Core Mathematics I
http://www.math.kent.edu/ebooks/10021/CMI.pdf
Contents
1 Real Numbers and Their Operations
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Integers, Absolute Values and Opposites
1.3 Integer Addition and Subtraction . . . .
1.4 Integer Multiplication and Division . . .
1.5 Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Primes, GCF, & LCM . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Fractions and Mixed Numbers . . . . . .
1.8 Fraction Addition and Subtraction . . .
1.9 Fraction Multiplication and Division . .
1.10 Decimals and Percents . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Decimal Operations . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Introduction to Radicals . . . . . . . . .
1.13 Properties of Real Numbers . . . . . . .
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5
5
19
36
55
62
77
91
125
146
162
189
207
216
2 Algebra
2.1 Variables and Algebraic Expressions
2.2 Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Proportions and Conversion Factors
2.5 Linear Inequalities . . . . . . . . . .
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229
229
241
260
270
285
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299
. 299
. 312
. 323
. 334
. 348
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CONTENTS
361
365
C Answers to Exercises
369
Chapter 1
Introduction
Finally, you may already know, or will soon learn, that you will be
expected to do the first exam without a calculator. The idea is that the
material covered will just be basic operations on real numbers, and you
should know the mechanics behind all of these things. Then, later, if you
wish to use a calculator to save yourself some time and effort (and to have
less chance of making a simple error), that is fine. The calculator, however,
should NOT be an arcane and mysterious device which is relied upon like a
crutch. Letting it do your busy work is one thing; letting it do your thinking
is quite another. The dangers of letting machines do all of our thinking for
us is aptly illustrated in any of the Terminator or Matrix movies!
With all that being said, let us now move on to numbers. When you
first learned to count, you probably counted on your fingers and used the
numbers one through ten. In set notation, this group of numbers would be
written {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. Notice that for set notation we just listed
all the numbers, separated by commas, inside curly braces. If there are a lot
of numbers in the set, sometimes we use the notation . . ., called periods
of ellipsis, to take the place of some of the numbers. For example, the set
of numbers one through one hundred could be written {1, 2, . . . , 99, 100}.
When periods of ellipsis are used, the author assumes the reader can see a
pattern in the numbers in the set and can figure out what is missing. If the
periods of ellipsis occur after the last listed number, this means that the
numbers go on forever. An example of such a set of numbers is the first
listed in this book that is important enough to have an official name (three
names actually!):
These numbers are the ones for which you probably have the best feel.
For example, you can imagine seven pennies or eightytwo cows, although
you probably get a little bit hazier for the bigger numbers. You will have
heard of a million or billion, and possibly even a trillion (like the national
deficit in dollars), but do you know the names of larger numbers? Try the
following example:
Example 1. Which of the following are natural numbers: (a) a quintillion,
(b) a zillion, (c) a bazillion, (d) an octillion, (e) a google?
1.1. INTRODUCTION
For addition, we will use the standard symbol of +. The two numbers
being added are called the addends, while the answer is called the sum. A
property of addition which will be useful to know is that when you add two
numbers, the order in which you add them doesnt matter. Thus:
3+5 = 5+3.
This is the commutative property of addition which we will study in
more detail in section 1.13; for now, you just want to know that you can
switch the order. To do oldfashioned addition without a calculator, you
should have seen the tower method. When using the tower method, make
sure that the placevalues of the two numbers are aligned, i.e. the ones digit
of the top number is over the ones digit of the bottom number, the tens
digit of the top number is over the tens digit of the bottom number, etc.
Example 2. Add 357 + 4, 282.
1
3 5 7
4 2 8 2
4 6 3 9
Notice that when we added the five to the eight and got thirteen, we
carried the one to the next column. It is not unusual for you to have to
carry when using the vertical tower method. Some other comments on the
last example: First, it will be a good practice to have a separate line for
your solution versus your actual work space, especially later when you may
need to adjust the sign of your solution. Second, you should clearly indicate
your solution for your instructor. We will boldface our solutions, while you
may wish to circle or boxin yours. Finally, it is always a good idea to check
your work if there is time. Here, we encourage you to check this answer.
1.1. INTRODUCTION
You can even see that the commutative property of addition holds if you
check by putting the 4,282 on top of the 357.
Example 3. Add 43, 578 + 7, 694.
1 1 1
4 3 5
7 6
5 1 2
1
7 8
9 4
7 2
Subtraction
We will use the standard symbol for subtraction. Addition and
subtraction are inverse operations, and this is probably how you first learned
to subtract. For example, 9 5 = 4 because 4 + 5 = 9. This also means
that addition and subtraction can undo each other. For example, you have
4 onedollar bills, and your sister gives you 5 more, so now you have 9 onedollar bills (4 + 5 = 9). Later, she takes the 5 onedollar bills back, so you
are back to 4 (9 5 = 4). You will see this concept of two operations which
undo each other recur over and over again in mathematics.
To do oldfashioned subtraction of large numbers without a calculator,
we will again use a tower method, and again we will make sure to align the
placevalues of the two numbers.
Example 4. Subtract 1978 322.
1 9 7 8
3 2 2
1 6 5 6
10
5 6 7
4
2 11 11
1 63 62 61
5 6 7
5 4
0 12 11
61 63 62
5 6
7 5
11
61
7
4
4 1 5 4
1
1 3 62
4 1
0
9
60
5
4
10
60
4
6
0 13 1
61 63 62
4 1
9 0
9
60
5
4
10
60
4
6
1.1. INTRODUCTION
11
Multiplication
In multiplication, the two numbers being multiplied are called the factors, and the result is called the product. You may have seen many different
notations for multiplication: , , , (). The * is mostly used in computer
science, and we will not use it in this book. The sign is the one you
probably learned originally, and it is the sign most often used for multiplication in applications (like on your calculator), but there is a problem with
it. In an algebra course like this, we will eventually be using the letter x
(variable), and the two are easily confused. Therefore, we will mostly use
the notation for multiplication. The one exception will be when we use
the tower method to multiply without a calculator. Here, we will use the
sign, as a sloppy could be mistaken for a decimal point. Parentheses also show multiplication, so that whenever the left parenthesis ( is
preceded by a number or a right parenthesis ), this means multiply.
Example 7. Multiply:
(4)(3) = 12
2(7) = 14.
This idea may be extended to any grouping symbol (we will see brackets
[. . .] and absolute value  . . .  later). One curious fact about multiplication is that it is sometimes hidden. You will see several cases in the Core
Math courses where different expressions are right next to each other with
no obvious operation indicated, and you will need to understand that you
are supposed to multiply. You could treat parentheses like this if it helps.
So the last example could have been written:
Example 8. Multiply:
(4)(3) = (4) (3) = 4 3 = 12
2(7) = 2 (7) = 2 7 = 14.
Multiplication is defined as repeated addition. Therefore, multiplying
12
four times three is the same as adding three to itself four times:
Example 9. The following are equal:
4 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12.
Multiplication is commutative just like addition, so that when you are
multiplying two numbers, you can multiply in either order:
Example 10. The following are equal:
4 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 3 4.
Even though you could do any oldfashioned multiplication problem
through repeated addition, this would get tedious. Instead, you should
know your multiplication table for multiplying any singledigit whole number times any other singledigit whole number. This is probably already
the case, but just in case you have forgotten (or are helpless without your
calculator...), we will include it next.
Basic Multiplication Table
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
3
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
4
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
6
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
7
0
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
8
0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
9
0
9
18
27
36
45
54
63
72
81
The first test will be much easier if you take the time to memorize this
table as soon as possible. For multiplying larger numbers without a calculator, we will use a tower method. To refresh your memory on how this works,
let us look at an example.
1.1. INTRODUCTION
13
8
1 2 1 6
So 152 8 = 1216.
Notice that when we multiplied the 8 times the 2, we got 16, wrote down
the 6 and carried the 1 to the next column. Then, when we multiplied the
8 times the 5 and got 40, we added the 1 to get 41, and etc. If the bottom
number has twodigits, first multiply the ones digit by the entire top number
as in the last example. Then cancel or erase all of your previous carries,
put a zero below the rightmost digit of your previous product (well, that
might be oldschool; some people just leave this spot blank), multiply the
tens digit by the entire top number, and add the two products together.
For example:
Example 12. Multiply 327 47.
4 7
2 2 8 9
3 2 7
4 7
2 2 8 9
0
1 2
3 2 7
4 7
2 2 8 9
1 3 0 8 0
1 5 3 6 9
14
2
8 5
3 2 4
3 4 0
1
8
3 2
3 4
1 7 0
5
4
0
0
2
2
3
3
1 7
5 5
7 5
1
8
2
4
0
0
4
5
4
0
0
0
0
8 5
1 6 2 0
So 85 324 = 27, 540.
1 3
3 2 4
8 5
1 6 2 0
2 5 9 2 0
2 7 5 4 0
1.1. INTRODUCTION
15
Division
Division is represented by the symbols or /. The / is used most
often in computer science, and we will not be using it in this book. We will
see later that the fraction bar also shows division.
Just as subtraction is the inverse operation of addition, division is the
inverse operation of multiplication. Thus, 15 5 = 3 because 3 5 = 15.
This means that multiplication and division should be able to undo each
other, but here we must be careful, as this isnt quite as straightforward as
it was with additionsubtraction. For example, while it is still true that if
you multiply a number by 2, you could then get back the original number
by then dividing by 2:
as 8 2 = 16 and 16 2 = 8.
You must be more careful when 0 is involved. Lets examine what happens when you are dividing into 0 (0 is in front of sign), when you are
dividing by 0 (0 is after sign), and when you are doing both.
Example 15. Find 0 8 by treating division as the inverse operation of
multiplication.
Solution 15. 0 8 =
8 = 0.
What number can be placed in the blank to make this true? Well,
0 8 = 0 (and this is the only number which could be placed in
the blank to make a true statement), so:
0 8 = 0.
This is only one example, but we will spoil the suspense and go ahead
and state this more generally.
16
Solution 16. 8 0 =
0 = 8.
What number can be placed in the blank to make this true? The
answer is no number, as any number times 0 is 0, not 8. We
will call division by 0, undefined.
Therefore, 8 0 =undefined.
Thus, division into 0 makes the division very easy; division by zero makes
the division impossible. What happens when these two rules collide?
Example 17. Find 0 0 by treating division as the inverse operation of
multiplication.
Solution 17. 0 0 =
0 = 0.
What number can be placed in the blank to make this true? The
answer, of course, is 0! Or 1, ...er, or 2, or 16, or 137,.... While
this division is no longer impossible, it is actually too possible!
Instead of getting one nice answer like we would desire when
dividing two numbers, we get way too many options. Therefore,
we will label this as undefined as well, but not for the same reason
as before.
So, 0 0 =undefined.
1.1. INTRODUCTION
17
Solution 18.
3245
23 74635
69
56
46
103
92
115
115
0
Dont forget that whenever you place a number on top of the division
bar, you immediately multiply this number by the divisor (number in front).
At this point, you may check to make sure you put the proper number up
top. For example, had we thought that 23 went into 74 four times at the
beginning of the last example, we would have multiplied 234 = 92, and then
we would have noticed that 92 is bigger than 74. That is a clear indication
that the number you are trying is too big. On the other hand, had we
thought 23 went into 74 two times, we would have multiplied 23 2 = 46
and subtracted 74 46 = 28. This difference is larger than the divisor (the
23), so we know that we are trying too small a number. Occasionally, after
bringing down the next number, the new number is still too small for the
divisor to divide into. This is fine, it just means that we need to enter a 0
on top. To illustrate this, let us do a few more examples.
18
Solution 19.
208
42 8736
84
33
0
336
336
0
Solution 20.
2002
34 68068
68
00
0
06
0
68
68
0
1.2
19
20
Negative numbers can have a more physical meaning. Often there may
be other, equivalent, terminology used instead, but the idea is still there.
Example 3. A company is keeping track of how much profit it makes each
month. One month, due to a large number of renovations being made, its
revenue (amount of money taken in) is $2000 less than its expenditures.
Therefore the companys profit is negative $2000, or $2000 in the red.
Example 4. You own a store which sells Item X. At the end of the month,
you restock your shelves, and you like to order enough to have 50 Item X
in stock at the beginning of the next month. One month there is an unusual
demand for Item X, and 73 customers request one. Selling to the first fifty
is no problem, but what do you do then? You could just explain to those
customers that you are sold out, and to try back again next month after you
get another shipment, but you might lose their business. Instead, you could
take their order and either have Item X shipped directly to them or promise
to set aside their order and have them called when it arrives. If you choose
this second method, you are choosing to use negative numbers. After all, you
certainly do not want to order just 50 more Item Xs  you have essentially
already sold 23 of them, and even a more normal demand month could run
you out of your product. Rather, you should think of your inventory as
negative 23 so that when you reorder, you will order 23 for those already
demanded, and then another 50 so that you begin the next month as usual.
It was in commerce, like this last example, where negative numbers first
appeared. Notice that in neither of these last two examples would redefining
zero make any sense  i.e. you would not want to define losing one million
dollars to be $0 profit.
Another physical meaning for negative numbers occur whenever you have
two characteristics which cancel each other when combined. The most common example of this is electric charge.
Example 5. A sodium ion (N a+ ) with a charge of positive one will form
an ionic bond with a chlorine ion (Cl ) with a charge of negative one. The
resulting sodium chloride molecule (salt) will be neutral (charge equal to
zero).
21
22
integers = {. . . , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.
The periods of ellipsis at the beginning show that there are an infinite
number of numbers before the negative three. Sometimes people like to
illustrate the set of integers by making a number line.
12
10
10
12
Note that we only labeled every other tick mark, but this was done only
for space considerations  you could label every one if you would like. Also
note that the number line does not stop at 13 and 13 but continues on in
both directions as shown by the arrows on the ends. The spacing between
the numbers should be uniform  although the units may be feet, inches,
centimeters, miles, whatever. We will refer to the spacing as steps, marked
off by someone with a uniform stride length, but again any unit may be
substituted.
The number line may be thought of as a straight railroad track which
runs east  west, with you standing at 0. We could give you directions to any
point on the track by telling you how many steps to take to the east or how
many to take to the west, but the property of a negative sign of implying
the other direction may be exploited. Instead of having two directions
(east versus west), we only need one (in this case just east), and a negative
number means go the other way. Thus, with you standing at 0, the number
5 would be five steps to the east, while the number 7 is seven steps to the
west.
Less than, Greater than, Less than or equal to, Greater than or equal to
23
numbers, this was fairly simple, and you should have no problem stating
which of the two numbers 5 and 12 is the greater. With the introduction
of negative numbers, this issue may seem to be a bit cloudy. For example,
which of the numbers 5 and 12 do you think is the greater? To extend the
same concept of greater or lesser that we use with whole numbers to the set
of integers, we will use the following definitions.
Definition: For any two integers (this definition will extend to all real numbers once we learn what they are), the number which is further to the left
on the number line is said to be less than, <, the other.
Definition: For any two integers (this definition will extend to all real numbers once we learn what they are), the number which is further to the right
on the number line is said to be greater than, >, the other.
