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NAME: SUGANDH WAFAI CLASS: B.ED SCIENCE (OFF CAMPUS) GROUP: C (SCIENCE) ASSIGNMENT 1 DATED: 14TH MARCH, 2010
Q1: Define school organization and discuss its scope and advantages. An organization is a group of people working together in a deliberately structured situation to accomplish group goals. Note the two key concepts in this definition: a deliberate structure and group goals. If people have no identifiable common goals, or if they lack a defined structure for achieving goals, then they are just a crowd, not an organization. Obviously, not all organizations, it is helpful to classify them according to their primary purpose. School organization means looking after the internal and external affairs of the school, the proper use of the recourses available and taking proper cared of the resources so that teaching and learning can take place in a better way. There are three main roles in any school 1. learner 2. education 3. Teacher. Looking after their needs, providing the resources they require, and proper maintenance of these resources is the basic goal of the organization. For example, school building, school supplies, registers, resources for curricular and non curricular activities; there storage and care and proper use is the school organization. The goal of the organization is to provide better environment for the development of the child and teachers.
Scope of School Organization: In democratic education emphasis is
laid upon the all round development of the individual. Hence, the scope of the organization of the school is very wide. Primarily, the following aspects are covered by this: 1. The qualifications of the headmaster and the assistant masters of the school, their duties and their timetable. 2. The drawing up of the syllabus from the point of view of the social good. 3. Periods of work, chalking out and implementation of plans. 4. Management of co-curricular activities, discipline and control, the school building, furniture in the classrooms, libraries etc. 5. The scheme of admission, progress and examination. 6. The examining of work pertaining to the income and expenditures in the school. 7. The mutual relationship between the society and school.
Advantages of School Organization:
1. Ensures cohesiveness and order in the organization: establishing lines of authority creates order in the organization. 2. Facilitates effective communication: it clearly defines channels of communication among the members of the organization. 3. Foster Co-ordination: IT supplies the framework for holding together the various functions in an orderly pattern and logical arrangement. 4. Improves efficiency and quality of work: as everyone has its own defined job, therefore people only concentrate on their given job which results in better efficiency and quality of work. 5. Focus: it provides focus to the staff members. 6. Cost reduction: as everyone knows its duty it helps reducing the cost of the school by not hiring extra staff for any job.
Q. 2: How can we improve instruction through supervision? Discuss in detail. Supervision is defined as: ³A cluster of functions -- administrative, educational and supportive -performed within the context of a positive relationship by a person (supervisor) to whom authority has been delegated to direct, coordinate, enhance and evaluate the on -the-job performance of the supervisee(s) for whose work s/he is held accountable.´ And ³It is a planned activity that aims at qualitative aspect of the schools by helping teachers through support and evaluation´. In education, Academic Supervision is defined as: ³It is the process of bringing about improvement in instruction by working with people who are helping the pupils. It is a process of stimulating growth and a means of helping teachers to help them. The supervisory program is one of instructional improvement.´ Instructional Supervision has three functions: 1. Identification of knowledge and skills necessary to do the work 2. Provision of teaching/training/learning resources 3. Socialization to professional values and ide ntity. It strives to provide psychological and interpersonal supplies that strengthen the capacity of the teachers to deal with job demands and stresses and workplace tension. Theses supplies can include: encouragement, recognition, and approval, opportunity to express the ideas, perspective and the flexibility. These functions can further be divided into seven sub groups. 1. Goal Development 2. Program development 3. Control and coordination 4. Motivation 5. Problem solving 6. Professional Development 7. Evaluation of Educational Outcomes.
y Goal Development : The most important function of supervision is to ensure that teachers and supervision work together cooperatively in developing the goals of the school organization. It should be noted that the school goals are generated from the goals of society. Goal development as a function of supervision is a continuous
process which requires regular examination, evaluate, modification and changing (if need be) of the goals of the teaching/learning process through the cooperative effo rts of both the teachers and the supervisors. The regularity of concern for goal development is a measure of the sensitivity and responsiveness of the supervision scheme to the dynamism of the societal goals as well as clear indicator of the degree of effectiveness of the supervision system.
