTION
November 4, 1902: J.C. Arbuthnott
expresses concern about the
depleting rhino populations to
the Commissioner of the Assam
valley districts.
August 28, 1903: J.C. Arbuthnott
suggests three areas to be protected.
March 15, 1904: Proposals from
Arbuthnott and Major Gurdon
agreed to in principle.
December 22, 1904: Chief
Commissioner approves proposal.
June 1, 1905: First formal
notification declaring the
governments intention to constitute
Kaziranga as a Reserved Forest.
January 3, 1908: Declared as a
Reserved Forest.
November 10, 1916: Upgraded
to a Game Sanctuary.
1938: First opened to the public.
1950: Declared a Wildlife
Sanctuary by W.F.L Tottenham,
Conservator of Forests, Eastern
Circle, Assam.
1974: Legally notified a
National Park.
July 10, 1985: 2nd Addition (6.47
sq. km. preliminary notified).
May 31, 1985: 3rd Addition (0.69
sq. km. preliminary notified).
June 13, 1985: 4th Addition (0.89
sq. km. notified).
June 13, 1985: 5th Addition (1.15
sq. km., preliminary notified).
December 1985: Notified as
World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
May 28, 1997: 1st Addition
(43.97 sq. km. notified).
August 7, 1999: 6th Addition
(376.50 sq. km. notified).
August 2006: Kaziranga declared
29th Tiger Reserve.
1889: Kukurakata (15.93 sq. km.)
and 1913: Panbari Reserved
Forest (7.65 sq. km.) also
brought under the administration
of the Kaziranga National Park.

The large Dysoxylum berries cannot be digested


by most birds, but hornbills swallow entire
berries and regurgitate the seeds after an
extended period.

However, thanks to the efforts


of some amazing British and
Indian wildlife lovers, it was
declared a Reserved Forest way
back in 1908, then upgraded in
1916 and 1950 to a game
sanctuary and wildlife sanctuary
respectively. In 1974 it was
notified as a national park. The
rhino was lucky to have friends
like J.C. Arbuthnott, M.J.W. Milroy,
Mahi Chandra Miri, E.P.Gee,
P.D. Stracey, R.C. Das,
P. Barua, Parmanand Lahan,
C.L. Chakrabarty, R.M. Das,
Rajen Sonowal, B.S. Bonal,
K.K. Medhi and S. Deb Roy, who
worked ceaselessly to protect and
strengthen this amazing grassland
forest. It is the result of the
individual sacrifices made over
decades, that in 1985, UNESCO
saw fit to list Kaziranga as a
World Heritage Site, providing it
with the international recognition
it richly deserved.
VEGETATION
As mentioned earlier,
Kazirangas vegetation is a mix of
eastern wet alluvial grasslands,
Assam alluvial plains, semievergreen forests, tropical moist
mixed deciduous forests, eastern
Dillenia swamp forests, wetlands
and sandy chaurs. According to
Landsat data for 1986, tall grasses
cover 42 per cent, short grasses
11 per cent, open jungle
29 per cent, swamps four per
cent, rivers and waterbodies
eight per cent and sand
six per cent of the park.
Kaziranga

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

Blessed with tropical rain, sunlight and


nutrients, leaves are the building blocks of
terrestrial ecosystems.

Patch-wise controlled
burning of the tall, coarse
grasses is carried out by the
Forest Department around
January. This is a vital
management tool because if
trees take over grasslands,
herbivores would be impacted.
When the tree canopy is thick,
grasses dwindle or disappear due
to insufficient sunlight. Such
changes in the composition of
plant communities affect the
rhinos ecology. Burning prevents
new saplings from developing
into full-grown trees as they are
not tough enough to withstand
the burn.
As you move through the
central and eastern range of the
park, tall trees takeover the
grassland. Two tree colonisers
include the Indian jujube and
the silk cotton Bombax. Cane
brakes, mainly rattan, a
creeping palm, dominate the
forest. Trees like Barringtonia
acutangula, Aesculus assamica
and tora Alpinia allughas are
the primary food providers for
different animals, with
elephants showing a preference
for the pink tora flowers.
Kaziranga

WHATS IN A NAME?
Many fanciful tales have
been woven about the origin of
the name Kaziranga. The word
Kazi in the local Karbi language
means goat and rangai means
red the land of red goats
(deer). A second story attributes
the name to an old, childless
couple Kazi and Rangai who are
believed to have approached
Mahapurus Madhabdeb, a
disciple of the founder of the
Vaishnava sect, Mahapurus
Sankardeb who had camped near
Narmora beel. On the advice of
the saint, they dug a huge pond
in the area. The Ahom king,
Swargdeo Pratap Singh, who was
passing through the area was
offered fish from this waterbody
and was so delighted with its taste
that he named the area as
Kaziranga after the couple that
had dug the pond. Yet another
story suggests that Kazi, a young
man who lived in the hills of Karbi
Anglong fell in love with Ranga, a
beautiful village girl from the
plains of Assam. But their parents
did not approve of the match and
the two lovers could only meet
fleetingly in the forest, which
became their secret hideout. One
day, the lovers vanished, never to
be seen again, much to the
dismay and distress of their
respective parents. The couple
became a symbol of undying love
and the people of the region
named the forest in which they met
Kazi-Ranga in their memory.
All lovely stories. But none
that anyone can authenticate. Yet,
no one who visits Kaziranga can
remain unmoved, either by the
magic of its legends and tales, or
the sheer beauty of Kazirangas
grasslands, forests and swamps.

Inundated areas in
Kaziranga dry out in winter.
Here Dillenia indica swamp
forests provide a large,
nutritious, green fruit called otenga, or elephant-apple, that
is enjoyed by the rhinos.
Dysoxylum or monkey-fig trees
are also common. Despite their
name, these orange fruits with
black seeds are not figs.
11

COURTESY: PHILLIPS ANTIQUES (THE SPECTACLE OF EMPIRE BY JAN MORRIS,


FABER AND FABER, LONDON)

Lady Mary Victoria Curzon on a tiger hunt with her husband the Viceroy of India, Lord George
Nathaniel Curzon. Lady Curzon is believed to have visited Kaziranga in the early 1880s with one
predominant wish to set eyes on the mythical unicorn.

KAZIRANGAS WORLD OF GRASSES


The leaves of most plants emerge from buds on a stalk that
transports life-giving sap through a maze of veins. When damaged, the
plant will seal the wound to prevent dehydration. But damaged leaves
cannot repair themselves. Grass is different. Because the veins emerge
straight up the length of the stalk with the growth point at the base, even
when the tops of grasses are damaged, they can grow back. What is
more, apart from putting out seeds, grasses can actually grow from stems
at the soil level, where new roots and leaves can sprout.
Grasses are relatively new plants, having taken over the great
flatlands of the earth around 25 million years ago. They contributed
greatly to the mammalian diversity we see today. Two-thirds of
Kaziranga is clothed by eastern alluvial wet grasslands, which vary
according to soil and drainage. Shorter grasses include Cynodon
dactylon, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Andropogon spp., Pennisetum
spp. and Eragrostis spp. Lokosa Hemarthria compressa colonises
open areas and the banks of beels. These grasses are the ones that
herbivores love. Ikora Erianthus ravennae grows to about five or six
metres and is widely distributed through the park, particularly areas
that dry up in winter. Borota kher Saccharum elephantinus, Ulu Kher
or thatch grass Imperata cylindrica and Han kher Poinia ciliata also
grow here. Imperata cylindrica grass prefers well-drained soils and is
frequented by the endangered Bengal Florican. Rhinos do eat this
grass, but only when it is very young.
In the low-lying damp areas, Khagori Phragmites karka and
Meghela Saccharum arundinaceum are common, while Nal Arundo
donax prefers marshy bogs. A robust reed, Phragmites grows in
moist areas and was used in medieval days by scribes to craft pens
in Assam.
Along riverine belts Saccharum spontaneum, Erianthus filifolius,
Saccharum narenga, Neyraudia reynaudiana and Cymbopogon
pendulus do well and are interspersed here and there with Tamarix
dioica, particularly along newly-formed habitats created by the
shifting Brahmaputra river. In the chapories, which are vulnerable to
erosion, Saccharum dominates, with patches of thatch.
Wetlands are intrinsic to Kazirangas landscape with beels and
streams more or less permanently covering 5.96 per cent of the park.
Aquatic species like Kalmou Ipomea reptans, Helonchi Enhydra
fluctuans, Borpuni Pistia stratiotes and Harupuni Lemna
paucicostata are found here, while Ekra, Nal and Khagori do well in
the many floating swamps.

12

Kaziranga

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Kaziranga is a botanical paradise. These bright red flowers belong to the silk cotton or semul tree
Bombax ceiba. At least 35 species of birds have been recorded feeding on the nectar or petals
of these flowers.

that fruit in different seasons


provide an unending supply of
food throughout the year.
This botanists paradise
has a whole canvass of
flowering plants. The white
flowers of Saccharum
spontaneum are common
near riverine grasslands while
the pink flowers of Ipomoea
can be seen along the
swamps. The pink Indian lilac
pink blooms in May. The
marshy areas also play host to
the purple flowers of the
indigenous Monochoria
haestefolia or hyacinth. In the
monsoon, epiphytic orchids
present a stunning visage on
high trees. The rains also
showcase white lilies as well
as the common water lilies.

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

The swamps give way to the


Assam valley semi-evergreen
forest habitats in places where
the stratified (lower, middle and
upper) levels of trees such as
Tetrameles and Bischofia can
easily be identified. Weeds and
lantana bushes are visible in
the open areas. In undisturbed
forest patches, the leaf litter
turns into a rich humus and the
humidity encourages several
forest species to regenerate well.
The combination of canopy
shade, humidity and humus
also encourages ferns that give
Kaziranga a distinctly
prehistoric feel. In the tropical
wet evergreen forests near the
Kanchanjurie, Panbari and
Tamulipathar blocks, a whole
new world exists in which trees

Reserved Forests such as Panbari provide us with a glimpse of the way in which the entire Karbi
Anglong Hills habitat must once have been.

Kaziranga

13

HOW AND WHAT TO LOOK FOR


Kaziranga, with its diverse habitats ranging from
floodplains and grasslands to evergreen forests, is
ideal for herbivores and therefore carnivores. Most
visitors, predictably, come to see the big five
elephant, rhino, tiger, swamp deer and buffalo.
mahouts. Visitors are transported
each day atop 40 departmental
elephants for a close-up wildlife
experience. Rhinos, in particular,
allow elephants to approach
much closer than they do
vehicles. Kazirangas wild
elephant herds move along
traditional migratory routes over
long distances, but in recent
years these paths have been
disrupted by human settlements.
Some herds cross the
Brahmaputra river to reach the
northern Panpur Reserved Forest
and Khatonibari.

BERNARD CASTELEIN

ASIATIC ELEPHANT Elephas maximus


(Hathi in Assamese)
Elephants prefer feeding in
the open in early mornings and
late afternoons. When the sun is
high, they choose forested parts
of their range to continue
feeding on branches, leaves,
barks and fruits whose seeds will
be dispersed near and far. As
with elephants everywhere,
Kazirangas pachyderms spend
considerable time at
waterbodies. Kaziranga has
some of the countrys most
skilled elephant handlers, called

INDIAN RHINOCEROS
Rhinoceros unicornis
(Gorh in Assamese)
Kaziranga is considered
the last stronghold of the
species in the world. Grass is
the rhinos primary food,
which it supplements with
Trewia fruit, tender leaves
and woody browse. More
than a metre wide, 180 cm.
14

THAKUR DALIP SINGH

Elephants are adaptable and have learned to take nutrition from water hyacinth roots, while
discarding the unpalatable leaves.

Rhinos tend to visit the same wallows,


middens and feeding grounds, making them
easy prey for poachers.

Kaziranga

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Grasslands are the backbone of Kazirangas success and that of the rhino. The highest density
of rhinos exists in the southwestern part of the park where short grass meadows are most extensive.

where short grass meadows


are most extensive.
Kazirangas rhinos also feed
on the longer grasses when
they are tender. A creature of
habit, the rhino usually
follows well-frequented
walking tracks or dandis from
its wallows to favoured
feeding grounds. When such
dandis pass through tall
grasslands, the animals body
creates a sort of tunnel that it
and other animals may use
for extended periods.

TIGER Panthera tigris


(Bagh in Assamese)
Kaziranga is Indias most
densely populated tiger reserve.
Its mix of habitats, which has
given rise to such a diversity
and density of herbivores,
directly benefits tigers (and
leopards, which are largely
found in the southern fringes
and in forested tracts). Yet few

people actually get to see tigers


in Kaziranga because both the
grasslands and forests are far
too thick. In most Indian
jungles, tigers wait at dawn
and dusk for herbivores to
come to drink at waterholes.
Kazirangas tigers are unlikely
to use this strategy, since water
is freely distributed throughout
the park.

D. K. BHASKAR

at the shoulder and


weighing as much as two
tonnes, the rhino consumes
prodigious quantities of
plant matter to support its
bulk. But it is nevertheless a
delicate feeder. A favourite
food is a short but
nourishing grass lokosa,
which grows in low-lying
areas and the perennial
ox-bow beels. Not
surprisingly, the highest
density of rhinos exists in the
southwestern part of the park

Kazirangas ecological health is best indicated by the fact that it is one of the densest wild
tiger habitats on Earth.

Kaziranga

15

Kaziranga is home to the worlds largest


population of swamp deer, most easily seen in
the Baguri and Haldhibari blocks.

takes on a duller shade in


winter. Grass and abundant
water are both vital to their
survival. The largest concentrations of swamp deer in eastern
India are found in Kazirangas
Baguri and Haldhibari blocks.
They form gregarious herds that
break up during the rut. Males
form stag parties when they
begin to shed their antlers. Most
of the day is spent resting in the
forest or in safe, open areas
during winter. Kazirangas
wetlands are perfectly suited to
the deers need to cool off in
mud wallows in summer.
Swamp deer seem to prefer
feeding in the mornings and
late afternoons. They are largely
grazers with a preference for the
short lokosa grass though they
will also occasionally feed on
palatable leaves. They can
sometimes be seen partially
submerged feeding on water
reeds. The barasingha can often
be seen with buffalo herds.

INDIAN WATER BUFFALO Bubalus


arnee (Bonoria moh in Assamese)
Kaziranga harbours a crucial
breeding population of the
Indian water buffalo. Grasslands, reed brakes combined with
swamps, and waterbodies provide
an ideal habitat for these
magnificent animals, but they
have shown that they can survive

in drier areas too. Sporting


magnificent horns, perhaps the
largest among all bovines in the
world, water buffalo are
formidable opponents that can
weigh over 1,000 kg. and
measure 155 to 180 cm. at the
shoulder. Yet, tigers in Kaziranga
have been known to prey on
them. Like elephants and rhinos,

ALAIN PRUVOT

AMANO SAMARPAN

SWAMP DEER Cervus duvauceli


ranjitsinhi (Dal horina in Assamese)
There are approximately 500
swamp deer or barasingha
(twelve-horned deer) in
Kaziranga, the largest population in Eastern India. Swamp
deer prefer grasslands with reed
brakes and patches of forest. The
animals frequent open areas
around the beels of Kaziranga.
In general appearance and size
they bring to mind the European
red deer and can be identified
by their trademark antlers and
rich chestnut brown coat, which

The flat, sweeping horns of the water buffalo are believed to be the largest in the bovine world.

16

Kaziranga

They are seldom found far from


a reliable water source and
often immerse themselves neck
deep in water for extended
periods. Like Kazirangas other
animals, Bubalus arnee must
seek the refuge of higher
ground during the monsoon.
The heaviest concentration of
buffalo is in the Baguri block.

THE LITTLE THINGS


Kaziranga is an amazing
showcase for Indian wildlife.
While the big five
understandably draw most of
the attention, connoisseurs seek
out lesser life forms. As many
as 14 rare and endangered
species are found here,
including the gaur, sloth bear,
leopard, capped langur, Assam
macaque, mongoose and otter.
Herbivores such as the hog deer,
sambar, barking deer and wild
pig form a key part of the diet of
the tigers and leopards, while
birds, frogs, rodents, fish and
snakes are fair game for the
much smaller jungle and
fishing cats. There are also
reports of pangolins, badgers,
civets, moles and porcupines,
though these are unlikely to be
encountered as visitors are not
permitted to stay in the park
after dark.
Hoolock gibbons can be
sighted in the misty, moist forests
of Panbari, on the outskirts of
the park. The striking white brow
and black pelage of males is
distinctive, while females are
lighter, almost golden-grey and
can sometimes be seen carrying
young ones either on their backs
or under their arms as they move
through the treetops.
Small sambar herds
comprising hinds and young
can be seen in Kaziranga.
Water-loving creatures, they
frequent the edges of lakes and

shallow streams and can be


seen wallowing in muddy
pools. Estimated to number
over 5,000, Kazirangas most
abundant deer species is the
hog deer. These delicate
animals prefer reed beds and
grasslands fringing
waterbodies. Barking deer are
also present, particularly in the
well-watered forested areas.
Wild pigs can be seen
digging for roots and tubers.
They are found in both forested
areas and grasslands. The
Indian bison, or gaur, is rarely
seen in Kaziranga and is not a
resident. In winter, herds from
Karbi Anglong Hills used to
enter the park, but increasing
human settlements and
degraded corridors between the
hills and the park now prevent
this movement. Leopards and
jungle and fishing cats are
sometimes seen in the
lowlands, but are more
common in the nearby Karbi
Anglong Hills.