2. 3
3. 5
12
4. 0
5. 2
6. 15
9
8
24
If you are having trouble remembering which sign is which, there are
several different mnemonics people use. Some people think of the signs as
greedy mouths which want to eat the larger number; some people think of
the signs as arrows which the larger number (the bully) is shooting at the
smaller.
In addition to these basic signs, there are two more which are a combination of these and an equals sign.
Definition: The symbol , read as less than or equal to, states that the
number to its left is EITHER less than OR equal to the number on its right.
Definition: The symbol , read as greater than or equal to, states that
the number to its left is EITHER greater than OR equal to the number on
its right.
Example 8. Insert a or between each of the following pair of numbers
to make a true statement. Then write out what each statement means in
words.
1. 5
2. 2
10
3. 3
4. 0
25
9
8
26
This means that the absolute value of a positive number or zero (i.e. a
whole number) is itself, while the absolute value of a negative number is the
same number without the negative sign.
Example 9. Find the absolute value of the following numbers:
1. 16
2. 209
3. 0
4. 4
5. 82
27
28
Example 12. State in words what the following expressions represent, then
simplify if possible.
1. 73 45
2. 7
3. (2)
4. 17 8
5. (3)
29
3. (2)
The opposite of negative two. Neither sign can represent
subtraction as there is no number or expression in front (no
subject). Recalling that a negative is always immediately
followed by a number, the first sign cannot be a negative (as
there is a parenthesis and a sign before it and the two),
while the second sign is followed by a number. To simplify,
we need to take the opposite of negative two, which recall is
the number which is the same distance away from zero (two
steps), but on the other side. Thus:
(2) = 2.
4. 17 8
Seventeen minus eight, good oldfashioned subtraction.
17 8 = 9.
5. (3)
The opposite of three OR the opposite of positive three. Obviously not subtraction (no subject) and not immediately
followed by a number (the parenthesis is in between). Being
an operation, we need to simplify.
(3) = 3.
Please note that when we want you to take the opposite of a number,
we will usually put that number in parentheses. For negative numbers, this
avoids the unsightly notation of . For positive numbers, you could
interpret something like 7 from (2) of the last example as the opposite
of seven, but since this is an operation, you would then need to proceed
to take the opposite of seven to get that the opposite of seven is equal to
negative seven (7 = 7), which seems silly to write like this. Rather, if we
wish to emphasize the idea of taking the opposite of a positive number, we
will use parentheses like in (5) of last example. The only possible exception
to the parentheses use is zero. Both 0 and (0) are read as the opposite
of zero. This is due to zero being neither positive nor negative, so negative
zero would make no sense.
Example 13. Simplify.
1. (13)
30
5. 0 = 0.
The opposite of zero is zero.
If both operations of taking the opposite of and absolute value are being
applied to a number, apply the operation nearest the number first, and work
your way out.
Example 14. Simplify.
1.  6
2. 6
31
3.  (4)
4. 35
5.  0
6. 0
Thus,  6 = 6.
2. 6 is the opposite of the absolute value of six.
6 = (6)
= 6
Thus, 6 = 6.
3.  (4) is the absolute value of the opposite of negative
four.
 (4) = 4
= 4
Thus,  (4) = 4.
4. 35 is the opposite of the absolute value of thirtyfive.
35 = (35)
= 35
32
Thus, 0 = 0.
You may also wish to compare numbers which involve taking the opposite
or absolute value. In this case, you should always simplify the numbers before
trying to compare them.
Example 15. Insert a or > between each of the following pair of numbers
to make a true statement.
1. (2)
 5
2. (3)
7
3.  8
 (8)
4. (4)
(4)
5. 0
0
33
4. (4)
(4)
Left side: (4) = 4.
Right side: (4) = 4.
Since 4 4, we have (4) (4).
5. 0
0
Left side: 0 = 0.
Right side: 0 = 0.
Since 0 0 (as equality is included with the sign), we
have 0 0.
6. 19
2. 22
7. 33
3. 5
4. 18
5. 56
43
8. 14
19
54
4
9. 197
197
10. 3
12
7
13. 3
14. 15
15. 0
9
13
10
16. 11
17. 25
52
18. 34
34
19. 9
10
20. 2
34
26. 17
22. 34
27. 45
23. 16
28. 91
24. 0
29. 73
25. 28
30. 22
36. 1
32. 17
37. 13
33. 8
38. 37
34. 0
39. 22
35. 102
40. 9
Simplify.
41.  2
46.  (3)
42. (2)
47.  4
43. (9)
48. (18)
44.  7
49.  6
45. 5
50. (32)
35
 5
 4
0
56.  12
57.  3
12
3
58. (23)
54. (8)
59. 0
55.  6
6
60. 13
(20)
 1
 2
12
66. 1
(1)
62.  45
(45)
67. 28
 32
63. 0
 0
68.  12
64. 17
 17
69. (11)
65.  8
 (8)
70. 0
 48
(10)
 109
36
1.3
37
we would rather encourage you to memorize some simple rules which work
well for integers and fractions and decimals. However, this number line
method is good if you are having trouble right from the start, and it may
be used as a rough check of your answer, even when we get to fractions and
decimals.
To do the rough check, just use the above rules and the commutative
property of addition to get bounds for your answer. To illustrate all of this,
let us look at the four examples we presented at the beginning.
Example 1. Add 4 + 7, and do a rough check of your answer.
38
Solution 3. Start at positive five and take eight steps to the left.
You should get that:
5 + (8) = 3.
Rough check:
Written as 5 + (8), we are starting at positive five and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than five. Is 3 < 5?
Yes, X.
Written as 8 + 5, we are starting at negative eight and moving
to the right, so the answer should be greater than negative eight.
Is 3 > 8? Yes, X.
Notice in the last two examples that when we are adding a positive
number to a negative number, the sum may be positive or it may be negative.
Solution 4. Start at negative two and take nine steps to the left.
You should get that:
2 + (9) = 11.
Rough check:
39
Written as 2 + (9), we are starting at negative two and moving to the left, so the answer should be less than negative two. Is
11 < 2? Yes, X.
Written as 9 + (2), we are starting at negative nine and moving to the left, so the answer should be less than negative nine.
Is 11 < 9? Yes, X.
Integer Addition  the rules
To add two integers, you may do as is indicated in the following rules. We
encourage you to memorize these rules as soon as possible, as next section
we will be presenting different rules for multiplication, and it is very easy to
mix the two up if you have not learned them both well.
40
Example 5. Add 4 + 7.
Example 6. Add 3 + 4.
41
42
2 4 7
1 9 5
2
1 14
62 64 7
1 9 5
5 2
3. The larger number in absolute value is the 247 (247 > 195),
and it was originally positive, so the sum is positive.
Therefore, 247 + (195) = 52.
Rough check:
Written as 247 + (195), we are starting at positive 247 and
moving to the left, so the answer should be less than 247. Is
52 < 247? Yes, X.
Written as 195+247, we are starting at 195 and moving to the
right, so the answer should be greater than 195. Is 52 > 195?
Yes, X.
43
44
3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends had
originally negative.
Therefore, 341 + (894) = 1, 235.
Rough check:
Written as 341 + (894), we are starting at 341
to the left, so the answer should be less than 341.
341? Yes, X.
Written as 894 + (341), we are starting at 894
to the left, so the answer should be less than 894.
894? Yes, X.
and moving
Is 1235 <
and moving
Is 1235 <
5 7 3
4 8
6
5 67
4
5 2
13
63
8
5
3. The larger number in absolute value is the 573 (573 > 48),
and it was originally negative, so the sum is negative.
Therefore, 48 + (573) = 525.
Rough check:
Written as 48 + (573), we are starting at 48 and moving to the
left, so the answer should be less than 48. Is 525 < 48? Yes,
45
X.
Written as 573 + 48, we are starting at 573 and moving to
the right, so the answer should be greater than 573. Is 525 >
573? Yes, X.
Solution 12. Both the numbers being added are negative, so the
rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have 97 and
266.
2. Add these numbers like normal.
Scratch work:
1 1
2 6 6
9 7
3 6 3
3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends had
originally negative.
Therefore, 97 + (266) = 363.
Rough check:
Written as 97 + (266), we are starting at 97 and moving to
the left, so the answer should be less than 97. Is 363 < 97?
Yes, X.
Written as 266 + (97), we are starting at 266 and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than 266. Is 363 <
266? Yes, X.
Integer Subtraction  the rules
You could memorize a whole new list of rules similar to the rules for
integer addition on page 39 to do integer subtraction, but this tends to get
46
tedious. Instead, we will present the following simple rule which lets you
change subtraction to addition.
Solution 13. Applying the above rule to the subtraction problems gives:
1. 8 3 = 8 + (3).
2. 5 19 = 5 + (19).
3. 4 (13) = 4 + 13.
4. 8 (16) = 8 + 16.
47
5. 7 0 = 7 + 0.
6. 5 42 = 5 + (42).
Notice that the number in front of the minus sign does not change sign,
only the number after it. Also, you probably will not want to change from
subtraction to addition if the subtraction is straightforward (oldfashioned),
only when the subtraction involves one or two negative numbers or two
nonnegative numbers being subtracted smaller minus larger. Let us see
some subtraction examples.
Example 14. Subtract 8 3.
48
49
Solution 19. Both numbers are positive, but the smaller number
is in front, so this is not oldfashioned subtraction. Changing to
addition gives:
5 42 = 5 + (42).
We are adding a positive number to a negative number, so the
addition rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers to get 5 and 42.
2. Subtract larger minus smaller 42 5 = 37.
3. The larger of the two numbers in absolute value is the 42,
and it was originally negative (again, going back to the addition problem, not to the original subtraction one), so the
answer should be negative.
Therefore, 5 42 = 37.
Note that we did not do even a rough check in the last examples. If the
subtraction was changed to addition, the rough check can still be made,
same as before. If it was oldfashioned subtraction and you do not change
to addition, the same rough check can not be made (subtraction is not
commutative like addition), but you should have a good feel for what kind
of answers you can get  the answer must be positive (or zero) and less than
or equal to the number in front of the minus sign. We encourage you to go
back to the last example and roughly check all the solutions to make sure
they are reasonable.
Take your time, learn the rules, and do plenty of problems for practice.
We will end with a few more examples, some of which may require more
scratch work than the examples we have done so far.
50
1
4 3 8
2 5 6
6 9 4
3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends did
originally negative.
So, 438 256 = 694
Rough check:
Written as 438 + (256), we are starting at 438 and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than 438. Is 694 <
438? Yes, X.
Written as 256 + (438), we are starting at 256 and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than 256. Is 694 <
256? Yes, X.
Solution 21. Both numbers are positive, but the smaller one is
in front of the minus sign  not oldfashioned subtraction. Changing to addition gives:
698 3021 = 698 + (3021).
To add one positive to one negative, the addition rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers to get 698 and 3021.
2. Subtract bigger minus smaller. Scratch work:
1 11
3 0 62 61
6 9 8
3
51
2 10 1 11
63 60 62 61
6 9 8
3
9
2 6 10
63 60
6
2 3
11
3 61
64 62
3 5
6
11
61
4
7
11
61
62
9
2
11
61
8
3
52
Learning and being able to apply the addition and subtraction rules is
absolutely necessary to do well in this course. The following shortcuts MAY
be used if desired, or you may just do as in the previous examples.
Subtraction shortcut 2: When you are subtracting two nonnegative integers, but the smaller number is first, subtract the other way,
and just make your answer negative.
Solution 25. Using the new shortcut, we will subtract the other
way (making it an oldfashioned subtraction problem):
16 5 = 11.
And now we just need to make the answer negative.
Thus, 5 16 = 11.
You could also redo examples 19, 21, and 23 using this shortcut.
9. 4 (5)
2. 14 + (7)
10. 17 (2)
3. 3 + 9
11. 54 18
4. 18 + (11)
12. 36 + (22)
5. 6 + (1)
13. 125 + 67
6. 2 8
14. 82 (19)
7. 11 3
15. 14 (18)
8. 7 (5)
16. 63 + (19)
53
54
17. 0 15
18. 52 65
30. 84 + 82
19. 21 15
31. 20 + (16)
20. 16 (34)
32. 11 (5)
21. 111 + 74
33. 34 30
22. 15 25
34. 27 + (24)
23. 23 32
35. 8 12
24. 91 + (3)
36. 83 100
25. 18 + (17)
37. 74 24
26. 71 39
38. 12 + 33
27. 11 + (22)
39. 49 + 15
28. 2 (37)
40. 7 4
1.4
55
The rules
To multiply or divide two integers together, apply the following rules.
Note that determining the proper numerical answer (step 1), and determining the proper sign (step 2) are totally unconnected. If you would
prefer, you may switch the order, and figure out the answers sign first; we
will show examples both ways. This was also true to some extent with the
new addition rules, although whether your scratch work involved addition
or subtraction depended upon the signs of the addends.
56
57
Now we will do some examples where the scratch work is more difficult,
and we will also demonstrate figuring out the sign of the answer first, in case
you decide you would prefer that instead.
58
4
3 8
2 5
1 9 0
1
3
2
1 9
7 6
9 5
8
5
0
0
0
Solution 7. You should recognize this as oldfashioned multiplication, and similar to the new addition rules, you do not need to
use the new rules when they are not required. All we need to do
is use the tower method to multiply the two numbers:
3
3 4
7 8
2 7 2
2
3
7
2 7
2 3 8
2 6 5
4
8
2
0
2
Thus, 34 78 = 2, 652
59
Scratch work:
21
13 273
26
13
13
0
2. Since we have one negative number and one positive number
in the division, the answer should be negative.
Therefore, 273 13 = 21.
After you do several problems, you will probably decide whether you
prefer to find the sign first or last, and stick with the one method.
60
11. (14)(6)
2. (8)(6)
12. (5)(4)
3. (10)(22)
13. (16)(0)
4. (6)(11)
14. (8)(9)
5. (0)(18)
15. (2)(34)
6. (9)(2)
16. (6)(7)
7. (17)(24)
17. (8)(11)
8. (15)(6)
18. (35)(62)
9. (1)(5)
19. (21)(33)
10. (1)(8)
20. (6)(1)
Divide as indicated.
21. 25 5
31. 345 15
22. 32 (8)
23. 18 (6)
33. 340 0
25. 0 (2)
26. 9 (3)
36. 0 (28)
27. 6 (6)
28. 22 0
38. 81 (9)
29. 14 (2)
39. 0 0
30. 14 (7)
61
62
1.5
Road Rules
Three cars approach a fourway stop from three different directions at the
same time, who goes first? As you approach a traffic light, you notice that
the power is out and the light is not working, what is the proper procedure?
When, if ever, is it legal to make a left on red? The answers to these
questions and many others are supposed to be known by motorists to help
them navigate the roadways and avoid accidents. Mathematics has a similar
set of rules which must be followed to avoid incorrect solutions, and it is
called the order of operations.
Example 1. Robin and John wish to simplify the following expression.
3+57
Robin decides to do the operations in the order they appear, from left to
right, so he finds:
3+57 = 87
= 56.
John, meanwhile, likes multiplication better than addition, so he chooses to
multiply first:
3 + 5 7 = 3 + 35
= 38.