y Program Development : The development of curricula and co curricula activities is a primary responsibility of the teachers. The role of supervision in the matter is to provide appropriate complementary technical and pro fessional services and support. The number and types of programs developed for the teaching/learning process at the level of either an educational sub system or individual school or classroom are determined by the earlier developed for the teaching/learnin g process. So changes in these goals are expected to lead appropriate. Changes, facilitated by the supervisory system, in the programs developed. y Control and Coordination : Education is a system made up of many inter-related, interdependent and interacting units. Each unit has its own goals to achieve and at the same time contribute to the realization of the overall goals of the system or sub-system. It is a basic function of supervision to facilitate the proper coordination of the various units. Effective coordination requires the establishment of a comprehensive system of communication among the units in order to strengthen the system of supervision and improve the quality of instruction for the learner. y Problem Solving : Teachers and learners are always c onfronted with a variety of problem of varying degree of difficulty. These problems may be related to inputs into the educational organization, anticipated learning outcomes, curricula and co curricula programs and actual learning. It may be possible for t he teacher to solve some of these problems immediately by himself, many other problems may take days or weeks to resolve and require the assistance of the supervisor. In all cases, the supervisory system put in place should be that readily facilitates the resolution of emerging problems. y Professional Development : Teachers are professionals. They are trained, but the needs, problems and aspirations of the society which owns the education system as well as the society¶s
expectations from the teachers keep ch anging. Teachers as custodians of the education of the society must also change and reflect these changes in technology, the development of goals, learning engagements and learning environment of educational organization. For this to happen, teachers must be exposed to a continuous, comprehensive and systematic program of in -service training to enable them cope with these change of course, it is the function of supervision to initiate , support coordinate and facilitate the realization of the program of professional development for teachers and supervisors.
y Evaluation of Educational Outcomes : In an education system the quality of teaching vary from excellent to good, adequate, poor and hopeless. This determination is the evaluative function of the Academic supervisors either the head of the school or field staff in the district. Providing support is the next function of academic supervision. Before µsupport¶ it is necessary to assess actual need and type of support for which the teachers stands for --- this type of evaluation is called Formative Evaluation. After having provided support it is necessary to judge the effectiveness of the same. This is called Summative Evaluation. This indicates that µevaluation and support¶ are the cyclical function with no en d --- Evaluation --Support --- Evaluation.
Q.3: What do you know about Human Relations? Discuss its importance in effective organization. The term µHuman Relation¶ is the combination of two words: Human and Relation which means the relation among vario us individuals on the surface of earth. It¶s the presence of humans that make it possible for any organization to run effectively. It is important that workers feel that they are the part of the organization and that their presence and work is contributin g to the well being of the organization. If all the stake holders of the organization feel at ease with each other and understand each other properly only then the organization will run happily. From educational point of view in school µHuman Relation¶ me ans creating conducive environment for a team work of the head administrator, teacher, learner and the parents, so that the institute can run smoothly and properly flourish. Among all the factors that influence public none is as important as the human element. Buildings, books and buses, policies, practices and procedures, money, materials and methods all the many instruments, mechanisms and devices of school organization are but means to the end of happy, healthy and effective people. The school is a result of the action of people; it functions through the cooperative efforts of people, its raw products and its finished commodities are people and the school business is people. The school administration can easily achieve their objectives through close relat ions among its members that are, teachers, students, parents and other allied members. Principles of human relations consist of the following steps. 1. Gaining Knowledge of the Self: Knowing oneself implies proper assessment of one¶s own short comings, strong points, emotional conflicts, frustration and if possible: one¶s subconscious. 2. Seeing Oneself Through the Eyes of Others: it¶s good to judge yourself as others would do. It gives the room for self improvement. 3. Self Realization: Self Realization is the top most objective of any human being who is working to achieve any goal. If any organization helps its workers through this goal then its workers
will be loyal and faithful. 4. Counseling Helpful: human beings need to keep up with the change and under these circumstances counseling is very useful for the workers of any organization. Counseling can also help students and their parents in making the right choices for academics reasons and their life. 5. Knowing Values of Others: as an organization is a group of people to achieve a common goal, there are many people involved, who can be completely different from each others. Knowing what other people think is helpful for creating healthy relationship among various stakeholders of the school organization and making them feel acceptable. 6. Participating in Planning: IF any organization gives a chance to its employees and other stakeholders to participate in making of the long term and short term policy of the organization they feel that they own the organization and i ts success become important to them. 7. Kindness: Kindness is a principle which many not be accepted and practiced by an authoritarian administration, but researches show that kindness always leads to happy results. Kindness can bring a positive change in the attitude of a person; on the other hand, punishment wrongly awarded may lose the individual for ever. 8. Evaluation: Times are gone for the administrator to rely on his rational considerations alone or mere impressions gathered through unreliable sources. Social sciences can provide scientific methods to avoid waste of time, money and energy and help the organization in making their policies successful in modifying them, through a process of evaluations. Conclusion: Humans are the most important factors of any organization especially in a school, if they have a healthy relationship among themselves and with the organization itself, only then the organization will be successful in continuing its journey through years. Unhappy stakeholders rarely stick with the organization or help achieve its goals. Therefore it is very important for the administration to provide a healthy environment for its workers and creative and free environment for the students and welcoming administration for the parents.