Kaziranga

KEDAR BHIDE

water buffalo can be seen grazing


in and around Kazirangas
many beels in the morning and
afternoon. Though they feed
predominantly on grass, they
have been observed eating
water hyacinth as well. When
the park is flooded, the large
animals can also be seen
pulling up submerged grasses.

Smooth Indian otters patrol their watery domain


in the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve in search of
fish, though they are not beyond preying on
ground birds as well.

17

DEBASISH ROY

Fallen logs such as these are critical microhabitat components for many turtle species including
the Assam roofed turtle Pangshura sylhetensis that commonly inhabit the Diphlu river.

18

relatively easy to see, but we


cannot say the same for the
gharial, a fish-eating crocodile
that was once common in the
Mori Diphlu and Diphlu rivers,
but is no longer present.
Some 42 species of fish,
and a vast array of amphibians,
insects and arachnids have
been recorded in Kaziranga. But
you would hardly think so when
you visit the park because most
are so well camouflaged as to
be virtually invisible. Some
resemble twigs and leaves,
others look like bird droppings
and still others, such as crab
spiders and praying mantises,
have so perfected the art of
camouflage that they look just
like the flowers on which they sit
as they lie in wait for
unsuspecting insects to visit
the blooms.

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Though some tourists have


seen sloth bears with cubs on
their backs, out in the open, the
animals are far more likely to be
seen in wooded areas near
Kanchanjurie, Bimoli, Kathpora
and Rangamotia. In Panbari
and Kanchanjurie, in addition
to hoolock gibbons, one can
see capped langurs, also called
capped leaf monkeys. Common
langurs, rhesus and Assamese
macaques are found in the
more thickly forested belts. Bats
are major pollinators
and seed dispersers, but they too
are seldom seen during
the day.
In addition to mammals,
Kaziranga is home to an
incredible diversity of insects,
arachnids, reptiles, amphibians
and, of course, birds.
Kazirangas rich aquatic
fauna is virtually invisible to
tourists, apart from its playful
otters. Only the very lucky get to
see South Asian river dolphins
that move through the feeder
streams and beels adjoining the
Brahmaputra river. The reptiles
of Kaziranga include turtles and
tortoises, often seen basking on
the banks of rivers and beels or
on half submerged fallen trees.
Pythons, common cobras and
king cobras are difficult to see,
but are present in significant
numbers. Monitor lizards are

A South Asian river dolphin comes up for air in


the Brahmaputra river. This endangered twoand-a-half-metre long mammal navigates
using sonar, and feeds on crustaceans and fish
that breed and multiply in Kazirangas
protected wetlands.

Kaziranga

BIRDLIFE

The Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura inhabits


marshy terrain and crouches low in the grass
when threatened, relying on cryptic colouration
to escape detection.

identify the Drongo-cuckoos


strong whistles or the softer calls
of the Plaintive Cuckoo. In the
early morning hours, if you are
lucky, you may spot the mainly
nocturnal Malayan Night
Heron. In April-May, the
summer breeding migrants
begin to arrive. Cinnamon and
Yellow Bitterns can be seen in
the marshes and wetlands of the
park as can the Indian Pond
and Chinese Pond Herons. The
swamps and beels of Kaziranga
are the handiwork of the
Brahmaputra or one of its many
large tributaries. Once the
monsoon is in full swing, the
beels and depressions fill up,
break their banks and merge
with the river. Aquatic organisms

ALAIN PRUVOT

If Kaziranga was not as


famous for its rhinos, it would
surely be known as one of the
worlds finest birding
destinations. With more than
500 bird species recorded here,
there is no off season in
Kaziranga. This forest is home
to all the Green Pigeon species
found in the Indian
subcontinent, both the Great
White and the elusive
Dalmatian Pelican as well as
the Great and Oriental Pied
Hornbills. The overlap of the
Indomalayan zoo-geographic
realms is what creates the
astoundingly rich biodiversity of
this region.
Look beyond the
megafauna at the forest floor,
in the canopy and high above
where raptors and storks rule.
Stop and listen. The forested
tracts of the alluvial floodplain
are perfect for enjoying the
penetrating whistles of the
Abbots Babbler, the 12-note
song of the Pale-chinned
Flycatcher or the rasping notes
of the Little Spiderhunter. Of
course, the sound masters are
the cuckoos so learn to

AMANO SAMARPAN

Seasons in the sun

Grey-headed Fish Eagles Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus are known to carry their prey to a favoured
perch and consume it at leisure.

Kaziranga

19

AMANO SAMARPAN

Kazirangas many waterbodies are stocked with fish upon which Spot-billed Pelicans Pelecanus
philippensis and many other birds are dependent.

AMANO SAMARPAN

thrive as do their predators such


as the vibrant Black-necked
Stork and the Lesser Adjutant.
Several waterbirds egrets,
herons, cormorants and Oriental
Darters nest in the parks many
Bombax trees. The trees also play
host to magnificent nests built by
the Finns Weavers. Kaziranga
also has a large colony of Asian
Openbills, one of eight species
of storks found in Kaziranga.
Once the rains abate, large
flocks of Spot-winged Starlings
arrive in Kaziranga and stay until
early October. Both Kaziranga
and the nearby Panbari forest are
also home to several kingfisher
species. The Ruddy Kingfisher
can be seen in semi-evergreen
forest patches while the Pied

The Greater Yellownape Picus flavinucha uses


its tail like a tripod as it makes its way up a tree
trunk in search of termites.

20

prefers open tracts along the


Brahmaptura and its tributaries.
The White-throated is more
widespread and can be seen in
wetlands and forest habitats.
Winter brings with it a
whole range of migrants
beginning with the Citrine and
Pied Wagtails. Grey-backed
Shrikes are ubiquitous. The
Grey-headed Canary and
Red-throated Flycatcher can
also be spotted.
Kaziranga is a fantastic
destination for those interested
in raptors. Some 47 species are
found here including the Pied
Harrier, Grey-headed Fisheagle, the Changeable Hawkeagle, Indian Spotted Eagle
and the Pallas Fish Eagle. The
Slender-billed and Whiterumped Vultures have also been
recorded, though they are not
as common as before.
Night excursions in the
park are not permitted but in
the fields outside the park, one
can see and hear the Largetailed Nightjar, Asian Barred
Owlet and Brown Hawk-Owl.
One of the most soughtafter birds in the park is the
Bengal Florican usually seen
in Debeswari, the northeastern
part of Kaziranga. Its mating
flight is one of natures most
wondrous experiences.
Kaziranga

BERNARD CASTELEIN

The Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris, is one among three hornbill species found
in the park.

TIPS FOR BIRDERS


Whether you are birding in
your backyard or in a far-off
wilderness, here are some useful
tips to get you started:
1)
Buy a good field guide for
the Indian subcontinent. It
should have either
illustrations or pictures of
birds with important tips
on behaviour, distribution
maps and migration
patterns for each species.
Here are some of our
favourites: Birds of the
Indian Subcontinent by
Richard Grimmett, Carol
Inskipp and Tim Inskipp,
Birds of South Asia The
Ripley Guide (Vol. 1 and
Vol. 2) by Pamela
Rasmussen and John
Anderson, Field Guide to
the Birds of the Indian
Subcontinent by Krys
Kazmierczak, Handbook
of the Birds of India and
Pakistan (10 volumes) by
Slim Ali and Dillon
Ripley and A Photographic
Guide to the Birds of India
by Bikram Grewal, Bill
Harvey and Otto Pfister.
2)
A good pair of binoculars
is a birders best
companion. For starters,
a Rs. 3,000/- pair is
good enough.
Kaziranga

3)

4)

Local checklists are as


important as a field
guide. You need to know
what to expect in a
particular birding
destination. Websites
such as
www.delhibird.net, www.
indianbirds.in and www.
kolkatabirds.com have
links to checklists for
many states and birding
destinations in India.
To be able to locate birds,
one needs to learn about
the habitat each species
prefers. Do they like to
spend their time on the
ground or in the canopy or
near waterbodies? You
should learn to identify
birds from their calls and
songs, starting with the
species found in your
backyard. Subsequently,
you will pick up songs of
forest species. Often, you
will locate a bird by
listening to the sound it
produces. You could
locate the best bird songs
for the destination you are
going to visit on the
Internet. But remember, do
not play these aloud in the
wild as this could confuse
and disorient birds and
affect their behaviour.
21

NILADRI SARKAR

The presence of predators such as this Brown Fish Owl Ketupa zeylonensis indicates the health
of the ecosystem.

Join a birding club in


your school, college or
city. Most hobbyists are
generally willing to share
their knowledge. Everyone
was a beginner once.
Start by calling a wildlife
NGO or a local Bird
Club. If all else fails, go
to a nature reserve or a
city park with your
binoculars. More often
than not, you will meet
someone with similar
interests who might lead
you to a whole new group
of birding buddies. Please
take any action you can
to persuade local, state
and central authorities to
preserve and protect bird

6)

7)

species and habitat, and


encourage friends and
family to do so as well.
Try to spend your
vacations in a birding
destination. Many NGOs
and birding clubs
organise birding trips in
and around cities. The
trips may last a morning
or most of the day. These
trips are usually free of
charge. There are also
birding tours that take
you to different parts of
the country.
Read about birds. Check
the online resources listed
in point 3. Sanctuary
Asia, Hornbill and the
Journal of the Bombay

DEBASISH ROY

5)

22

Kaziranga

DEBASISH ROY

The Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus is believed to be the ancestor of all domestic fowl and can
generally be seen hunting for insects in clearings in the morning and evening.

8)

Natural History Society


too have articles on
birdwatching, bird
photography and bird
conservation.
Keep a record of your bird
sightings. You might want
to keep a diary of the
birds you see in your
backyard or in your town
or on a particular birding
trip or a vacation. Birders
often keep lists of birds for
their city, state or country.
You may also keep track
of birds seen in one day
or one month or one year.
You could also note the
date you saw the first bird
of a migratory species in
a particular year

Kaziranga

9)

10)

Migrantwatch http://
www.ncbs.res.in/citsci/
migrantwatch/ tracks bird
migrations across India.
When birding, wear
neutral-coloured
clothing, not white. Make
as little sound as
possible. Talk in whispers
at best.
Do not point at birds. Do
not approach nests. Never
disturb or photograph
birds on nests. Do not
litter or throw food in the
forest. Do not feed birds
in the wild.

Kaziranga is one of the most important


wintering grounds in India for the Bar-headed
Geese Anser indicus.

23

PREPARING FOR YOUR TRIP


Travelling in the wilderness requires a special
sensitivity. The laws of the jungle are just as important to obey, as our own. Leaving just footprints and
taking back memories should be your aim.
Here are some useful tips from veteran wildlifers.


Always inform someone at


your base camp of the
route you intend to take for
excursions into the forest.
While inside the forest,
frequently switch off your
engine. Sit quietly and listen to
the birds. In a moment, the
insects will pitch in and,
through the undergrowth, you
might hear a gurgling brook.
Listen for alarm calls of chital
and langurs and you may get
to see a tiger or leopard.
Stay vigilant. If you have
company, try to sit facing in
different directions to
double the chances of
spotting animals.

ALAIN PRUVOT

ON FOREST TRAILS:
CHARTING YOUR COURSE
 Visit http://maps.google.com/
maps, then key the latitude
and longitude coordinates
provided on the map into the
search box for a birds eye view
of the respective wildernesses.
 Use a map and trace out
the route you intend to
take. Always carry a
compass and travel with a
companion and hire an
experienced guide.
 Find out whether the route
is safe before venturing out.
The office of the Field
Director is the best source
of information.

The rhino is undoubtedly the star attraction for most visitors to Kaziranga.

24

Kaziranga

AMANO SAMARPAN

Because they are not threatened by elephants, rhinos are best watched from elephant back, and
can be followed off the road through grasslands and swamps.

CLOTHING: THERE IS NO SUCH THING


AS BAD WEATHER, ONLY
INAPPROPRIATE CLOTHING!
 Dress to suit the climate.
Please choose muted forest
colours like greens and
dull browns.
 Wear comfortable, closed
walking shoes, travel
light and dont forget a
hat and sunglasses (they
also protect your eyes from
low-hanging vegetation)!
 High boots with socks are
a sensible option on
jungle walks as basic
protection from snakes.
Kaziranga

Always inspect shoes before


you put them on to avoid
scorpions and other creatures
that love dark places.
Avoid perfumes, deodorants,
aftershaves such fragrances
could attract biting insects!

DONT FORGET!
 Fires are a SERIOUS
problem. Absolutely no
smoking in Indian
wildernesses. Carefully put
out every last ember in your
campfire before you leave.
 Keep a first-aid kit handy
and always travel with
25

AMANO SAMARPAN

Watchtowers are strategically located at vantage points to view wildlife including rhinos, elephants,
buffalo, swamp deer, plus a variety of birds.

enough food and water for


at least 24 hours (chocolate
is a great energy option).
Binoculars, a bird book
and a camera are
prerequisites for a good
trip. A magnifying glass
would be very useful too.

JUNGLE ETIQUETTE
 Try to avoid weekends, so
you do not add to the
overcrowding. Set a good
example. Remember the
park authorities real job is
to protect wildlife. Do not
over-strain them with your
own demands.
 Try not to talk too much.
Absorb your surroundings.
Leave your music systems at
home. Please respect the
quiet of the wilderness.
Doing so will help you to
see more wildlife.
 No littering in the park. In
fact, pick up nonbiodegradable materials
and carry them back for safe
disposal in a large city.
Locals often burn your waste,
which is bad for the area.
 Do not try to get too close
to the animals or startle or
26

disturb them in any way.


Never feed or touch
wild animals.
Bringing arms and
ammunition into a
sanctuary or national park
is a serious offence, for
which a jail term is likely.
Swimming and fishing are
not permitted inside
Protected Areas. Strictly
follow all park rules.
While staying inside the
forest conform to the no
bright lights unspoken rule
or you could have beetles
and other insect life as
hard-to-get-rid-of
companions for the night.

WHEN YOU ARE OUT BIRDWATCHING


 Dont look for birds in
a forest. Just let your
eyes wander to detect
movement where nothing
else is moving.
 Edges or ecotones, where one
type of landscape merges
into another, are usually sites
of greater activity, especially
at dawn and dusk.
 Birding just outside the
forest is often better than
birding inside it.
Kaziranga




Carry a notebook in
which to record your
observations. Important
details you might wish to
keep a record of include the
date, time and place,
species observed, sex of the
bird, unusual behaviour,
type of habitat (thick or
sparse forest, hilly terrain,
dense undergrowth). If you
have a GPS, make a site
reference of a particularly
interesting sighting.
Carry a good bird book
with you to help identify
birds. The more
enthusiastic might even
want to go equipped with a
micro-cassette recorder or
video recorder. Either way,
dont miss out on capturing
memories for later recall.

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

Ponds, streams, lakes and


river-banks are all excellent
birding spots.
Most birds can distinguish
colours very well, so its a
good idea not to wear
blues or reds, which tend to
alert or alarm many
species! Dress in muted
greens and browns.
Noise is an absolute nono. Dont chat on the trails.
Try to wear fabrics that
dont rustle. Even a noisy
camera shutter can ruin
your birding experience.
Enjoy all your birds
there arent any better or
more exotic species and
if the birds are where you
are, stay and watch for
you may not see any more
that day!

The pink spider flower Cleome speciosa is a commonly found, gregarious plant often seen growing
in rhino dung middens.

Kaziranga

27

INSIDE INFORMATION
Rhinos can be seen in all
the ranges.
A day trip to the Panbari forest
on the opposite side of National
Highway No. 37 is a must for
birding and to hear the haunting
calls of the hoolock gibbons, the
only ape found in India.
Elephant safaris: These are
offered between 5.30 a.m. and
7.30 a.m. as well as between
3 p.m. and 4 p.m. Jeep safaris are
available from 7.30 a.m. until
11 a.m. and 2 p.m. until
4.30 p.m. Book the governmentoperated safaris from the Central
Range at the Tourist Complex office

JOHN EVERINGHAM

The Central, or Kohora


Range is well-known for its beels
Mihi, Kathpora, Dafflong and
Borbeel and these offer some of
the best birding opportunities.
Winter migrants abound here.
One might see as many as 50
species in just one forest round
ranging from the Blue-naped
Pitta and Chinese Pond Heron to
the Black-necked Stork and
Pied Harrier.
The Western or Baguri
Ranges semi-evergreen forests
and its Bimali, Haldhibari and
Dunga beels are perfect for
otter watching.

The large herds of herbivores that one sees in Kaziranga bring to mind vistas of Africa. Hog
deer numbers have risen considerably in the park and they provide the food base for a range
of carnivores.

While most people


concentrate on these two ranges,
insiders know that the most
pristine and stunning part of
Kaziranga is its Eastern or
Agoratoli range. Here is where
one can sight large herds of
elephants. The tall grasslands
and sandy banks of the
Brahmaputra are also Bengal
Florican country and if you are
really lucky, you can watch the
mating display of this rare and
endangered bird. The Burapahar
range is a bit distant in
comparison to the other three.
28

the previous evening. Private


elephant safaris are also available.
In the winter, fog and late sunrise
can affect viewing and early
morning safaris should be avoided.
BOAT RIDES: Boat rides on the
Brahmaputra river are offered
from the northeastern point of
the park.
FEES: In addition to the nominal
park entry fee, you will have to
pay separately for the elephant/
jeep safari, vehicle entry, still
camera/video camera, as well as
for an armed guard to
accompany you.
Kaziranga

WIKIMEDIA COMMONS/BIKASH SHARMA

HOW TO GET IN

The Rhino Gate of the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve.

