You are on page 1of 61

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
It's certainly clear that fossil fuels are mangling the climate and that the status quo is
unsustainable. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the world needs to
reduce greenhouse gas emissions more than 25 percent by 2020 -- and more than 80
percent by 2050. The idea of harnessing the suns power has been around for ages.
The basic process is simple. Solar collectors concentrate the sunlight that falls on
them and convert it to energy. Solar power is a feasible way to supplement power in
cities. In rural areas, where the cost of running power lines increases.
Solar power, a clean renewable resource with zero emission, has got tremendous
potential of energy which can be harnessed using a variety of devices. With recent
developments, solar energy systems are easily available for industrial and domestic
use with the added advantage of minimum maintenance. Solar energy could be made
financially viable with government tax incentives and rebates. An exclusive solar
generation system of capacity 250KWh per month would cost around Rs. 20 lakhs,
with present pricing and taxes (2013). Most of the developed countries are switching
over to solar energy as one of the prime renewable energy source.

1.1 THE NEED FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY


Renewable energy is the energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight,
wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat. These resources are renewable and can be
naturally replenished. Therefore, for all practical purposes, these resources can be
considered to be inexhaustible, unlike dwindling conventional fossil fuels. The global
energy crunch has provided a renewed impetus to the growth and development of
Clean and Renewable Energy sources. Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) are
being adopted by organizations all across the globe. Apart from the rapidly decreasing
reserves of fossil fuels in the world, another major factor working against fossil fuels
is the pollution associated with their combustion. Contrastingly, renewable energy
sources are known to be much cleaner and produce energy without the harmful effects
of pollution unlike their conventional counterparts.

1.2 DIFFERENT SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY


1.2.1 WIND POWER
Wind turbines can be used to harness the energy available in airflows. Current day
turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power. Since the power output
is a function of the cube of the wind speed, it increases rapidly with an increase in
available wind velocity. Recent advancements have led to aerofoil wind turbines,
which are more efficient due to a better aerodynamic structure.
1.2.2 SMALL HYDROPOWER
Hydropower installations up to 10MW are considered as small hydropower and
counted as renewable energy sources. These involve converting the potential energy
of water stored in dams into usable electrical energy through the use of water turbines.
Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity aims to utilize the kinetic energy of water without
the need of building reservoirs or dams.
1.2.3 BIOMASS
Plants capture the energy of the sun through the process of photosynthesis. On
combustion, these plants release the trapped energy. This way, biomass works as a
natural battery to store the suns energy and yield it on requirement.
1.2.4 GEOTHERMAL
Geothermal energy is the thermal energy which is generated and stored within the
layers of the Earth. The gradient thus developed gives rise to a continuous conduction
of heat from the core to the surface of the earth. This gradient can be utilized to heat
water to produce superheated steam and use it to run steam turbines to generate
electricity. The main disadvantage of geothermal energy is that it is usually limited to
regions near tectonic plate boundaries, though recent advancements have led to the
propagation of this technology.
1.2.5 SOLAR POWER
The tapping of solar energy owes its origins to the British astronomer John Herschel
who famously used a solar thermal collector box to cook food during an expedition to

Africa. Solar energy can be utilized in two major ways. Firstly, the captured heat can
be used as solar thermal energy, with applications in space heating. Another
alternative is the conversion of incident solar radiation to electrical energy, which is
the most usable form of energy. This can be achieved with the help of solar
photovoltaic cells or with concentrating solar power plants.
As the Photovoltaic module exhibits non-linear V-I Characteristics, which are
dependent on solar Insolation and environment factors, the development of an
accurate power electronic circuit oriented model is essential to simulate and design
the photovoltaic integrated system. In this paper, the design of PV system using
simple circuit model with detailed circuit modelling of PV module using
MATLAB/Simulink and the physical equations governing the PV module is
presented.

1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW


Studies show that a solar panel converts 21-40% of energy incident on it to electrical
energy. A Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm is necessary to increase the
efficiency of the solar panel.
There are different techniques for MPPT such as Perturb and Observe (hill climbing
method), Incremental conductance, Fractional Short Circuit Current, Fractional Open
Circuit Voltage, Fuzzy Control, Neural Network Control etc. Among all the methods
Perturb and observe (P&O) and Incremental conductance are most commonly used
because of their simple implementation, lesser time to track the MPP and several other
economic reasons.
Under abruptly changing weather conditions (irradiance level) as MPP changes
continuously, P&O takes it as a change in MPP due to perturbation rather than that of
irradiance and sometimes ends up in calculating wrong MPP. However this problem
gets avoided in Incremental Conductance method as the algorithm takes two samples
of voltage and current to calculate MPP. However, instead of higher efficiency the
complexity of the algorithm is very high compared to the previous one and hence the
cost of implementation increases. So we have to mitigate with a trade-off between
complexity and efficiency.
It is seen that to get maximum efficiency we are getting which type of converter. We
are choosing here boost converter because it provide us more voltage at output then

input. We can also choose buck-boost converter but due to our simplification and
requirement we are selecting boost converter. It is very simple to implement and has
high efficiency both under stationary and time varying atmospheric conditions.

N. Pandiarajan and Ranganath Muth, This paper presents a unique step-by-step


procedure for the simulation of photovoltaic modules with Matlab/ Simulink. Onediode equivalent circuit is employed in order to investigate I-V and P-V
characteristics of a typical 36 W solar module. The proposed model is designed with a
user-friendly icons and a dialog box like Simulink block libraries [1].
Alpesh P. parekh, Bhavarty N. Vaidya and Chirag T. Patel, In this paper, the
design of PV system using simple circuit model with detailed circuit modelling of PV
module is presented. In this paper, Equivalent circuit of the PV module & Simulink
model for each equation has presented and complete circuit oriented model has also
presented [2].
Pandiarajan N, Ramaprabha R and Ranganath Muthu, Circuit model of
photovoltaic (PV) module is presented in this paper that can be used as a common
platform for the material scientists as well as power electronic circuit designers to
develop the better PV power plant. Detailed modeling procedure for the circuit model
with numerical dimensions is presented using power system block set of MATLAB/
Simulink. The developed model is integrated with DC-DC boost converter with
closed loop control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The
simulation results are validated with the experimental set up [3].
P.Sathya, Dr.R.Natarajan, this paper presents the design and implementation of
high performance closed loop Boost converter for solar powered HBLED lighting
system. The proposed system consists of solar photovoltaic module, a closed loop
boost converter and LED lighting module. The closed loop boost converter is used to
convert a low level dc input voltage from solar PV module to a high level dc voltage
required for the load. To regulate the output of the converter, closed loop voltage
feedback technique is used. The feedback voltage is compared with a reference
voltage and a control signal is generated and amplified. The amplified signal is fed to
555 Timer which in turn generates a PWM signal which controls the switching of

MOSFET. Thus by switching of MOSFET it would try to keep output as constant.


