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# Sales Gas Pipeline

Part I

Ref.1: Brill & Beggs, Two Phase Flow in Pipes, 6th
Edition, 1991. Chapter 1.
Ref.2: Menon, Gas Pipeline Hydraulic, Taylor &
Francis, 2005, Chapter 2.

General Flow Equation

U1 : Internal Energy
P1 V1 : Expansion or Compression Energy
m v12
: Kinetic Energy
2 gc
m g Z1
: Potential Energy
gc

mv12 mgZ1
mv22 mgZ 2

U1  P1V1 

 q  Ws  U 2  P2V2 

2gc
gc
2gc
gc

Where q  Heat added to the fluid and Ws  Work done on the fluid

U2
P2 V2
m v22
2 gc
m g Z2
gc

  dP dh  T dS   dP v dv g dZ  T dS     dq  dWs  0  gc gc .General Flow Equation Dividing by m and writing in differential form:  P  v dv g dZ dU  d     dq  dWs  0 gc gc   By using the enthalpy and entropy definition:  P dh  dU  d  .

General Flow Equation For irreversible process TdS  dq  d (losses ) therefore: No Work dP v dv g dZ    d(losses )  dWs  0  gc gc For an inclined pipe. dZ  dL sin  therefore: dP   v dv g  sin   d(losses )       g c dL gc dL  dL   For Up Flow :   0 For Down Flow :   0  dP      dL  friction .

General Flow Equation f  Fanning friction factor ( f ):    Wall shear stress: w  v2   2gc  P P+dP   d2   dP     w ( d ) dL      P  ( P  dP)   dL   4  f 4 w 2  v 2 f   d gcd Darcy or Moody friction factor (fm):  dP  fm  4 f      dL  f fm  v2  2 gc d .

General Flow Equation Pressure gradient in pipe: dP   v dv g  sin  f m  v 2       g c dL gc 2 gc d  dL    dP      dL   total dP      dL  Usually negligible  dP      dL  acceleration dP      dL  elevation Zero for horizontal pipe  friction .

Single Phase Gas Flow Reynolds Number Reynolds Number in Gas Pipeline: N Re d (ft ) v(ft/sec)  (lb m /ft 3 )  1488  (cp) Mass flow rate  v A  g  q g sc  g sc  v  q g sc  g sc A g  4 q g sc 0.0764  g  d  N Re  1488    d g 2     g  20.14 q g sc (Mscfd)  g  (cp) d (in ) .

32 f m  0.0056  0.0006 in fm  d N Re  .25  1  1.Single Phase Gas Flow Friction Factor Laminar Flow (NRe < 2100): 64 fm  N Re Turbulent Flow (NRe > 2100): Moody Diagram Smooth Wall Pipe: 0.14  2 log10   0.5 N Re for 3 103  N Re  3 106 Rough Wall Pipe:   21.9  . Commonly :   0.

v 4  g sc q g sc  d 2 g Psc M g   4q g sc RTsc   2 PM g  d z g RT  2  2 gc d 8 Psc2 M g q g2sc z g T f m  2 g cTsc2 d 5 P R .Single Phase Gas Flow General Equation  v dv g  sin  f m  v 2  dP       g c dL  dL   gc 2 gc d    PM g    fm   z RT    g   PM g   dP       dL    g sin   z RT   g  gc   PM g g sin  dP       g c z g RT  dL    .

Single Phase Gas Flow General Equation If T and zg are constant (T=Tav and zg=zav):  M g g sin       g c z av RTav   dP   P  dL    P1 P2     P2  C2 8Psc2 q g2sc z av2 Tav2 f m    gT d sin   2 2 sc 5 M g g L sin  S P dP   2 2 P C g c z avTav R 2    P12  C 2  2 S 2 2 S    ln 2  S  P1  e P2  C e  1 2   P2  C  .

0375 g Z (ft ) zavTav ( o R ) 2.527  10 5  g z av f mTav ( o R) q g2sc (Mscfd)  eS 1   L(ft)  S   d 5 (in) Le q g sc    P e P d  198.Single Phase Gas Flow General Equation P e P  2 1 S 2 2 16 Psc2 q g2sc z avTav f m L M g  T d gc S R 2 P e P  2 1 S 2 2 2 sc 5 e S  1 Where S  0.5 5    Tsc    5.6354   Psc     P e P d    g z avTav f m Le 2 1 s 2 2 eS 1 For Horizontal Pipe : lim  1  Le  L S 0 S  0.5 5   .94    g z avTav f m Le 2 1 s 2 2  0.