The park management is


primarily entrusted with looking
out for animals, not tourists.
Visitors demands are therefore,
justifiably, secondary to the serious
business of anti-poaching, fire
control, monitoring and research.
The Forest Department
headquarters at Bokakhat,
however, is manned by helpful
staff who guide visitors to the
tourism department, or to one of
the many well-run private lodges.
Tourists are wisely restricted to
specific routes accessible through
fixed entry and exit gates at
Kohora, Baguri and Agoratoli.
This keeps the core area of the
park sacrosanct. In addition to
elephants, light vehicles transport
visitors, who must always be
accompanied by armed forest
guards. Such trips and stops at
the strategically-located
watchtowers in the tourist zone,
serve to monitor fires, and also as
anti-poaching patrols.
BEST SEASON: November to April.
With tourism at its peak in
December and January, planning
your trip in late February or March
might offer a better experience.
HOW TO GET THERE:
By air: Jorhat (90 km.) is the
nearest airport. The park is
Kaziranga

two hours by road from Jorhat and


six hours from Guwahati.
By rail: Jorhat, Furketing (75 km.),
Jakhalabandha (40 km.) and
Guwahati (200 km.)
By road: Bokakhat (23 km.) is the
closest town. State transport buses
travel daily between Guwahati
and Kaziranga. Private taxis are
also available. Some hotels will
provide pick-up services.
Four-wheeled vehicles can be
rented to drive within the reserve.
Permission must be obtained from
the Range Forest Office and an
armed guard must be present in
every vehicle. Rides on Forest
Department elephants can also
be booked. Walking inside the
park is prohibited but
birdwatching outside the park
boundary in the Reserved Forests,
and even along the National
Highway, can be rewarding.
USEFUL CONTACTS:
Director
Kaziranga National Park,
Bokakhat 785612.
Tel.: +91 3776 268095,
Email: dir.kaziranganp@gmail.com
Directorate of Tourism
Government of Assam,
Station Road, Guwahati 781001.
Tel.: +91 361 2547102/2748/4475
Website: www.assamtourism.org
Email: info@assamtourism.org

29

SAURABH SAWANT

BEYOND THE RHINO AND TIGER

Wild pigs, which can often be seen digging for roots and tubers, are found in both forested
areas and grasslands of Kaziranga.

30

tree bark, an owl may leave its


droppings with the bones of its
victims under its perch, a snake
could leave its shed skin. Learn
to look for clues. Many people
whiz through sanctuaries and
national parks claiming they saw
nothing. The truth is that every
inch of the forest is alive and
exciting for those who know
where to look.
Curiosity is your greatest
asset, after patience and a deep
respect for the forest. Which
animals live in the forest? Which
walk along streams? Which

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Yes, Kaziranga is famous for


rhinos. And it is fine to be drawn
to these magnificent animals, but
those who visit Kaziranga to see
only the rhinos or tigers are
destined to leave disappointed.
Rhinos are ubiquitous in the park,
but the physical sighting of the
tiger is a chancy affair. However,
do not be blinded to the exquisite
beauty of this grassland paradise,
which is filled with birdsong,
flowering plants, verdant forests,
sparkling beels and all the tiny
creatures that form the foundation
on which the tiger and rhino are
so totally dependent. In the
Brahmaputra river and the
streams that pour into it, you must
tarry a while in search of otters,
dolphins, mahseer and any one
of the nearly 500 bird species you
could see. Elsewhere in this guide
(pages 44 to 53) there are images
of some of the animals, birds and
insects you are likely to see,
however, nothing can replace a
knowledgeable guide, mahout, or
wildlife expert. Seek them out and
do not be afraid to ask for help to
find and identify animals.
Remember, even if you do
not see an animal, you could see
the evidence of its presence. A
tiger may leave claw marks on a

The female giant wood spider builds huge webs,


often right across roads.

Kaziranga

Kaziranga

The Common Myna finds richer pickings in


and around the increasing human settlements
along the southern boundary of the park.

Deep scratch marks, as high


as 15 m. from the ground is the
handiwork of sloth bears that
clamber up trees in search of
fruit, honey or insects.
Rust-coloured patches on
tree trunks may mean a male
deer has rubbed its antlers to
peel off the outer, velvety sheath
of dead skin.
Discover Kaziranga in its
entirety. At the risk of repetition,
celebrate the sight of a tiger or
rhino, but please do not be
disappointed if one does not
reveal itself. Come away happy
and humbled by the sheer beauty
of this wilderness. It is a magical
creation of nature that no
human hand crafted.

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

HIDDEN SIGNS
Half-eaten leaves, fruits and
droppings beneath favoured food
trees may indicate that langurs
have been there. The leaves and
fruit they drop also attract deer.
Zigzag patterns in loose
soil may suggest the passage of
a snake.
Nail marks on tracks
indicate a member of the dog
family a jackal or fox. Felids
like tigers, leopards and jungle
cats retract their claws when
they walk. The heavy curvature
of the toes and large-sized
pugmarks can help differentiate
hyena spoor from those of
wolves and jackals.
Tiger and leopard scats
(faeces) are usually seen in
grass in the centre or at the
edges of roads and are
accompanied by scrape marks
left by their hind legs.
White droppings below a
tree suggest a possible bird
roosting site.
Nest holes in dead wood are
often the handiwork of
woodpeckers and barbets.
Carpets of green or black
spherical pellets below plants
could belong to caterpillars of
butterflies and/or moths.
Empty moults attached to
twigs or rocks near waterholes or
streams usually belong to nymphs
of dragonflies and damselflies.
Typical gnaw markings on
bark of tendu or bidipatta
suggest that a hungry porcupine
has been busy at night.
Five toe markings in soft
mud suggest a mongoose has
passed by.

AMEYA JOSHI

animal left that hoof mark?


What could have gnawed at the
bark of a tree? Which creatures
visit that fruiting tree? What is
that plant growing out of the
elephant dung on the trail? Every
question you ask will enhance
your experience.

Flatid bugs in the Panbari Reserved Forest. Their


white waxy coating protects them from rain and
temperature fluctuations.

31

ZEESHAN MIRZA

WHAT YOU CAN DO IN AND AROUND KAZIRANGA

The organic Hathikuli Tea Estate has reduced the direct and indirect impacts of pesticides on
downstream Kaziranga.

 Go on a full day or half


day game journey through
the tiger reserve and view
wildlife from elephant
back or a jeep.
 Take a jungle hike, drive or
camping trip outside the
PA. But make sure you
have a professional and
knowledgeable naturalist
or guide with you.
 Sign up for birding trips in
or around Kaziranga.
 Visit the certified organic
Hathikuli Tea Estate and
retail kiosk for an
introduction to the world of
tea and to carry back garden
fresh organic varieties of the
best Assam teas.
 Though the East KarbiAnglong Sanctuary is offlimits, day-long birding
trips are possible along the
Karbi foothills. However,
the Karbi Anglong-Nagaon
border is more than
100 km. from Kaziranga.
 Ask your travel operator to
fix a multi-day trip to
Nameri. A good jumping
off point is Balipara.
 Take a jeep safari to old
bungalows or tea estates.
 Visit the Centre for Wildlife
Rehabilitation and
Conservation. Prior
32

permission from the Field


Director is necessary.
An ethnic village located
in the Kohora area is open
to visitors to learn more
about local customs;
traditional clothes and
accessories are available
for purchase.
Ask to meet the families of
the park staff including
mahouts to see how they
live; perhaps you could
help improve their lives in
gratitude for their
protecting what you love.
Successful conservation
education programmes run
by Green Guards are being
conducted in the villages
around the tiger reserve. You
can visit them and take part
in the events they organise
from time to time.
Check out motorcycle
tours operated by various
adventure tourism
companies that will
allow you to visit rural
areas of Assam,
Meghalaya, Nagaland
and Arunachal Pradesh.
There are several shops
selling souvenirs and
traditional craftwork that
are quite popular.
Kaziranga

DEBASISH ROY
SAMSUL HUDA PATGIRI

Tourists are restricted to specific routes accessible through fixed entry and exit gates at Kohora,
Baguri and Agoratoli, which keeps the core area of the park sacrosanct.

SAURABH SAWANT

The park boundary touches the Karbi Anglong Hills at Haldhibari, which, offer wildlife a slender
escape route to high grounds during floods.

Departmental elephants have always been key to wildlife protection and management, not only
in Kaziranga, but across India.

Kaziranga

33

WHERE TO STAY
Kaziranga occupies a significant position on the
international tourist map today as one of the worlds
best-managed wildlife parks. It is one of the few
parks in India where accommodation is available
inside the park.
stay with 12 cottages overlooking
the river. Wild Grass, one of the
finest in the area, stands out
because it has been able to
involve the local community.
Government accommodation
is available at Kohora, Baguri
and Bokakhat and one can
contact the Assam Tourism
Development Corporation
Limited for booking-related
queries. Lodges, guesthouses
and hotels owned by the Assam
Tourism Department ensure a
comfortable stay at Kohora.
The tariff in these hotels suits
every budget.
Directorate of Tourism,
Government of Assam, Station
Road, Guwahati 781001.
Tel.: +91 361 2547102/
2542748/2544475
www.assamtourism.org,
info@assamtourism.org

BITTU SAHGAL

There are a number of


places to stay from goodvalue rest houses and budget
hotels to high-quality lodges
in and around Kaziranga.
Prior to 1950, the only
accommodation at Kaziranga
was the Public Works
Department (PWD) inspection
bungalow and a forest rest house
at Baguri. Later, a visitors camp
was constructed in Kaziranga as
well as two tourist lodges in
Kohora. An additional forest rest
house was built at Arimora.
There are now several lodges that
serve visitors to Kaziranga.
Popular resorts include IORA The Retreat, Diphlu River Lodge,
Wild Grass and the Nature-Hunt
Eco Camp. IORA is located on
20 acres of land just a couple of
kilometres away from the parks
main entrance while the Diphlu
River Lodge is a unique place to

The interiors of the Wild Grass Lodge, which has helped trained local naturalists and whose policy
it is to source materials and personnel from local communities.

34

Kaziranga

WIKIMEDIA COMMONS/AMARTYA BAG

The Banashree lodge is located in the Kohora range, which is very popular among tourists.

LIST OF RESORTS AND LODGES


Wild Mahseer
(this is some distance away),
Balipara Division,
Addabarie Tea Estate,
Lokra, Sonitpur, Balipara.
Tel.: +91 2267 060861,
+91 98336 31377
wildmahseer@gmail.com

Aranya Tourist Lodge,


Kohora, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 3776 262429
aranyaatdckaziranga@gmail.com

Jupuri Ghar,
Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 361 2605335,
+91 94351 96377,
+91 94351 96377
Jupuri@gmail.com,
info@jupurigharkaziranga.com

Diphlu River Lodge,


Kuthuri, Near Bagori Police
Outpost, Nagaon.
Tel.: +91 361 2667871/72/73
sales@asambengal.in

IORA-The Retreat,
Bogorijuri, Kohora, Golaghat.
Kaziranga

Tel.: +91 99571 93550,


+91 99540 00444,
iora@kazirangasafari.com,
info@kazirangasafari.com

Landmark Woods,
Kanchanjurie, Nagaon.
Tel.:+91 99571 89228,
+91 99571 89229
contact@thelandmarkhotels.in,
kaziranga@thelandmarkhotels.in

Bon Habi Resort,


Kohora Gaon, Bogorijuri,
Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 3776 262675/
262575, + 91 94355 04268
e7safari@rediffmail.com,
bonhabi_resort@yahoo.com

United-21 Grassland Resort,


Harmoti, Bagori Range,
Kaziranga National Park.
Tel.: +91 88110 03988,
+91 3677 2283511
cst@panoramicworld.biz

Wild Grass,
Bochagaon,
Kaziranga National Park.
Tel.: +91 3776 262085
35

+91 99544 16945


wildgrasskaziranga@gmail.com

Infinity Resorts,
Bochagaon, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 96501 93662,
+91 124 4655800
reservations@infinityresorts.com

Agoratoli Eco Tourism Resort,


Opp. Agoratoli Range Office,
Golaghat.
Tel.:+91 97060 10838,
+91 94351 10838
info@agoratoliresort

Kaziranga Florican Lodge,


Kohora, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 99542 46816,
+91 94352 50124

Hotel Pragyag Emerald,


Kohora, Bogorijuri.
Tel.: +91 3776 262444/404/
+91 95779 16619
emeraldresorts@gmail.com

Kaziranga Guest House,


Kohora, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 98648 74619,
+91 78968 50963
info@kazirangaguesthouse.com

Santi Lodge,
1 No., Kohora, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 94351 54298,
+91 96789 64123
customercare@kazirangasantilodge.com

Dhanshree Resort,

bikash.goswami@kazirangaflorican.com Kohora, Bogorijuri.

Borgos The Wild Haven,


No. 2 Sildubi, Kohora.
Tel.: +91 37762 94111,
+91 73990 41192/93/94, +91
88100 23473/83

Tel.: +91 99543 67860,


+91 37762 62501
info@dhanshreeresort.com

Rhino Guest House,


A.T. Road, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 98593 01604,
+91 99570 08547

Boras Home Stay,


Kohora, Bogorijuri.
Tel.:+91 98649 48736,
+91 87619 80713

sujay.ghosh987@gmail.com

bubul@kazirangahomestay.co.in

DEBASISH ROY

borgos@kazirangaborgos.com

JS Resort,
Kohora No. 1, Bogorijuri.
Tel.: +91 80118 45335

Attempts are now being made to restore wildlife corridors so that elephants, rhinos, buffaloes
and deer are provided with an escape route from the devastating floods that take a major toll
on their lives each year.

36

Kaziranga

JOHN EVERINGHAM

Visitors have to exit the park before sunset, but the work of forest guards, Kaziranga's true unsung
green warriors, is never done.

Regal Guest House,


Kohora, Bogorijuri.
Tel.: +91 99549 78699,
+91 3776 262702

Sneha Bhawan,
A.T. Road, Kohora.
Tel. +91 99576 81234,
+91 97077 27031
snehabhawankaziranga@gmail.com

Sharmas Guest House,


Kohora, Bogorijuri.
Tel.: +91 99571 66630,
+91 98591 61027
info@sharmalodge.com,
sharmasanku8@gmail.com

Green Reed Resort,


Kohora, Bogorijuri.
Tel.: +91 94352 50277,
+91 97078 65842
greenreedresort@gmail.com

Cottage Hrishikesh,
Kohora, Bogorijuri.
Tel.: +91 99543 64952,
+91 98599 78178,
+91 98541 35725
hrishikeshtravels@gmail.com

Manorama Lodge,
A.T. Road, Bokakhat.
Tel.: +91 96784 14047
manoramalodge@gmail.com

Anabil Lodge,
A.T. Road, Bokakhat.
Tel.: +91 99546 38477
Kaziranga

Ruby Lodge,
A.T. Road, Kohora.
Tel.: +91 94352 49948,
+91 98649 30958
Prashanti Lodge,
Kohora, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 94350 52912,
+91 97062 42602
Ekora Resort,
Kohora, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 94351 52469,
+91 37762 62555/4
info@kazirangaekoraresort.com

Deuta Cottage,
Kohora, Bogorijuri.
Tel.: +91 99544 51703
gogoi.jayanta@yahoo.com

Namdang House,
Kohora, Golaghat.
Tel.: +91 94351 37070
guestlodge@rediffmail.com

,,,
37

BERNARD CASTELEIN

CONSERVATION ISSUES

The battle for dominance of grasslands by trees is as ancient as the evolution of grass itself and
fire has always played a central role in this drama.

plague the wildlife of


Kaziranga. Yet, this landscape
remains one of Indias finest,
most vital wildernesses.
SERIOUS THREATS
Competition from domestic
animals: Cattle enter the
Protected Area from nearby
villages. The rhino prefers to
feed on short grasses and
overgrazing causes the ground
to harden, thus crowding out
favoured grasses. In time,
weeds take over and even
controlled burning by the Forest
Department becomes

JOHN EVERINGHAM

Virtually no national park


or sanctuary in India is free
from threats. Kaziranga is no
exception. Financial
allocations sometimes are far
below the true worth of the
natural assets in the greater
Kaziranga landscape. Illegal
grazing, floods and erosion
aggravated by human
landscape intervention,
invasion by exotic weeds, oversiltation, retaliatory killings
when animals harm humans or
their property and roadkills on
National Highway 37 are only
some of the problems that

A guard checks a rhino midden. Kazirangas success is largely a result of pre-planned patrolling
by dedicated field staff who place the welfare of wildlife before their own.

38

Kaziranga

ANUWAR ALI HAZARIKA

RHINO HORN
The horn of the rhinoceros, unlike true horns, does not
have a core of bone. It is a closely-matted mass of keratin
fibres, the primary material in our own hair and nails. It is
loosely fixed to the epidermis and not attached to the skull.
Though the horn can easily be removed, poachers still hack
through the bone. The Indian Rhinoceros gets its name
Unicornis because of this single horn, which keeps growing
throughout its life. On an average, a horn
will be around 20 cm. long and will weigh around 720 gm.
Porous, spongy and pockmarked, the horn is not used either
as a weapon or to dig. It could have some display value for
mate selection, but males and females have virtually
indistinguishable horns save for a somewhat wider base in
males. The human obsession with rhinoceros horn has
become a death warrant for the species. The horn has been
used in traditional Chinese medicine and is falsely reputed
to have aphrodisiacal qualities. People also believe it
reduces high fever, food poisoning, headaches and
numerous other ailments for which common medicines are
much better suited. In ancient days, royals drank from cups
crafted from rhino horn that they thought could detect
poisons. Pregnant women were convinced that a rhino horn
placed under the bed ensured an easy and less painful
delivery. Many still fall prey to such beliefs, much to the
detriment of the rhinos of the world. Although international
trade involving
rhino horn has
been banned, a
black market
continues to
thrive. Wildlife
products
constitute the
third largest
illegal trade in
the world after
drugs and arms.