Initially the boost converter, timer circuit, amplifier circuit and LED light circuits are
designed, simulated and finally implemented in printed circuit board. The simulation
studies are carried out in MULTISIM. The experimental results for solar PV and
boost converter obtained in both software and hardware was presented in this paper
[7].
Vandana Khanna, Bijoy Kishore Das, Dinesh Bisht, A Simulation model for
simulation of a single solar cell and two solar cells in series has been developed using
Simelectronics (Matlab/Simulink) environment and was presented in this paper. A
solar cell block is available in simelectronics, which was used with many other blocks
to plot I-V and P-V characteristics under variations of parameters considering one
parameter variation at a time. The effect of variation of parameters such as series
resistance, Rs, shunt resistance Rsh, diode parameters: diode saturation current, Is and
ideality factor, N, could be seen on the characteristics of a single solar cell. Effect of
two environmental parameters of temperature and irradiance variations could also be
observed from simulated characteristics. Matlab coding has been done to find the
maximum power output, Pm, and voltage at maximum power output, Vm, of a single
solar cell and two solar cells (in series) under different values of parameters. The
Pmand Vm values are tabulated here in this paper for variation of one parameter at a
time, considering the diode parameters: Is and N, resistances: series and shunt,
temperature and irradiance [5].
G. Venkateswarlu and Dr.P.Sangameswar Raju, The study of photovoltaic
systems in an efficient manner requires a precise knowledge of the IV and PV
characteristic curves of photovoltaic modules. A Simulation model for simulation of a
single solar cell and two solar cells in series has been developed using Sim electronics
(Mat lab /Simulink) environment and is presented here in this paper. A solar cell
block is available in simelectronics, which was used with many other blocks to plot IV and P-V characteristics under variations of parameters considering one parameter
variation at a time. Effect of two environmental parameters of temperature and
irradiance variations could also be observed from simulated characteristics [4].

1.4 OBJECTIVE
The basic objective would be to study MPPT and successfully implement the MPPT
algorithms either in code form as well as using the Simulink/Simscape model.
Modelling of the solar cell in Simulink/Simscape and interfacing both with the MPPT
algorithm to obtain the maximum power point operation would be of prime
importance. After simulating our result with the help of Simulink/Simscape we would
like to implement it on hardware using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).

Fig.1.1 MPPT Technique with Solar Cell

1.5 FUTURE SCOPE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES


The current trend across developed economies tips the scale in favour of Renewable
Energy. For the last three years, the continents of North America and Europe have
embraced more renewable power capacity as compared to conventional power
capacity. Renewables accounted for 60% of the newly installed power capacity in
Europe in 2009 and nearly 20% of the annual power production.

Fig.1.2 Global Energy Consumption in the Year 2008

1.6 THESIS OUTLINE


This thesis has been broadly divided into 7 chapters. The first one being the
introduction, chapter 2 is on photovoltaic effect and modelling of solar cell with
Matlab Simulink/Simscape and effect of load mismatching. In chapter 3 we will study
about Boost Converter. Chapter 4 is on maximum power point tracking and study of
the various algorithms. Chapter 5 will discuss about FPGA & Hardware
Implementation. Result and conclusion is discussed in chapter 6 & 7.

CHAPTER 2
MODELLING OF PV PANEL
2.1 PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
A photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell is a semiconductor device that converts light
to electrical energy by photovoltaic effect. If the energy of photon of light is greater
than the band gap then the electron is emitted and the flow of electrons creates
current.
However a photovoltaic cell is different from a photodiode. In a photodiode light falls
on n-channel of the semiconductor junction and gets converted into current or voltage
signal but a photovoltaic cell is always forward biased.

2.2 PV MODULE
Usually a number of PV modules are arranged in series and parallel to meet the
energy requirements. PV modules of different sizes are commercially available
(generally sized from 60W to 170W). For example, a typical small scale desalination
plant requires a few thousand watts of power.

2.3 PV ARRAY
A PV array consists of several photovoltaic cells in series and parallel connections.
Series connections are responsible for increasing the voltage of the module whereas
the parallel connection is responsible for increasing the current in the array.

Fig.2.1 Different Solar Modules

2.4 PV MODELLING
Typically a solar cell can be modelled by a current source and an inverted diode
connected in parallel to it. It has its own series and parallel resistance. Series
resistance is due to hindrance in the path of flow of electrons from n to p junction and
parallel resistance is due to the leakage current.
When irradiance hits the surface of solar PV cell, an electrical field is generated inside
the cell. As seen in Fig.3 this process separates positive and negative charge carriers
in an absorbing material (joining p-type and n-type). In the presence of an electric
field, these charges can produce a current that can be used in an external circuit. This
generated current depends on the intensity of the incident radiation. The higher the
level of light intensity, the more electrons can be unleashed from the surface, the more
current is generated.

