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Design and Automation of Passive and Active Systems to a NZEB School
Artur Ribeiro 1, João Ramos 2 and José Baptista 3
INESCC, Coimbra, Portugal. Deptº Engenharia do Ambiente, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, Leiria, Portugal. 3 Deptº Engenharia, Univ. de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.
Abstract— The bioclimatic framework and spaces arrangement, favored the integration of each system's liabilities and assets, to this new school building under study. Passive technique in school buildings, in which emerges the incorporation of renewable energy, complemented by active ones creates a high potential self-sustainability in these buildings . Its automation through passive and active systems through centralized technique management led us to create integration of actuators with innovate perspectives in the natural ventilation systems and renewable energy production in a school, makes it possible to classify the buildings as NZEB (Net Zero Energy Building)  which is reflected by the annual balance between demand and supply energy in the building equal to zero and "Zero" Carbon. It was given particular attention to natural light components and its relationship to artificial lighting minimization and cooling systems or heating ventilation through air-ground heat exchanger, air collector, cross effect or chimney effect, ensuring excellent air quality and interior comfort. The auxiliary systems integration in heating process (PHW), hot water (DHW) and cooling, to ensure, in overtime extreme situations, where the passive component cannot meet the requirements, which are kept the parameters for an efficient functioning. The quality of the available energy in the building NZEB is of utmost importance to the global context that has a high efficiency. In view of these aspects was implemented at electrical headquarters, an automatic capacitor bank anti-harmonic, also contributing to a reduction in energy bill. Index terms—Energy efficiency, Daylight, Natural Ventilation, Air-Ground Heat Exchanger, PV Air Collector, Cross Ventilation, Chimney Effect, Active Systems, Passive Systems, Centered Technical Management, Solar Thermal, Solar Photovoltaic, PV, CO2 and NZEB
Implementation This work is carried out to study the implementation a new school building in Alcobaça (Portugal). It was done an energy balance and, in particular, a building ventilation study using passive techniques, of which is the incorporation of renewable energy, complemented by active ones and centered technique management, analyzed the high potential self-sustainability of the building . The wind action analysis is very important in natural ventilation characterization. It was used in this sense the values collected in the meteorological station of Alcobaça . To protect the definition of prevailing winds and decreased temperature radiant, was utilized a live hedge composed with sheet persistent species (Figure 1) and Tuia, from Cupressaceas family, has a high evapotranspiration rate, which regulate and balance the extreme weather conditions, creating a microclimate. Native species was chosen because of the low porosity achieved in the implementation of a hedge, reducing wind
speed till 90%.   . The space main building has 24 classrooms with 56 m2 each in two floors. There exists a natural ventilation system, with a façade air collector with four openings (automated façade records) in each classroom section, two 20cm below the floor level and two at the top, 50cm above false ceiling. The air collector (Figure 2) is composed by 6 PV modules, mounted on an aluminium structure, arranged in N-S direction and distanced 10cm from the wall. For this study was selected a particularly classroom type, (with 56 m2), with a natural ventilation system. The facade is composed of air collector with four openings (automated façade records) in each classroom section, two 20cm below the floor level and two at the top, 50cm above false ceiling. The air collector (Figure 2) is composed by 6 PV modules, mounted on an aluminium structure, arranged in N-S direction and distanced 10cm from the wall. The records of facade implemented here were developed by , the building Solar XXI, taking in the action guide and left their manipulation to the users. This study intended to automate its operation, with two actuators, one linear and one
Figure 1: Protect vegetation scheme in profile of prevailing winds.