Kaziranga

D. K. BHASKAR

Police and forest guards arrested five poachers at Bokakhat in Golaghat district on March 26,
2013. Official sources said that, acting on specific information, the poachers were apprehended
when they were trying to enter Agoratoli range of the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. Police also
seized rifles, cartridges, silencers, an axe and other equipment.

39

However, wild animals can be


seriously impacted if the rain
falls in too short a period. The
water quickly overtakes the lowlying southern portions of
Kaziranga, including Bagori.
Many animals drown though
this could have been be
avoided if the animals normal
escape route to the highlands
had not been usurped by
humans. The park authorities
are forced to patrol the highway
day and night in this season
because the animals are forced
to leave their protective
confines to seek refuge on
exposed and unprotected tar
roads and embankments.
Human-pressure: The ugly
ribbon development along
NH 37 is plain to see. It has
eaten into natural habitats.
What is more, scores of large
and small animals die in road
kills and this toll will only rise if
plans to turn it from a two- to
four-lane highway go through.
A slew of obstructions
including canals, busy
highways and commercial
plantations girdle the park.

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

ineffective. Added to this is the


fear of epidemics that could be
spread by domestic livestock. A
disease like anthrax could take
a toll of the rhino population,
which is virtually islanded
within Kaziranga.
Poaching: Lack of adequate
manpower to protect the porous
southern boundary has been a
vulnerability. To the north, the
Brahmaputra river acts as a less
accessible natural boundary
though poachers are
increasingly operating from the
north bank. In addition to ivory,
skins and tiger bones, rhino
horn remains Kazirangas
favoured contraband. A
network of several strategicallylocated anti-poaching camps
have been established which,
coupled with foot patrols and
intelligence gathering is
helping to improve protection.
In recent times, extremist
violence in the Karbi Anglong
forests is a key threat to wildlife
in the area.
Floods: Floods regenerate and
recycle nutrients vital to
Kazirangas ecosystem.

Guard patrol their turf on bicycles.

40

Kaziranga

MIKE MCWILLIAMS/ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATION AGENCY

Forest guards play


a critical role in
protecting the tiger
reserve that you come
from afar to
experience. It is vital
that you respect and
obey them because
they have a tough
enough job as it is,
without having to
Wireless sets are vital not just to protect wildlife, but
deal with highlyalso as self defence for forest guards who must call
strung (and
for quick reinforcements when encounters with
armed poachers become inevitable.
influential) visitors
who may be offended
when rules are quoted to prevent them from doing things
that are not allowed. Forest guards patrol their territories on
foot along animal trails, risking snakebite and animal
attacks. They are also the target of ruthless poachers and
irate villagers who demand the right to take firewood or
graze cattle. They spend vast periods away from their
families and a word of appreciation from you would go a
long way in boosting their morale.

Pollution: It is particularly
crucial that we understand the
impact of chlorinated
compounds released from tea
estates and refineries in
Numaligarh that drain into the
park. These might already have
damaged the endocrine systems
of rhinos, tigers, elephants,
rodents and birds. Plastic litter,
noise and light pollution are
increasing. More people are
setting up new tourist lodges,
small shops and services
including tea stalls,
communication centres and
restaurants. The collective
impact of these additional
facilities can be quite dramatic
and will, in the future, show up
in the reduced biodiversity
around Kaziranga.
MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
One strategy of habitat
protection involves selective
burning of the grasslands,
which in turn promotes the
growth of new succulent grasses
Kaziranga

preferred by rhinos (and


elephants, buffaloes and other
herbivores). Burning also
prevents trees from taking over
the grasslands. There was
opposition to burning when it
was first started. But it soon
became clear that without such
manipulation, rhino and large
herbivore densities would be
difficult to sustain. Though
grass burning has side-effects
with slow-moving animals such
as reptiles, ground-nesting
birds, soil micro-flora and
many burrowing animals
succumbing to the annual fires,
the pros seem to have
outweighed the cons.
Attempts are being made
to restore wildlife corridors,
both north and south of the
Brahmaputra river, so that
elephants, rhinos, buffaloes
and deer are provided with an
escape route from the
devastating floods that take
a major toll on their lives
each year.
41

DR. ULLAS KARANTH/WCS

YES! YOU CAN TAKE GREAT PHOTOGRAPHS

This photograph of a tiger was taken by camera traps used as part of a research project conducted
by the Wildlife Conservation Society, New York. The data gathered revealed that Kaziranga has
the highest density of tigers in the world.

very carefully. Interact with


officials, conservationists,
forest guards and villagers.
Knowledge will give you an
edge and better images will
be the result.
3. Try to frame your image
according to your own
aesthetics, anchor your
camera to ensure sharp
images, try to include a
little background so your
subject looks natural. Dont
set-up shots by moving
insects, or placing flowers
out of context.
4. Try to understand wildlife
behaviour to anticipate a
picture opportunity.

HIRA PUNJABI

1. Be patient. Be observant
and wait for the action.
Close encounters with
large wild animals are
rare, brief, unexpected and
often anti-climactic. Do
not violate their space,
restrict their movements or
invade their privacy. Do
not restrain snakes or
insects or approach a
birds nest. Never harm
your subject in any way
and obey the rules of
nature and of the park.
2. Read up on the subject
beforehand. And experiment with your camera and
read the owners manual

Kazirangas many moods leave visitors with indelible memories as they venture into the park
on Department elephants that could also double up on anti-poaching patrols.

42

Kaziranga

Kaziranga

with different angles,


elevations and perspectives.
11. Enhance contrast by framing
a darker subject against
a well-lit background, or
a light subject against a
dark background.
12. Use a tripod, shoulder pod,
monopod or chest pod to
avoid camera shake.
13. Use the slowest possible
shutter speed for still
subjects such as landscapes. You can do so by
placing your camera on a
rock or a tripod. To avoid
shake caused by the
pressing of the click button,
use a self-timer. Use the
fastest possible shutter
speeds for moving subjects.
14. Protect your cameras, lenses
and film from heat, dust
and moisture and
handle the equipment with
respect. Follow a daily
maintenance routine of
brushing and cleaning
lenses and accessories.
15. Keep back-up batteries and
chargers. Check all your
equipment before going
into the field by shooting
frames in different
conditions at home.
16. Do not forget to enjoy the
forest and its wildlife. Your
eye is the best lens and your
brain the best hard-disk.

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Patience and perseverance


will be rewarded.
5. Avoid taking pictures from
moving vehicles, or even
from vehicles whose engines
are running. Even fast
shutter speeds will show up
camera shake.
6. If you have just one or two
frames remaining, your
battery is exhausted or your
compact disk (data card) is
full, take action early to
avoid disappointment. The
most amazing wildlife shots
have been lost by those who
ignored this advice.
7. Shoot more rather than fewer
frames. This will almost
certainly result in a choice of
better images on your return.
8. If you are riding an
elephant, remember to take
into account the steep
angle of view and camera
shake. Use a fast shutter
speed, follow the rhythm of
the elephant, shoot when
the animal is steady.
9. Colour fidelity and lighting
are vital. Side-lit and backlit scenes can be dramatic.
Angular light (morning and
evening), spotlight (light
shafts shining through the
canopy), soft, diffused light
can all make the difference
between a good and great
photograph. Light
conditions between 7.30
and 9.30 a.m. and between
4.30 and 6 p.m. are great
for nature photography.
10. Keep the subject at the focal
point of the frame. Try to get
the catch-light in your
subjects eye. Leave
breathing space near the
head of your subject, less
behind its tail might be
fine. Similarly, by and large,
leave less space in the
foreground than the
background. Experiment

The capped langur is one of Kazirangas


endangered primates.

43

D. K. BHASKAR

SIVA KUMAR A. N.

PHOTOGUIDE (BIRDS)

Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus

PRASHANT GAHALE

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Pallass Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus

Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela

SANDEEP DESAI

NIKHIL DEVASAR

Changeable Hawk-eagle Spizaetus limnaeetus

Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus

CLEMENT FRANCIS

BERNARD CASTELEIN

White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis

Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos

GAURAV VALMI SHIRODKAR

SHIBU BHASKAR

Jungle Owlet Glaucidium radiatum

44

Brown Fish-owl Ketupa zeylonensis

Spotted Owlet Athene brama

Kaziranga

RAVI SANKARAN

PRAVEEN P. MOHANDAS

PHOTOGUIDE (BIRDS)

Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis

SANDEEP DESAI

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus

Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos

AMANO SAMARPAN

JOYDIP SUCHANDRA KUNDU

Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

Lesser Adjutant Stork Leptoptilos javanicus

NIKHIL DEVASAR

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Black Stork Ciconia nigra

DR. AJIT K. HUILGOL

PRAVEEN P. MOHANDAS

Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna

Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea

Cotton Pygmy Goose Nettapus coromandelianus

Kaziranga

Small Pratincole Glareola lactea

45

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

PHOTOGUIDE (BIRDS)

River Lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii

SUMIT SEN

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus

Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis

SANDEEP DESAI

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis

Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica

Plumbeous Water-redstart Rhyacornis


fuliginosus

46

Blue-throated Barbet Megalaima asiatica

GAURAV SHARMA

DHRITIMAN MUKHERJEE

Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis

Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria

Kaziranga

SUMIT SEN

UMESH KATHAD

PHOTOGUIDE (BIRDS)

Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri

SIVA KUMAR A. N.

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri

White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus

Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus

SIVA KUMAR A. N.

AMANO SAMARPAN

Blue Whistling-thrush Myophonus caeruleus

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher Culicicapa


ceylonensis

Common Iora Aegithina tiphia

CLEMENT FRANCIS

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Bristled Grassbird Chaetornis striatus

Black-headed Munia Lonchura malacca

Kaziranga

Common Stonechat Saxicola torquata

47

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

PHOTOGUIDE (MAMMALS)

Leopard Panthera pardus

DEBAL SEN

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

Tiger Panthera tigris

Jungle cat Felis chaus

AXEL GOMILLE

SAURABH SAWANT

Fishing cat Prionailurus viverrinus

Grey mongoose Herpestes edwardsii

NAYAN KHANOLKAR

DR. ULLAS KARANTH

Malayan giant squirrel Ratufa bicolor

Crestless Himalayan (Chinese) porcupine


Hystrix brachyura

JOHN EVERINGHAM

SANDEEP DESAI

Golden jackal Canis aureus

48

Small Indian civet Viverricula indica

Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata

Kaziranga

NACHBARNEBENAN/WIKIMEDIA

Flying fox Pteropus giganteus

DEBASISH ROY

Bengal fox Vulpes bengalensis

SAURABH R. DESAI

SAURABH R. DESAI

PHOTOGUIDE (MAMMALS)

DHRITIMAN MUKHERJEE

Indian pangolin Manis crassicaudata

T.N.A. PERUMAL

Assam macaque Macaca mulatta

BERNARD CASTELEIN

Asiatic black bear Ursus thibetanus

RAJARSHI BANERJI

Sloth bear Melursus ursinus

Hoary-bellied squirrel Callosciurus


pygerythrus

Western hoolock gibbon Hoolock hoolock

Kaziranga

D. K. BHASKAR

SAURABH SAWANT

Rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta

Capped langur Trachypithecus pileatus

49

BRIJENDRA SINGH

M. KAMALAKANNAN

PHOTOGUIDE (MAMMALS)

Indian water buffalo Bubalus arnee

JAGDEEP RAJPUT

AMANO SAMARPAN

Asian elephant Elephas maximus

Swamp deer (Barasingha) Rucervus duvaucelii

JAGDEEP RAJPUT

JAYANTH SHARMA

Sambar Rusa unicolor

Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak

UDAYAN BORTHAKUR

DHRITIMAN MUKHERJEE

Hog deer Axis porcinus

Gaur (Indian bison) Bos gaurus

50

Wild pig Sus scrofa

NILADRI SARKAR

DR. NILANJAN DAS

South Asian river dolphin Platanista gangetica

Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis

Kaziranga

ABHIJIT DAS

Bengal monitor Varanus bengalensis

ABHIJIT DAS

Indian cricket frog Fejervarya cf. limnocharis

N. C. DHINGRA

KALYAN VARMA

PHOTOGUIDE (REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS)

ABHIJIT DAS

Tokay gecko Gekko gecko

ABHIJIT DAS

Khasi Hill bent-toed gecko Cyrtodactylus


khasiensis

VIVEK SINHA

Eastern cat snake Boiga gokool

ABHIJIT DAS

Black krait Bungarus niger

PRITISH PANKE

King cobra Ophiophagus hannah

ABHIJIT DAS

White-lipped pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris

Assam roofed turtle Pangshura sylhetensis

Kaziranga

Gharial Gavialis gangeticus

51

ANIMISH MANDREKAR

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

PHOTOGUIDE (BUTTERFLIES)

Blue imperial Ticherra acte

YUWARAJ GURJAR

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

Common pierrot Castalius rosimon

Purple sapphire Heliophorus epicles

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

Bath white Pontia daplidice

Cachar flash Artipe skinneri

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

ANIMISH MANDREKAR

Green flash Artipe eryx

Chestnut angle Odontoptilum angulata

52

White-bar bushbrown Mycalesis anaxias

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

ANIMISH MANDREKAR

Common awl Hasora badra

Common fourring Ypthima huebneri

Kaziranga

Popinjay Stibochiona nicea

Peacock pansy Junonia almana

Indian red admiral Vanessa indica

Kaziranga

ISAAC KEHIMKAR

ANIMISH MANDREKAR

Gaudy baron Euthalia lubentina

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

Common nawab Polyura athamas

DR. ANISH ANDHERIA

Knight Lebadea martha

VARUN SATOSE

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

Constable Dichorragia nesimachus

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

Common mormon Papilio polytes

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

Lesser batwing Atrophaneura aidoneus

DR ANISH ANDHERIA

MONSOON JYOTI GOGOI

PHOTOGUIDE (BUTTERFLIES)

Common maplet Chersonesia risa

53

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA BIRDS

ORDER: GALLIFORMES
Family: Phasianidae
 Grey Francolin
Francolinus pondicerianus
 Swamp Francolin (Swamp
Partridge) Francolinus
gularis
 King Quail (Blue-breasted
Quail) Coturnix chinensis
 Japanese Quail Coturnix
japonica
 White-cheeked Partridge
(White-cheeked Hill
Partridge) Arborophila
atrogularis
 Red Junglefowl Gallus
gallus
 Kalij Pheasant Lophura
leucomelanos
 Grey Peacock Pheasant
(Peacock Pheasant)
Polyplectron bicalcaratum
ORDER: ANSERIFORMES
Family: Anatidae
 Fulvous Whistling-duck
(Large Whistling-teal)
Dendrocygna bicolor
 Lesser Whistling-duck
(Lesser Whistling-teal)
Dendrocygna javanica
 Greater White-fronted
Goose (White-fronted
Goose) Anser albifrons
 Lesser White-fronted Goose
Anser erythropus\
 Greylag Goose Anser
anser
 Bar-headed Goose Anser
indicus
 Ruddy Shelduck (Ruddy
Sheldrake) Tadorna
ferruginea
 Common Shelduck
Tadorna tadorna
 Cotton Pygmy-goose
(Cotton Teal) Nettapus
coromandelianus
 Gadwall Anas strepera
Falcated Duck (Falcated
Teal) Anas falcata
 Eurasian Wigeon Anas
penelope
 Mallard Anas
platyrhynchos
 Spot-billed Duck (Spotbill
Duck) Anas
poecilorhyncha
 Northern Shoveler Anas
clypeata
 Northern Pintail (Common
Pintail) Anas acuta
 Garganey Anas
querquedula
 Common Teal Anas crecca
 Red-crested Pochard Netta
rufina
 Common Pochard Aythya
ferina

54

 Ferruginous Pochard
(Ferruginous Duck) Aythya
nyroca
 Baers Pochard Aythya
baeri
 Tufted Duck (Tufted
Pochard) Aythya fuligula
 Smew Mergellus albellus
ORDER: TURNICIFORMES
Family: Turnicidae
 Yellow-legged Buttonquail
(Button Quail) Turnix tanki
 Barred Buttonquail
(Common Bustardquail)
Turnix suscitator
ORDER: PICIFORMES
Family: Picidae
 Eurasian Wryneck
(Wryneck) Jynx torquilla
 Speckled Piculet (Spotted
Piculet) Picumnus
innominatus
 White-browed Piculet (Rufous
Piculet) Sasia ochracea
 Grey-capped Pygmy
Woodpecker (Grey-crowned
Pygmy Woodpecker)
Dendrocopos canicapillus
 Fulvous-breasted
Woodpecker (Fulvousbreasted Pied Woodpecker)
Dendrocopos macei
 Rufous Woodpecker
Micropternus brachyurus
 Lesser Yellownape (Lesser
Yellow-naped Woodpecker)
Picus chlorolophus
 Greater Yellownape
(Greater Yellow-naped
Woodpecker) Picus
flavinucha
 Streak-throated
Woodpecker (Little Scalybellied Green Woodpecker)
Picus xanthopygaeus
 Grey-headed Woodpecker
(Black-naped Green
Woodpecker) Picus canus
 Himalayan Goldenback
(Three-toed Golden-backed
Woodpecker) Dinopium
shorii
 Common Goldenback
(Golden-backed Three-toed
Woodpecker) Dinopium
javanense
 Lesser Goldenback (Lesser
Golden-backed
Woodpecker) Dinopium
benghalense
 Greater Goldenback
(Larger Golden-backed
Woodpecker)
Chrysocolaptes lucidus