Obviously both answers cannot be correct, so who is right?
63
Order of Operations
When more than one operation is present in an algebraic
expression, the proper order for doing the operations is:
1. Parentheses  or any grouping symbol
2. Exponents
3. Multiplication and Division, left to right
4. Addition and Subtraction, left to right
We will look at each of these steps separately, and then we will do many
examples combining everything.
Parentheses and other grouping symbols
The first step really should be labeled grouping symbols, but it seems
that no one has come up with a cute mnemonic beginning with GS instead
of P. There are four separate grouping symbols which you may encounter:
(parentheses), [brackets], {braces} and absolute value.
Parentheses are the most basic, and possibly the most common, grouping
symbol. They simply highlight where you should start. For example, in the
expression:
5 (4 3)
the parentheses indicate that you should subtract the three from the four
first to get:
5 (1)
If there are multiple operations inside the parentheses, you need to apply
the order of operations again. For example,
5 (2 2 3) = 5 (4 3) = 5 (1)
as inside the parentheses there is both multiplication and division, and order of operations states that multiplication comes first. We will see more
examples of this later.
64
Once you are down to a single number, as above, you no longer need to
consider the parentheses as grouping symbols (as nothing is being grouped
like it was before). Sometimes, particularly if the number inside is positive,
you may drop the parentheses in these instances:
5 (1) = 5 1 = 4
However, if there is a number directly in front of the opening parenthesis (or
immediately after the closing parenthesis), recall that the parentheses then
show multiplication. Therefore:
3(4 2) = 3(2) = 6
If you have trouble remembering this, you may want to put in a multiplication sign as soon as you begin the problem:
3(4 2) = 3 (4 2) = 3 (2) = 3 2 = 6
Also, if you are down to a single negative number in the parentheses, and
there is an operation in front of the parentheses, you should not drop the
parentheses. For example:
5 (3 4) = 5 (1) = 6
Here we would leave the parentheses to avoid having the ugly notation
as we mentioned in the previous sections.
In any event, once there is only a single number inside the parentheses,
you may move on to the next step of the order of operations.
There may be times when there are two (or more) disjoint sets of parentheses. For example:
2 (3 + 5) (4 + 2)
In this case you simplify whichever one you wish first, or even both at the
same time, applying the order of operations inside each one separately. So:
2 (3 + 5) (4 + 2) = 2 (8) (6) = 2 8 6,
etc (we will finish examples like this after we introduce all the basic concepts).
There may also be times when there are two (or more) nested sets of
parentheses. For example:
2 (3 + (2 4)),
65
or
5 + (3 (2 + (7 8)))
To simplify, start with the innermost grouping symbol, and work your way
out. Thus, in the first example above, you would first subtract the four from
the two, then add the result to the three, etc.
In these cases, it may be hard to see which opening parenthesis goes with
which closing parenthesis, and this is where brackets and braces come in.
Both brackets and braces behave exactly like parentheses, and they are only
used to make notation easier to read. Therefore, the above two expressions
could be written:
2 [3 + (2 4)],
and
5 + {3 [2 + (7 8)]}
Although you may see this elsewhere, we will save the braces for set notation,
and we will just alternate parentheses and brackets. Thus, we will write the
second expression:
5 + (3 [2 + (7 8)])
Once an expression is down to a single set of these grouping symbols, you
may revert back to parentheses, and we will do so in our examples. For
example,
2 [3 + (2 4)] = 2 [3 + (2)] = 2 (1),
etc (again, see later for finished examples).
The absolute value bars behave exactly like parentheses, with one big
difference. Recall that taking the absolute value of a number is an operation
itself, so once you have simplified what is between the absolute value bars
to a single number, you MUST IMMEDIATELY take the absolute value of
the number. You may replace the absolute value bars with parentheses if
you need be, for example:
43 5 6 = 4 2 6 = 4(2) 6
Here we switched to parentheses after taking the absolute value to keep
showing multiplication with the four. Just remember that while it is fine to
leave parentheses in the problem once you are down to a single number inside
(to show multiplication or because you are adding or subtracting a negative,
etc.), you must never move past the first step of the order of operations with
an absolute value sign still around  you must always take the absolute value
of the number first.
66
Exponents
We have already discussed how multiplication is really just repeated
addition, 4 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3, (see page 11). There is also an operation
which represents repeated multiplication, and it involves exponents.
Definition: For any positive integer, n, define:
an = a a a . . . a,
where there are n factors of the number a. The number a is called the base,
and the number n is called the exponent or power.
Example 2. For each of the following evaluate, and list what is the base
and what is the power.
1. 25
2. 14
3. 43
4. 52
67
Notice that when you read a number with an exponent, the base is read
as usual (called a cardinal number), while the exponent is read as though
it was the place order of someone finishing a race (this is called an ordinal
number). Two special cases are whenever the exponent is a two or three.
If the exponent is a two, the to the second power may be replaced with
squared. This comes from the fact that the area of a square is found by
taking the length of one of its sides to the second power. If the exponent is a
three, the to the third power may be replaced with cubed. This comes
from the fact that the volume of a cube is found by taking the length of one
of its sides to the third power. Both of the words can be used as commands
as well. For example, if you are told to square five, this will mean take
five to the second power. Similarly, cube six means take six to the third
power.
Raising numbers to powers is fairly easy (at least when the power is a
positive integer like we are doing here), but you should do enough practice
problems to make sure you understand the idea. It is amazing the number of
people who eventually treat powers just like factors. For example, they will
see 33 and write nine as the solution. We would not have introduced new
notation to mean the same thing as regular multiplication! If we wanted you
to multiply three times three, what is wrong with writing 3 3? You NEED
to learn that the power indicates the number of times the base is written as
a factor, so:
33 = 3 3 3 = 27
There are two slight tricks to be wary of. First, some people have trouble
interpreting the exponent definition on page 66 when n = 1. For example,
what is 61 ? The definition states that there should be one factor of six, and
this means you do not need any multiplication signs. Thus,:
61 = 6
Now we can see that any number to the first power is itself. This rule may
also be used in reverse; if you need a number to have an exponent and it
does not have an obvious one, you may write the number as itself to the
first power. For example,
8 = 81
The second trick is a bit, well, trickier. How would you evaluate 32 ?
It may seem to be (3)(3) = 9, but this is NOT the case. To understand
why not, we need to make an important note.
68
69
4. (9)1 = (9) = 9.
The following definition will allow you to raise numbers to the zeroth
power.
Definition: Define:
a0 = 1, for any a 6= 0, and
00 = undefined.
You will learn how this definition was derived in 10022 (or later in 10006),
but we want to present this now as it is an easy definition to learn, and it
introduces something else which is undefined.
Example 4. Evaluate each of the following.
1. 80
2. 130
3. 230
4. 70
5. (42)0
6. 00
70
In the original problem, there was a division, an addition, and a multiplication. Following the order of operations, we did the multiplication from
71
left to right, and then did the addition. Because addition (along with subtraction) is the very last step in the order of operations, nothing to the left
of the plus sign could interact with anything to its right until all multiplication and division was done. So, in this case, the example could have been
solved:
Example 7. Simplify 5 5 + 3 2.
72
73
3 + 2 (2) 42
3 + 2 (2) 16
3 + (4) 16
1 16
1 + (16)
17.
For the following examples, we will still list every step, but now you are
encouraged to supply the proper reasoning.
74
72 3 3 (4 18)
72 3 3 (14)
24 (42)
24 + 42
66.
21 3 5 16
7 5 16
35 16
35 + (16)
51.
6 3 (4) (3 9)
6 3 (4) (6)
6 (12) (6)
6 2
6 + (2)
8.
75
2  4 23
2 4 23
2 4 8
8 8
8 + (8)
16.
8 2 [50 + (3)]
8 2 [1 + (3)]
8 2 (2)
8 (4)
8 + (+4)
12.
90 (8 12) 4
90 (4) 4
1 (4) 4
1 (1)
1 + (+1)
2.
76
11. (3)3
2. 34
12. (1)6
3. 26
13. 07
4. 18
14. (12)0
5. 30
15. 72
6. 14
16. 111
7. 170
17. 00
8. 91
18. 82
9. (2)2
19. 01
10. 43
20. (3)4
Simplify.
21. 3 6 3
31. 3 2[4 + (6 42 )]
22. 4 + 8 3
23. 5 7 2 + 4
24. 10 2 (5)
25. 42 22
35. 5 2 2 (1)
26. 3 + 5[2 + (1 32 )]
36. 3 + 2 6 3 80
27. 90 2 80
37. 32 2 50 + (42 52 )
28. (5 6) (20 32 )
38. 20 + 70
29. 41 2(3 50 )2
40. (4 22 ) 15 3
1.6
77
Prime Numbers
In this section, we will present some tools you may find useful later. For
this entire section, we will use only positive integer numbers. We will start
with some definitions.
Definition: If a positive integer, N , may be written as a product of two
positive integers A and B, i.e. N = A B, then the numbers A and B are
called factors of N . We will also say that A and B divide N .
Example 1. Find all the factors of the number 6.
Solution 1. Well,
1 is a factor of 6 as 1 6 = 6,
2 is a factor of 6 as 2 3 = 6,
3 is a factor of 6 as 2 3 = 6,
6 is a factor of 6 as 1 6 = 6.
Therefore, the factors of 6 are { 1,2,3,6 }.
By looking at the number of factors that a positive integer has, we can
separate the positive integers greater than one into two categories.
Definition: A positive integer greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and
itself is called prime.
Definition: A positive integer greater than 1 which has a positive integer
factor other than 1 or itself is called composite.
Important Note:
The number 1 is considered to be NEITHER prime NOR composite.
78
Example 2. Determine whether each of the first ten positive integers are
prime or composite.
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
neither
prime
prime
composite
prime
composite
prime
composite
composite
composite
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
as
as
as
as
as
as
as
as
as
as
stated above.
its only factors
its only factors
2 is a factor of
its only factors
2 is a factor of
its only factors
2 is a factor of
3 is a factor of
2 is a factor of
are
are
4.
are
6.
are
8.
9.
10.
1 and 2.
1 and 3.
1 and 5.
1 and 7.
Notice that finding a single factor different from 1 or the number itself
is enough to make it composite. So, for example, for the number 10 above,
we did not have to list all of its factors, just one which wasnt 1 or 10.
An interesting fact about prime numbers is that any positive integer
greater than 1 may be written as a product of only primes. For example,
6 = 2 3 and 8 = 2 2 2. When you factor a number into the product of only
primes, this is called the prime factorization of the number. This concept is
the basis for something called the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic:
79
6
.&
2
Now all the branches end on a prime number, so the prime factorization of 24 is: 24 = 2 2 2 3, OR 24 = 23 3.
80
8
.&
2
4
.&
2
Therefore, 24 = 2 2 2 3, OR 24 = 23 3.
8
.&
2
4
.&
2
Therefore, 24 = 2 2 2 3, OR 24 = 23 3.
81
10
.&
3
11
11
82
7
So the prime factorization of 7 is 7 = 7.
In the last example we see that the prime factorization of prime numbers
is trivial (and do not require even as much work as we showed).
Useful Note:
The first ten prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 and 29.
= 1 2
4
8
l l
l
12 = 1 2 3 4 6
12
83
We see that the factors they both have in common are 1, 2 and
4, so GCF(8,12) = 4.
84
110
.&
10
.&
2
10
.&
2
11
11
85
84
.&
10
.&
4
.&
5
21
.&
2
86
For example, 12, 24 and 36 are all common multiples of the numbers 3 and
4, while the number 12 is the least common multiple of 3 and 4. We will
abbreviate least common multiple with LCM, and when we wish you to
take the LCM of two numbers a and b, we will write this as LCM(a,b). For
example, LCM(3,4) = 12.
To find the LCM of two numbers, we will present two methods. The first
method works best when the two numbers are relatively small. All you do
is start with the larger number and find the smallest, positive multiple of it
into which the other number divides.
The most multiples you would have to check using this method is up
to the product, as the product is obviously always a common multiple. In
the last example, this means you would have had to check no further than
12 8 = 96. Because the product of the two numbers is always an easytofind common multiple, many people prefer to use it over the LCM when a
common multiple is needed, but it is still useful to be able to find the LCM
too.
When the numbers are larger, this method can be a bit tedious. In this
case, it would be better to use another method which utilizes the prime
factorization of the numbers.
87
2 2 2 2 5 11
4 2 2 5 11
8 2 5 11
16 5 11
80 11
880.
88
22357
4357
12 5 7
60 7
420.
Notice the difference between the GCF and LCM techniques. For the
GCF, you only kept prime factors which appeared in the prime factorizations
of both a and b. For the LCM, you kept as many factors of any prime number
which appeared in either of the prime factorizations of a or b. It is always
good to check your work, and the following nifty fact can help you check.
Example 17. Use the nifty fact to check on our solutions to examples 10
and 14.
89
Note that this check is not perfect as it is possible for you to make two
mistakes which cancel out. For example, if your GCF has an extra factor
of 2, the nifty fact would still check out right provided your LCM has one
too few 2s. Also, the nifty fact will only help you check your answers when
you find both the GCF and LCM for the same two numbers. Still, in many
cases, this quick check can catch a careless mistake.
Example 18. Use the nifty fact to check on our solutions to examples 12
and 15.
Example 19. Use the nifty fact to check on our solutions to examples 13
and 16.
90
6. 100
2. 70
7. 108
3. 65
8. 40
4. 50
9. 135
5. 98
10. 78
16. GCF(50,65)
12. GCF(70,98)
17. GCF(108,135)
13. GCF(40,78)
18. GCF(65,70)
14. GCF(40,108)
19. GCF(100,135)
15. GCF(88,98)
20. GCF(88,100)
Find the following LCMs. Note that the same numbers are being used to find
LCMs as we used to find GCFs in the last group of homework problems.
This means that if you do both, you can check your answer with the Nifty
Fact from page 88.
21. LCM(50,70)
26. LCM(50,65)
22. LCM(70,98)
27. LCM(108,135)
23. LCM(40,78)
28. LCM(65,70)
24. LCM(40,108)
29. LCM(100,135)
25. LCM(88,98)
30. LCM(88,100)
1.7
91
92
For all of this section, we will use the word fraction, but we will mostly
be referring to these specific type of fractions  rational numbers  where the
numerator and denominator are integers.
Positive fractions have a physical meaning; they can be thought of as
part of a whole. The denominator indicates how many equalsize pieces you
divide the original object up into, while the numerator indicates how many
of the pieces you are interested in.
Example 1. Illustrate
3
.
8
Now that the cake is cut into eighths, we will darken the circles
in three of the eight pieces to indicate threeeighths ( 83 ).
3
8
3
.
4
93
Now that the cake is cut into fourths, we will darken the circles
in three of the four pieces to indicate threefourths ( 34 ).
3
4
Example 3. Illustrate
5
.
6
Now that the cake is cut into sixths, we will darken the circles in
five of the six pieces to indicate fivesixths ( 56 ).