Fig.2.2 Schematic Cross-Section of a Typical Solar Cell

The most important component that affects the accuracy of the simulation is the PV
cell model. Modelling of PV cell involves the estimation of the I-V and P-V
characteristics curves to emulate the real cell under various environmental conditions.
An ideal solar cell is modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode. However
no solar cell is ideal and thereby shunt and series resistances are added to the model as
shown in the Fig.4

Fig.2.3 Equivalent Circuit of PV Cell

The current source Ipv represents the cell photo current, Rsh and Rs are used to
represent the intrinsic series and shunt resistance of the cell respectively. Usually the
value of Rsh is very large and that of Rs is very small, hence they may be neglected to
simplify the analysis.
The PV mathematical model used to simplify our PV array is represented by the
equations (1)-(4)
Module Photo Current
[

)]

( )

Module Reverse Saturation Current


( )
(
)

Module Saturation Current

[(

)(

)]

( )

The Current Output of PV module is


[

Where

( )

Vpv is output voltage of a PV module (V)


Ipv is output current of a PV module (A)
Tr is the reference temperature = 298 K
T is the module operating temperature in Kelvin
Iph is the light generated current in a PV module (A)
Io is the PV module saturation current (A)
A = B is an ideality factor = 1.6
k is Boltzmann constant = 1.3805 10-23 J/K

q is Electron charge = 1.6 10-19 C


Rs is the series resistance of a PV module
o

ISCr is the PV module short-circuit current at 25 C and


1000W/m2 = 2.55A
Ki is the short-circuit current temperature co-efficient at
o

ISCr = 0.0017A / C
2

is the PV module illumination (W/m ) = 1000W/m

Ego is the band gap for silicon = 1.1 Ev


Ns is the number of cells connected in series
Np is the number of cells connected in parallel
Table 2.1 Electrical Characteristics Data of Green SolarIndia37W (AT-37) PV
Module
Electrical Characteristics
Maximum power - Pmax
Voltage at Pmax - Vmp

36.917 W
17.905 V

Current at Pmax - Imp

2.062 A

Short-circuit current - Isc


Open-circuit voltage - Voc

2.226 A
21.425 V

Total number of cells in series (Ns)


Total number of cells in parallel (Np)

36
1

2.5 MATLAB SIMULINK MODEL OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL


(A) Temperature Conversion (C to F)
Trk=273+25(ref.temp.)
Tak=273+Top(operating Temp.)

Fig.2.4 Block For Temperature Conversion


(B) Module Photo Current

( -

)]

Fig.2.5 Block For Module Photo Current

(C) Module Reverse Saturation Current

Fig.2.6 Block For Reverse Saturation Current

(D) Module Saturation Current


[

[(

)(

- )]

Fig.2.7 Block for Saturation Current


(E) The Output Current of PV module

Fig.2.8 Block for Output Current


(F) The Nsakt Will Be Prepared As Show Below

Fig.2.9 Block for NsAkT

Fig.2.10 Interconnection of All Blocks

Fig.2.11 Complete Block of PV Module


Now we have to add a current controlled source which is connected with Ipv of panel.
The series and parallel resistances are also connected to make this model
practicle.Fig.2.12 show the complete model.

Fig.2.12 Detailed circuit model of PV module.

2.6 EFFECT OF LOAD MISMATCHING


From PV module P-V characteristics we have seen there is only one point where
power is maximum, the corresponding voltage is VMPP and current is IMPP. If load line
crosses this point the maximum power is transferred to load. This value of load
resistance is given by:

Fig.2.13 PV Interfacing to Load


A PV cell behaves differently depending on the size/type of load connected to it. The
output power of PV panel is greatly depended upon the load at output side. The
delivered power cannot be maximum if there is load mismatching. Load mismatching
is a difference between the internal resistance of source and load at output side.
According to maximum power transfer theorem, when the equivalent resistance of
source is equal to the load resistance, the maximum power will delivered. The

equivalent resistance is called characteristics impedance which can be easily find out
from the data sheet given by manufacturer. If load is equal to this characteristic
impedance, then we will get maximum power from the solar panel. We can calculate
characteristic impedance from VMPP and IMPP values given in data sheet. For present
case RMPP is 7.9. Here we take three conditions.
Case (1): When Load resistance is more than characteristic impedance in Fig.15. The
output power is 19.83Watt which is less than its rated maximum power 36 Watt (at
2

1000W/m ).
Case (2): When Load resistance is less than characteristic impedance in Fig.16 The
output power is 32 Watt which is less than its rated maximum power 36 Watt (at
2

1000W/m ).
Case (3): When Load resistance is equal to characteristics impedance in Fig.17. The
2

output power is about 36 Watt which is maximum at 1000 W/m .

Fig.2.14 Output Power of PV Module At Rload > Rmpp

Fig.2.15 Output Power of PV Module at RLOAD < RMPP

Fig.2.16 Output Power of PV Module at RLOAD = RMPP


Figure 2.14, 2.15 & 2.16 shows the effect on efficiency of PV module due to different
load applied by user. The PV module power reduces if the load is not properly match
with the characteristics resistance of the PV module. This problem can be solved by
applying DC-DC converter in between PV module & Load.

CHAPTER 3
BOOST CONVERTER
A boost converter is designed to step up a fluctuating or variable input voltage to a
constant output voltage of 24 volts with input range of 6-23volts in. To produce a
constant output voltage feedback loop is used. The output voltage is compared with a
reference voltage and a PWM wave is generated, here Spartan 6 FPGA kit is used to
generate PWM signal to control switching action.
A DC to DC converter is used to step up from 12V to 24V. The 12V input voltage is
from the battery storage equipment and the 24V output voltage serves as the input of
the inverter in solar electric system. In designing process, the switching frequency, f is
set at 20 kHz and the duty cycle, D is 50%.
Here we want to introduced an approach to design a boost converter for photovoltaic
(PV) system using microcontroller. The converter is designed to step up solar panel
voltage to a stable 24V output without storage elements such as battery. It is
controlled by a FPGA unit using voltage-feedback technique. The output of the boost
converter is tracked, measured continuously and the values are sent to the
microcontroller unit to produce pulse-width-modulation (PWM) signal. The PWM
signal is used to control the duty cycle of the boost converter. Typical application of
this boost converter is to provide DC power supply for inverter either for gridconnected or standalone system. Simulation and experimental results describe the
performance of the proposed design. Spartan 6 FPGA is used to perform tasks in the
proposed design.
As stated in the introduction, the maximum power point tracking is basically a
load matching problem. In order to change the input resistance of the panel to
match the load resistance (by varying the duty cycle), a DC to DC converter is
required.
It has been studied that the efficiency of the DC to DC converter is maximum
for a buck converter, then for a buck-boost converter and minimum for a boost
converter but as we intend to use our system either for tying to a grid or for a
water pumping system which requires 230 Vat the output end, so we use a boost
converter.