 Bay Woodpecker (Redeared Bay Woodpecker)


Blythipicus pyrrhotis
Family: Megalaimidae
 Lineated Barbet
Megalaima lineata
 Blue-throated Barbet
Megalaima asiatica
 Blue-eared Barbet
Megalaima australis
 Coppersmith Barbet
(Crimson-breasted Barbet)
Megalaima haemacephala
 Great Barbet Megalaima
virens
ORDER: BUCEROTIFORMES
Family: Bucerotidae
 Great Hornbill (Great Pied
Hornbill) Buceros bicornis
 Wreathed Hornbill
Rhyticeros undulatus
 Oriental Pied Hornbill
(Indian Pied Hornbill)
Anthracoceros albirostris
ORDER: UPUPIFORMES
Family: Upupidae
 Common Hoopoe
(Hoopoe) Upupa epops
ORDER: TROGONIFORMES
Family: Trogonidae
 Red-headed Trogon
Harpactes
erythrocephalus
ORDER: CORACIIFORMES
Family: Coraciidae
 Indian Roller Coracias
benghalensis
 Dollarbird (Broad-billed
Roller) Eurystomus
orientalis
Family: Alcedinidae
 Common Kingfisher
(Small Blue Kingfisher)
Alcedo atthis
 Blue-eared Kingfisher
Alcedo meninting
 Blyths Kingfisher Alcedo
hercules
 Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher
Ceyx erithaca
 Stork-billed Kingfisher
Pelargopsis capensis
 Ruddy Kingfisher Halcyon
coromanda
 White-throated Kingfisher
(White-breasted Kingfisher)
Halcyon smyrnensis
 Black-capped Kingfisher
(Black-capped Purple
Kingfisher) Halcyon
pileata
 Pied Kingfisher (Lesser Pied
Kingfisher) Ceryle rudis
Family: Meropidae
 Blue-bearded Bee-eater
Nyctyornis athertoni
 Green Bee-eater (Little
Green Bee-eater) Merops
orientalis
 Blue-tailed Bee-eater
Merops philippinus
 Chestnut-headed Bee-eater
Merops leschenaulti
ORDER: CUCULIFORMES
Family: Cuculidae
 Jacobin Cuckoo (Pied
Cuckoo) Clamator
jacobinus

Kaziranga

 Chestnut-winged Cuckoo
(Red-winged Crested
Cuckoo) Clamator
coromandus
 Large Hawk-cuckoo
Hierococcyx sparverioides
 Common Hawk-cuckoo
Hierococcyx varius
 Indian Cuckoo Cuculus
micropterus
 Eurasian Cuckoo Cuculus
canorus
 Himalayan Cuckoo
(Oriental Cuckoo) Cuculus
saturatus
 Banded Bay Cuckoo
(Indian Banded Bay
Cuckoo) Cacomantis
sonneratii
 Grey-bellied Cuckoo
(Indian Plaintive Cuckoo)
Cacomantis passerinus
 Plaintive Cuckoo (Rufousbellied Plaintive Cuckoo)
Cacomantis merulinus
 Asian Emerald Cuckoo
(Emerald Cuckoo)
Chrysococcyx maculatus
 Drongo Cuckoo Surniculus
lugubris
 Asian Koel (Common
Koel) Eudynamys
scolopaceus
 Green-billed Malkoha (Large
Green-billed Malkoha)
Rhopodytes tristis
 Greater Coucal Centropus
sinensis (Crow-pheasant)
 Lesser Coucal (Small
Coucal) Centropus
bengalensis
ORDER: PSITTACIFORMES
Family: Psittacidae
 Vernal Hanging Parrot
(Indian Lorikeet) Loriculus
vernalis
 Alexandrine Parakeet
(Large Indian Parakeet,
Large Parakeet) Psittacula
eupatria
 Rose-ringed Parakeet
Psittacula krameri
 Grey-headed Parakeet
(Eastern Slaty-headed
Parakeet) Psittacula
finschii
 Blossom-headed Parakeet
(Eastern Blossom-headed)
Psittacula roseata
 Red-breasted Parakeet
(Rose-breasted Parakeet)
Psittacula alexandri
ORDER: APODIFORMES
Family: Apodidae
 Himalayan Swiftlet
(Edible-nest Swiftlet)
Collocalia brevirostris
 Silver-backed Needletail
(Cochinchina Spinetail
Swift) Hirundapus
cochinchinensis
 Brown-backed Needletail
(Large Brown-throated
Spinetail Swift)
Hirundapus giganteus
 Asian Palm Swift (Palm
Swift) Cypsiurus
balasiensis
ORDER: STRIGIFORMES
Family: Tytonidae
 Oriental Bay Owl
Phodilus badius

Kaziranga

Family: Strigidae
 Oriental Scops-owl (Little
Scops Owl) Otus sunia
 Collared Scops-owl Otus
lettia
 Mountain Scops-owl Otus
spilocephalus
 Indian Eagle-owl (Rock
Eagle Owl) Bubo
bengalensis
 Dusky Eagle-owl (Dusky
Horned Owl) Bubo
coromandus
 Brown Fish-owl Ketupa
zeylonensis
 Tawny Fish-owl Ketupa
flavipes
 Collared Owlet (Collared
Pygmy) Glaucidium
brodiei
 Asian Barred Owlet (Barred
Owlet) Glaucidium
cuculoides
 Jungle Owlet Glaucidium
radiatum
 Spotted Owlet Athene
brama
 Brown Hawk Owl (Brown
Boobook) Ninox scutulata
Family: Caprimulgidae
 Grey Nightjar
Caprimulgus jotaka
 Large-tailed Nightjar
(Long-tailed Nightjar)
Caprimulgus macrurus
 Jerdons Nightjar
Caprimulgus atripennis
 Savanna Nightjar
(Franklins Nightjar)
Caprimulgus affinis
ORDER: COLUMBIFORMES
Family: Columbidae
 Rock pigeon (Blue Rock
Pigeon) Columba livia
 Pale-capped Pigeon
(Purple Wood) Columba
punicea

 Oriental Turtle-dove
(Rufous Turtle Dove)
Streptopelia orientalis
 Spotted Dove
Stigmatopelia chinensis
 Red Collared-dove (Red
Turtle) Streptopelia
tranquebarica
 Eurasian Collared-dove
(Indian Ring, Collared
Dove) Streptopelia
decaocto
 Emerald Dove (Bronzewinged Dove)
Chalcophaps indica
 Orange-breasted Greenpigeon (Orange-breasted
Pigeon) Treron bicinctus
 Pin-tailed Green-pigeon
Treron apicauda
 Ashy-headed Green-pigeon
(Pompadour Pigeon)
Treron phayrei
 Thick-billed Green-pigeon
(Thick-billed Pigeon) Treron
curvirostra
 Yellow-footed Greenpigeon (Yellow-legged
Green or Bengal Pigeon)
Treron phoenicopterus
 Wedge-tailed Greenpigeon (Wedge-tailed
Pigeon) Treron sphenurus
 Green Imperial Pigeon
Ducula aenea
 Mountain Imperial Pigeon
(Imperial Pigeon) Ducula
badia
ORDER: GRUIFORMES
Family: Otididae
 Bengal Florican
Houbaropsis bengalensis
Family: Gruidae
 Common Crane Grus grus
Family: Rallidae
 Slaty-legged Crake
(Banded Crake, Slaty-

55

legged Banded Crake)


Rallina eurizonoides
 Slaty-breasted Rail (Bluebreasted Banded Rail)
Gallirallus striatus
 Water Rail Rallus
aquaticus
 Brown Crake Amaurornis
akool
 White-breasted Waterhen
Amaurornis phoenicurus
 Black-tailed Crake Porzana
bicolor
 Ruddy-breasted Crake
(Ruddy Crake) Porzana fusca
 Watercock Gallicrex cinerea
 Purple Swamphen (Purple
Moorhen, Purple
Gallinule) Porphyrio
porphyrio
 Common Moorhen
(Moorhen, Waterhen,
Indian Gallinule)
Gallinula chloropus
 Eurasian Coot (Black
Coot) Fulica atra
ORDER: CICONIIFORMES
Family: Scolopacidae
 Pin-tailed Snipe Gallinago
stenura
 Swinhoes Snipe
Gallinago megala
 Common Snipe (Fantail
Snipe) Gallinago
gallinago
 Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes
minimus
 Black-tailed Godwit
Limosa limosa
 Eurasian Curlew (Curlew)
Numenius arquata
 Spotted Redshank Tringa
erythropus
 Common Redshank
(Redshank) Tringa totanus
 Marsh Sandpiper Tringa
stagnatilis
 Common Greenshank
(Greenshank) Tringa
nebularia
 Nordmanns Greenshank
(Spotted Greenshank)
Tringa guttifer
 Green Sandpiper Tringa
ochropus
 Wood Sandpiper Tringa
glareola
 Terek Sandpiper Xenus
cinereus
 Common Sandpiper Actitis
hypoleucos

56

 Great Knot (Eastern Knot)


Calidris tenuirostris
 Little Stint Calidris minuta
 Dunlin Calidris alpina
 Temmincks Stint Calidris
temminckii
 Ruff Philomachus pugnax
 Red-necked Phalarope
Phalaropus lobatus
Family: Rostratulidae
 Greater Painted-snipe
(Painted Snipe) Rostratula
benghalensis
Family: Jacanidae
 Pheasant-tailed Jacana
Hydrophasianus chirurgus
 Bronze-winged Jacana
Metopidius indicus
Family: Burhinidae
 Great Thick-knee (Great
Stone Plover) Esacus
recurvirostris
Family: Charadriidae
 Black-winged Stilt
Himantopus himantopus
 Pied Avocet (Avocet)
Recurvirostra avosetta
 Pacific Golden Plover
(Eastern/Asiatic Golden
Plover) Pluvialis fulva
 Little Ringed Plover (Little
Plover, Little Ring Plover)
Charadrius dubius
 Kentish Plover Charadrius
alexandrinus
 Lesser Sand Plover
(Mongolian Plover)
Charadrius mongolus
 Northern Lapwing
(Eurasian Lapwing,
Lapwing) Vanellus
vanellus
 River Lapwing (Spur-winged)
Vanellus duvaucelii
 Grey-headed Lapwing
Vanellus cinereus
 Red-wattled Lapwing
Vanellus indicus
Family: Glareolidae
 Small Pratincole Glareola
lactea
Family: Laridae
 Indian Skimmer Rynchops
albicollis
 Pallass Gull (Great Blackheaded Gull) Ichthyaetus
ichthyaetus
 Brown-headed Gull
Chroicocephalus
brunnicephalus
 Black-headed Gull
Chroicocephalus
ridibundus

 Little Gull Hydrocoloeus


minutus
 Gull-billed Tern
Gelochelidon nilotica
 River Tern Sterna aurantia
Common Tern Sterna
hirundo
 Little Tern Sternula albifrons
 Black-bellied Tern Sterna
acuticauda
 Whiskered Tern Chlidonias
hybrida
 White-winged Tern
Chlidonias leucopterus
Family: Accipitridae
 Osprey Pandion haliaetus
 Jerdons Baza (Blyths
Baza, Brown Baza)
Aviceda jerdoni
 Black Baza (Indian Blackcrested, Black-crested Baza)
Aviceda leuphotes
 Oriental Honey-buzzard
Pernis ptilorhyncus
 Black-winged Kite (Blackshouldered Kite) Elanus
caeruleus
 Black Kite (Pariah Kite)
Milvus migrans
 Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus
 Pallas Fish-eagle
Haliaeetus leucoryphus
 White-tailed Sea-eagle
Haliaeetus albicilla
 Grey-headed Fish-eagle
(Himalayan Fishing
Eagle) Ichthyophaga
ichthyaetus
 White-rumped Vulture
(Indian White-backed
Vulture) Gyps bengalensis
 Slender-billed Vulture Gyps
tenuirostris
 Himalayan Vulture
(Himalayan Griffon
Vulture) Gyps
himalayensis
 Cinereous Vulture (Black
Vulture) Aegypius
monachus
 Red-headed Vulture (King
Vulture) Sarcogyps calvus
 Short-toed Snake-eagle
Circaetus gallicus
 Crested Serpent-eagle
Spilornis cheela
 Eurasian Marsh Harrier
Circus aeruginosus
 Hen Harrier (Northern
Harrier) Circus cyaneus
 Pallid Harrier Circus
macrourus
 Pied Harrier Circus
melanoleucos
 Montagus Harrier Circus
pygargusus
 Crested Goshawk Accipiter
trivirgatus
 Shikra Accipiter badius
 Japanese Sparrowhawk
Accipiter gularis
 Eurasian Sparrowhawk
(Northern Sparrowhawk)
Accipiter nisus
 Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis
 White-eyed Buzzard (Whiteeyed Buzzard Eagle)
Butastur teesa
 Common Buzzard
(Buzzard, Eurasian Buteo)
Buteo buteo

Kaziranga

 Black Eagle Ictinaetus


malayensis
 Indian Spotted Eagle
Aquila hastata
 Greater Spotted Eagle
Aquila clanga
 Steppe Eagle Aquila
nipalensis
 Eastern Imperial Eagle
Aquila heliaca
 Bonellis Eagle Aquila
fasciata
 Booted Eagle Hieraaetus
pennatus
 Rufous-bellied Eagle
(Rufous-bellied Hawkeagle) Lophotriorchis
kienerii
 Changeable Hawk-eagle
Spizaetus limnaeetus
 Mountain Hawk-eagle
(Hodgsons Hawk-eagle)
Spizaetus nipalensis
Family: Falconidae
 Collared Falconet
Microhierax caerulescens
 Pied Falconet (Whitelegged Falconet)
Microhierax melanoleucus
 Lesser Kestrel Falco
naumanni
 Common Kestrel (Eurasian
Kestrel) Falco tinnunculus
 Red-necked Falcon Falco
chicquera
 Amur Falcon (Red-legged
Falcon) Falco amurensis
 Oriental Hobby (Indian
Hobby) Falco severus
 Laggar Falcon Falco
jugger
 Peregrine Falcon Falco
peregrinus
 Merlin Falco columbarius
Family: Podicipedidae
 Little Grebe Tachybaptus
ruficollis
 Great Crested Grebe
Podiceps cristatus
Family: Anhingidae
 Darter (Snakebird) Anhinga
melanogaster
Family: Phalacrocoracidae
 Little Cormorant
Phalacrocorax niger
 Indian Cormorant (Shag)
Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
 Great Cormorant
Phalacrocorax carbo
Family: Ardeidae
 Little Egret Egretta
garzetta
 Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
Goliath Heron (Giant
Heron) Ardea goliath
 White-bellied Heron Ardea
insignis
 Purple Heron Ardea
purpurea
 Great Egret (Large Egret)
Casmerodius albus
 Intermediate Egret (Smaller
Egret, Plumed Egret)
Mesophoyx intermedia
 Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
 Indian Pond Heron
Ardeola grayii
 Chinese Pond Heron
Ardeola bacchus
 Little Heron (Little Green
Heron, Striated Heron)
Butorides striatus

Kaziranga

 Black-crowned Night
Heron Nycticorax
nycticorax
 Malayan Night-heron
Gorsachius melanolophus
 Little Bittern Ixobrychus
minutus
 Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus
sinensis
 Cinnamon Bittern
(Chestnut Bittern)
Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
 Black Bittern Dupetor
flavicollis
 Great Bittern (Eurasian
Bittern) Botaurus stellaris
Family: Threskiornithidae
 Black-headed Ibis
Threskiornis
melanocephalus
 Eurasian Spoonbill
Platalea leucorodia
Family: Pelecanidae
 Great White Pelican (Rosy
Pelican, White Pelican)
Pelecanus onocrotalus
 Dalmatian Pelican
Pelecanus crispus
 Spot-billed Pelican (Grey
Pelican) Pelecanus
philippensis
Family: Ciconiidae
 Asian Openbill Anastomus
oscitans
 Black Stork Ciconia nigra
 Woolly-necked Stork
(White-necked) Ciconia
episcopus
 White Stork Ciconia
ciconia
 Black-necked Stork
Ephippiorhynchus
asiaticus
 Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos
javanicus
 Greater Adjutant
Leptoptilos dubius
 Painted Stork Mycteria
leucocephala
ORDER: PASSERIFORMES
Family: Pittidae
 Blue-naped Pitta Pitta
nipalensis

 Blue Pitta Pitta cyanea


 Indian Pitta Pitta
brachyura
Family: Eurylaimidae
 Silver-breasted Broadbill
(Collared Broadbill)
Serilophus lunatus
Family: Irenidae
 Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena
puella
 Blue-winged Leafbird
Chloropsis
cochinchinensis
 Golden-fronted Leafbird
Chloropsis aurifrons
 Orange-bellied Leafbird
Chloropsis hardwickii
Family: Laniidae
 Brown Shrike Lanius
cristatus
 Long-tailed Shrike Lanius
schach
 Grey-backed Shrike
(Tibetan Shrike) Lanius
tephronotus
Family: Corvidae
 Common Green Magpie
Cissa chinensis
 Rufous Treepie (Indian
Treepie) Dendrocitta
vagabunda
 Grey Treepie (Himalyan
Treepie) Dendrocitta
formosae
 House Crow Corvus
splendens
 Indian Jungle Crow
(Large-billed Crow) Corvus
macrorhynchos
 Ashy Woodswallow
Artamus fuscus
Family:Oriolidae
 Slender-billed Oriole
Oriolus tenuirostris
 Black-hooded Oriole
(Black-headed Oriole)
Oriolus xanthornus
 Maroon Oriole Oriolus
traillii
Family: Campephagidae
 Large Cuckooshrike
Coracina macei