5
6
In all of our examples, we started with a rectangular cake, but the original shape of the object is not important. For the fraction 83 , for example, we
could have started with a circular pizza, cut into eight equal sized pieces,
and shaded three of the eight to represent threeeighths. All that matters is
94
that you divide the object up into the denominator number of equalsized
pieces, and then indicate the numerator number of these pieces.
Now go back and look at example 2. What would happen if we cut each
of the four pieces in half again? Pictorially we get:
We have already seen that 34 = 68 . Recalling that the fraction bar means
32
divide, it is also easy to see that: 2 = 21 = 42 = 10
5 = 16 = . . .. Fractions like
these have a special name:
Definition: Different fractions which represent the same number are called
equivalent fractions.
We can generate equivalent fractions algebraically by using the following
rule:
95
Example 5. Write
12
15
2
as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 49.
7
14
49
96
Example 6. Write
1
as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 24.
3
18
38
8
24
Having all these different fractions representing the same number can be
confusing. For example, let us say we do an addition problem where we add
two fractions to get a fractional answer (next section). Since there are an
infinite number of correct solutions, which do we list in the back? This is not
unheard of, and you may encounter situations where there are many possible
correct solutions, but the annoying thing here is that all the equivalent
fractions represent the same number! In light of this, mathematicians have
decided that one form of a fraction is preferable to all of its equivalent forms.
b
bc
you will use the equality to go the other way:
a
ac
bc
b
4
6
Example 8. Simplify
22
32
2 6 2
3 6 2
2
3
12
16
6 6 2
8 6 2
6
8
3 6 2
4 6 2
3
4
97
98
So if you do not factor out the GCF right away, you may have several steps
where you are factoring out common factors. Just make sure that in your
final answer, the numerator and denominator have no common factors other
than 1.
Instead of searching for common factors one at a time, a slight modification of the above method is to use the prime factorization. Start off by doing
the prime factorization of both the numerator and denominator. Now you
will want to cancel any common factors in the numerator and denominator.
This may seem to be different from the fundamental principle of fractions,
as there may be more than one multiplication sign, but we may modify the
fundamental principle in the following way:
Fraction Fact 3: Provided that the only operation in your numerator and denominator is multiplication, you may cancel any factor
in the numerator with any matching factor in the denominator.
12
16
12
.&
3
4
.&
2
4
.&
2
4
.&
2
12
16
223
2222
6 2 6 2 3
6 2 6 2 2 2
3
22
3
4
99
This method is nice in that it makes the problem very easy once you have
the prime factorizations (provided they are correct). On the other hand,
many people do not like to take the time to do the prime factorization, so
you will have to decide what works best for you.
If you have ever simplified a fraction before, you may have done so in
yet another way, using division instead of canceling factors. To see how this
works, we will introduce a modified version of the fundamental principle of
fractions:
Notice that the only difference between this version of the fundamental
principle and the other is that the multiplication has been replaced with
division. The reason we are allowed to do this will be presented when we
introduce reciprocals (page 150). For now, this gives a third method for
simplifying fractions. Let us redo our two previous examples using this
method.
100
4
6
42
62
2
3
12
16
12 2
16 2
6
8
62
82
3
4
We will do three more examples, one for each of the simplifying methods
given.
101
18
27
2 6 9
3 6 9
2
3
330
396
Solution 13. We will simplify this fraction using the prime factorization method. A case like this where the numbers are large,
and you would probably have to do several steps using either of
the other methods (as the GCF is not obvious, but it is easy to
see that 2, for example, is a factor), is where this prime factorization method may be easier and just as fast.
First we need to find the prime factorization of 330 and 396.
Scratch work:
396
.&
330
.&
10
.&
2
4
.&
33
.&
5
11
99
.&
2
.
9
.&
3
11
11
102
330
396
2 3 5 11
2 2 3 3 11
6 2 6 3 5 6 11
6 2 2 6 3 3 6 11
5
23
5
6
48
66
48 6
66 6
8
11
Mixing in negatives
So far, we have only been dealing with positive fractions. Negative numbers, however, may appear in the numerator and denominator as well, and
you need to become adept at handling them. The trick is to remember
that the fundamental principle of fractions states that multiplying top and
bottom by the same nonzero number makes an equivalent fraction, and one
possible nonzero number is negative one. Let us look at a fraction where
both numerator and denominator are negative numbers, and see how this
helps.
2 (1)
2
2
=
=
.
7
7 (1)
7
103
and in either case here, we are dividing two numbers of opposite sign which
gives us a negative result. Therefore:
3
3
3
=
= .
5
5
5
Generalizing this, we get:
and
When both numerator and denominator have the same sign, we will
(obviously?) prefer to have them both positive. When the numerator and
denominator have the opposite sign, it is standard to prefer to have the negative sign either in the numerator or out front (depending on the situation).
Wanting to move an overall negative sign around in a fraction will occur
more often than you might think, so let us do some practice.
104
Example 15. Use Fraction Facts 4 and 5 to find one or two equivalent
fractions for each of the following, where the equivalent fraction has the
same numerical value for its numerator and denominator, but the signs of
each have been changed.
1.
3
8
2.
5
7
3.
2
9
4.
4
13
5.
11
12
6.
2
3
7.
4
5
3
3
3
=
=
8
8
8
2.
5
5
=
7
7
3.
2
2
=
9
9
4.
4
4
4
=
=
13
13
13
105
11
11
11
=
=
12
12
12
2
=
3
2
=
3
2
=
3
4
5
4
5
4
=
5
4
=
5
=
18
22
106
18
22
18
22
9 6 2
11 6 2
9
11
In the first step we got rid of the negative signs as per Fraction Fact 4, and
then simplified as normal.
15
Example 17. Simplify
75
Solution 17. We will simplify this fraction using version 2 of
the fundamental principle of fractions.
15
75
15
75
15 15
75 15
1
5
84
32
84
32
84 4
32 4
21
8
107
This last example may cause you to pause, but negative twentyone over
eight is the correct answer in lowest terms. If the answer bothers you, this
means you are probably familiar with mixed numbers.
Mixed numbers
All fractions may be put into one of two categories.
Definition: A fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator, in
absolute value, is called a proper fraction.
Definition: A fraction whose numerator is greater than or equal to its
denominator, in absolute value, is called an improper fraction.
Example 19. State whether each of the following are proper or improper
fractions.
8
1.
9
13
2.
4
5
3.
8
4.
12
4
Solution 19. According the definitions:
1.
8
is a proper fraction.
9
2.
13
is an improper fraction.
4
3.
5
is a proper fraction.
8
Here we see the importance of taking the absolute value of
the numerator and denominator first. Without doing so, we
would have said that 5 > 8, but in absolute value, 5 < 8.
108
12
is an improper fraction.
4
True, this fraction is not in lowest terms, and it can even
be simplified to an integer, but as written, it is an improper
fraction.
You may change an improper fraction into another type of number called
a mixed number. A mixed number is a combination of an integer and a
fraction.
13
to a mixed number.
5
Solution 20. Following our new rule, we will start by doing long
division.
Scratch work:
2
5 13
10
3
So our quotient is 2 with a remainder of 3. Therefore:
13
5
= 2 35
109
37
to a mixed number.
2
Solution 21. Following our new rule, we will start by doing long
division.
Scratch work:
18
2 37
2
17
16
1
So our quotient is 18 with a remainder of 1. Therefore:
37
2
= 18 21
If there are negative signs in your improper fraction, use the Fraction
Facts 4 (page 103) and 5 (page 103) to get either no negative signs, or just
one out in front of the fraction. If it is the case where there is one negative
sign out in front, change the improper fraction to a mixed number as normal,
and keep the negative sign tagging along.
Example 22. Change
21
to a mixed number.
8
21
8
= 2 58
110
51
to a mixed number.
10
1
= 5 10
47
to a mixed number.
3
Solution 24. Using Fraction Fact 4, we may get rid of both negative signs. Now, to change the fraction to a mixed number:
Scratch work:
15
3 47
3
17
15
2
So our quotient is 15 with a remainder of 2. Therefore:
47
3
= 15 23
54
to a mixed number.
3
111
112
Solution 26. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be positive. Then:
2 57
72+5
7
19
7
Solution 27. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be negative. Then:
3 38
83+3
8
27
8
In this last example, note the importance of multiplying the old denominator by the absolute value of the integer. Had you multiplied 8 times 3
and then added 3, you would have gotten a numerator of 21, which is
incorrect.
A few more examples.
Example 28. Change 25 12 to an improper fraction.
Solution 28. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be positive. Then:
25 12
2 25 + 1
2
51
2
113
5 13 + 4
5
69
5
9 11 + 5
9
104
9
114
2.
13
14
14
15
25
8
31
10
3. 0
4.
18
5
5.
258
11
4
13
0
1
2
6. 9
110
113
13
14
25
8
3. 0
14
15
>
>
4.
18
5
5.
258
11
31
10
4
13
0
1
2
>
115
110
113
The next easiest case, is if the numbers are the same sign, but between
different integers.
23
3
44
9
2.
25
4
3.
15
2
16
3
23
2
=7 ,
3
3
and
44
8
=4 .
9
9
44
9
116
25
1
=6 ,
4
4
and 7 is an integer.
Now it is easy to see that sixandabit is < seven. Thus,
25
4
3.
<
15
1
= 7 ,
2
2
and
16
1
= 5 .
3
3
Now recall that the more negative a number is, the further
to the left it is on the number line. So, since sevenandabit is bigger than fiveandabit, negative sevenandabit
is further to the left on the number line, or 7 12 < 5 31 .
Therefore:
15
2
<
16
3
117
11
23
Solution 33. First, we will multiply 23 11:
Scratch work:
2
1
2
2 3
2 5
3
1
3
0
3
5 23
11 23
115
253
11 11
23 11
while
11
23
121
253
You may have had to do a little bit of scratch work to get the
=
253
253
Therefore:
11
5
11
23
118
To save a little bit of work, a shortcut was developed, and this shortcut
is what you will wish to use when comparing.
General case: To compare two fractions, multiply each denominator by the other numerator, and write the product above the corresponding numerator. The same inequality symbol which goes between the two products, goes between the fractions.
11
23
11
23
The shortcut works by finding only half of the appropriate equivalent fractions  just the numerators, as you will notice if you compare the numbers
115 and 121 to the true equivalent fractions we got when we did the problem
all out before. Some people refer (incorrectly!) to this as crossmultiplying.
We will see real crossmultiplying later in Chapter 2.
If you are always careful to look for the obvious cases first, you will
only need to use this shortcut on proper fractions. Let us do several more
examples.
Example 35. Insert a or > between the following two fractions.
3
5
9
16
37
7
Solution 36. Since both fractions are the same sign, you may go
right to the shortcut if wish, but since the fractions are improper,
we will check to see if the answer is obvious if we convert the
fractions to mixed numbers.
28
3
=5 ,
5
5
and
2
37
=5 .
7
7
Since both mixed numbers have the same integer part, the answer
is still not obvious. However, if we figure out which fractional
part is larger, this will be enough to tell us which mixed number is
larger. This means that by taking the time to change the improper
fractions to mixed numbers, we saved ourselves from having to
work with the larger numbers. Let us compare the two fractional
parts.
21
10
3 % 2
5 % 7
Since 21 > 10, we get:
3
2
3
2
> 5 > 5 , so:
5
7
5
7
37
28
>
5
7
119
120
38
11
17
5
38
5
= 3 ,
11
11
and
17
2
= 3 .
5
5
Since both mixed numbers have the same integer part, the answer is still not obvious. Just like before though, we only need to
compare the fractional parts. So,
25
22
5 % 2
11 % 5
Since 25 > 22, we get:
5
11
5
3 11
5
3 11
>
2
5
> 3 25
3 25
38
11
17
5
121
Now having seen both improper fractions and mixed numbers, you may
wonder which form is more preferable. Many people prefer mixed numbers,
but the truth is they both have good points.
In general, mixed numbers are better when you wish to know how
large the number is or wish to approximate it.
In general, improper fractions are better when you wish to perform a
mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, etc.).
As you can see, both forms has it uses. Therefore, a note on how we will
present solutions is in order.
IMPORTANT NOTATION: For the rest of this ebook:
except for problems where we specifically ask you to do otherwise (like
example 4 on page 95), we will expect all final answers involving fractions (including the fractional part of mixed numbers) to be simplified.
except for problems where we ask you to change an improper fraction
to a mixed number (like example 20 on page 108) or vice versa (like
example 26 on page 112), we will NOT care whether you leave your
final answer a mixed number or improper fraction. The solutions to
exercises and our examples will contain both.
And finally, one more thing to keep in mind about mixed numbers.
122
Example 38. 6 23 = 6 +
2
3
5 14
= 5 + 41
= 5 + 14
2
7
6.
21
22
2.
3
5
7.
5
6
3.
5
9
8.
3
4
4.
11
13
9.
3
11
5.
2
3
10.
7
10
123
2
with a denominator of 20
5
16.
12.
1
with a denominator of 8
4
17.
13.
14.
3
with a denominator of 21
7
1
with a denominator of 60
2
15.
2
with a denominator of 18
3
5
with a denominator of 32
8
4
with a denominator of 45
5
18.
7
with a denominator of 48
8
19.
1
with a denominator of 42
6
20.
2
with a denominator of 72
9
24
36
26.
10
16
22.
3
15
27.
23.
10
25
28.
13
39
29.
20
50
24.
33
77
25.
32
72
30.
24
40
65
80
11
3
32.
33.
57
4
34.
35.
15
2
35
8
62
3
36.
37.
54
11
38.
39.
29
2
104
9
82
3
40.
73
5
124
2
7
46. 5
42. 2
43. 5
1
5
47. 9
3
4
3
10
48. 4
10
11
49. 8
2
3
50. 2
44. 1
45. 11
7
8
1
6
5
9
11
24
3
5
1
2
56.
100
3
52.
4
9
11
24
57.
15
17
53.
8
13
3
5
58.
11
5
9
4
5
7
31
8
52
19
54.
55.
11
15
59.
60. 6
5
6
53
9
65
2
110
133
4
5
1.8
125
and
Example 1. Add
3
6
+
11 11
126
Example 2. Add
3+6
11
9
11
3 1
+
8 8
3+1
8
4
8
44
84
1
2
5 1
9 9
9 9
51
9
4
9
127
7
5
12 12
12 12
75
12
2
12
22
12 2
1
6
So far, so good, but what if we wish to add (or subtract) fractions which
have different denominators? Think back to the pizza example. Now say
we have two pizzas; one cut into eight equalsized pieces with pepperoni,
and one cut into six equalsized pieces with sausage. The overall size of
the two pizzas is the same, so this means that the pieces of the sausage
pizza are larger. Now you take two pieces of the pepperoni pizza and one of
the sausage. How much total pizza have you taken? The word piece can
be ambiguous in the English language, so you could feasibly get away with
saying three pieces, but obviously you have more than you would have had,
had you taken three of the smaller pieces, and less than you would have had,
had you taken three of the larger pieces. Therefore, we know that 28 + 16 > 38
and 28 + 16 < 36 . While it is nice to have bounds on our answer, we still want
to know what 28 + 16 equals. If you stop to think about it for a moment,
you will realize that we have all the information that we need. First, we
know that it is easy to add (or subtract) fractions when they have the same
denominator. Second, we know that we may change the denominator of
our fractions without changing their value, by making equivalent fractions
(fundamental principle of fractions, page 95). This is all we need to add or
subtract any two fractions we desire.