Q.4: Define the need of school discipline and discuss the factors which are affecting school discipline. The word discipline has been derived from the Latin word ³Disciple´, ³Discipulus´ which means followers, and pupil. According to dictionary, discipline means ment al and moral training, bringing under control. Webster¶s dictionary gives three basic meanings to the word discipline: 1. It states that it is training that correct mould or prefects. 2. it states that it is control gained by enforcing obedience 3. It states punishments. If we combine first and second meaning we can say that discipline involves the conditioning or molding of behavior by applying rewards or penalties. The third meaning is narrower in context; it pertains only to the act of punishment of wrongdoers. Discipline in the broad sense means orderliness ± the opposite of confusion. It simply means working, cooperating and behaving in normal and orderly way. By the above discussion we come to the conclusion that school discipline is needed to maintain harmony in the school, to assign tasks to the teachers and students, to be able to do most work in short time, to be able to keep up with the changing time. It is also necessary to maintain discipline in the schools because it creates good impression on the society. The disciplined student and worker of today will be disciplined leader, citizen or breadwinner of its family tomorrow. The factors that affect the school discipline can be divided in three groups: 1. Internal Discipline 2. External Discipline 3. Social Discipline. Internal discipline is not provided by any outsider it comes from within the student and worker, like self control, self motivation, and cooperation with others. If some worker or student lacks this kind of discipline then the school or classroom discipline is disturbed. External discipline is founded on the basis of fear and it is imposed from the outside. This may include target deadlines, attendance, punctuality, uniform or dress code, conduct etc. If these factors are not imposed properly they can rapture the over discipline of the school.
The social factors are outside the authority of the school, but they have significant impact on the discipline of the school. The factors that may affect school discipline are: 1. Reaching to school late: coming late to school for work or to study have a great affect on school discipline and creates bad example for others. 2. Talking in the class: this can be the result of any unheeded idea or uninteresting lesson on part of the teacher. 3. Destroying school property: damaged school property portrays a negative image of any school. Students should be punished for this and some fines should be imposed on them, as far as possible. 4. Neglecting homework: children may not be doing their homework properly or regularly. Teacher should realize that amount of homework given should be minimal and if there is someone at their homes to help them with the homework. 5. Bullying the younger students: if this continues it can affect the overall discipline of the school. Therefore disciplinar y action should be taken again the offender. 6. Telling lies: students and workers are not being honest with the administration. 7. Unwanted Parent Involvement: all the parents like to keep up with the progress of their child, but some parents meddle too much in the affairs of school. This interference can harm school discipline to a great extent; it should be controlled on part by the school administration. 8. Overburdened Teachers/ workers: overburdened workers tend to get bitter towards the administration and are unable to do their work honestly. School administration should take care of the workload of its workers and keep in mind the amount of work given to the employees. These are some of the factors that affect the discipline of any school. There is no hard and fast rule to determine these factors because they vary from place to place, but administration should come up with a strategy to cope with these.