57

 Black-winged
Cuckooshrike (Smaller
Grey Cuckooshrike)
Coracina melaschistos
 Rosy Minivet Pericrocotus
roseus
 Ashy Minivet Pericrocotus
divaricatus
 Small Minivet (Little
Minivet) Pericrocotus
cinnamomeus
 Grey-chinned Minivet
(Yellow-throated Minivet)
Pericrocotus solaris
 Long-tailed Minivet
Pericrocotus ethologus
 Short-billed Minivet
Pericrocotus brevirostris
 Scarlet Minivet
Pericrocotus flammeus
 Bar-winged Flycatchershrike (Pied Flycatchershrike) Hemipus picatus
Family: Rhipiduridae
 Yellow-bellied Fantail
Rhipidura hypoxantha
 White-throated Fantail
Rhipidura albicollis
 White-browed Fantail
Rhipidura aureola
Family: Dicruridae
 Black Drongo Dicrurus
macrocercus
 Ashy Drongo Dicrurus
leucophaeus
 Crow-billed Drongo
Dicrurus annectans
 Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus
aeneus
 Lesser Racket-tailed
Drongo Dicrurus remifer
 Spangled Drongo (Haircrested) Dicrurus
hottentottus
 Greater Racket-tailed
Drongo Dicrurus
paradiseus
Family: Monarchidae
 Black-naped Monarch
Hypothymis azurea
 Asian Paradise-flycatcher
Terpsiphone paradisi
Family: Aegithinidae
 Common Iora Aegithina
tiphia

58

Family: Campephagidae
 Large Woodshrike
Tephrodornis gularis
 Common Woodshrike
Tephrodornis
pondicerianus
Family: Muscicapidae
 Blue-capped Rock-thrush
Monticola cinclorhynchus
 Blue Rock-thrush
Monticola solitarius
 Blue Whistling-thrush
Myophonus caeruleus
 Chestnut-bellied Rock
Thrush Monticola
rufiventris
 Orange-headed Thrush
Zoothera citrina
 Long-tailed Thrush
Zoothera dixoni
 Scaly Thrush (Speckled
Mountain Thrush)
Zoothera dauma
 Long-billed Thrush
Zoothera monticola
 Black-breasted Thrush
Turdus dissimilis
 Grey-winged Blackbird
Turdus boulboul
 Red-throated Thrush Turdus
ruficollis
 Dusky Thrush Turdus
eunomus
 Lesser Shortwing
Brachypteryx leucophrys
 White-browed Shortwing
Brachypteryx montana
 Dark-sided Flycatcher
(Sooty Flycatcher)
Muscicapa sibirica
 Asian Brown Flycatcher
Muscicapa dauurica
 Ferruginous Flycatcher
Muscicapa ferruginea
 Slaty-backed Flycatcher
(Rusty-breasted Blue
Flycatcher) Ficedula
hodgsonii
 Red-throated Flycatcher
(Red-breasted Flycatcher)
Ficedula parva
 Snowy-browed Flycatcher
(Rufous-breasted Blue
Flycatcher) Ficedula
hyperythra

 Little Pied Flycatcher


(Westermanns Flycatcher)
Ficedula westermanni
 Slaty-blue Flycatcher
Ficedula tricolor
 Verditer Flycatcher Eumyias
thalassinus
 Large Niltava Niltava
grandis
 Small Niltava Niltava
macgrigoriae
 Rufous-bellied Niltava
Niltava sundara
 Pale-chinned Flycatcher
(Brooks Flycatcher)
 Cyornis poliogenys
 Pygmy Blue Flycatcher
Muscicapella hodgsoni
 Grey-headed Canary
Flycatcher Culicicapa
ceylonensis
 Siberian Rubythroat
Luscinia calliope
 White-tailed Rubythroat
(Himalayan Rubythroat)
Luscinia pectoralis
 Bluethroat Luscinia
svecica
 Oriental Magpie Robin
Copsychus saularis
 White-rumped Shama
Copsychus malabaricus
 Black Redstart
Phoenicurus ochruros
 Daurian Redstart
Phoenicurus auroreus
 Hodgsons Redstart
Phoenicurus schisticeps
 White-capped Redstart
Chaimarrornis
leucocephalus
 Plumbeous Water-redstart
Rhyacornis fuliginosus
 White-tailed Robin
Myiomela leucura
 Black-backed Forktail
Enicurus immaculatus
 Slaty-backed Forktail
Enicurus schistaceus
 White-crowned Forktail
(Leschenaults Forktail)
 Enicurus leschenaulti
 Hodgsons Bushchat
Saxicola insignis
 Common Stonechat
(Collared Bushchat)
Saxicola torquata
 White-tailed Stonechat
Saxicola leucura
 Jerdons Bushchat
Saxicola jerdoni
 Pied Bushchat Saxicola
caprata
 Grey Bushchat Saxicola
ferreus
Family: Sturnidae
 Spot-winged Starling
Saroglossa spiloptera
 Chestnut-tailed Starling
Sturnus malabaricus
 Brahminy Starling Sturnus
pagodarum
 Asian Pied Starling Sturnus
contra
 Common Myna
Acridotheres tristis
 Bank Myna Acridotheres
ginginianus
 Jungle Myna Acridotheres
fuscus
 White-Vented Myna
(Orange-billed Jungle

Kaziranga

Myna) Acridotheres
grandis
 Common Hill Myna
Gracula religiosa
Family: Sittidae
 Chestnut-vented Nuthatch
(Eurasian Nuthatch) Sitta
nagaensis
 Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch
Sitta cinnamoventris
 Velvet-fronted Nuthatch
Sitta frontalis
 Wallcreeper Tichodroma
muraria
Family: Paridae
 Great Tit (Grey Tit) Parus
major
 Sultan Tit Melanochlora
sultanea
Family: Hirundinidae
 Pale Martin (Collared
Sand Martin) Riparia
diluta
 Sand Martin (Collared
Sand Martin) Riparia
riparia
 Plain Martin Riparia
paludicola
 Barn Swallow (Common
Swallow) Hirundo rustica
 Red-rumped (Striated
Swallow) Cecropis daurica
 Streak-throated Swallow
Hirundo fluvicola
 Striated Swallow (Larger
Striated) Cecropis striolata
Family: Pycnonotidae
 Black-crested Bulbul
Pycnonotus melanicterus
 Red-whiskered Bulbul
Pycnonotus jocosus
 Red-vented Bulbul
Pycnonotus cafer
 Himalayan Bulbul
Pycnonotus leucogenys
 White-throated Bulbul
Alophoixus flaveolus
 Ashy Bulbul (Brown-eared
Bulbul) Hemixos flavala
 Black Bulbul Hypsipetes
leucocephalus
Family: Cisticolidae
 Zitting Cisticola (Streaked
Fantail Warbler) Cisticola
juncidis
 Bright-headed Cisticola
Cisticola exilis
 Rufous-vented Prinia
(Long-tailed Grass
Warbler) Prinia
cinerascens
 Rufescent Prinia Prinia
rufescens
 Grey-breasted Prinia Prinia
hodgsonii
 Graceful Prinia (Streaked
Wren Warbler) Prinia
gracilis
 Yellow-bellied Prinia
(Yellow-bellied WrenWarbler) Prinia flaviventris
 Ashy Prinia (Ashy Wren
Warbler) Prinia socialis
 Plain Prinia (Plain WrenWarbler) Prinia inornata
 Common Tailorbird
(Tailorbird) Orthotomus
sutorius
 Dark-necked Tailorbird
Orthotomus atrogularis
 Striated Grassbird (Striated
Marsh Warbler, Striated

Kaziranga

Warbler) Megalurus
palustris
 Bristled Grassbird (Bristled
Grass Warbler)
Chaetornis striata
 Rufous-rumped Grassbird
(Large Grass Warbler)
Graminicola bengalensis
Family: Zosteropidae
 Oriental White-eye
Zosterops palpebrosus
Family: Sylviidae
 Chestnut-headed Tesia
(Chestnut-headed Ground
Warbler) Tesia
castaneocoronata
 Slaty-bellied Tesia (Slatybellied Ground Warbler)
Tesia olivea
 Grey-bellied Tesia (Dull
Slaty-bellied Ground
Warbler) Tesia cyaniventer
 Pale-footed Bush-warbler
(Blanfords Bush-warbler)
Cettia pallidipes
 Brownish-flanked Bushwarbler (Strong-footed
Bush-warbler) Cettia
fortipes
 Chestnut-crowned Bushwarbler (Large Bushwarbler) Cettia major
 Grey-sided Bush-warbler
(Rufous-capped Bushwarbler) Cettia
brunnifrons
 Spotted Bush-warbler
Bradypterus thoracicus
 Chinese Bush-warbler
Bradypterus
tacsanowskius
 Rusty-rumped Warbler
(Pallass Grasshopper
Warbler) Locustella
certhiola
 Paddyfield Warbler
Acrocephalus agricola
 Blunt-winged Warbler
Acrocephalus concinens
 Blyths Reed-warbler
Acrocephalus dumetorum
 Clamorous Reed-warbler
(Indian Great Reedwarbler) Acrocephalus
stentoreus
 Thick-billed Warbler
Acrocephalus aedon
 Mountain Tailorbird
(Golden-headed Tailorbird)
phyllergates cuculatus
 Common Chiffchaff
(Brown Leaf Warbler)
Phylloscopus collybita
 Dusky Warbler
Phylloscopus fuscatus

 Smoky Warbler (Smoky


Leaf-warbler)
Phylloscopus fuligiventer
 Tickells Leaf-warbler
(Tickells Warbler)
Phylloscopus affinis
 Lemon-rumped Warbler
(Pallass Leaf-warbler)
Phylloscopus chloronotus
 Yellow-browed Warbler
(Inornate Leafwarbler)Phylloscopus
inornatus
 Greenish Warbler (Dull
Green Leaf-warbler)
Phylloscopus trochiloides
 Large-billed Leaf-warbler
(Large-billed Tree-warbler)
Phylloscopus magnirostris
 Eastern Crowned Warbler
Phylloscopus coronatus
 Blyths Leaf-warbler
(Crowned) Phylloscopus
reguloides
 Yellow-vented Warbler
(Black-browed Leafwarbler) Phylloscopus
cantator
 Golden-spectacled Warbler
(Black-browed Flycatcher
Warbler) Seicercus burkii
 Grey-hooded Warbler
(Grey-headed Flycatcher
Warbler) Seicercus
xanthoschistos
 White-spectacled Warbler
(Allied Flycatcher Warbler,
Allied Warbler) Seicercus
affinis
 Grey-cheeked Warbler
(Grey-cheeked Flycatcher
Warbler) Seicercus
poliogenys
 Chestnut-crowned Warbler
(Chestnut-headed
Flycatcher Warbler)
Seicercus castaniceps
 Yellow-bellied Warbler
(Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
Warbler) Abroscopus
superciliaris
Family: Timaliidae
 White-crested
Laughingthrush Garrulax
leucolophus
 Lesser Necklaced
Laughingthrush Garrulax
monileger
 Greater Necklaced
Laughingthrush (Blackgorgeted Laughingthrush)
Garrulax pectoralis
 Rufous-necked
Laughingthrush Garrulax
ruficollis

59

 Abbotts Babbler
Malacocincla abbotti
 Marsh Babbler (Marsh
Spotted Babbler)
Pellorneum palustre
 Puff-throated Babbler
(Spotted Babbler)
Pellorneum ruficeps
 Large Scimitar-babbler
(Long-billed Scimitarbabbler) Pomatorhinus
hypoleucos
 White-browed Scimitarbabbler (Slaty-headed
Scimitar-babbler)
Pomatorhinus schisticeps
 Streak-breasted Scimitarbabbler Pomatorhinus
ruficollis
 Pygmy Wren-babbler
(Brown Wren-babbler)
Pnoepyga pusilla
 Rufous-fronted Babbler
(Red-fronted Babbler)
Stachyris rufifrons
 Rufous-capped Babbler
Stachyris ruficeps
 Golden Babbler (Golden/
Gold-headed Babbler)
Stachyris chrysaea
 Grey-throated Babbler
(Black-throated Babbler)
Stachyris nigriceps
 Pin-striped Tit Babbler
(Yellow-breasted Babbler)
Macronous gularis
 Chestnut-capped Babbler
(Red-capped Babbler)
Timalia pileata
 Yellow-eyed Babbler
Chrysomma sinense
 Jerdons Babbler (Jerdons
Moupinia) Chrysomma
altirostre
 Striated Babbler Turdoides
earlei
 Slender-billed Babbler
Turdoides longirostris
 Jungle Babbler Turdoides
striata
 White-hooded Babbler
(White-headed Shrike
Babbler) Gampsorhynchus
rufulus
 Brown-cheeked Fulvetta
(Quaker Babbler) Alcippe
poioicephala
 White-bellied Yuhina
Erpornis zantholeuca

60

 Black-breasted Parrotbill
(Goulds Parrotbill)
Paradoxornis flavirostris
 Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia
curruca
Family: Alaudidae
 Singing Bushlark (Lark)
Mirafra cantillans
 Indian Bushlark Mirafra
erythroptera
 Rufous-winged Bushlark
Mirafra assamica
 Jerdons Bushlark (Rufouswinged Lark) Mirafra
affinis
 Sand Lark (Indian
Sandlark) Calandrella
raytal
 Oriental Skylark (Eastern
Skylark, Oriental Lark)
Alauda gulgula
Family: Nectariniidae
 Thick-billed Flowerpecker
Dicaeum agile
 Yellow-vented Flowerpecker
Dicaeum chrysorrheum
 Pale-billed Flowerpecker
(Tickells Flowerpecker)
Dicaeum erythrorynchos
 Plain Flowerpecker (Plaincolored Flowerpecker)
Dicaeum minullum
 Scarlet-backed
Flowerpecker Dicaeum
cruentatum
 Ruby-cheeked Sunbird
Anthreptes singalensis
 Purple Sunbird Cinnyris
asiatica
 Mrs. Goulds Sunbird
Aethopyga gouldiae
 Black-throated Sunbird
(Black-breasted Sunbird)
Aethopyga saturata
 Crimson Sunbird (Yellowbacked Sunbird)
Aethopyga siparaja
 Little Spiderhunter
Arachnothera longirostra
 Streaked Spiderhunter
Arachnothera magna
Family: Passeridae
 House Sparrow Passer
domesticus
 Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Tree
Sparrow) Passer montanus
 Russet Sparrow Passer
rutilans

Family: Motacillidae
 Forest Wagtail
Dendronanthus indicus
 White Wagtail (Pied
Wagtail) Motacilla alba
 White-browed Wagtail
(Large Pied Wagtail)
Motacilla
maderaspatensis
 Citrine Wagtail (Yellowheaded/hooded Wagtail)
Motacilla citreola
 Yellow Wagtail Motacilla
flava
 Grey Wagtail Motacilla
cinerea
 Richards Pipit Anthus
richardi
 Paddyfield Pipit (Indian
Pipit) Anthus rufulus
 Blyths Pipit Anthus
godlewskii
 Olive-backed Pipit (Indian
Tree Pipit) Anthus
hodgsoni
 Rosy Pipit (Vinaceousbreasted Pipit) Anthus
roseatus
Family: Ploceidae
 Black-breasted Weaver
(Black-throated Weaver/
Weaver Bird) Ploceus
benghalensis
 Streaked Weaver Ploceus
manyar
 Baya Weaver Ploceus
philippinus
 Finns Weaver Ploceus
megarhynchus
Family: Estrildidae
 Red Avadavat (Red Munia)
Amandava amandava
 White-rumped Munia
(White-backed Munia,
Striated Munia) Lonchura
striata
 Scaly-breasted Munia
(Spotted Munia, Nutmeg
Mannikin) Lonchura
punctulata
 Black-headed Munia
Lonchura malacca
 Chestnut Munia Lonchura
atricapilla
Family: Fringillidae
 Little Bunting Emberiza
pusilla
 Yellow-breasted Bunting
Emberiza aureola
 Black-faced Bunting
Emberiza spodocephala
Family: Emberizinae
 Common Rosefinch
Carpodacus erythrinus
First compiled by
Maan Barua and
Pankaj Sharma
on March 1, 2005.
Updated nomenclature,
taxonomy and occurrence
as per Birds of the Indian
Subcontinent (2nd Revised
Edition 2011) by Richard
Grimmett, Carol Inskipp
and Tim Inskipp.
Old names in brackets ( )

Kaziranga

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA MAMMALS


 Indian rhinoceros (Gorh)
Rhinoceros unicornis
 Indian water buffalo
(Bonoria moh) Bubalus
arnee
 Asiatic elephant (Hathi)
Elephas maximus
 Royal Bengal tiger
(Dhekiapotia bagh)
Panthera tigris tigris
 Wild pig (Bonoria gahori)
Sus scrofa
 Gaur (Methon) Bos gaurus
 Swamp deer or barasingha
(Dol horina) Rucervus
duvaucelii
 Sambar (Sor pahu) Rusa
unicolor
 Barking deer (Khotia pohu)
Muntiacus muntjak
 Western hoolock gibbon
(Halou bandor) Hoolock
hoolock
 Hog deer (Hugori pohu)
Axis porcinus
 Capped langur or leaf
monkey (Tupipindha
Hanuman bandor)
Trachypithecus pileatus
 Rhesus macaque (Molua
bandor) Macaca mulatta
 Assam macaque (Jati
bandar) Macaca
assamensis
 Leopard (Naharphutuki
bagh) Panthera pardus
 Sloth bear (Mati bhaluk)
Melursus ursinus
 Crestless Himalayan
(Chinese) porcupine
(Ketela pohu) Hystrix
brachyura
 Leopard cat (Lota makori
bagh) Prionailurus
bengalensis
 Fishing cat (Masuoi mekuri)
Prionailurus viverrinus