128
2
8
1
4
in simplified
1 1
+ .
4 6
Example 6. Subtract
13 12
+
43 62
3
2
+
12 12
3+2
12
5
12
7
2
.
10 5
129
10 5
7
22
10 5 2
7
4
10 10
74
10
3
10
You can see that we will be making a lot of equivalent fractions when
adding and subtracting, so finding a common multiple is important. We
could use the common multiple of the product, as we did for comparisons,
but while this is an easy common multiple to find, there are a couple of
problems with it. First, we would prefer to keep the common multiple as
small as possible since we will be doing our scratch work by hand instead of
using a calculator. Second, currently we are only working with two fractions
at a time, but later we will see cases where we need to find a common
multiple of the denominators of three or even four fractions at once, and this
exacerbates the problem of the product of the denominators being large.
Therefore, we will prefer to work with the least common multiple of the
denominators.
Least Common Denominator (LCD)
Definition: The least common multiple of the denominators of all the
fractions involved is called the least common denominator, or LCD.
If necessary, you may wish to go back to the section on finding least
common multiples (section 1.6) to recall the two methods for finding the
LCD. Looking back at the previous two examples, you will see that we used
the LCD for the common denominator both times. Let us do a few more
examples of adding and subtracting fractions with different denominators
using the LCD.
5
Example 7. Add 2 + .
7
130
2 5
+
1 7
27 5
+
17 7
14 5
+
7
7
14 + 5
7
19
5
or 2
7
7
Compare the original problem to the mixed number version of the final
answer. Does it seem trivial? It should! Here is the first example where the
important fact (page 121) about mixed numbers having a hidden plus sign
shows up. As you can see from this example, if you are adding an integer
and a proper fraction (it is important for both to be the same sign), the
solution as a mixed number is trivial. As for the solution as an improper
fraction, you may solve the long way, as in the last example, or you may
just convert the mixed number to an improper fraction using the shortcut
we learned last section. See example 26 on page 112 and compare to the
last example.
This last example also shows how the shortcut for changing a mixed
number to an improper fraction was developed. When you make the integer
a fraction, it will always go over 1, and the LCD of 1 and another number
is always the other number. Therefore, the denominator of the improper
fraction will always be the same as the denominator of the fractional part of
the mixed number. As for the numerator, the integer will always need to be
multiplied by the denominator of the fractional part (to make an equivalent
fraction with the right denominator), and the product will then be added
to the numerator of the fractional part. While it is easier to just use the
shortcut rather than the long way we did in the last example, what this
131
means is that if you ever forget the shortcut, you can do one problem the
long way as above to refresh your memory.
Back to examples.
Example 8. Add
9 11
+ .
8 10
Example 9. Subtract
9 5 11 4
+
8 5 10 4
45 44
+
40 40
45 + 44
40
9
89
or 2
40
40
3 1
.
8 4
8 4
3 12
8 42
3 2
8 8
32
8
1
8
132
11 2
.
6
9
6
9
11 3 2 2
63
92
33
4
18 18
33 4
18
29
11
or 1
18
18
2 + 38 + 4 + 14
3
= (2 + 4) +
= 6+
12
42
= 6+
2
8
= 6+
= 6
8
8
1
4
5
8
53
5
or
8
8
133
134
33 12
+
43 62
2
9
+
12 12
11
12
11
119
or
12
12
15 42
+
25 52
8
5
+
10 10
13
10
3
= 1 10
3
= 9 + 1 10
= 10
3
103
or
10
10
135
This last example shows a situation where the fractional sum must be converted to a mixed number before adding to the integer sum. DO NOT give
an answer along the lines of 9 13
10 as this is an abomination of all that is pure
and true, much like Frankensteins monster (as opposed to Frankenstein
who was just a mad scientist). Your answer must either be a true fraction
in lowest terms (either proper or improper) OR a true mixed number which
consists of an integer plus a proper fraction. Notice that the last step where
we added an integer to an improper fraction may be thought of as an application of this shortcut method, where the integer is thought of as a mixed
number with zero fractional part.
Example 14. Add 10 23 + 1 94 .
Solution 14. Using our shortcut, first we will add the fractions.
2 4
+
3 9
23 4
+
33 9
6 4
+
9 9
10
9
= 1 19
Then add the integers.
10 + 1 = 11
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
10 23 + 1 94
= 11 + 1 19
= 12
1
109
or
9
9
136
However, once we mix in negative numbers, we shall see that there is yet
another trick to be wary of.
Mixed Number Subtraction
Again, the first method to subtract mixed numbers is to just change
everything to fractions. The second method is again a shortcut method,
whose rules are:
4 2
4 22
=
3 2
4 4
1
4
13
1
or
4
4
137
1
Example 16. Subtract 3 10
2 45 .
Solution 16. Using our shortcut, first we will subtract the fractions.
1
4
1
42
10 5
10 5 2
1
8
10 10
Here we notice a problem, as the smaller fraction is first. If
we were using the tower method for oldfashioned subtraction,
we would look to borrow ten. Here we will borrow 1 whole from
the integer. So, cross out the 3 and make it a 2 and add this
borrowed 1 to the first fraction. On your paper, you could just
plug in a 1 to your previous work; here we will redo the work.
=
4
1
10 5
= 1
1
42
10 5 2
1
8
10 10
Now we will change the mixed number to a fraction and subtract.
= 1
1
8
10 10
11
8
10 10
3
10
Then subtract the integers. Dont forget we borrowed 1 from the
3.
=
22 = 0
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
1
3 10
2 45 =
3
10
Notice that the integers may totally cancel. That is fine, it just means your
answer is a proper fraction. You should NOT get a negative number using
this method  that is handled differently as we will see when we mix in
negative numbers later on. For now, let us do one more example.
138
9 3
1 23
9 33
1 6
9 9
10 6
9
9
4
9
2
3
=4
40
4
or
9
9
Mixing in negatives
So far this section, we have only dealt with nice, positive numbers. What
happens to our rules and methods if we mix in some negative numbers?
139
Bottom line: you may put off worrying about fancy addition or subtraction rules until you have a single fraction, and then it is just a matter of
using the integer addition and subtraction rules in the numerator.
3
2
Example 18. Subtract
3
4
3
24
33
2
=
3
4
34
43
8
9
=
12
12
=
8 (9)
12
8 + (+9)
12
1
12
140
11
4
+
20
5
11
4
11
44
+
=
+
20
5
20
54
=
11
16
+
20
20
11 + (16)
20
5
20
55
20 5
1
4
This is where you may find it to be easier to always convert mixed numbers to fractions. Any of the following examples involving mixed numbers
will be done twice  once by changing to improper fractions and once using
the shortcuts.
75 62
+
25 52
35 12
+
10 10
35 + 12
10
23
3
or 2
10
10
Now let us redo the example leaving the mixed numbers as is.
Example 21. Add 3 12 + 1 15
Solution 21. Since we are adding a negative number to a positive one, we need to take the absolute value of both, and subtract
larger minus smaller.
Scratch work:
We want to subtract 3 12 1 15 , so first we subtract the fractions.
1 1
2 5
15 12
25 52
5
2
10 10
3
10
141
142
3 21 + 1 15
= 2
3
23
or
10
10
5
Example 22. Subtract 2 12
8 23
12
3
5
Example 23. Subtract 2 12
8 23
29 26 4
12
34
29 104
12
12
29 104
12
75
12
75 3
12 3
25
1
or 6
4
4
3 12
24
5
3 4 12
8
5
12 12
3
12
33
12 3
1
4
= 6
25
1
or
4
4
2 3
Example 24. Subtract
9 5
Solution 24. There are no improper fractions nor mixed numbers here, so we will only solve this problem once. The LCD is
143
144
2 3
9 5
25 39
95 59
10 27
45 45
10 27
45
10 + (27)
45
37
45
3 3
+
8 4
5 2
9.
9 3
2.
1 1
+
2 6
1 15
10. +
4
2
3.
3
4
5 10
4.
5
2
12 3
1
1
11. 2 4
4
3
8
1
12. +
9
7
1
1
5. 2 + 4
3
5
3
1
6. 3 1
2
4
15
1
7.
+
4
3
8.
1
5
4
3
2
13.
9
2
10 5
14.
20 11
+
3
4
1 5
15. 4
4 6
1
3
16. 6 + 2
5
2
1
1
24. 2 + (1 )
5
2
1
3
18. 8 5
4
4
1
5
25. 1 6
9
3
19.
4 6
+
5 7
26. 0
3
5
1 5
20.
4 8
27.
1
5
21. 3 1
3
8
5
2
28. 2 5
6
3
22.
23.
7
3
10 2
3 7
4 8
5 1
+
6 7
29. 3 +
30.
4
7
13 5
+
16 8
145
146
1.9
Fraction Multiplication
To multiply two fractions, you will need the following rule:
Multiplying Fractions
Let a, b, c and d be any numbers, except b 6= 0 and d 6= 0. Then:
a c
ac
=
b d
bd
Unlike addition where people would like to simply add numerators and
denominators and not worry about an LCD, fraction multiplication is exactly what you would like it to be. All you need do is multiply the two
numerators and the two denominators separately, and simplify your final
answer if necessary.
Example 1. Multiply
2 3
5 7
5 7
Example 2. Multiply
5 6
8 15
23
57
6
35
147
8 15
56
8 15
30
120
30 10
120 10
33
12 3
1
4
Seems pretty straightforward, doesnt it? There are two points you want
to keep in mind when multiplying fractions.
The idea here is that prior to multiplying, you have a partially factored
form of your answer. Although it probably will not be the prime factorization (it was in the first example, though), it is still a factored form, and it
may be easier to recognize common factors. Also note that while any cancelation will usually be from one fractions numerator to the other fractions
denominator, the cancelation may be from the same fractions numerator
and denominator. This is rare as it means that one of the original fractions
was not in lowest terms, but it could happen (see the last example). Redoing
the last example with this in mind gives:
Example 3. Multiply
5 6
8 15
148
8 15
651 663
6 8 4 6 15 3
1 631
4 631
1
4
While you may still get the problem right if you make equivalent fractions
(they are equivalent, after all), you will be doing unnecessary work which
will only complicate the problem. It is better to learn that no LCD is needed
for fraction multiplication and division.
Mixing in Negatives
Recall that when you multiplied two integers, you determined the numerical value of the answer, and the sign of the answer separately. The same
149
is true for fractions. When there are negatives involved, you will do your
scratch work ignoring the signs and multiplying by the fraction rule we have
already learned, and then at the end (or at the beginning, your choice), you
will calculate the sign of the answer following the same rules as before (see
Appendix A if you need to review). Some examples:
5 3
Example 4. Multiply
6 5
Solution 4. First we will find the numerical value of the answer, so ignore the negative sign.
Scratch work:
5 3
6 5
651 631
662 651
1
2
As for sign, a negative times a positive makes a negative, so:
=
5 3
1
=
6 5
2
3
2
Example 5. Multiply
10
7
Solution 5. First we will find the numerical value of the answer, so ignore the negative signs.
Scratch work:
3 2
10 7
3
621
6 10 5 7
3
35
As for sign, a negative times a negative makes a positive, so:
3
2
3
=
10
7
35
=
150
1
Example 6. Multiply 5
5
Solution 6. For multiplying or dividing, you do not want to mix
integers with fractions, so let us change the integer to a fraction
by putting it over 1. Again, we will start with scratch work which
ignores the signs. Scratch work:
5 1
1 5
651 1
1 651
1
1
= 1
As for sign, a negative times a negative makes a positive, so:
1
=1
5
5
Reciprocals
Definition: Two numbers which multiply to give a product of positive one
are called reciprocals.
Given a fraction, to find its reciprocal, just flip the fraction (stays the
same sign). Given an integer or a mixed number, make it a fraction, and
then do the same.
Example 7. Find the reciprocal of the following numbers.
1.
2.
4
11
13
2
3. 5
1
3
Solution 7. We have:
1. The reciprocal of
4
11
is
11
4
13
2
is
2
13
1
5
is
3. The reciprocal of 5 =
1
5
1
1
4. The reciprocal of 1 =
is = 1
1
1
1
7
3
5. The reciprocal of 2
=
is
3
3
7
2. The reciprocal of
151
152
Reciprocals are very useful. For one thing, we will use them to define
fraction division. Let us look at an example.
Example 8. Divide
3 2
4 7
4 7
3
4
2
7
4 7
3
4
2
7
3
4
72
1
7
2
7
2
3 7
4 2
21
8
In the above, we used the facts that the product of two reciprocals
is 1, and any number divided by 1 is itself.
153
Dividing Fractions
Let a, b, c and d be any numbers, except b 6= 0, c 6= 0 and d 6= 0.
Then:
a c
a d
=
b d
b c
154
Example 9. Divide
4
3
5
10
5 10
4 10
5 3
4 6 10 2
651
3
8
3
As for sign, a positive divided by a negative makes a negative,
so:
4
3
8
=
5
10
3
=
4
Example 10. Divide (8)
7
Solution 10. We will worry about the sign of our answer at the
end. For the scratch work, we need to first change the division
to multiplication.
Scratch work:
4 8
7 1
4 1
7 8
641 1
7 682
1
14
As for sign, a negative divided by a negative makes a positive,
4
1
so, (8) =
7
14
=
155
The shortcuts for mixed numbers are not worth doing in the case of
multiplication and division (see Appendix B on page 365).
1 1
Example 11. Multiply 2 1
2 5
Solution 11. Changing to improper fractions, and ignoring the
signs for the moment:
1 1
2 1
2 5
5 6
2 5
651 663
621 651
= 3
A negative number multiplied by a positive number makes a negative number, so:
1 1
2 1 = 3
2 5
1
1
Example 12. Divide 2 3
4
3
156
9 10
4
3
9 3
4 10
27
40
This example illustrates why you must wait until you switch to
multiplication before canceling. Once you switch here, you can
see that the 3 and 9 in the numerators have no factor greater
than 1 in common with the 4 and 10 in the denominators.
1
Example 13. Divide 3 (4)
5
16 4
5
1
16 1
5 4
6 16 4 1
5
641
4
5
157
Order of Operations
Now that we can add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions, lets do
some order of operations problems involving them. Most of the problems will
be the same types as before, with some fractions mixed in with the integers,
but we will also add problems involving large fractions. For example,
10(1) (2)(3)
2[8 (2 2)]
To do these type of problems, you may either recall that the fraction bar
means divide and rewrite the problems as [numerator][denominator], or,
perhaps more simply, do one step of order of operations on the numerator
and denominator separately until there is a single number in the numerator,
and a single number in the denominator. At this point, treat as a fraction
and simplify if possible. So, to solve the last example:
Solution 14. We will apply order of operations on the numerator and denominator separately.
10(1) (2)(3)
2[8 (2 2)]
10 6
2[8 (4)]
16
2(2)
16
2(2)
16
4
= 4
158
8+36
4 24
Solution 15. We will apply order of operations on the numerator and denominator separately.