Fig.3.1 Circuit Diagram of a Boost Converter

3.1. MODE 1 OPERATION OF THE BOOST CONVERTER


When the switch is closed the inductor gets charged through the battery and stores the
energy. In this mode inductor current rises (exponentially) but for simplicity we
assume that the charging and the discharging of the inductor are linear. The
diode blocks the current flowing and so the load current remains constant which
is being supplied due to the discharging g of the capacitor.

Fig.3.2 Mode 1 Operation of the Boost Converter

3.2. MODE 2 OPERATION OF THE BOOST CONVERTER


In mode 2 the switch is open and so the diode becomes short circuited. The energy
stored in the inductor gets discharged through opposite polarities which charge the
capacitor. The load current remains constant throughout the operation. The waveform
for a boost converter are shown in figure.

Fig.3.3 Mode 2 Operation of the Boost Converter

2
1

3.3. MODELING OF BOOST CONVERTER USING MATLAB


SIMSACPE

Fig.3.4 Modelling of Boost DC-DC Converter

3.4. DESIGN APPROACH OF PROPOSED BOOST CONVERTER


Load Requirement: The load is a simple 4 x 4 LED panel and each row containing 4
LED in a line would require a current of 10- 15 mA and thus total of 60 mA to all four
branches and thus having a resistance of 570. As each LED gives a drop of 2.1
volts to become forward biased, so a minimum of 8.4 volts is required to glow 4 LED
in series, for this a voltage of 24 V is required to be supplied to LEDs. Thus the load
requirement is 570 with 42 mA of total current thus required voltage was 24 V.
Since a potential divider is used whose total resistance is 1100 so total equivalent
resistance is Req = (1100) (570) = 375.Based on this load requirement the other
parameters would be calculated and the specifications are tabulated in the following
table.

Table 3.1 Specification for Boost Converter


S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Component
Inductor
MOSFET 1N5408
Power Diode
Input Capacitor
Output Capacitor
Resistive Load

Value
290H
IRF 840
IN5408
470F
330 F
50, 50W

Duty Cycle:
The duty cycle can be found using the following relationD=1Inductor value:
The value of inductor is determined using the following relation
2

Lmin=D (1-D )*R/2*Fs


An inductor is practically designed using the following parameters and is shown in
the figure 22.
Formula for inductor design, L = (d2n2) / (l + 0.45d)
Required dimensions of inductor
Coil length, l= 8.1 cm
Diameter, d= 6.3 cm
Inductance value required, L= 151 H
Number of turns, n=64
Where L is inductance in micro Henrys,
d is coil diameter in meters,
l is coil length in meters, and
n is number of turns
Capacitor value:
The value of capacitor is determined from the following equation
C=D/Fs*R*Vr
Where
C is the minimum value of capacitance,

D is duty cycle,
R is output resistance,
Fs is switching frequency, and
Vr is output voltage ripple factor.

CHAPTER 4
MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING ALGORITHM
4.1. AN OVERVIEW OF MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING
A typical solar panel converts only 30 to 40 percent of the incident solar
irradiation into electrical energy. Maximum power point tracking technique is used
to improve the efficiency of the solar panel.
According to Maximum Power Transfer theorem, the power output of a circuit
is maximum when the Thevenin impedance of the circuit (source impedance)
matches with the load impedance. Hence our problem of tracking the maximum
power point reduces to an impedance matching problem.
In the source side we are using a boost convertor connected to a solar pan el in
order to enhance the output voltage so that it can be used for different
applications like motor load. By changing the duty cycle of the boost converter
appropriately we can match the source impedance with that of the load impedance.

4.2. DIFFERENT MPPT TECHNIQUES


There are different techniques used to track the maximum power point. Few of the
most popular techniques are:
1) Perturb and Observe (hill climbing method)
2) Incremental Conductance method
3) Fractional short circuit current
4) Fractional open circuit voltage
5) Neural networks
6) Fuzzy logic

4.3 PERTURB & OBSERVE


Perturb & Observe (P&O) is the simplest method. In this we use only one sensor, that
is the voltage sensor, to sense the PV array voltage and so the cost of implementation
is less and hence easy to implement. The time complexity of this algorithm is very
less but on reaching very close to the MPP it doesnt stop at the MPP and keeps on
perturbing on both the directions. When this happens the algorithm has reached very
close to the MPP and we can set an appropriate error limit or can use a wait function
which ends up increasing the time complexity of the algorithm. However the method
does not take account of the rapid change of irradiation level (due to which
MPPT changes) and considers it as a change in MPP due to perturbation and ends up
calculating the wrong MPP. To avoid this problem we can use incremental
conductance method.

4.4. INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE


Incremental conductance method uses two voltage and current sensors to sense the
output voltage and current of the PV array. At MPP the slope of the PV curve is 0.
(dP/dV)MPP=d(VI)/dV
0=I+VdI/dVMPP
dI/dVMPP = - I/V
The left hand side is the instantaneous conductance of the solar panel. When this
instantaneous conductance equals the conductance of the solar then MPP is reached.
Here we are sensing both the voltage and current simultaneously. Hence the error due
to change in irradiance is eliminated. However the complexity and the cost of
implementation increases. As we go down the list of algorithms the complexity and
the cost of implementation goes on increasing which may be suitable for a highly
complicated system. This is the reason that Perturb and Observe and Incremental
Conductance method are the most widely used algorithms. Owing to its simplicity of
implementation we have chosen the Perturb & Observe algorithm for our study
among the two.