 Jungle cat (Ban mekuri)


Felis chaus
 Large Indian civet
(Johamol) Viverra zibetha
 Small Indian civet
Viverricula indica
 Grey mongoose (Neul)
Herpestes edwardsii
 Small Indian mongoose
(Haru neul) Herpestes
javanicus auropunctatus
 Bengal fox (Ram hial)
Vulpes bengalensis
 Golden jackal (Hial)
Canis aureus
 European otter (Ud) Lutra
lutra
 Smooth-coated otter (Ud)
Lutrogale perspicillata
 Chinese ferret-badger
Melogale moschata

 Hog-badger Arctonyx
collaris
 Himalayan mole (Utonua)
Euroscaptor micrura
 Chinese pangolin (Bon
row) Manis pentadactyla
 South Asian river dolphin
(Hihu) Platanista
gangetica
 Hoary-bellied or
Irrawaddy squirrel
(Kerketua) Callosciurus
pygerythrus
 Malayan giant squirrel
Ratufa bicolor
 Asiatic black bear
(Kolabhaluk) Ursus
thibetanus
 Bat (Baduli) Various Spp.
Assamese names in
brackets ( )

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA AMPHIBIANS

Family: Megophryidae
 Red-eyed frog
Leptobrachium smithi
 Myanmar pelobatid toad
Megophrys parva
Family: Bufonidae
 Asian common toad
Duttaphrynus
melanostictus
Family: Hylidae
 Indian hylid frog Hyla
annectans
Family: Microhylidae
 Ornate narrow-mouthed
frog Microhyla ornate

Kaziranga

 Red narrow-mouthed frog


Microhyla rubra
Family: Rhacophoridae
 Annandales tree frog
Chiromantis simus
 Boulengers tree frog
Feihyla vittatus
 Four-lined tree frog
Polypedates leucomystax
 Twin-spotted tree frog
Rhacophorus bipunctatus
 Large tree frog
Rhacophorus maximus
 Warty tree frog Theloderma
asperum
Family: Dicroglossidae
 Indian skipping frog
Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis
 Jerdons bull frog
Hoplobatrachus crassus
 Indian bull frog
Hoplobatrachus tigerinus
 Cricket frog Fejervarya cf.
limnocharis
 Syhadra frog Zakerana cf.
syhadrensis

 Flat-headed frog
Limnonectes laticeps
 Northern frog Ingerana
borealis
Family: Ranidae
 Leaf frog Hylarana tytleri
 Long-tongued frog
Hylarana leptoglossa
 Bhamo frog Humerana
humeralis

61

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA REPTILES


 Checkered keelback

CROCODILE
Family: Gavialidae
 Gharial (Gharial)
Gavialis gangeticus
TURTLES
Family: TESTUDINIDAE
 Asian giant tortoise (Pahari
dura) Manouria emys
 Family: TRIONYCHIDAE
 Indian softshell turtle
(Laumura) Nilssonia
gangetica
 Indian peacock softshell
turtle (Borkasso, Teli-gura )
Nilssonia hurum
 Black softshell turtle (Gura)
Nilssonia nigricans
 Indian Narrow-headed
softshell turtle Chitra
indica
 Indian flapshell turtle
(Bagh dura) Lissemys
punctata andersonii
 Southeast Asian box turtle
(Jap dura) Cuora
amboinensis
Family: GEOEMYDIDAE
 Spotted pond turtle (Nal
dura) Geoclemys
hamiltonii
 Crowned river turtle
Hardella thurjii
 Brown roofed turtle
Pangshura smithii
 Assam roofed turtle (Dura)
Pangshura sylhetensis
 Indian roofed turtle (Salika
Dura) Pangshura tectum
 Indian tent turtle (Salika
Dura) Pangshura tentoria
 Tricarinate hill turtle
Melanochelys tricarinata
 Indian eyed turtle Morenia
petersi
 Keeled box turtle Cuora
mouhotii
SNAKES
Family: TYPHLOPIDAE
 Brahminy worm snake
(Mati sap or Khanti sap)
Ramphotyphlops braminus
 Diards worm snake (mati
sap) Typhlops diardii
Family: PYTHONIDAE
 Burmese python (Ojaghor/
Jalpehia) Python molurus
bivittatus

62

Family: Colubridae
 Common vine snake
(Laoudonga sap)
Ahaetulla nasuta
 Short-nosed vine snake
(Laoudonga sap)
Ahaetulla prasina
 Striped keelback (Bamuni
sap) Amphiesma stolatum
 Eastern cat snake
(Baghraj) Boiga gokool
 Siamese cat snake Boiga
siamensis*
 Green cat snake Boiga
cyanea
 Ornate flying snake
(Kalnagina\Uronia sap)
Chrysopelea ornata
 Copper-headed trinket
snake (Dhundhuli phati/
Nilaji Gom)
Coelognathus radiatus
 Common trinket snake
Coelognathus helena
helena
 Painted bronzeback tree
snake (Karsola sap)
Dendrelaphis pictus
 Common wolf snake
(Mechi sap) Lycodon
aulicus
 Yellow-speckled wolf
snake Lycodon jara
 Mock viper
Psammodynastes
pulverulentus
 Indo-Chinese rat snake
(Gom sap) Ptyas korros
 Indian rat snake (Machoa
gom) Ptyas mucosa
 Red-necked keelback (Garo
Gom or baat supa)
Rhabdophis subminiatus

(Dhora sap)
Xenochrophis piscator
Family: HOMALOPSIDAE
 Common smooth-scaled
water snake (Meni sap)
Enhydris enhydris
Family: Elapidae
 Banded krait (Goala sap)
Bungarus fasciatus
 Monocled cobra
(Feti sap) Naja kaouthia
 King cobra (Roja phati)
Ophiophagus hannah
Family: Viperidae
 White-lipped pit viper
Trimeresurus albolabris
LIZARDS
Family: Agamidae
 Indian garden lizard (Tej
piya) Calotes versicolor
 Green fan-throated lizard
(Tej piya) Ptyctolaemus
gularis
Family: Gekkonidae
 Flat-tailed gecko (Bon
jethi) Hemidactylus
platyurus
 Assamese day gecko
(Jethi) Cnemaspis
assamensis
 Khasi hill bent-toed
gecko (Jethi)
Cyrtodactylus khasiensis
 Tokay gecko (Keko) Gekko
gecko
 Garnots gecko (Jethi)
Hemidactylus garnotii
 Asian house gecko (Jethi)
Hemidactylus frenatus
Family: Scincidae
 Many-lined grass skink
(Monikora) Eutropis
multifasciata
 Little grass skink
(Naipiya) Eutropis
macularia
 White-spotted supple
skink (Naipiya) Lygosoma
albopunctata
 Himalayan litter skink
(Naipiya)
Sphenomorphus indicus
Family: Varanidae
 Bengal monitor
(Gui sap) Varanus
bengalensis
 Yellow monitor (Xon gui)
Varanus flavescens
 Water monitor (Khemon)
Varanus salvator

Compiled and verified by


Abhijit Das (Ph.D, Scientist - C, Wildlife Institute of India).
Email: abhijit@wii.gov.in
M. Firoz Ahmed (Wildlife Biologist, Aaranyak).
Email: firoz@aaranyak.org
Nomenclature according to Updated Checklist of Indian
Reptiles by R. Aengals, V. M. Sathish Kumar and Muhamed
Jafer Palot (Zoological Survey of India).
Email: aengalszsiramasamy@yahoo.com
* www.reptile-database.org
Assamese names in brackets ( )

Kaziranga

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA BUTTERFLIES


Family Papilionidae
 Common birdwing Troides
helena
 Lesser batwing
Atrophaneura aidoneus
 Common batwing
Atrophaneura varuna
 Common rose
Atrophaneura
aristolochiae
 Great windmill Byasa
dasarada
 Common mime Papilio
clytia
 Great mormon Papilio
memnon
 Spangle Papilio protenor
 Paris peacock Papilio
paris
 Common peacock Papilio
bianor
 Common raven Papilio
castor
 Red helen Papilio helenus
 Yellow helen Papilio
nephelus
 Common mormon Papilio
polytes
 Lime butterfly Papillo
demoleus
 Five-bar swordtail
Graphium antiphates
 Common bluebottle
Graphium sarpedon
 Himalayan common jay
Graphium doson
 Great jay Graphium
eurypylus
 Tailed jay Graphium
agamemnon
 White dragontail
Lamproptera curius
Family Pieridae
 Green-vein white Pieris
napi
 Bath white Pontia
daplidice
 Indian cabbage white
Pieris canidia
 Large cabbage white Pieris
brassicae
 Lesser gull Cepora nadina
 Yellow orange-tip Ixias
pyrene
 Painted jezebel Delias
hyparete
 Redspot jezebel Delias
descombesi
 Redbase jezebel Delias
pasithoe
 Spot puffin Appias lalage
 Chocolate Albatross
Appias lyncida
 Common Albatross
Appias albina
 Eastern striped albatross
Appias olferna
 Psyche Leptosia nina
 Great orange-tip
Hebomoia glaucippe
 Yellow orange-tip Ixias
pyrene
 Common emigrant
Catopsilia pomona
 Mottled emigrant
Catopsilia pyranthe
 Tailed sulphur Dercas
verhuelli

Kaziranga

 Tree yellow Gandaca


harina
 Spotless grass-yellow
Eurema laeta
 Three-spot grass-yellow
Eurema blanda
 Common grass-yellow
Eurema hecabe
 Scarce grass-yellow
Eurema lacteola
 One-spot grass-yellow
Eurema andersoni
 Small grass-yellow Eurema
brigitta
 Spotless grass-yellow
Eurema laeta
 Redspot sawtooth
Prioneris philonome
Family Lycaenidae
 Blue gem Poritia
erycinoides
 Common mottle Miletus
chinensis
 Common brownie Miletus
boisduvali
 Biggs brownie Miletus
biggsii
 Elbowed pierrot
Pycnophallium elna
 Banded blue pierrot
Discolampa ethion
 Common pierrot Castalius
rosimon
 Pointed pierrot Tarucus
theophrastus
 Spotted pierrot Tarucus
callinara
 Zebra blue Leptotes
plinius
 Forest quaker Pithecops
hylax
 Forest quaker Pithecops
corvus
 Quaker Neopithecops
zalmora
 Malayan Megisba malaya
 Common hedge blue
Acytolepis puspa
 White-banded hedge blue
Lycaenopsis transpectus
 Plain hedge blue
Celastrina lavendularis
 Pale hedge blue Udara
dilecta
 Hill hedge blue Celastrina
argiolus
 Lime blue Chilades laius
 Pale grass blue
Pseudozizeeria maha
 Lesser grass blue Zizeeria
otis

 Ciliate blue Anthene


emolus
 Pointed ciliate blue
Anthene lycaenina
 Forget-me-not
Catochrysops strabo
 Silver forget-me-not
Catachrysops lithargyria
 Peablue Lampides
boeticus
 Small cupid Chilades
parrhasius
 Glistening cerulean
Lampides kankena
 Dark cerulean Jamides
bochus
 Common cerulean
Jamides celeno
 White cerulean Jamides
cleodus
 Metallic cerulean Jamides
alecto
 Royal cerulean Jamides
caerulea
 Large four-line blue
Nacaduba pactolus
 Pale four-line blue
Nacaduba hermus
 Violet four-line blue
Nacaduba pavana vajuva
 Small four-line blue
Nacaduba pavana
pavana
 Pointed line blue Ionolyce
helicon
 Transparent six-line blue
Nacaduba kurava
 Opague six-line blue
Nacaduba beroe
 Common line blue
Prosotas nora
 Tailless line blue Prosotas
dubiosa
 Dingy line blue Petrelaea
dana
 Purple sapphire
Heliophorus epicles
 Toothed sunbeam Curetis
dentata
 Bright sunbeam Curetis
bulis
 Burmese sunbeam Curetis
saronis
 Silverstreak blue Iraota
timoleon
 Sylhet oakblue Arhopala
silhetensis

63

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA BUTTERFLIES


 Arhopala zambra
 Indian oakblue Arhopala
atrax
 Silky oakblue Arhopala
alax
 Vinous oakblue Arhopala
athada
 Arhopala nicevillei
 Powdered oakblue
Arhopala bazalus
 Tamil oakblue Arhopala
bazaloides
 Green oakblue Arhopala
eumolphus
 Peacock oakblue Arhopala
horsfieldi
 Arhopala hellenore
 Centaur oakblue Arhopala
centaurus
 Spotless oakblue Arhopala
fulla
 Yellowdisc tailless oakblue
Arhopala perimuta
 Hooked oakblue Arhopala
paramuta
 Little Cerulean Oakblue
Arhopala ammonides
 Aberrant oakblue Arhopala
abseus
 Bifid plushblue Flos diardi
 Plain plushblue Flos
apidanus
 Common acacia blue
Surendra quercetorum
 Yamfly Loxura atymnus
 Branded yamfly Yasoda
tripunctata
 Scarce shot silverline
Aphnaeus elima
 Elwes silverline Spindasis
elwesi
 Long-banded silverline
Aphnaeus lohita
 Club silverline Spindasis
syama
 Double tufted royal
Dacalana vidura
 Blue royal Ancema
carmentalis
 Broadtail royal Creon
cleobis
 Banded royal Rachana
jalindra
 Mandarin blue Charana
mandarinus
 Common imperial
Cheritra freja
 Blue imperial Ticherra acte
 Common onyx Horaga
onyx
 Common tinsel
Catapoecilma elegans

64

 Orchid tit Chliaria othona


 Common tit Hypolycaena
erylus
 Fluffy tit Zeltus etolus
 Green flash Artipe eryx
 Cachar flash Artipe
skinneri
 Cornelian Deudorix
epijarbas
 Indigo flash Rapala
varuna
 Large guava blue
Virachola perse
 Malay red flash Rapala
damona
 Suffused flash Rapala
suffusa
 Brilliant flash Rapala
sphinx
 Scarce slate flash Rapala
scintilla
 Common slate flash
Rapala manea
 Common Flash Rapala
nissa
 Copper flash Vadebra
pheritimus
 Narrow spark Sinthusa
nasaka
 Broad spark Sinthusa
chandrana
 Plane Bindahara phocides
 Witch Araotes lapithis
 Apefly Spalgis epius
 Punchinello Zemeros
flegyas
 Plum judy Abisara
echerius
 Tailed judy Abisara
neophron
 Banded Lineblue Prosotas
aluta
 Brown Lineblue Prosotas
lutea
Family Nymphalidae
 Glassy tiger Parantica
aglea
 Chestnut tiger Parantica
sita
 Common tiger Danaus
genutia
 Plain tiger Danaus
chrysippus
 Blue tiger Tirumala limniace
 Dark blue tiger Tirumala
septentrionis
 Striped blue crow Euploea
mulciber
 Common indian crow
Euploea core
 Long-branded blue crow
Euploea algea
 Double-branded crow
Euploea sylvester

 Magpie crow Euploea


radamanthus
 Blue king crow Euploea
klugii
 White-bar bushbrown
Mycalesis anaxias
 Common bushbrown
Mycalesis perseus
 Dark-branded bushbrown
Mycalesis mineus
 White-edge bushbrown
Mycalesis mestra
 Purple bushbrown
Mycalesis orseis
 White-line bushbrown
Mycalesis malsara
 Plain bushbrown
Mycalesis malsarida
 Bamboo treebrown Lethe
europa
 Common treebrown Lethe
rohria
 Banded treebrown Lethe
confusa
 Common red forester
Lethe mekara
 Tailed red forester Lethe
sinorix
 Bamboo forester Lethe
kansa
 Plain threering Ypthima
lyscus
 Large threering Ypthima
nareda
 Common fourring Ypthima
huebneri
 Common fivering Ypthima
baldus
 Dark catseye Zioetis scylax
 Nigger Orsotrioena medus
 Dusky diadem Ethope
himachala
 Common evening brown
Melanitis leda
 Dark evening brown
Melanitis phedima
 Great evening brown
Melanetis zitenius
 Common palmfly
Elymnias hypermnestra
 Spotted palmfly Elymnias
malelas
 Tiger palmfly Elymnias
nesaea
 Peals palmfly Elymnias
pealii
 Jezabel palmfly Elymnias
vasudeva
 Common faun Faunis
canens
 Jungle glory Thaumantis
diores
 Common duffer
Discophora sondaica
 Great duffer Discophora
timora
 Tawny rajah Charaxes
polyxena
 Yellow rajah Charaxes
marmax
 Black rajah Charaxes
fabius
 Pallid nawab Polyura arja
 Common nawab Polyura
athamas
 Pasha Herona marathus
 Painted courtesan Euripus
consimilis