8+36
4 24
8 + 18
4 16
26
12
26 2
12 2
13
1
or 2
6
6
5(71 60 )] =
1
2 [2
5(7 1)]
1
2 [2
5(6)]
1
2 (2
30)
1
2 (28)
1 28
2
1
= 14
159
52 33
2 8 42
Solution 17. We will apply order of operations on the numerator and denominator separately.
52 33
2 8 42
25 27
2 8 16
2
16 16
2
0
= undefined
3
5
6.
2.
7
11
22
35
7. 0
3. 9
8. 84
1
5
9.
4. 2
5. 3
1
9
10. 6
12
17
1
7
160
20 27
6
5
12.
25
9
1
1
13. 2 5
4
3
11.
17 6
18 11
5
3
27.
6
10
26.
7 2
28. 1
9 7
1 7
14. 3
5 32
1
15. 6
4
10
125
16.
3
3
3
5
17. 2 1
4
6
29.
5 3
18. 1
8 5
33.
19.
20.
10 7
49 8
3
(8)
4
1
1
21. 2 1
8
6
3 2
22. 1 2
8 7
7
10
23.
21
15
24. 0
25.
3
13
3
0
13
8 2
27 3
8
2
27 3
1
31. 5
2
30.
2 6
32. 2
3 11
15
(5)
17
9
1
14 7
1
35. 7
3
4
6
36.
5
7
34.
37.
8 5
15 6
1
38. 2
2
3 1
39. 3 1
5 9
40.
5 5
7 7
325
7(31 50 )
46.
42.
623
5 4(2 3)
1 2 15
47. 1 +
2 5 14
43.
42 + 33
50 80
48. 1
44.
2 8 (3 5)
23 14
49.
5 2 2 5
45.
6344
1 2 3 2
2 3 4 3
3 12 3
+
8 5
5
5
+ 3 12
12
4 3 3
8
50.
15 7 2
5
161
162
1.10
163
You may need to count across to find the place value of the last digit; just
note that the place values going to the right are similar to the integral ones
going to the left with the ss replaced with thss (and no oneths!). So,
instead of:
tens, hundreds, thousands, tenthousands, hundredthousands, millions, . . .
the decimal place values are:
tenths, hundredths, thousandths, tenthousandths, hundredthousandths, millionths, . . .
164
Note, since the decimal portion was just the number 1, we dropped the s
on thousandths. There is an informal way to write and read decimals as
well. Instead of using and for the decimal point, some people will just say
point. When you do this, all the numbers after the decimal point (and
sometimes even the ones in front) are usually read individually. Therefore,
the last example could have been written negative thirtytwo point zero zero
one or negative three two point zero zero one. In all of our examples and in
all of our exercises, we will use the more formal language.
Necessary or Unnecessary?
In mathematics, sometimes we will have unnecessary zeros. To be able
to tell if a zero is necessary or unnecesary, use the following rule.
165
The first case is less common, although you may see room numbers
identified as 02 or 002. Since there are no nonzero numbers located to the
left of the zeros, they are unnecessary and may be removed or added as
desired. Thus,
002 = 02 = 2.
The most common use of an unnecessary zero to the left of the decimal point
occurs when the integral part of a number is zero. In that case, while it is
fine to just start with the decimal point, it is more common to put a zero
first. For example, .5 = 0.5. We will tend to put in the zero when there is
no integer.
Unnecessary zeros to the right of the decimal point are much more useful,
and we will use them frequently when dealing with decimals. The trouble
is there can be a bit of a controversy about whether the zeros are actually
necessary or not. For example, let us say you are going on a vacation, and
you need to weigh a suitcase to be sure that it is not too heavy. In your
home, you put the suitcase on a digital scale, and it reads 28 pounds. At the
airport, the airline weighs your suitcase, and they mark it at 28.0 pounds.
Is there any difference between the two numbers? In this case, yes, the
zero is significant. The discrepancy occurs because in mathematics, we are
referring to exact numbers. When we write 28, we mean the number 28.
In the sciences and the real world, most numbers are measurements of a
physical quantity up to a certain degree of accuracy. So, when you weighed
your suitcase with your home scale, even assuming it is accurate, it told you
that your suitcase 28 pounds to the nearest pound. The actual weight could
be anywhere between 27.5 pounds to just under 28.5 pounds. When the
airline weighed the suitcase and marked it as 28.0 pounds, they are claiming
that it weighs 28.0 pounds to the nearest tenth of a pound. Now the actual
weight is known to be between 27.95 pounds to just under 28.05 pounds.
For this course, we will usually be using exact numbers, but keep this point
in mind for other courses.
Example 4. Write the following numbers with only necessary zeros.
1. 0407.501
2. 100.0300
3. 0.1008
166
4. 007
7
to a decimal.
2
167
7
= 3.5
2
5
to a decimal.
8
5
= 0.625
8
Both of the last two examples had decimals which eventually stopped. These
have a special name.
Definition: A decimal with a finite number of digits is called a terminating decimal.
168
2
to a decimal.
11
2
= 0.1818 . . .
11
A nicer way to write repeating decimals is to put a bar over the part of the
decimal which repeats. For example,
0.1818 . . . = 0.18
0.3333 . . . = 0.3
0.51234234234 . . . = 0.51234
5
to a decimal.
12
169
5
= 0.416
12
There are other types of decimals which neither terminate nor repeat.
The most famous such number is pi, , whose decimal representation some
(crazy??) people memorize up to millions of digits. This wont arise in any
of the fractions which we ask you to change to a decimal, because of the
following fact.
170
The fraction being in lowest terms is important since obviously you could
introduce other prime numbers into a denominator by making an equivalent
fraction. Looking back at examples 5 and 6, we see that the prime factorization of the denominators in these cases (2 = 2 and 8 = 2 2 2, respectively)
only had factors of 2 or 5 (only 2 in these cases), so they should become
terminating decimals. The prime factorization of the denominators from examples 7 and 8 (11 = 11 and 12 = 2 2 3, respectively), on the other hand,
contained other prime numbers, so they should become repeating decimals.
It should be noted that the reverse of Important Fact 1 is also true.
171
Because many of these examples will involve very large numbers, we will
not ask you to simplify your final answer (although, since the denominator
is a power of 10, you would only need to check if a 2 or 5 divides into the
numerator, possibly repeatedly).
Example 9. Change 62.14607 to a fraction. You do NOT need to simplify.
6, 214, 607
6, 214, 607
100, 000
Note, you may change decimals with a nonzero integral part directly to
a mixed number if you leave the integer alone and just do the above on the
decimal part only.
Example 10. Change 62.14607 to a mixed number. You do NOT need to
simplify.
172
14, 607
Solution 11. First, we will remove the decimal point and place
the number into the numerator, inserting commas to make it
easier to read.
3, 886
3.886 =
The last digit was originally in the thousandths spot, so 1, 000
goes into the denominator. Therefore,
3.886 =
3, 886
1, 000
886
173
Solution 13. First, we will remove the decimal point and place
the number into the numerator, inserting commas to make it
easier to read.
0.900416 =
900, 416
The last digit was originally in the millionths spot, so 1, 000, 000
goes into the denominator. Therefore,
0.900416 =
900, 416
1, 000, 000
Rounding Decimals
You may be asked to round a decimal to a certain placevalue. If so,
there are only two digits which are important: the digit at the placevalue
in question, and the digit to its immediate right.
174
175
176
177
Solution 16. First, we compare the two integral parts, but here
they are both 18. Next, we need to start comparing the decimal
places  to do so we will write one number above the other, and
start by comparing the tenths.
1 8 . 5 4 0 0
1 8 . 5 3 8 9
The tenths are the same, move on to hundredths.
1 8 . 5 4 0 0
1 8 . 5 3 8 9
4 3, so 18.54 18.5389
178
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
1 3 4 . 5 4 4 5 4 ...
The tenths are the same, move on to hundredths.
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
1 3 4 . 5 4 4 5 4 ...
The hundredths are the same, move on to the thousandths.
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
1 3 4 . 5 4 4 5 4 ...
179
4 < 5, so the bottom number is the smallest of the three. Updating our ordering gives:
134.5445 <
<
< 143.5.
As for the last two numbers, move on to the tenthousandths.
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
0 < 4, so the first number is the smallest. Therefore:
134.5445 < 134.545 < 134.54 < 143.5.
Finally, changing all the numbers back to negatives switches the
ordering, so:
143.5 < 134.54 < 134.545 < 134.5445.
One last comment, if you are asked to compare a decimal with a fraction,
you must either change the decimal to a fraction and compare fractions, OR
change the fraction to a decimal and compare the decimals (this last is
probably the easiest).
Example 18. Insert a or > between the following two numbers.
0.572
4
7
Solution 18. We will start by changing the fraction to a decimal.
Scratch work:
0.5714 . . .
7 4.0000
35
50
49
10
7
30
28
2
..
.
180
0 . 5 7 2 0
0 . 5 7 1 4 ...
Since 2 > 1, 0.572 > 0.5714 . . ., so:
0.572 >
4
7
Percents
Percentages are another way of describing parts of a whole. When dealing with one, you will almost always wish to change the percent into a fraction or decimal, and this is what we will look at here. In the next section
we will look at some applications.
181
3. 145%
4. 3.9%
17
100
2.
82% =
=
82 2
100 2
41
50
3.
145% =
4. 3.9% =
82
100
145
100
145 5
100 5
29
20
3.9
100
182
Note that if there arent enough digits to move the decimal point past,
you may need to add in unnecessary zeros (3.9 = 03.9, for example). Also,
this last method is easily reversed.
183
184
1
8
2.
5
6
3.
3
10
4.
14
25
1
, 8 is not a factor of 100, so we will use the general
8
method.
Scratch work:
0.125
8 1.000
8
20
16
40
40
0
So,
2.
1
= 0.125 = 12.5%
8
5
, 6 is not a factor of 100, so we will use the general
6
method.
Scratch work:
185
0.833 . . .
6 5.000
48
20
18
20
18
2
..
.
So,
3.
5
= 0.83 = 83.3%
6
3
, 10 is a factor of 100, so we will use the shortcut.
10
3
10
3 10
10 10
30
100
= 30%
4.
14
, 25 is a factor of 100, so we will use the shortcut.
25
14
25
14 4
25 4
56
100
= 56%
186
1
2
6.
10
11
2.
7
9
7.
7
25
3.
3
8
8.
13
16
4.
9
100
9.
19
4
5.
8
15
10.
5
22
16. 55.88
12. 14.2178
17. 0.000007
13. 9.00035
18. 11.011
14. 5.124992
19. 18.7002
15. 156.2
20. 0.0306
24. 3.1415
22. 73.095128
25. 56.999
23. 1, 350.0072
26. 18.55532
187
1.56
28. 23.52
8.67
4.30
31. 2.9192
32.
3
5
4
9
34.
9
14
0.643
35.
16
5
3.1
23.52
29. 8.67
30. 4.3
33.
2.91
0.6
36.
0.45
1
6
0.167
46. 75%
42. 33%
47. 80%
43. 5%
48. 1%
44. 130%
49. 0%
45. 19%
50. 200%
55. 19%
52. 33%
56. 75%
53. 5%
57. 80%
54. 130%
58. 1%
188
59. 0%
60. 200%
66. 0.005
62. 0.031
67. 0.7
63. 0.18
68. 0.44
64. 2.5
69. 0.225
65. 9.99
70. 1.0
1
3
76.
3
4
72.
1
2
77.
5
9
73.
1
4
78.
2
25
74.
1
5
79.
7
10
75.
1
6
80.
17
50
1.11
189
Decimal Operations
For all of this section, we will be dealing exclusively with terminating decimals.
Addition and Subtraction
To add or subtract two decimals without a calculator, we will use a
vertical tower method similar to how we do oldfashioned addition and subtraction without a calculator (see page 8). Just as before, you must make
sure that the placevalues of the two numbers are aligned. With whole numbers this meant that the two numbers would be rightaligned, while this need
not be the case for decimals. Instead, just remember to align the decimal
points before adding or subtracting. Note, if you are adding two decimals, or
subtracting two decimals where the decimal after the minus sign has fewer
decimal places, you may add unnecessary zeros to make both decimals have
the same number of decimal places if you prefer. If you are subtracting two
decimals where the decimal before the minus sign has fewer decimal places,
you MUST add in unnecessary zeros to have something to takeaway from.
Example 1. Add 13.8277 + 559.02
1
1 3 . 8 2 7 7
5 5 9 . 0 2 0 0
5 7 2 . 8 4 7 7
190
1
1
4 6 3 .
2 9 5 .
7 5 9 .
1
9
3
3
1
8 7 0
9 6 6
8 3 6
3 12 6
12 4 10
64 62 67 . 62 65 60
9 3 . 8 1 2
3 3 3 . 4 3 8
9
8 6 10
18
1 69 60 . 68 5 4
8 9 . 9 1 0
1 0 0 . 9 4 4
191
Mixing in Negatives
So far, we have looked at adding and subtracting positive decimals, but
what if a negative number is involved?
6
1 67 .
4 .
1 2 .
14 9
6 4 6 10 10
65 60 60
8
2
3
6
7
7
The larger number in absolute value is the 17.5, and it was originally positive, so the result should be positive.
So: 4.823 + 17.5 = 12.677
192
When adding two numbers of the same sign, the sum has the
common sign. Therefore, here, the answer is negative.
So: 2.97 3.414 = 6.384
12
62
10
63 . 60 9 1
5 . 1 8 0
7 . 9 1 1
193
Multiplication
To multiply two positive decimals, we will use a vertical tower method
just like we used for oldfashioned multiplication of large numbers without
a calculator.
To multiply decimals:
1. Write the two factors as if they were positive integers being
multiplied using the oldfashioned tower method (page 13).
You do NOT need to align placevalues, and you do NOT wish
to writein any unnecessary zeros (except, possibly, a zero for
zero integral part).
2. Multiply as before, ignoring the decimal points.
3. The final product should have the same number of decimal
places as the two factors together.
4. 7
2 2 8 9
1 2
3 2 7
4 7
2 2 8 9
1 3 0 8 0
1 5 3 6 9
So, had we been multiplying 32747, the answer would have been
15, 369 (see example 11 on page 13). Instead, we now look back
at the factors and see that one factor had two decimal places,
while the other had one decimal place for a total of three decimal
places. Making our product have three decimal places gives:
3.27 4.7 = 15.369
194
Note that in the above example, we didnt fill in the decimal place in the
product in the scratch work to emphasize that it was done last. In future
examples, we will fill it in, just remember that it is the last thing you do in
the scratch work.
2. 0 8
0. 9 1
2 0 8
2.
0.
2
1 8 7
1. 8 9
7
0
9
0
2
2
8
1
8
0
8
Mixing in Negatives
Recall that the sign rules for multiplication are independent of the scratch
work, regardless of the type of numbers involved. Therefore, mixing in negatives only make the problems slightly harder.