4.5. FRACTIONAL OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE


The near linear relationship between VMPP and VOC of the PV array, under varying
irradiance and temperature levels, has given rise to the fractional VOC method.
VMPP = k1 Voc
where k1 is a constant of proportionality. Since k1 is dependent on the characteristics
of the PV array being used, it usually has to be computed beforehand by empirically
determining VMPP and VOC for the specific PV array at different irradiance and
temperature levels. The factor k1 has been reported to be between 0.71 and 0.78.
Once k1 is known, VMPP can be computed with VOC measured periodically by
momentarily shutting down the power converter. However, this incurs some
disadvantages, including temporary loss of power.

4.6. FRACTIONAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT


Fractional ISC results from the fact that, under varying atmospheric conditions, IMPP is
approximately linearly related to the ISC of the PV array.
IMPP =k2 Isc
Where k2 is a proportionality constant. Just like in the fractional VOC technique, k2 has
to be determined according to the PV array in use. The constant k2 is generally found
to be between 0.78 and 0.92. Measuring ISC during operation is problematic. An
additional switch usually has to be added to the power converter to periodically short
the PV array so that ISC can be measured using a current sensor.

4.7. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL


Microcontrollers have made using fuzzy logic control popular for MPPT over last
decade. Fuzzy logic controllers have the advantages of working with imprecise inputs,
not needing an accurate mathematical model, and handling nonlinearity.

4.8. NEURAL NETWORK


Another technique of implementing MPPT which are also well adapted for
microcontrollers is neural networks. Neural networks commonly have three layers:
input, hidden, and output layers. The number nodes in each layer vary and are userdependent. The input variables can be PV array parameters like VOC and ISC,
atmospheric data like irradiance and temperature, or any combination of these. The
output is usually one or several reference signals like a duty cycle signal used to drive
the power converter to operate at or close to the MPP.
Table4.1 Characteristics of Different MPPT Technique

4.9. DETAILS OF PERTURB & OBSERVE ALGORITHM


The Perturb & Observe algorithm states that when the operating voltage of the
PV panel is perturbed by a small increment, if the resulting change in power P
is positive, then we are going in the direction of MPP and we keep on perturbing
in the same direction. If P is negative, we are going away from the direction of
MPP and the sign of perturbation supplied has to be changed.

Fig.4.1 Solar Panel Characteristics Showing MPP And Operating Points A AndB
Figure 4.1 : Solar panel characteristics showing MPP and operating points A and B
Figure 4.1 shows the plot of module output power versus module voltage for a
solar pan el at a given irradiation. The point marked as MPP is the Maximum
Power Point, the theoretical maximum output obtainable from the PV panel.
Consider A and B as two operating points. As shown in the figure above, the
point A is on the left hand side of the MPP. Therefore, we can move towards
the MPP by providing g a positive perturbation to the voltage. On the other
hand, point B is

on the right hand side

of the MPP.

When we give a positive

perturbation, the value of P becomes negative, thus it is imperative to change


the direction of perturbation to achieve MPP. The flowchart for the P&O algorithm
is shown in Figure

Fig.4.2 Flowchart Of Perturb & Observe Algorithm


We implement above algorithm on FPGA using Hardware Description Language
Verilog. Hardware implementation will be discuss in next chapter.

4.10. MODELLING OF P&O ALGORITHM

Fig.4.3 Modelling of P&O Algorithm

4.11. COMPLETE MODEL OF PV PANEL WITH MPPT

Fig.4.4 Complete Model of PV Panel With MPPT

CHAPTER 5
HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION USING FPGA
5.1. FIELD-PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is a semiconductor device that can be
configured by the customer or designer after manufacturinghence the name "fieldprogrammable". To program an FPGA you specify how you want the chip to work
with a logic circuit diagram or a source code in a hardware description language
(HDL). FPGAs can be used to implement any logical function that an applicationspecific integrated circuit (ASIC) could perform, but the ability to update the
functionality after shipping offers advantages for many applications.
FPGAs contain programmable logic components called "logic blocks", and a
hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired
together"somewhat like a one-chip programmable breadboard. Logic blocks can be
configured to perform complex combinational functions, or merely simple logic gates
like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, the logic blocks also include memory elements,
which may be simple flip-flops or more complete blocks of memory.
For any given semiconductor process, FPGAs are usually slower than their fixed
ASIC counterparts. They also draw more power, and generally achieve less
functionality using a given amount of circuit complexity. But their advantages include
a shorter time to market, ability to re-program in the field to fix bugs, and lower nonrecurring engineering costs. Vendors can also take a middle road by developing their
hardware on ordinary FPGAs, but manufacture their final version so it can no longer
be modified after the design has been committed. In short we can say that

Gate array - a custom VLSI circuit consisting of huge number of unconnected


gates.

Circuit function determined at the field by the user,

Re-programmable,

Pre-tested for manufacturing defects,

It is: An ASIC for FPGA manufacturer An FPGA for the user

5.2. FPGA DEVICES


Xilinx Devices
Virtex Series (High performance)
Virtex-6
Virtex-5
Virtex-4
Virtex II & Virtex II pro
Virtex
Spartan Series (Low cost)
Spartan-6 (Used in our project)
Spartan-3, 3A & 3E
Spartan- II & IIE
Spartan
Altera Devices
Stratix Series (High Performance)
Stratix IV
Stratix V
Stratix III
Stratix II (GX)
Stratix (GX)
Cyclone Series (Low cost)
Cyclone IV
Cyclone III
Cyclone II
Cyclone
Note1: Devices are also available from Lattice and Actel.