Kaziranga

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA BUTTERFLIES


 Courtesan Euripus
nyctelius
 Circe Hestina nama
 Constable Dichorragia
nesimachus
 Popinjay Stibochiona
nicea
 Grey count Tanaecia
lepidea
 Common earl Tanaecia
julii
 Plain earl Tanaecia jahnu
 Common baron Euthalia
garuda
 White-edge blue baron
Euthalia phemius
 Gaudy baron Euthalia
lubentina
 Redspot duke Dophla
evelina
 Dark Archduke Lexias
dirtea
 Knight Lebadea martha
 Clipper Parthenos sylvia
 Commander Moduza
procris
 Colour sergeant Athyma
nefte
 Staff sergeant Athyma
selenophora
 Blackvein sergeant Athyma
ranga
 Common sergeant Athyma
perius
 Orange staff sergeant
Athyma cama
 Great sergeant Athyma
siamensis
 Dot-dash sergeant Athyma
kanwa
 Short-banded sailer
Phaedyma columella
 Yerburys sailer Neptis
yerburyi
 Common sailer Neptis
hylas
 Sullied sailer Neptis soma
 False Dingy sailer Neptis
pseudovikasi
 Dingiest sailer Neptis
harita
 Plain sailer Neptis carita
 Yellow sailer Neptis
namba
 Yellowjack sailer Lasippa
viraja
 Clear sailer Neptis nata
 Small yellow sailer Neptis
miah
 Rich sailer Neptis anjana
 Pale Green Sailer Neptis
zaida
 Common lascar
Pantoporia hordonia
 Perak lascar Pantoporia
peraka
 Common map Cyrestis
thydomas
 Wavy maplet Chersonesia
rahria
 Common Maplet
Chersonesia risa
 Tabby Pseudergolis
wedah
 Great eggfly Hypolimnas
bolina
 Wizard Rhinopalpa
polynice

Kaziranga

 Autmn leaf Doleschallia


bisaltide
 Orange oakleaf Kallima
inachus
 Peacock pansy Junonia
almana
 Lemon pansy Junonia
lemonias
 Grey pansy Junonia
atlites
 Yellow pansy Junonia
hierta
 Chocolate soldier Junonia
iphita
 Painted lady Vanessa
cardui
 Indian red admiral
Vanessa indica
 Common jester
Symbrenthia hippoclus
 Bluetail jester Symbrenthia
niphanda
 Indian fritillary Argyreus
hyperbius
 Rustic Cupha erymanthis
 Yellow kaiser Penthema
lisarda
 Common leopard
Phalanta phalantha
 Vagrant Vagrans egista
 Cruiser Vindula erota
 Common yeoman
Cirrochroa tyche
 Large yeoman Cirrochroa
aoris
 Leopard lacewing
Cethosia cyane
 Red lacewing Cethosia
biblis
 Common castor Ariadne
merione
 Angled castor Ariadne
ariadne
 Yellow coster Acraea
issoria
 Tawny coster Acraea violoe
 Club beak Libythea
sanguinalis
Family Hesperiidae
 Common awl Hasora
badra
 Plain banded awl Hasora
vitta
 Large banded awl Hasora
khoda
 White-banded awl Hasora
taminatus
 Common banded awl
Hasora alexis
 Brown awl Badamia
exclamationis
 Branded orange awlet
Bibasis oedipodea
 Orange awlet Burara
harisa

 Slate awlet Bibasis


mahintha
 Small green awlet Bibasis
amara
 Pale green awlet Bibasis
gomata
 Orange-tail awl Bibasis
sena
 Indian awlking Choaspes
benjaminii
 Branded awlking
Choaspes plateni
 Caudate awlking
Choaspes stigmata
 Hooked awlking
Choaspes furcata
 Olive flat Chamunda
chamunda
 Swinhoes flat
Celaenorrhinus zea
 Pied flat Celaenorrhinus
morena
 Dark-yellow banded flat
Celaenorrhinus aurivittata
 Large snow flat Tagiades
gana
 Pied snow flat
Tagiades japetus
 Spotted snow flat Tagiades
menaka
 Water snow flat Tagiades
litigiosa
 Yellow flat Mooreana
trichoneura
 Dusky yellow-breast flat
Gerosis phisara
 Fulvous pied flat
Pseudocoladenia dan
 Sikkim white flat Seseria
sambara
 Himalayan white flat
Seseria dohertyi
 Chestnut angle
Odontoptilum angulata
 Grey pied flat Coladenia
laxmi
 Brown pied flat Coladenia
agni
 Elwes pied flat Coladenia
agnioides
 Common small flat
Sarangesa dasahara
 Indian skipper Spialia
galba
 Tiger hopper Ochus
subvittatus
 Giant hopper
Apostictopterus
fuliginosus
 Forest hopper Asticopterus
jama
 Bush hopper Ampittia
dioscorides
 Scarce bush hopper
Ampittia maroides

65

A CHECKLIST OF KAZIRANGA BUTTERFLIES


 Blue-spotted scrub-hopper
Aeromachus kali
 Veined scrub-hopper
Aeromachus stigmata
 Dingy scrub-hopper
Aeromachus jhora
 Pigmy scrub-hopper
Aeromachus pygmaeus
 Chestnut bob Iambrix
salsala
 Indian palm bob Suastus
gremius
 Small palm bob Suastus
minuta
 Forest bob Scobura
cephala
 Khasi forest bob Scobura
isota
 Malay forest bob Scobura
phiditia
 Large forest bob Scobura
cephaloides
 Narrow-banded velvet bob
Koruthaialos rubecula
 Dark velvet bob
Koruthaialos butleri
 Bright red velvet bob
Koruthaialos xanites
 Coon Psolos fuligo
 Watsons demon Stimula
swinhoei
 Chocolate demon
Ancistroides nigrita
 Grass demon Udaspes
folus
 Notocrypta quadrata
 Common banded demon
Notocrypta paralysis
 Restricted demon
Notocrypta curvifascia
 Giant redeye Gangara
thyrsis
 Palm redeye Erionota thrax
 Common redeye Matapa
aria
 Purple redeye Matapa
purpurascens
 Grey-branded redeye
Matapa druuna
 Matapa shalgrama
 Black-veined branded
redeye Matapa sasivarna
 Fringed branded redeye
Matapa cresta
 Tree flitter Hyarotis
adrastus
 Purple and gold flitter
Zographetus satwa
 Purple-spotted flitter
Zographetus ogygia

 Small palm flitter


Zographetus rama
 Red-vein lancer Pyroneura
niasana
 Yellow-vein lancer
Pyroneura margherita
 Purple lancer Salanoemia
fuscicornis
 White-tipped palmer
Lotongus calathus
 Yellow-band palmer
Lotongus sarala
 Dark straw ace Pithauria
murdava
 Light straw ace Pithauria
stramineipennis
 Branded straw ace
Pithauria marsena
 Northern spotted ace
Thoressa cerata
 Olive ace Thoressa gupta
 White-fringed ace Halpe
insignis
 Pale marked ace Halpe
hauxwelli
 Moores ace Halpe porus
 Indian ace Halpe
homolea
 Hill ace Halpe kusala
 Confusing ace Halpe
wantona
 Couple-yellow ace Halpe
flava
 Long-banded ace Halpe
zola
 Banded ace Halpe zema
 Knyvetts ace / Tytlers ace
Halpe knyvetti / Halpe
tytleri
 Sikkim ace Halpe sikkima
 Overlapped Ace Halpe
arcuata
 Wax dart Cupitha purreea
 Common dartlet Oriens
gola
 Branded dart Potanthus
rectifasciata
 Common dart Potanthus
pseudomaesa
 Burmese dart Potanthus
juno
 Sikkim dart Potanthus
nesta
 Palni dart Potanthus
palnia
 Broad bident dart /
Detached
 Dart Potanthus trachala
 Pallid dart Potanthus
pallida

 Narrow bident dart


Potanthus mingo
 Chinese dart Potanthus
confucius
 Assam dart Potanthus
lydia
 Sumatran dart / Ganda
dart Potanthus ganda
 Yellow dart Potanthus
flava
 Potanthus sita
 Pale Palm-Dart Telicota
colon
 Dark palm dart Telicota
bambusae
 Northern Large Darte
Telicota ohara
 Besta palm dart Telicota
besta
 Greenish palm dart
Telicota ancilla
 Linna palm dart Telicota
linna
 Plain palm dart
Cephrenes acalle
 Common wight Iton
semamora
 Paintbrush swift Baoris
farri
 Small paintbrush swift
Baoris chapmani
 Figure of 8 swift Caltoris
pagana
 Yellow fringed swift
Caltoris aurociliata
 Sirius swift Caltoris sirius
 Extra-spot Swift / Colon
swift Caltoris bromus
 Colon swift Caltoris cara
 Full stop swift Caltoris
moolata
 Tufted swift / Blank Swift
Caltoris kumara
 Phillipine swift Caltoris
philippina
 Contiguous swift
Polytremis lubricant
 Great swift Pelopidas
assamensis
 Conjoined swift Pelopidas
conjuncta
 Chinese branded Swift
Pelopidas sinensis
 Small branded swift
Pelopidas mathias
 Common straight swift
Parnara guttata
 Ceylon swift Parnara bada
 Bevans swift
Pseudoborbo bevani

Compiled by Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi, Ph. D. student, Department of Ecology and


Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar. Email: monsoonjyoti@gmail.com

Sanctuary Asia acknowledges the contributions of Sumit Sen (Bird-expert, financial wizard and
creator of www.kolkatabirds.com), Dr. Anwaruddin Choudhury (Naturalist and Author of The
Mammals of Northeast India), Dr. S. D. Biju (Frog Researcher, Associate Professor, University of
Delhi and Coordinator, Lost Amphibians of India), Isaac Kehimkar (Author of The Book of
Indian Butterflies and General Manager, Programmes at Bombay Natural History Society),
Vikrant Choursiya, Jyoti James and Yogesh Patel (MSc. students of Bhavan's College, Andheri)
who helped verify the checklists and Raj Phukan (Secretary General, Green Guard Nature
Organization) who gave editorial inputs.
Note: Like all checklists, there can be varying opinions on species occurrence and
Sanctuary Asia is open to comments from readers.

66

Kaziranga

ABOUT SANCTUARY
Sanctuary is an
organisation that advocates for
wilderness conservation and
environmental protection, and
educates on the connection
between nature and climate.
Sanctuary Asia, Indias leading
wildlife, conservation and
environment magazine was
started by Editor Bittu Sahgal in
1981 to raise awareness among
Indians about their disappearing natural heritage. The
overwhelming response to the
magazine led to the birth of
Sanctuary Cub, a childrens
nature magazine, in 1984.
Today the Sanctuary
PhotoLibrary stocks thousands
of the best natural history
images from the subcontinent.
Sanctuary is at the fulcrum of
several wildlife conservation
campaigns and serves as a
network for wildlife groups,

concerned individuals and


non-profit organisations. It is
also a source of information for
the media. Kids for Tigers, the
Sanctuary environmental
education programme in
schools across India, has
turned children into a force to
demand protection of the
nations biodiversity, while
sensitising them to the fact that
saving tigers and forests secures
our food and water supply and
mitigates climate change.
Sanctuarys focus is the
Indian subcontinent and Asia,
but its vision spans the globe.
A privately-owned, selfsupporting venture, Sanctuary
does not accept any donations.
Its funding sources are
advertisements, subscriptions
and content provision. For
more details, visit
www.sanctuaryasia.com

ABOUT HATHIKULI ORGANIC


As a part of Amalgamated
Plantations Pvt. Ltds commitment to the environment, the
Hathikuli Tea Estate, situated
within the confines of UNESCOs
World Heritage Site Kaziranga
National Park in an area of 470
ha., has been converted to a fully
certified organic, pesticide- and
chemical-free plantation as per
the specified organic agricultural
practices of India, the EU, the U.S.

and Japan. The fundamental


objective of the conversion to
organic was to maintain the frail
ecological balance of this
biodiversity hotspot and prevent
any further environmental
degradation. Organic teas and
black pepper under the brand
name of Hathikuli Organic
from the largest integrated
organic farm in the country are
now being marketed worldwide.

ABOUT AMALGAMATED PLANTATIONS


PRIVATE LIMITED (APPL)
Amalgamated Plantations
Pvt. Ltd., a TATA Enterprise, is
the second largest tea
manufacturer in India. APPLs
operations are spread across 25
tea estates in the Brahmaputra
Kaziranga

valley in Assam and the


sub-Himalayan regions of
Dooars and Terai, with a total
plantation area of 24,000 ha.
and a workforce of 31,000
employees (of which 70 per cent
67

are shareholders in the


company).
In addition to the tea
operations, APPL has embarked
on implementing sustainable
agricultural ventures, to provide
for economic and ecological
sustainability and generate

employment and create wealth


for the local communities.
Three such endeavours have
already been actualized in
the areas of aquaculture, spice
cultivation and organic
agricultural practices in our
tea estates.

ABOUT APPL FOUNDATION


On the way to Shared
Value Creation, APPLs
objective of welfare of the
general public has been further
strengthened by the formation
of APPL Foundation in 2011,
under which social impact
initiatives are being undertaken, aimed at ensuring
education and skill development, healthcare, environment
protection and renewal of
indigenous culture and
heritage.
An Industrial Training
Centre and a Vocational Trade
Centre have already been
operationalised with the aim of
imparting education and skill

development to the youth of


local communities. These
centres are providing skill
development courses focusing
on plumbing, automotive
repair, electrician, ICT and
basic beauty and hair dressing
to create a self-employed
workforce that can contribute to
the communitys needs.
The APPL Referral Hospital
and Research Centre is
committed to providing
comprehensive and accessible
healthcare to local residents
and is being upgraded as a
satellite centre of the TATA
Memorial Cancer Hospital
in Kolkata.

ABOUT RHINO FOUNDATION FOR NATURE IN


NORTHEAST INDIA
The Rhino Foundation for
Nature in Northeast India is a
leading non-governmental
organisation founded in 1994.
It has worked for the
conservation of wildlife in

Northeast India for two decades


with the single minded objective
of encouraging sustainable use
of natural resources for the
healthy development of future
generations.

Produced by

in association with

68

Kaziranga

YOUR FEEDBACK
YOUR VISITOR EXPERIENCE
We are very interested in hearing about your visit to
Kaziranga. Feedback about your experiences, both good
and bad, are invaluable to us and the park management in
ensuring that Kaziranga remains one of Indias premier
wilderness destinations.
We welcome your feedback and opinions. Please fill in
this form and send it to the address below.
How did you arrange your travel to Kaziranga?
(Please tick box)
Through your own transport arrangements
Through local agent
Through international operator
Other
PARK VISITOR EXPERIENCE
How would you rate the overall nature experience inside
the park?
Excellent

Good

Poor

Very Poor

Not sure

How would you rate the knowledge of your guide while


inside the park?
Excellent

Good

Poor

Very Poor

Not sure

How would you rate the skills of your driver while inside
the park?
Excellent

Good

Poor

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Not sure

Given the cost of entry, how would you rate your


experience?
Very good value

Good value

Adequate value
value

Poor value

Very poor

Please add a short comment on your experience, or a


suggestion for improved visitor experience:

Kaziranga

69

NOTES
Original, first hand sightings and observations sent to
Sanctuary, editorial@sanctuaryasia.com may find a place
in Sanctuary Asia or on the website
(www.sanctuaryasia.com), after editing.

70

Kaziranga
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NOTES

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Kaziranga

81

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slice of
nature home

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BALIPARA FOUNDATION
Assam India

The Balipara Foundation Awards


The Balipara Foundation is a credible social and environmental
organisation and is a respected voice in driving community
level involvement and employment/income generation through
Naturenomics initiatives that are economically self sustaining.
The Balipara Foundation has facilitated the creation of a
sustainable and economically viable biodiversity knowledge bank
in Balipara, Assam. In recent years, the Balipara Foundation has
been encouraged by the fact that ideologies expressed by them
have won acceptance among economists and corporates globally.
The Balipara Foundation believes that in the crucible of our
purpose lie solutions to many pressing problems of the people
of the Eastern Himalaya including our water, food and livelihood
security. It also believes that our cultures were all birthed by
nature and that the modern conservation movement has much to
learn from the ordinary people of the region.
To take the lead in supporting the green heroes of the
Eastern Himalaya and Assam, the Balipara Foundation instituted
the Balipara Foundation Awards in 2013. The awards have
been guided wholly by the Balipara Foundations Naturenomics
mandate, which stipulates that natural resources be managed so
as to enhance the quality of human life even as the natural capital
base itself is enriched.
Visit www.baliparafoundation.com to download nomination
and entry forms for The Balipara Foundation Awards 2014.

Winners of the Balipara Foundation Awards 2013


Annual Balipara Award: William Oliver of the Pgymy Hog Conservation
Programme (PHCP)
Naturenomics Award: Arindam Dasgupta, CEO of Tambul Plates
Pvt. Marketing Limited
Green Legal Award: Guatam Uzir, Practicing Lawyer of the Guwahati High Court
Eastern Himalayan Conservation Award: Dr. Anwaruddin Choudhury, also
known as the Birdman of Assam
Green Guru Award: Uttam Teron off the
tth
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hee Pa
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eem
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Young Naturalist Award:
Munjali Tokbipi
Food for the Future Award:
Neelam Dutta, Founder,
Lakshmi Agriculture and
Multipurpose Project (LAMP)
Ecological Restoration Award:
Jadav Payang
Nature Conservancy Award:
Karbi Anglong Police Department
Lifetime Service Award:
Anne Wright

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The Balipara Foundatio
Assam.
Machkhowa, Guwahati,
Pragjyotish ITA Centre,

Balipara Tract & Frontier Foundation: c\o Wild Mahseer, Addabarie Tea Estate,
P.O. Lokra, Sonitpur-784 102, Assam, India. Tel.: +91 94351 99831

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