Figure 3: Integrated system of natural ventilation and lighting systems with facade PV air collector and airground heat exchanger. through concrete pipes buried at 3m. This air can be used for heating or cooling, depending on the season, since the conditions of temperature at the burial are almost constant. These are obvious advantages both heating and cooling process, being controlled by actuators on registration circular ventilation ducts. The spread is produced by fan, that is mounted axially above a metal ring duct, with 65 cm axis, above the floor, only serving as a complement to ensure indoor air quality in wind lack situations on the outside or when CO2 level is achieving the regulatory limits  (Figure 4). The centered technique management
Figure 2: Records and PV air collector cut. rotation in each record, optimizing its use. A flag is placed in thin glass steer able in each classroom door, to obtain a cross-ventilation effect. The flags are open or closed depending on the temperature, humidity and indoor air quality, compared with outside temperature and humidity, measured by sensors installed therein. The crossventilation effect can be complemented with the chimney effect, by using the adjacent movement corridors. They are vertically connected through a duct across the length and forming a projection on the southern side of the roof. On this side the ventilation grilles are also established (Figure 3). The chimney effect can be increased through a higher temperature in the duct, obtained by placing a polished aluminium plate liner in the last 2m. The air ground heat exchanger, allows clean air entrance in the classroom
Figure 4: Detail with front view (left) and cut (right) of the duct and spread of air-ground heat exchanger system in floor 0. allows to all this automatic manipulation but only some parameters can be modify by users in a short period of time, end of witch the management takes control. The solar thermal system consists of 64 collectors connected by primary network piping in coverage, is composed of compound parabolic collectors (CPC) , with 1,99 m2 each, arranged in the E/W direction in its metal mounting flat roof and with 60 degrees inclination in order to obtain the maximum return for the winter period and minimize the gains in July and August. In this period the hot water needs are virtually nil. These will be aligned with the azimuth South, parallel channel, forming 4 batteries, inter distance with a minimum of 2,5 m, so that the worst days, 21 December at 12horas, no area of the collector is shaded. On heating we used two different systems, radiant panels at
3 classrooms and thermo-ventilation with hot water batteries in services area and gymnasium at floor 2. This thermoventilation is performed in two steps. The first unit in the treatment of fresh air (UTAN) , the level of coverage, which makes a pre-heating to a temperature of 18 º C. The second a post-heating with individual control spaces, which allows a +3 °C jump. This measure alone generates energy savings consumption associated with UTAN operation and the use of hot water batteries, whose power stems primarily from solar thermal system, makes the heating system extremely economical. Support for PHW and DHW is carried out in a first-level bi-hourly rate operation for an electrical resistance of 9kW in each of the 3 deposits, and the last level a condensing boiler with an output of 85 kW and 109% combustion efficiency , connected to the DHW tank at the top of it and direct the output to the heating, the primary hydraulic separator  (Figure 5). This avoids interference between circuits by operation of circulators, making them independent, because the differential pressure between collectors outward and return is virtually zero. The active cooling, it is expected of marginal use and is intended for floor 2 and floor 1 in the auditorium areas. It is achieved by installing a cold water battery  in UTAN , which is fueled by a chiller compressor with single pump, expansion vessel and deposit of inertia . This thermo-ventilation is performed in two steps, the first unit of new air handling (UTAN), which carries a cooling to a temperature of 23 ° C and the second, post-heating in areas with individual control, which allows a jump of +3 ° C. The cooling output of the chiller is 22,5 kW, with an input power of 8,74 kW and an EER of 2,57 . In the gross taxable earnings may be accounted for all passive systems can contribute to the heating. In this case were considered as possible contributing gains introduced in solar thermal heating systems, radiant floor and thermoventilation, earnings for the air-ground heat exchanger and won by air collector façade. Solar glazing protection is achieved by using external blinds with rotatable lamellae , allowing daylight modulation into the interior without creating glare, minimizing solar gains in summer, through its factor g = 0,09, when in the closed position. In the PV simulation was using the computer program "Sunny Design" , provided by the manufacturer of the drive, SMA, using Lisbon location, closest existing in the database. For this system we used two mounting types, an PV air collector façade, with 90º inclination and another on the gymnasium cover, where each line has a inter-distance of 2,5 m and 30º inclination. In the latter type took advantage of the provision zenith coverage to the South face is required to PV mount and on the North side the daylight introduction to this space. The energy quality in NZEB building is of utmost importance to the global context that has a high efficiency. Were selected for high electrical efficiency in the design of a school building has been given particular attention to the UPS using a "OnLine" drive double conversion with "Super Eco Mode" , variable speed motors in HVAC units and Elevator, with EFF1 class in engines energy efficiency . Thus, the tolerance degree to the harmonics in power system depends on load susceptibility. In view of these aspects has been implemented at electrical headquarters, a 50kVAr automatic capacitor bank anti-harmonics, which injects into
Figure 5: Solar thermal scheme.