5.3. FPGA ARCHITECTURE

Fig.5.1 FPGA Architecture

5.4. FEATURES OF SPARTAN 6 FAMILY


Spartan-6 Family:
Spartan-6 LX FPGA Logic optimized
Spartan-6 LXT FPGA: High-speed serial connectivity

Designed for low cost

Low static and dynamic power

45 nm process optimized for cost and low power

Multi-voltage, multi-standard Select IO interface banks

Up to 1,080 Mb/s data transfer rate per differential I/O

High-speed GTP serial transceivers in the LXT FPGAs

Up to 3.125 Gb/s

High-speed interfaces including: Serial ATA, Aurora, 1G Ethernet, PCI


Express, OBSAI, CPRI, EPON, GPON, Display Port, and XAUI

Integrated Endpoint block for PCI Express designs (LXT)

5.5. FPGA INTERFACES IN ULK

Fig.5.2 ULK board Top View

Fig.5.3 ULK Board Bottom View

5.6. IMPLEMENTATION OF ADC MODULE


The ADC0804 is an 8 bit successive approximation analog to digital convertor. The
pin configuration of the ADC0804 is shown in Figure. As shown the package type is
the 20 pin dual in line (DIP) package. The analog input voltage range is 0 to VCC
volts. The supply voltage input is represented by VCC. Its maximum is 6.5 volts. The
ADC0804 has two grounds: analog ground (A GRD) and digital ground (D GRD).
These two separate grounds insure that noise from analog circuits does not leak into
the digital circuits within the chip. It consists of 4 digital control inputs: CS , WR,
INT , and RD. The analog inputs, Vin+ and Vin, are differential. When the analog to
digital conversion of the analog input is complete, the results can be read from the
outputs, D0, D1, D7.
Start conversion of an analog voltage on the differential inputs, Vin+ and Vin-, begin
when the chip select, CS , is low and the write, WR, are both low. The chip select,
CS, must be low in order for the chip to be functional. When WR goes from being

high to low, the SAR register is initialized and the interrupt, INT , is set high. When
the conversion is complete the interrupt goes active, that is, it goes from high to low
indicating that the converted data is ready to be read from the outputs D0, D1, D2,
D3, D4, D5, D6, and D7.
Read converted data To read data when the conversion is complete the chip select
must go low, followed by a high to low transition of the RD input. When the RD
input goes low this resets the interrupt and causes the output data latches to be
enabled so that the internal converted data appears on the data bus (D0, D1,. D7).
The four digital control signals are summarized in the TableTable 5.1 ADC0804 Digital Control Inputs And Their Active Function
Digital control inputs

Active function

CS /I

Chip select

RD/I

Enable output

WR/I

Start conversion

INT /O

Data is ready

.
Continuous conversion For continuous conversion the chip select, CS, and the read,
RD, are grounded, and the interrupt, INT , and the write, WR, are connected. In the
continuous conversion configuration, the WR and INT pins must be brought low after
power up to insure that the conversion process is started. See Figure 29 for the selfclocking configuration of the ADC0804.

Fig.5.4 Pin Configuration of ADC 0804

39

Fig.5.5 Circuit Diagram of ADC 0804

The output of ADC module will applied to FPGA, and on FPGA we are generating a
verilog code for pulse with modulation. When the digital output of ADC module will
applied to FPGA we can see the output by using a Digital Storage Oscilloscope.
Means we are able to see the output of ADC module on oscilloscope using pulse
width modulation. Now we are thinking that we should explain something about
PWM.

4
0

Fig.5.6 Hardware Implementation of ADC Module

5.7. PULSE WIDTH MODULATION


Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique to provide a logic 1 and logic 0 for
a controlled period of time. It is a signal source involves the modulation of its duty
cycle to control the amount of power sent to a load. The following sections describe
the design of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) on a Xilinx FPGA using hardware
description language (HDL). The PWM generates pulses on its output. The pulses are
made in such a way that the average value of highs and lows is proportional to the
PWM input. By filtering the pulses, we obtain an analog value proportional to the
PWM input. A PWM input can
Be of any width. Most common values are 8-bits and 16-bits. The PWM developed
can be used in many diverse and complex applications like robotics, motor and
motion control.

5.7.1. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY FOR PWM


There are two approaches for implementing control systems using digital technology .
The first approach is based on software which implies a memory-processor
interaction. The memory holds the application program while the processor fetches,
decodes, and executes the program instructions. Programmable Logic Controllers
(PLCs), microcontrollers, microprocessors, Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), and
general purpose computers are tools for software implementation. On the other hand,
the second approach is based on hardware. Early hardware implementation is
achieved by magnetic relays extensively used in old industry automation systems. It
then became achievable by means of digital logic gates and Medium Scale Integration
(MSI) components[1]. When the system size and complexity increases, Application
Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are utilized. The ASIC must be fabricated on a
manufacturing line, a process that takes several months, before it can be used or even
tested . FPGAs are configurable ICs and used to implement logic functions. Early
generations of FPGAs were most often used as glue logic which is the logic needed to
connect the major components of a system. They were often used in prototypes
because they could be programmed and inserted into a board in a few minutes, but
they did not always make it into the final product. Todays high-end FPGAs can hold
several millions gates and have some significant advantages over ASICs. They ensure
ease of design, lower development costs, more product revenue, and the opportunity
to speed products to market. At the same time they are superior to software-based
controllers as they are more compact, power-efficient, while adding high speed
capabilities. The target FPGA device used in this project is Spartan-6 manufactured
recently by Xilinx. Digital controllers usually encompass input/output (I/O) modules
to communicate with users. Embedded systems typically consist of both applicationspecific hardware and a general purpose microprocessor or microcontroller. Many of
the functions performed by the system can be implemented either on dedicated
hardware (for example, in an FPGA, in an ASIC, or in a special-purpose function
block added to the microcontroller itself) or can be implemented by the
microprocessor in software. The decision to implement a function in hardware or
software depends on trade-offs between the hardware/software implementations like
cost, speed, power consumption, design time, size (silicon area or program size), risk

and others. Partitioning functions efficiently between hardware and software can be
key to timely design of high performance, low cost digital systems. The speed of a
DC motor is approximately proportional to the supply voltage, so reducing the supply
voltage by half will reduce the speed by approximately one-half. The speed of the
motor can therefore be controlled by varying the average supply voltage. The supply
voltage could be changed using a variable supply voltage source, but this technique is
inefficient since voltage is controlled in these cases through a voltage drop across a
transistor. Since all current must go through the transistor and P=VI (the drop across
the transistor times the current), a significant amount of power is lost at the transistor.
A better way to control the motor is to switch the motors supply on and off very
quickly. If the on time is equal to the off time, the average voltage seen by the motor
will equal half the supply voltage and the motor will run at half the maximum speed.
As the on time increases compared with the off time, the average speed of the motor
will increase. The user should not notice the motor turning on and off, because it is
done very quickly. A pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal is a constant period
square wave with a varying duty cycle (on-time compared to off-time). In other
words, the frequency of a PWM signal is constant but the time the signal remains high
varies as shown in Figure which is below mentioned.. The duty cycle (percent ontime)
is given by /T.