5 2 P22  2  P13  P23     2  Px dx  Pav   P1  2  3 P1  P2  3  P1  P2  .Single Phase Gas Flow Average Pressure P12  e S P22  16 Psc2 q g2sc z avTav f m L M g  2Tsc2 d 5 g c S R e S  1 P12  Px2  K L x Where 0  x  1 Px2  P22  K L(1  x)  P12  Px2 Px2  P22   Px  P12  x( P12  P22 ) x 1 x 1 Pav   0  0.

The upper limit of the gas velocity is usually calculated approximately from the following equation: vmax (ft/s)  100  g (lbm/ft 3 ) Usually.Single Phase Gas Flow Erosional Velocity Higher velocities will cause erosion of the pipe interior over a long period of time. . an acceptable operational velocity is 50% of the above.

A pipeline with E greater than 0. some water or condensate may be present. Some solids may be also present.Single Phase Gas Flow Pipeline Efficiency In Practice. . even for single-phase gas flow. Therefore the gas flow rate must be multiply by an efficiency factor (E).9 is usually considered “clean” .

Panhandle A equation 4. Fritzsche equation . IGT equation 2.Single Phase Gas Flow Non-Iterative Equations Several equations for gas flow have been derived from General Equation. Spitzglass equation 3. Panhandle B equation Gas Distribution Pipeline 1. AGA equation 2. Mueller equation 4. These equations differ only in friction factor relation assumed: Gas Transmission Pipline 1. Weymouth equation 3.

Finally. 7  Fully Turbulent 10      Min   N Re  N Re   F  4 log10     0. the smaller of the two values of the transmission factor is used.6 Smooth Pipe . F is calculated based on the smooth pipe law.4125 Ft   Ft  . F is calculated for the fully turbulent zone.  d  F  4 log 3 .Single Phase Gas Flow AGA Equation The transmission factor is defined as: 2 F fm First. Ft  4 log10      1. Next.

high flow rate.Single Phase Gas Flow Weymouth Equation The Weymouth equation is used for high pressure. The Weymouth friction factor is: 0. and large diameter gas gathering systems.032 f m  1/ 3 d .

0768 f m  0.1461 N Re . In this equation.Single Phase Gas Flow Panhandle A Equation The Panhandle A Equation was developed for use in large diameter natural gas pipelines. the pipe roughness is not used. The Panhandle A friction factor is: 0. incorporating an efficiency factor for Reynolds numbers in the range of 5 to 11 million.

The Panhandle B friction factor is: 0.00359 f m  0. high pressure transmission lines. it is found to be accurate for values of Reynolds number in the range of 4 to 40 million.03922 N Re . In fully turbulent flow.Single Phase Gas Flow Panhandle B Equation The Panhandle B Equation is most applicable to large diameter.

6 We therefore conclude that the most conservative flow equation that predicts the highest pressure drop is the Weymouth equation and the least conservative flow equation is Panhandle A. Weymouth and Panhandle equations: Figure 2. Colebrook. Comparison of the calculated Output Pressure by AGA. Comparison of the calculated Flow rate by AGA. .5 B. Colebrook. Weymouth and Panhandle equations: Figure 2.Single Phase Gas Flow Gas Transmission Equations A.

555 d 2.667 .   cp .861  Psc    P  e P     T  L  e   2 1 0.2 0.8 g av s 2 2 0.Single Phase Gas Flow IGT Equation The IGT equation proposed by the Institute of Gas Technology is also known as the IGT distribution equation: q g sc  Tsc    35.

5 .5   q g sc  278. High pressure (more than 1 psig):  q g sc   Tsc   P12  e S P22     53.6  0.016   Psc    g Tav z av Le (1  3.03 d )  d   B.956   Psc    g Tav Le (1  3.5     Tsc   P1  P2  d 2 . Low pressure (less than 1 psig): 0 . This equation has two version A.5 d 2.Single Phase Gas Flow Spitzglass Equation The Spitzglass equation originally was used in fuel gas piping calculations.6  0.03 d )  d    0 .

69 .8587 g av e     0.538 d 2.725 .Single Phase Gas Flow Mueller and Fritzsche Equation The Mueller equation is: q g sc  Tsc    35.2609 d 2. has found extensive use in compressed air and gas piping: q g sc  Tsc    41.575  P  e P      T  L e   2 1 0.7391 g av s 2 2 0.28   Psc   P e P    T L  2 s 2 1 2 0. developed in Germany in 1908.4509   Psc   0.   cp The Fritzsche formula.

.

95 in Panhandle and Weymouth . for AGA and Colebrook. 80°F roughness of 700 μ in.. pipeline efficiency of 0.16 in. 100 MMSCFD.

. pipeline efficiency of 0. for AGA and Colebrook.30 in. 100 miles. 80°F.95 in Panhandle and Weymouth . output pressure of 800 psig roughness of 700 μ in.