4 three levels gradually, reactive power on the network, for cosϕ near to 1 and eliminate the harmonic, through filters. This is a passive compensation system and the choice was due, first to installation type does not require sophisticated equipment to compensate the power factor, such as compensating existing assets, on the other, was due to the passive system lower losses compared to an asset, which are respectively 15W and 2100W  . Results The exchange system functioning will be controlled by centered technique management, by criteria that prevent interior overheating or under cooling, within the area served by the current needs, taking advantage of range temperature between surface and soil to the depth of underground piping, which on average is 10 ºC. The flow of fresh air introduced into building interior by the airground heat exchanger and dissemination of thermal drift effect by cross-ventilation to hallway duct or air collector façade, creates the conditions for interior comfort, without the use of mechanical cooling systems. In daylight simulation and their integration with the artificial lighting was used "Dialux"  calculation program and made the energy evaluation according to EN 15193 . In addition to lighting design which determined the placement of fixtures in order to achieve an lux average, corresponding to each type of space and its use, we evaluated the energy systems involved, which is obtained by weighting the hours of use annual day and night, combined with economic adjustment, maintenance, presence, absence, performance, provision of daylight, artificial light control and light transmittance of the glazing the areas illuminated and non illuminated, have respectively, 139,62 kWh / year and 180,99 kWh / year, with LENI  corresponding to 3, 93kWh/ano.m2 and 9,08 kWh/ano.m2, and the areas of calculation, respectively, 35,51 m2, 19,93 m2 for each classroom. The global LENI  is 5,78 kWh/ano.m2, much below the limit of 38,1 kWh / year set for this typology. With the coverage final disposition  , it was possible that the daylight of the gymnasium (Figure 7), one gets a better uniformity. And besides, it was possible the layout of
Figure 7: Gymnasium coverage PV configuration modules on the surface facing to the south, against an ideal of 30º, without obstruction. These modules in addition to the component generators, still benefits building, in thermal component, because with a lower U, there is a consequent reduction of heat losses by coverage. This
Figure 6: Results of scenario 1 - 100% lighting with daylight and stage 2 - 100% daylight   . The "Daylight" regulation   , which was implemented in classrooms, will allow an automatic adjustment in lighting, maximizing natural component through the interaction of the solar control blinds slat blade driven , the first two spaces. In Figure 6, we present "Dialux"  results calculation, in a classroom type. The figures represent 100% daylight use and 100% artificial lighting use, complemented by daylight. If we consider separately the energy values calculated by the energy assessment of the Dialux program,
Figure 8: Initial result of PV simulation façade system by Sunny Design of SMA  solution is also more advantageous for the increase in energy productivity and also by reducing the inverters loss, as can be confirmed by the simulations in "Sunny Design" (Figure 8) , which translated into a global energy production of 84,372 kWh/year. RSECE  calculation in monozone typology was based on the simplified method of global conversion factor. For these, were esteem functioning hours of each equipment to building install, were with the respective powers converted to primary
5 energy, annual consumption energy was calculated. In this calculation were obtained the values Cei=-0,01 (kgep/m2.year) and a IEE=-0,01. Conclusions This work is carried out to implementation study of a new school building in Alcobaça, Portugal. Passive technique in school buildings, which emerges the incorporation of renewable energy, complemented by active ones creates a high potential self-sustainability in these buildings . The air-ground heat exchanger used for heating and cooling process, is controlled by actuators on record circular duct ventilation, cannot replace a conventional air conditioning system, but can provide most of energy need for heating or cooling at main area of building. The solar chimney is an extremely useful, especially when applied on the North side of the greater use of space, including classrooms. This can satisfy both ventilation processes such as daylight. The ventilation system especially in cooling effect can effectively replaces the active systems application. The radiant panels system present in levels 0 and 1, was chosen for work with low temperatures system. Only then can integration with power generation by solar thermal system, the cost profitable, and that in a situation of need to support the boiler consumption will also be lower, it does not require a temperature as high. Thermo-ventilation was considered only for the 2nd floor, given the needs ventilation type above the levels 0 and 1. The pre and post treatment air system, both in heating and cooling could be an efficient method for management of existing resources against the expected thermal reduced requirements in this floor. The building network energy quality was also a concern since the beginning of this study. To this was added the amount an automatic capacitor bank designed to ensure a power factor of 1. In this field, also got the UPS selected, provide the network rescued energy power factor equal to 1. The reduction of power generation, resulting from the photovoltaic system was installed vertically on the façades were offset, in terms of energy, improving the internal thermal gains of the classrooms, through the air collector associated with these structures on the facade. The use of equipment with high efficiency combined with passive techniques for heating and cooling, controlled by centered technical management, have been central to the achievement of NZEB classification . We managed to produce a higher overall power consumption of the building. The 1st law of thermodynamics, called the "Principle of Conservation of Energy and the law of Lavoisier, have an intrinsic relationship. The implementation of NZEB  classification for this building, is a practical demonstration of application, "In Nature nothing is created, nothing is lost, everything becomes" more and more and we have to continue for a Sustainable World. References
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