Q.5: Differentiate between the old and modern concept of school discipline with examples. THE OLD CONCEPT OF DISCIPLINE: The older concept of discipline was concerned with maintaining order. The school discipline was confined to rod. Sultan Mohyuddin writes that the birth and book were the two instruments with which the teacher worked and they were often employed in such close cooperation that an ingenious teacher is said to have drilled the idea of an active verb into the head of one of the helpless pupils by the sentence. ³I chastise thee´ giving simultaneously a practical demonstration of the action signified by the verb by bringing the cane down forcibly upon the poor pupil head.´ Fear atmosphere prevailed in the school the student had to abide by certain rigid rules and regulations and any breach of these meant penalties. The rod and instruction were deemed inseparable. Discipline was enforced from above and known as µexternal discipline.¶ But this form of discipline does not ensure permanent results because it seeks to treat symptoms but no cure the disease that produced them. The teacher may be able to insist upon and enforce obedience, but he does not touch the inner strings of conduct, he does not command love and respect. If pupils obey him it was because of fear and not because of respect and love. This sort of discipline touched only external conduct and made these students successful hypocrite. The personality of the pupil is psychologically split up into two: the outer one, orderly and obedient under the teacher¶s eye and the inner and real one positively dangerous, as asserting itself when teacher is away. THE NEW CONCEPT OF DISCIPLINE: According to the modern concept of school discipline, it can not be conceived in terms of military discipline which is based on: There is no reason to why There is no reason to make a reply There is not to do or die. Today the rod is no longer the symbol of pedagogical authority. The teacher is no more an army officer or policeman. He is now and engineer, who makes and constructs the personality of the child. The modern concept of discipline is therefore, of freedom. It is positive rather than negative and it emphasize upon self discipline or creative discipline.
In the words of Ryburn, ³True discipline should be mainly positive and constructive rather than negative and restrictive. It must be creative. It should build up rather than tear down. The goal of emotional control is character and character building is a constructive process. The desirable requisite is not repression but expression and wise sublimation.´ Discipline should be measured through positive measures and not through negative measures of it is to be creative. Punishment is not creative; it can destroy the character of the child but rarely will help him improve it. According to the modern concept of discipline, there are three types of discipline: 1. internal Discipline 2. External Discipline 3. Social Discipline. Internal Discipline is self control and it is learnt by the practice through ages. A child cannot be expected to exercise this discipline at an early age. It needs to be taught with patience. External Discipline is imposed from outside, by a supreme authority and its defiance result in punishment. Though not widely practiced but it is an effective tool in making people obey rules that they do not like. Social Discipline is outside the school boundary and it not taught in formal schools, the child learn it from the society and the people it interacts with. School can only refine the social discipline, but knowing what is causing the problem and what should be done to avoid these problems. Comparison between Old Concepts of Discipline with the New Concepts of Discipline. Old Discipline New Discipline 1. It is forced from above. It is external in nature. 2. It has an element of compulsion. 3. It is a bundle of µdos¶ and µdon¶ts¶. 4. it carries repression with it 1. It grows from within. It is internal in nature and self discipline. 2. It has an element of persuasion. 3. It consists of self framed and willingly observed rules and regulations. 4. It carries freedom and free
5. It creates an atmosphere of fear. 6. Curbs initiative and creativity. 7. It is accompanied by heavy punishments. 8. Teacher has to be a hard task master. 9. The child is passive and frightened. 10. No scope for training in self government and democracy. 11. It is negative and destructive. 12. Seeks blind obedience from the child. 13. Does not ensure permanent results.
expression with it. 5. It creates an atmosphere of love and respect. 6. Gives full opportunity for the use and development of these faculties. 7. It is free from punishments. Rather it takes the help of reward. 8. The teacher is a friend, helper and guide. 9. The child is active and cheerful. 10. It is based on self government and democracy. 11. It is positive and constructive. 12. Enables the child to appreciate the necessity of obeying. 13.Ensures permanent results
1. School Organization and Classroom Management by S.M. Shahid 2. School Organization and Administration by Kulbir Singh Sidhu. 3. http://www.eduguide.org/Students-Library/Discipline-in-School646.aspx 4. http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications/digests/digest078.html 5. http://www.scribd.com/doc/14554441/School-Discipline
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