Solution 10. Ignoring the negative sign for the moment, we get:
195
Scratch work:
1
4. 3 5
7 2
8 7 0
2 3
4. 3 5
7 2
8 7 0
3 0 4 5 0
3 1 3. 2 0
Notice in the last problem that when we did our multiplying, the rightmost digit of the product was a zero. While this zero was unnecessary and
we did not include it when we wrote the final answer, it was necessary when
we were determining where to put the decimal point in the product. In this
case, the product should have two decimal places, so we moved it past the
0 and the 2. Only after the decimal point is in place does the zero become
unnecessary, and thus optional.
Example 11. Multiply 18.4 0.15
4
1
0.
9
2
8. 4
1 5
2 0
1
0.
9
1 8
2. 7
8.
1
2
4
6
4
5
0
0
0
196
Solution 12. Ignoring the negative sign for the moment, we get:
Scratch work:
5 1. 5 4
1 0
0 0 0 0
5 1. 5
1
0 0 0
5 1 5 4
5 1 5. 4
4
0
0
0
0
197
in 32.609 two places to the right (as there are two zeros in 100).
Thus, the numerical answer is 3, 260.9.
As for sign, a negative times a positive makes a negative, so:
32.609 100 = 3, 260.9
198
3.9
100
Solution 15. The numerator has one decimal place; the denominator has none. Therefore, the most number of places we need
the decimal to move is one, so we will multiply numerator and
denominator by 10, and then simplify.
3.9
3.9 10
=
100
100 10
=
39
1000
The last solution was in lowest terms, but if you are having trouble seeing
it, you may wish to do the prime factorization of both the numerator and
denominator. In the last case, you would find that:
39 = 3 13, and
1000 = 2 2 2 5 5 5.
Now it is easier to see that there are no common factors greater than 1.
Example 16. Simplify
0.28
24.5
Solution 16. The numerator has two decimal places; the denominator has one. Therefore, the most number of places we
need the decimal to move is two, so we will multiply numerator and denominator by 100, and then simplify using the prime
factorizations.
0.28 100
0.28
=
24.5
24.5 100
=
28
2450
227
25577
2
557
2
175
199
Division
To do decimal division, we will look at a couple of different situations.
The easiest situation is when the dividend and divisor are both positive, and
the divisor is an integer.
200
Note that we had to add a zero to the dividend when we were dividing.
Just as you did for changing fractions to decimals, you should keep dividing
until either you get a zero remainder, or the division falls into a repetitive
pattern.
So, what do you do when the divisor has decimal places too? Let us look
at an example.
Example 19. Divide 1.04 0.2
1.04 10
0.2 10
10.4
2
Had we really been trying to simplify the fraction, we would have
multiplied numerator and denominator by 100 instead of 10, but
we were really only concerned with removing the decimal from
the denominator. After all, this shows that:
=
201
since they are equivalent fractions, and now the divisor is an integer so we can divide as before.
Scratch work:
5.2
2 10.4
10
04
4
0
So, 1.04 0.2 = 5.2
This method may be summarized by:
28 630
202
Mixing in Negatives
Division behaves like multiplication in that the sign rules have nothing
to do with your scratch work. Therefore, do scratch work using the absolute
value of all numbers, and then make the sign of your answer correct.
Example 21. Divide 19.872 0.54
Solution 21. Ignoring the negative sign for the moment, we will
move the decimal points:
0.54 19.872
54 1987.2
203
3 28.3
Percent applications
If asked to find a certain percent of a number, you need to know:
204
0. 0 8
2 0. 0 0
Therefore, 8% of 250 = 20
1
8 8
0. 1 2
1 7 6
0.
1
8
1 0.
8
1
7
8
5
8
2
6
0
6
205
2. 34.6 + 2.8944
3. 17.34 12.7
4. 821.077 49.75
5. 28.567 + 14.39
6. 7.355 11.68
7. 29.05 243.782
8. 227.34 + (18.854)
9. 100.76 87.3
Multiply.
21. 43.05 2.9
33. 425.2834 10
35. 33.961 10
206
46. 53 4
42. 32.788 14
52. 7% of 48
57. 82% of 90
53. 2% of 135
58. 33% of 78
54. 15% of 28
59. 50% of 35
55. 75% of 92
60. 100% of 19
1.12
207
Introduction to Radicals
We have seen how addition and subtraction can undo each other. For example, 5 + 7 = 12 and 12 7 = 5. More generally, if we tell you that we
are taking a number and adding 7 to it, and then we tell you the result,
you could tell what the original number was by subtracting 7. There is a
similar relationship between multiplication and division (provided you are
not multiplying or dividing by zero). For example, we tell you that we took
a number, multiplied it by 3, and got a result of 24. Can you tell what
number we started with? Certainly, all you have to do is divide our result
by 3 to undo my multiplication (thus, we started with 8). This property
of being able to undo an operation is important in mathematics. In this
section, we wish to define the operation which undoes raising a number to
a power.
Definition: The number a is said to be an nth root of the number b if
an = b.
Example 1. The following are all examples of roots:
1. 4 is a second root (or, more commonly, square root) of 16 as 4 4 = 16.
2. 2 is a third root (or, more commonly, cube root) of 8 as 2 2 2 = 8.
3. 3 is a fourth root of 81 as 3 3 3 3 = 81.
4. 2 is a fifth root of 32 as 25 = 32.
Notice that just as we commonly use squared instead of to the second
power, we even more commonly say square root instead of second root.
The same is also true for saying cube root instead of third root.
We need a notation for this concept of taking a root of a number, and
we will use a radical. We would like to use the notation:
index
radicand
to mean:
n
b = a an = b
208
to be ambiguous. Also, while this is a problem with square roots and fourth
roots and so on, it is not true for roots with odd indices. For example,
2 is a cube root of 8 as 23 = 8, AND it is THE ONLY cube root of 8 (as
(2)3 = (2)(2)(2) = 8 not 8). Therefore we need to define the radical
differently when the index is even versus when the index is odd.
Radicals with even indices
First, note that a square root is the most common root you will encounter. As a result, it was decided that instead of writing the index of 2
on the radical, it will be understood that if there is no obvious
index, the
radical will represent a square root. For example, we will take 25 to mean
square root of 25 (we just need to clear up the ambiguity of which square
root).
When the index is even, the radicals behavior depends entirely on the
sign of the radicand. Let us look at the three possible cases.
1. The radicand is positive.
In this case, there will be two roots, one positive and one negative. We will define the radical to mean the principal square root
which is the positive square root. The other square root will be
represented by putting a in front of the radical (recall this
means to take the opposite of or, equivalently, multiply by
negative one which when applied to the principal square root
will give a negative number).
Example 2. Evaluate the following.
(a) 25
(b) 25
(c) 4
(d) 4
Solution 2. We get:
(a) 25 = 5
The principal square root of 25 is 5.
(b) 25 = 5
The non principal square root of 25 is 5,
209
OR
The opposite of the principal square root of 25 is 5.
(c) 4 = 2
The principal square root of 4 is 4.
(d) 4 = 2
The non principal square root of 4 is 2,
OR
The opposite of the principal square root of 4 is 2.
2. The radicand is zero.
There is no ambiguity here as
positive nor negative.
n
0 = 0. Recall zero is neither
Radical Fact 1:
Whenever there is a negative radicand for an even indexed radical,
you may immediately say that this represents no real number.
210
(a) 25
(b) 13
(c) 1
(d) 8
Solution 3. As we just learned:
1. 3 27
2. 3 27
3. 5 32
4. 5 32
211
3
27 = 3
2. 3 27 = 3
The cube root of 27 is 3 as (3)3 = 27.
3. 5 32 = 2
The fifth root of 32 is 2 as 25 = 32.
4. 5 32 = 2
The fifth root of 32 is 2 as (2)5 = 32.
If you dont like working with the negative number under the radical,
there is an optional rule you may use.
Radical Fact 2:
Whenever there is a negative radicand for an odd indexed radical,
you may pull it out in front of the radical.
Example 5. Evaluate
3
27
3
3
27 = 27 = 3
Tables for Perfect Squares and Perfect Cubes
You may find it useful to be able to recognize perfect squares and/or
perfect cubes. The following tables, or tables for higher powers, may be
reproduced easily.
212
The boldfaced numbers are the perfect squares, so one of the factors to the
left would be its principal square root.
The boldfaced numbers are the perfect cubes, so one of the factors to the
left would be its cube root.
Large radicals
While tables are nice when simplifying smaller radicals, they are not as
practical for larger radicands. To simplify these, we recommend you find
the prime factorization of the radicand, and then use the following fact:
213
Radical Fact 3:
When simplifying nth roots, every n like factors under the radical
may be pulled outside the radical as a single factor. Any such factor
comes out multiplying.
Example 6. Simplify
900
10
.&
10
.&
3 2
2
&
5
900 =
(2 2) (3 3) (5 5)
= 235
= 30
So for square roots, you need to group together two of the same factors;
we did this with parentheses. Then radical fact 3 says each grouping pulls
out of the radical as a single factor, so a pair of twos under the square root
comes out as a single two, etc. When all the factors under the radical pair
up, you may drop the radical once you have pulled out the single factors.
You may wonder what happens when not all the factors pair up  these
cases will be looked at in 10022 (or later in the semester in 10006). For now,
all of our examples and problems will have numbers whose factors pull out
perfectly.
214
Also, note that radical fact 3 does not require the factors to be prime
numbers. Had you noticed that 900 = 30 30, you could have simplified by:
p
Example 7. Simplify
3
42, 875
8, 575
.&
5
1, 715
.&
5
343
.&
7
49
.&
7
3
42, 875 = 3 (5 5 5) (7 7 7)
= 57
= 35
So the type of root determines how many likefactors must be grouped
together, and then one factor of each group pulls outside the radical (multiplying any other factors which come out).
One last note must be made.
215
Many students like to simply quit writing in the index, but this IS NOT
correct, regardless of what is meant.
49
49
49
3
125
3
125
3 125
64
3
64
81
3
8
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
4
16
5
32
36
3 216
484
3
4, 096
576
3
19, 683
10, 000
1764
216
1.13
Many of the following properties of real numbers have already been introduced, but we want to summarize all of them in one section.
First, is the commutative property. For an operation to be commutative,
it shouldnt matter which number goes before the operation, and which goes
after the operation. Both addition and multiplication are commutative.
1
1
= 4
2
2
217
the two you do first. Again, addition and multiplication are both associative.
Distributive Property:
For any real numbers a, b and c,
a(b + c) = a b + a c
(b + c)a = b a + c a
a(b c) = a b a c
(b c)a = b a c a
218
You may check the last result using the normal order of operations on
the original problem. This begs the question, why dont we just use the
order of operations instead of this new property? Well, soon we will be
dealing with expressions like (x + 2) which cannot be added, and to get rid
of the parentheses, we will need to use the distributive property.
Example 2. State the property used:
1. 5 + 4 = 4 + 5
2. (2 + 3) + 7 = 2 + (3 + 7)
3. (2 3) 7 = (3 2) 7
4. (2 + 3) 7 = 7 (2 + 3)
5. 2(7 + 3) = 2 7 + 2 3
219
4. (2 + 3) 7 = 7 (2 + 3) is commutative property of multiplication since the group (2 + 3) changes places with 7 around
multiplication.
5. 2(7 + 3) = 2 7 + 2 3 is the distributive property since the
2 is distributed across addition.
The distributive property may also be used when there is no obvious
number in front of the opening parenthesis. In this case, you may act as
though there is a 1 in front.
Example 3. Remove the parentheses by using the distributive property. You
dont need to simplify.
1. (5 + 2) 3
2. 4 + (9 15)
Solution 3. We get:
1.
2.
(5 + 2) 3 = 1 (5 + 2) 3
= 15+123
= 5+23
4 + (9 15) = 4 + 1 (9 15)
= 4 + 1 9 1 15
= 4 + 9 15
After telling you not to simplify, you may wonder why we did several
steps, but there was a reason for this. In the very beginning, you may need
to write out every step, as we did. You want to practice this technique,
though, until you can go from the the original problem to the final answer
in one step. You should be able to imagine the 1 and multiply, without
having to write it all down. Once you get rid of the parentheses, of course
you will add or subtract where possible.
The distributive property is also used when there is a minus sign or negative sign in front of the opening parenthesis, but now you will be distributing
a 1.
220
Solution 4. We get:
1.
2.
(4 + 6) 3 = 1 (4 + 6) 3
= 1 4 + (1) 6 3
= 4 6 3
13 (2 1) = 13 + (1) (2 1)
= 13 + (1) 2 (1) 1
= 13 2 + 1
Again, even though we showed several steps, you want to get good
enough to go from the original to the end in one step. This is sometimes
called distributing the minus sign (or negative sign).
Now that we have seen the commutative property of addition, the associative property of addition, and the distributive property, we can illustrate
why the shortcut for mixed number subtraction works.
Example 5. Refer back to example 15 on page 136. Using our new knowledge of the above properties, show why the subtraction shortcut works.
4 43 1 12 = 4 + 34 1 + 12
= 4+
3
4
= (4 1) +
3
4
1
2
1
2
221
Additive Identity:
For any real number a,
a+0=0+a=a
It is also important to know that no matter what number you start with,
there is always another number you may add to it to get zero.
Additive Inverse:
For any real number a, there is a number (a), such that:
a + (a) = (a) + a = 0
Multiplicative Identity:
For any real number a,
a1=1a=a
If you start with any number but 0, there is another number which you
may multiply by to go back to 1.
222
1
1
= a=1
a
a
3
7
3. 3
4. 0
Solution 6. We have:
1. 5
(a) The additive inverse of 5 is 5.
(b) The multiplicative inverse of 5 is
2.
1
5.
3
7
7
3.
3. 3
(a) The additive inverse of 3 is 3.
(b) The multiplicative inverse of 3 is 31 .
4. 0
(a) The additive inverse of 0 is 0.
(b) 0 does NOT have a multiplicative inverse, so none.
223
1
3
3=1
4. 45 +
4
5
=0
Solution 7. We have:
1. 5 1 = 5 is multiplicative identity.
2. 0 + (3 + 2) = (3 + 2) is additive identity.
3.
1
3
3 = 1 is multiplicative inverse.
4. 45 +
4
5
= 0 is additive inverse.
Applications
These properties of real numbers may be used to simplify addition and
multiplication problems. Let us look at several examples.
Example 8. At a fast food restaurant, your order costs:
$1.29 + $0.99 + $0.99 + $0.99
How much do you need to pay?
224
98 + (2 + 154)
(98 + 2) + 154
100 + 154
254
225
Solution 10. First, let us change all the subtractions to additions so we may use the commutative and associative properties
of addition. Then, in a case like this where you are adding several
positive and negative numbers, you may find it easier to group
all the positive numbers together, and all the negative numbers
together as the sign rule for addition says that when you are
adding numbers of the same sign, you add their absolute values
and the sum keeps the common sign. We will also rearrange the
numbers in each group to make nice sums. For example, instead of 3 + 2 + 7, you may prefer 3 + 7 + 2, since 3 + 7 = 10 and
10 is an easy number to add.
3 8 + 2 6 + 7 4 = (3 + 7 + 2) + [(6) + (4) + (8)]
= 12 + (18)
= 6
This same idea of rearranging to simplify the problem may also work
when you are doing several multiplications.
