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CE331,Fall2010

InfluenceLinesforBeamsandFrames

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Aninfluencediagramforatrussrepresentstheaxialforceofaparticularmemberduetoaloadat
locationx.Influencediagramscanbeconstructedforbeamsforthreetypesofforces:
a) aparticularreaction
b) theshearataparticularlocationinthebeam
c) thebendingmomentataparticularlocationinthebeam.

Influencediagramsforbeamscanbeconstructedbyapplyingaunitdeformationatthebeamlocationof

f i Px xi
=
interest,basedonthereciprocaldeflectionequation.Theequationfortrussesis:

Px
i
Adaptingthisequationforbeamsforeachofthetypesofforces:

Ri x xi
=
Px
i

Px

RiPx

Px

Ri

reaction
x

I=

xi

i = +1

xi
1
i

Ifx isininches,

I isunitless

Vi x xi
=
Px
i
P

x
Px

Vi Px

shear

= Px I

Vi

Px

= Px I

I=

xi
i=+1

xi

i 1

Ifx isininches,
I isunitless

M i x xi
=
Px
i
P

Px

Mi x
moment

Px

Mi

I=

i=+1

xi
rad

= Px I
xi

rad
i 1

Typicallyxisin
feetsothatIisin
feet.

InfluenceLinesforBeamsandFrames

CE331,Fall2010

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Examples

1.InfluenceDiagramsforDeterminateBeams(quantitative)
hinge

10

10

10

12

12

B
D

Problem1.CalculatethemaximumreactionatBduetotheAASHTOHS20truck,shownbelow.

32k
32k

k
8

14
14

DrawtheinfluencelineforthereactionatBbydisplacingthebeamoneunitupwardsatB.The
deflectedshapeisshownabove.

Rb
=I
Px

4
10

0.6

InfluenceDiagramforReactionatB

32k

32k

8k

PositionofAASHTOTrucktocausemax.ReactionatB

TocalculatethereactionatBduetothetruck,placethe32krearaxleattheleftendofthebridge,
andthe32kdriveaxle14totheright(4totherightofB).ThereactionatBisthen:

RB = ( 32 k )( 2) + ( 32 k )( 0.6) = 83 .2 k

InfluenceLinesforBeamsandFrames

CE331,Fall2010

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Problem2.CalculatetheshearjusttotherightofDduetotheAASHTOuniformloadplus
concentratedloadshownbelow.
18k

0.64klf

DrawtheinfluencelineforshearatDbybreakingthebeamjusttotherightofDanddisplacingthe
twoends1 unit,asshown.Thebeamsegmentsoneithersideofthecutshouldhavethesameslope.
Thedisplacementsattheotherlocationscanbecalculatedbysimilartriangles.

Forexample,thedisplacementatC(labeledahere)iscalculated

a 1
=
,
10' 24'

V D
=I
Px

0.1467

10

a = 0.4167

10

a=0.4167
10

12

12

InfluenceDiagramforShearjusttoRightofD

0.64

klf

18k
0.64klf

AASHTOLaneLoadingtocausemax.ShearjusttoRightofD

VD18 = (18k )(1) = 18k


klf

VD.64

1
= 0.64klf 2 10 ft (0.4167) + 24 ft (1) = 10.35k
2

k + 0.64klf

VD18

= 18k +10.35k = 28.35k

0.25

CE331,Fall2010

InfluenceLinesforBeamsandFrames

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Problem3.CalculatethemomentatEduetotheAASHTOuniformloadplusconcentratedload.

DrawtheinfluencelineformomentatEbybreakingthebeamatEandrotatingtherightend1radian
relativetotheleftend,asshown.Sincethebeamsegmentsareboth12feetoneitherendofthebreak,
theanglesofeachendareequalandequaltoonehalfof1.0rad=0.5rad.Theordinateoftheinfluence
lineatEiscalculatedfromthefollowingequation:

a
12'
tan = forsmalldisplaceme nts
a
0.5rad =
, a = 6'
12'
tan =

Theotherordinatesarecalculatedusingsimilartriangles.

ME
ft
=I
Px

10
12

rad
0.5
10
10
5
B

InfluenceDiagramforMomentatE

0.64klf

12
6

a=6
1rad

18k
0.64klf

AASHTOLaneLoadingtocausemax.MomentatE

ThemomentatEduetotheconcentratedloadismaximumwhentheloadisplacedatE.Themoment
duetothe18kloadisthencalculatedfrom:

k
ft
k ft
M 18

E = (18 )(6 ) = 108

ThemomentatEduetotheuniformloadismaximumwhentheloadisplacedatonthebeamwhere
theinfluencediagramispositive.Themomentduetothe0.64klfloadisthencalculatedfrom:

M E0.64

klf

1
1
= (0.64klf )( (10' )(5 ft )) + (0.64klf )( (24 ft )(6 ft )) = 62.1k ft
2
2

M E = 108k ft + 62.1k ft = 170.1k ft

CE331,Fall2010

InfluenceLinesforBeamsandFrames

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2.InfluenceDiagramsforIndeterminateBeams(qualitative)

Problem4.Determinethelocation(s)toplaceauniformliveloadtocausethemaximumreactionat
Support2.

DrawtheshapeoftheinfluencelinebyapplyingaunitverticaldisplacementatSupport2.

2
1
1

Therefore,applyloadstoSpans1and2tocausemax.reactionatSupport2.

Problem5.Determinethelocation(s)toplaceauniformliveloadtocausethemaximumshearat2.

DrawtheshapeoftheinfluencelinebyapplyingaunitverticalrelativedisplacementnearSupport3.
Therearefourpossibilities,allshownbelow,dependingonwhetheryouapplyapositiveornegative
sheardisplacement(positiveforshearinfluencediagramsisleftsidedown,rightsideup)orcutthe
beamjusttotheleftofSupport3orjusttotherightofSupport3.Notethatallfourinfluencediagrams
pointtothesamespanloadingpattern(loadSpans2and3)sincedesignersdonotdistinguishbetween
positiveshearandnegativeshear.

1
1

1
1

CE331,Fall2010

InfluenceLinesforBeamsandFrames

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Therefore,loadSpans2and3tocausemaximumshearatSupport3.

Problem6.Determinethelocation(s)toplaceauniformliveloadtocausethemaximummomentat
themiddleofSpan1.

Theinfluencediagramis:

1rad

Therefore,loadSpans1and3tocausemaximumpositivemomentatmiddleofSpan1.

CE331,Fall2010

InfluenceLinesforBeamsandFrames

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Problem7.Determinethelocation(s)toplaceauniformliveloadtocausethemaximummomentat
Support3.

Theinfluencediagramis:

1rad
1

Therefore,loadSpans1and2tocausemaximumnegativemomentatSupport2.

3.InfluenceLinesforFrames

Problem8.DeterminetheloadpatterntocausemaximummomentatthemiddleofSpan2onLevel
2.

Theinfluencediagramis:

Level3

Level2

1rad

AndthespanloadpatterntocausemaxpositivemomentatthemiddleofSpan2onLevel2istherefore:

Level3

Level2