Fig.5.7 PWM Generation With Different Duty Cycle

5.7.2. PWM TECHNIQUE


PWM can be used to reduce the total amount of power delivered to a load without
losses normally incurred when a power source is limited by resistive means. This is
because the average power delivered is proportional to the modulation duty cycle.
High frequency PWM Power control systems are realizable with semiconductor
switches. The discrete on/off states of the modulation are used to control the state of

the switch(es) which correspondingly control the voltage across or current through the
load .The major advantage of this system is the switches are either off and not
conducting any current, or on and have (ideally) no voltage drop across them. The
product of the current and the voltage at any given time defines the power dissipated
by the switch, thus (ideally) no power is dissipated by the switch .Realistically,
semiconductor switches such as MOSFETs or BJTs are non-ideal switches, but high
efficiency controllers can still built.

Fig.5.8 Different PWM Technique


A PWM signal can be used to switch the motor on and off as shown in figure below:

Fig.5.9 Speed Control of DC Motor Using PWM

The PWM signal is applied to the transistor pair, which acts as a switch. Whenever
the PWM signal is high, the switch is closed and the entire supply voltage is applied
across the motor terminals. When the PWM signal is low, the switch is open and the
supply voltage across the motor is 0 volts. If we apply a PWM signal with a 50 %
duty cycle then the average voltage across the motor is 50%. It does not take much
work to show that the average voltage across the motor is given by:
Vmotor, average = Vsupply*duty cycle
And, therefore, motor speed = (motor speed when driven by Vsupply) * duty cycle. A
PWM signal can be generated in a number of ways. One using software implemented
by the microcontroller and the other using hardware implemented in an FPGA. A
software implementation may also be lower risk than a hardware implementation
because it may be changed at the last minute by changing the program in memory
(changing the program, though, also increases the risk of undetected software bugs).
However, the capability of a microcontroller to perform these tasks may be limited.
The microprocessor may have to perform several tasks in addition to implementing
the PWM and thus may not be able to implement the PWM fast enough or with
enough accuracy. Implementing the PWM in hardware frees up the microprocessor
for these other tasks and ensures that the task is performed quickly and accurately.
The best choice - hardware or software - depends significantly on the application.
Advantages of PWM:

Low power, noise-free, low cost features

High efficiency

Flexibility in control

Light weight

Quick response

5.7.3. PWM PULSES AT DIFFERENT DUTY CYCLE

Fig.5.10 PWM Output At 30% Duty Cycle

Fig.5.11 PWM Output at 50% Duty Cycle

Fig.5.12 PWM Output at 40% Duty Cycle

5.8. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF BOOST CONVERTER


The DC-to-DC converter is implemented as shown in Fig.

Fig.5.13 Hardware Implementation of Boost Converter Circuit

In the hardware part, the circuit is designed to step up DC-to-DC voltage. The circuit
included parts of Boost components such as controllable switch (IRF840), inductor
and capacitor, ADC 0804, MIC 4428 MOSFET Driver and other basic components.
In order to maintain output voltage, controller will be operated in feedback circuit.

When the duty cycle is in ON state, diode become as reversed biased and the inductor
will deliver current and switch conducts inductor current. The current through the
inductor increase, as the source voltage would be greater.
The simulation was first run with the switch on no MPPT mode, bypassing the
MPPT algorithm block in the circuit. It was seen that when we do not use an MPPT
algorithm, the power obtained at the load side was around 8 Watts. It must be
noted that the PV panel generated around 37 Watts power for this level of solar
irradiation. Therefore, the conversion efficiency came out to be very low.
The simulation was then run with the switch on MPPT mode. This included the
MPPT block in the circuit a n d duty cycle D as calculated by the P&O
algorithm. Under the same irradiation conditions, the PV panel continued to
generate around
36 Watts power. Thus increasing the conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic
system as a whole.
The loss of power from the available 37 Watts generated by the PV
panel can be explained by switching losses in the high frequency PWM

switching circuit and the inductive and capacitive losses in the Boost

Converter circuit.
Therefore, it was seen that using the Perturb & Observe MPPT technique
increased the efficiency of the photovoltaic system by approximately 60%
from an earlier output power.

5.9. COMPLETE CIRCUIT MODEL

Fig.5.14 Complete Circuit Model of Hardware Implementation

5.10. COMPLETE HARDWARE SETUP

Fig.5.15 Complete Hardware Setup Without PV Panel

CHAPTER 6
RESULT
SIMULATION RESULT FOR 37 WATT SOLAR PANEL

Fig.6.1 P-V Characteristic of Solar Panel

Fig.6.2 I-V Characteristic of Solar Cell

CASE I. Output Power at Constant Irradiation (1000W/m2)


40
35

Output Power

30

Output Power with MPPT


Output Power without
MPPT Actual Power

25
20
15
10
5
0

10

12

Time

14
x 10

Fig.6.3 Output Power of 37W PV Module at Fixed Irradiation (1000W/m )


Above graph shows that when we are using MPPT and taking irradiance is constant
then the power become increased.

CASE II. With Varying Irradiation

1000

Irradiation(W/m2)

950
900
850
800
750
700 0

8
Time

Fig.6.4 Change in Irradiation

10

12

14
x 10

40

Output Power (Watt)

35
30
25
Output Power with MPPT

20

Output Power without

15

MPPT Actual output Power

10
5
0

10

12

Time (usec)

14
4

x 10

Fig.6.5 Output Power of 37W PV Module With Change In Irradiation

Table 6.1 Observation with and without MPPT with respect to time
Time

Without MPPT
Voltage(V)

Current(A)

With MPPT
Power(W)

Voltage(V)

Current(A)

Power
(W)

2:15

16.36

0.093

1.521

27

0.153

4.131

17.04

0.094

1.601

28.8

0.154

4.435

16.5

0.091

1.501

32

0.176

5.632

16.93

0.093

1.574

29

0.157

4.553

16.56

0.118

1.954

23.1

0.163

3.765

15.8

0.119

1.880

23.6

0.168

3.964

15.9

0.115

1.828

24.2

0.169

4.089

pm
2:17
pm
3:05
pm
3:27
pm
3:52
pm
4:00
pm
4:05
pm

4:10
pm

15.7

0.116

1.821

23.7

0.164

3.886

4:15
pm

15.3

0.095

1.453

23.5

0.169

3.971

4:22
pm

15.1

0.112

1.691

23.9

0.170

4.063

Total power = 16.824

Total power = 42.489

Efficiency = Total Power (with MPPT) Total Power (without MPPT) * 100
Total Power (with MPPT)
= 42.489 16.824 *100
42.489
= 60.40%
Above table shows the change in performance of PV module by using MPPT. It
shows that efficiency is increased up to 60% by using MPPT.

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION
The model shown in above Figure was simulated using SIMULINK and MATLAB.
The plots obtained in the different scopes have been shown in Chapter 6.

The

simulation was first run with the switch on no MPPT mode, bypassing the MPPT
algorithm block in the circuit. It was seen that when we do not use an MPPT
algorithm, the power obtained at the load side was more fluctuating for a solar
irradiation value of 1000 Watts per sq. cm. Therefore, the conversion efficiency came
out to be very low. The simulation was then run with the switch on MPPT mode. This
included the MPPT block in the circuit and the PI controller was fed the Vref as
calculated by the P&O algorithm. Under the same irradiation conditions, the PV panel
continued to generate around 36.8 Watts power. In this case, however, the power
obtained at the load side was found to be around 36.8 Watts, thus increasing the
conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic system as a whole. The loss of power from
the available 36.8 Watts generated by the PV panel can be explained by switching
losses in the high frequency PWM switching circuit and the inductive and capacitive
losses in the Boost Converter circuit.
Therefore, it was seen that using the Perturb & Observe MPPT technique increased
the efficiency of the photovoltaic system. And the obtained output power is 37.8watt.

REFERNCES
[1] N. Pandiarajan and Ranganath Muth Mathematical Modeling of Photovoltaic
Module with Simulink in 2011 1st International Conference on Electrical Energy
Systems.
[2] Alpesh P. Parekh, Bhavarty N. Vaidya and Chirag T. PatelModeling and
Simulation Based Approach of Photovoltaic System in Global Research Analysis
Volume 2 Issue 4 April 2013 ISSN No 2277 8160.
[3] Pandiarajan N, Ramaprabha R and Ranganath Muthu Application Of Circuit
Model For Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System.
[4] G. Venkateswarlu and Dr.P.Sangameswar Raju Simscape Model Of Photovoltaic
Cell in International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and
Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 2, Issue 5, May 2013.
[5]

Vandana

Khanna,

MATLAB/SIMELECTRONICS

Bijoy

Kishore

Models

Based

Das,
Study

of

Dinesh
Solar

Bisht

Cells

in

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH Vandana


Khanna et al., Vol.3, No.1, 2013.
[6] Mihnea Rosu-Hamzescu, Sergiu Opera Practical Guide to Implementing Solar
Panel MPPT Algorithms.
[7] P.Sathya, Dr.R.Natarajan Design and Implementation of 12V/24V Closed loop
Boost Converter for Solar Powered LED Lighting System in International Journal
of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volumeg No 1 Feb-Mar 2013.

[A]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaics
[B]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcrystalline_silicon
[C]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium_telluride
[D]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_indium_selenide
[E]Nielsen, R. 2005, 'Solar Radiation', http://home.iprimus.com.au/nielsens/.

[E]http://express.howstuffworks.com/gif/solar-power-diagram.jpg
[F]http://science.howstuffworks.com/solar-cell1.htm
[G]http://www.pvresources.com/en/module.php
[H]http://www.japanfs.org/ja/files/Stand-Alone_PV_Modules.jpg
[I] http://www.autospectator.com/cars/files/images/Photovoltaic-Cell.jpg
[J] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaic_array
[K]http://www.iaei.org/magazine/wpcontent/uploads/2009/05/07ewiles_ph4_1679793
01.jpg
[L]http://www.ncsc.ncsu.edu/include/_upload/media/pubs/PVApplication.pdf
[M] http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/solarcells

APPENDICES

COMPONENTS

QUANTITY

LED

PUSH BUTTOM

PCB

SOLDERING ROD

RESISTANCE 180E

8(1/4 W)

RESISTANCE 1OKE

2(1/4 W)

RESISTANCE 1KE

2(1/4 W)

RESISTANCE 180E

2(1/2 W)

CAPACITOR 47 PF

CAPACITOR 47 F

CAPACITOR 1 F

CAPACITOR 4.7 F

POTENTIOMETER(5K)

MOSFET IRF 840

MIC 4428

7805 (5V)

7812 (12V)

12V/7.2 AH BATTERY

ADC 0804

HEATSINK

LOAD (HB LED STRIP)484

POWER DOIDE

INDUCTOR

IC SOCKET

58

PUBLISHED PAPER
Gaurav Chitransh, Gaurav Kumar, Wasim Akhtar, Arpit Saxena, Swati Singh Effect
of Load Mismatching On Active Solar Technique PV Module Using
Matlab/Simulink in IJARSE/Volume 02/Issue 09 / September 2013.
Link: http://www.ijarse.com/pastissue.php (Volume No.02, Issue No. 09, September
2013

59