Example 11. Multiply 2 7 6 5
226
4. 4.1
2. 8
5.
3. 2.9
6.
1
6
2
17
1
4
10.
13
15
11.
2
3
12. 45
17. 8 3 = 3 8
1
1
18.
+
=0
17
17
26.
2
2
+9=9+
3
3
27.
3 8
=1
8 3
19. (2 5) 3 = 2 (5 3)
20. 7 + 0 = 7
22. 6(4 + 7) = 6 4 + 6 7
227
Add or multiply as indicated. If you use the real number properties to make
the problems easier, you should be able to do the math in your head.
31. 0.99 + 0.99 + 1.19 + 0.99 + 0.99
34. 9 5 3 2
35. 97 + 98 + 106
33. 15 18 + 12 2
36. 5 5 5 2
228
Chapter 2
Algebra
2.1
230
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
for any real number a. Here the a is representing a general pattern. For a
specific example of the additive identity property, we need to replace a with
an actual number.
3. 6 x4 3 x2 + 5 x 18
2. x2 + y z
Example 4. The algebraic expressions from last example are more commonly written:
1. 7 3x
2. x2 +
y
z
3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18
231
Definition: A term is a number or the product of a number and variables raised to powers.
In an algebraic expression, terms are truly only separated by a plus sign
 any subtraction should be changed to addition. It may be easier to learn
that terms are separated by plus or minus signs, but you must remember
to treat the minus sign as a negative (or opposite) in the following term.
Multiplication and division do NOT separate terms, rather these operations
are part of terms.
Example 5. State how many terms the following algebraic expressions have,
and list what they are.
1. 7 3x
2. x2 +
y
z
3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18
Solution 5. We have:
1. 7 3x; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: 7.
The second term is: 3x.
2. x2 + yz ; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: x2 .
The second term is: yz .
3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18; this expression has four terms.
The first term is: 6x4 .
The second term is: 3x2 .
The third term is: 5x.
The fourth term is: 18.
Definition: A term which does not contain a variable is called a constant term,
or simply a constant.
232
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
y
z
3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18
Solution 6. We have:
1. 7 3x; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: 7, and this is a constant term.
The second term is: 3x, and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 3.
2. x2 + yz ; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: x2 , and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 1.
The second term is: yz , and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 1 ( yz = 1 yz ).
3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18; this expression has four terms.
The first term is: 6x4 , and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 6.
The second term is: 3x2 , and this is a variable term
with coefficient = 3.
The third term is: 5x, and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 5.
The fourth term is: 18, and this is a constant term.
233
(2)2 2(1)(5)
4 2(1)(5)
4 (2)(5)
4 (10)
4 + 10
14
234
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 8. Substituting in for x gives:
1. x = (4) = 4
2. x = (0) = 0
3. x = (6) = 6
y
x
4. 11 xy + 5y
x2 y 2 = (4)2 (2)2
= 16 4
= 12
3.
235
y x =  2  4
= 24
= 2
5+
y
x
= 5+
2
4
= 5+
1
2
= 5 12 or
11
2
4.
11 xy + 5y =
=
=
=
11 (4)(2) + 5(2)
11 8 10
3 10
7
4. 2xy 2 , 5x2 y
2. 3x, 3y
3. 7, 23
5. 3x2 y, 7yx2
236
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 10. Comparing the variables of each term:
1. 3x, 8x are like terms.
2. 3x, 3y are unlike terms.
3. 7, 23 are like terms. These are both constants and have
the same variables (none).
4. 2xy 2 , 5x2 y are unlike terms.
5. 3x2 y, 7yx2 are like terms. This last one didnt fool you
did it? Dont forget that multiplication is commutative and
associative, so it doesnt matter the order in which we write
the parts of a term. Thus, 7yx2 = 7x2 y and this term has x
squared and y to the first power, same as the other term. As
a side note, it is standard that when we are using English
letters to write them in alphabetical order in the term, so
we would normally write 7x2 y, but it is not incorrect to
rearrange the letters.
Given that terms may be like terms or unlike terms, why does it matter?
It turns out that like terms which are being added or subtracted my be
combined, while unlike terms may not.
237
1. 5x 14x
Simplifying like terms is actually an application of the distributive property. Refer back to page 217 to see all the various manifestations of the
distributive property. Currently, we are mostly concerned with using the
distributive property to remove parentheses. There will be times, however,
like this one, where we would rather use the distributive property to factor
out a common factor. Notice that since like terms have exactly the same
variables to exactly the same powers, all of the variables may be factored
out. What remains behind in the parentheses will be the sum or difference
of regular numbers, which of course may be added or subtracted. Looking
back at the first part of the last example:
5x 14x = (5 14)x = 9x
Unlike terms, on the other hand, have different variables or different amounts
of the same variables. Therefore, you will NOT be able to factor out all of
the variables, and the parentheses will include more than just numbers.
Look at the second part of the last example:
3x2 2x = (3x 2)x
You may wish to keep this in mind when you are simplifying, but you should
learn and use Tool 1 as it is quick and simple.
Example 12. Simplify each of the following by combining like terms.
1. 4a 2ab + 5ab 7b + b 9a
2. x2 + 2x + 7 + 14 10x 5x2
238
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
3. 5m 11n + 2n + 18m
4. 8x2 17x 5 2x + 3 15x2
239
240
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
For the following algebraic expressions, state whether each term is a constant term or a variable term, and if the term is a variable term, state its
coefficient.
1. 3x5 4x4 + x2
4. 13x2 11x + 1
2. xy 2yz
5. x + y + xy
3. 5 x
6. 8 + 3x2 y 2xy 2
Evaluate x 3, when:
7. x = 3
8. x = 1
9. x = 2
10. x = 5
16. x + y
12. xy + 5
17.
13. 3x y
18. x2 y 2
14. y 5x
19. 1 x y
15. x2 + y 2
20. x y
x
y
23. 5x (3x + y 2)
30. xy 9x + 2y + 3x 5xy
24. (x y) 3y
32. (3x + 5) (x 2)
33. 8m 2n + 6m + 3n 9m
2.2
241
Linear Equations
Introduction to equations
Definition: An equation is a mathematical statement equating two algebraic expressions.
You may think of an equation as a balance, like you may use in a chemistry or physics course.
Important Notation
Throughout this book, we will use the following notation:
LHS = lefthand side of the equation (or later, inequality),
RHS = righthand side of the equation (or later, inequality).
242
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
1. When x = 1:
While:
LHS = 4(1) 3
= 43
= 1
RHS = 12 1
= 11
While:
LHS = 4(3) 3
= 12 3
= 9
RHS = 12 3
= 9
RHS = 15 (1)
= 16
While:
243
LHS = 5(2) + 3
= 10 + 3
= 13
RHS = 15 2
= 13
Unfortunately, trying to find solutions (even if you know how many total
there should be) by guessing is not practical except in the simplest cases.
What we would like to have is an algebraic way to find any and all solutions.
To aid us, we have the two Algebraic Expressions Tools from last section,
but we need more help.
Equation Tools
There are two equation tools which we will find useful.
Equations Tool 1
Additive Property of Equality:
For any real numbers a, b and c:
If a = b then a + c = b + c.
Since c may be negative, this really means that you may add or subtract
any number from both sides of an equation, and you will get an equivalent
equation.
Definition: Two equations are said to be equivalent if they are both true
or both false for a given value of the variable(s).
244
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Equations Tool 2
Multiplicative Property of Equality:
For any real numbers a, b and c, except c 6= 0,
If a = b then a c = b c.
So, how do we find this solution? You will be able to solve every linear
equation if you follow these steps:
245
246
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
a balance scale; if we have five pounds on each side of the scale (so
the scale is balanced), and we triple the weight on each side to get
fifteen pounds on each, the scale stays balanced. Sure we changed
the amounts on both sides, but we maintained the balance (made an
equivalent equation).
The first three steps are all tidying up steps. After you have done
all three, your equation should have the form:
Ax + B = Dx + C
for some numbers (possibly zero) A, B, C and D. The possibly zero
indicates that some of the terms may be missing, but the most you
should have is a single xterm and a single constant on both sides. This
seems like the simplest, most basic way of writing a linear equation, so
you may wonder why our definition only had an xterm on the LHS.
We shall see why later in this section.
When doing step 4, some people prefer to always take the xterms to
the LHS, and the constants to the RHS, while others prefer to take
the xterms to whichever side makes the coefficient positive. We will
do an example each way, but you should find and do what works best
for you. After step 4, your equation should have the form:
ax = b
We switched from capital letters to small case as the coefficient on the
x and the constant may have no relation to the capital A and B we
used earlier.
After step 5, your equation should have the form:
x=c
for some real number c. This is your solution.
Step 6 is an optional check, but you should always check your answers
provided you have the time. Of course, if you are running out of
time on a test, this step will be skipped. We will check our first few
examples, but we will then leave the checks to you for practice.
There is one last equation fact which you may find useful. If you think
of an equation as a balance scale, what happens if you turn the scale
247
12
3
x = 4
248
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Therefore, the solution is x = 4.
Check:
LHS = 3(4) 7
= 12 7
= 5
While:
RHS = 5
So, LHS = RHS X
Example 5. Solve 6x + 3 = 7
4
6
x =
2
3
6x
6
249
As mentioned earlier, for the sake of space, we will stop checking our
solutions, but you are encouraged to do so for practice. More examples:
=
=
=
=
=
=
5x + 7
5x + 7
5x 5x + 7
7
7+8
15
3x
3
15
3
x = 5
Therefore, the solution is x = 5.
250
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
right this time:
7 (2x + 4)
7 2x 4
3 2x
3 2x + 2x
3
3+7
10
4x
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
3 + 2(x 5)
3 + 2x 10
2x 7
2x + 2x 7
4x 7
4x 7 + 7
4x
10
4x
4
10
4
5
2
x =
Therefore, the solution is x =
5
2
or 2 12
1
x
(x 3) = + 7
2
4
Solution 8. This is a situation where you may clear the fractions first if you like, but we will do our steps in order.
1
(x 3) =
2
x
+7
4
x 3
2 2
x
+7
4
4 x 4 3
1 2 1 2
4 x
+47
1 4
2x 6
2x x 6
x6
x6+6
x
=
=
=
=
=
x + 28
x x + 28
28
28 + 6
34
251
In the last example, notice that we multiplied every term by the LCD.
When the term we were multiplying by was a fraction, we made the LCD a
fraction by putting it over 1 (so we could multiply fraction times fraction).
When the term was an integer, we left the LCD as an integer as well.
Example 9. Solve
4x 2
3x
=
+2
3
3
5
3
3
3x
+2
5
15 4x 15 2
1 3
1 3
15 3x
+ 15 2
1 5
20x 10
20x 9x 10
11x 10 + 10
11x
=
=
=
=
9x + 30
9x 9x + 30
30 + 10
40
11x
11
40
11
x =
40
11
40
7
or 3
11
11
x
2x + 3
= 1
2
4
252
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
rule that when you are adding or subtracting fractions with the
same denominator, you may make a single fraction by adding or
subtracting the numerators and putting them over the common
denominator. You may also use that rule in reverse. When there
are plus or minus signs in the numerator of a fraction, you may
break the fractions across the plus or minus signs by putting the
separate terms all over the common denominator. This is what
we will do here.
2x + 3
2
x
1
4
2x 3
+
2
2
x
1
4
4 3
1 2
4 x
41
1 4
4x + 6
4x x + 6
3x + 6 6
3x
=
=
=
=
x4
xx4
4 6
10
3x
3
10
3
4x+
x =
Therefore, the solution is x =
10
3
10
1
or 3
3
3
253
followed by that many zeros. For example, if the number of decimal places
in the terms of an equation are: none, one, two and two, the most is two,
so you would multiply all the terms by 100. Let us see an example:
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.56
0.56
100 0.56
56
56
56 + 7
63
126x
126
63
126
x =
Therefore, the solution is x =
1
2
1
2
Solution 12. Now, let us leave the decimals in and solve. You
254
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
may need to use a calculator or scratch paper.
0.2(x 3) + 0.53(2x + 1)
0.2x 0.6 + 1.06x + 0.53
1.26x 0.07
1.26x 0.07 + 0.07
1.26x
=
=
=
=
=
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56 + 0.07
0.63
1.26x
1.26
0.63
1.26
x = 0.5
Therefore, the solution is x = 0.5
Notice that the last two examples are the same, we simply left the answer
in the first proper form we came to (remember to NOT suggest a fraction
like 0.63
1.26 for an answer!).
Example 13. Solve 0.34(2x 5) + 0.2 = 0.4(x 3)
Solution 13. We will clear the decimals again here. After distributing, you will see that the most number of decimal places
will be two, so we will again multiply every term by 100.
0.34(2x 5) + 0.2
0.68x 1.7 + 0.2
100 0.68x 100 1.7 + 100 0.2
68x 170 + 20
68x 150
68x + 40x 150
108x 150 + 150
108x
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.4(x 3)
0.4x + 1.2
100 0.4x + 100 1.2
40x + 120
40x + 120
40x + 40x + 120
120 + 150
270
108x
108
270
108
x = 2.5
Therefore, the solution is x = 2.5
255
or a x term or etc. There are some equations, though, which at first glance
seem to be linear, but, in reality, are not. For example:
Example 14. Solve for x: 3(x + 5) 8(x + 3) = 5(x + 2)
=
=
=
=
=
5(x + 2)
5x 10
5x 10
5x + 5x 10
10
When we tried to take all of the xterms to the LHS, the xterms not
only canceled on the RHS, but on the LHS as well. If this ever happens, you
are left with an equation involving two numbers. This kind of equation will
either be nonsense, like our last example, or obviously true, like 5 = 5. It is
for this very reason that in the definition of a linear equation (page 244),
there was only a single xterm in the equation, and it was stated that its
coefficient could not be zero.
In the case where you get nonsense, there is no solution. This is annoying, in that if you wish to check your answer, you can only check your
work.
In the case where you get something which is obviously true, your solution is x may be any real number. This type of equation is called an
identity equation. This solution may be checked as all you need to do is
show that two separate values for x (x = 0 and x = 1 are nice, easy choices)
are both solutions. Let us see an example of this kind:
1
1
1
(6x 7) = (4x 5) +
3
2
6
256
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
7
3
6 7
1 3
12x 14
12x 14
12x 12x 14
14
1
1
(4x 5) +
2
6
= 2x
5 1
+
2 6
= 6 2x
=
=
=
=
6 5 6 1
+
1 2 1 6
12x 15 + 1
12x 14
12x 12x 14
14
Beware, though, it does not matter if the constants cancel; only the
variable terms.
Example 16. Solve 5(x 3) = 3(x 5)
=
=
=
=
=
3(x 5)
3x 15
3x 3x 15
15 + 15
0
2x
2
0
2
x = 0
Thus, x = 0
257
Zero is a perfectly fine solution, and this last example WAS a linear
equation.
4(5 x)
= x
3
4.
5
1
2
x x3= x5
3
6
2
5. 2x 5 = 3(x + 6)
6. 7 5(x 3) = 2(4 3x)
7. 4(x + 2) = 2(2x 1) + 10
8.
x+3
3x 1
=
2
4
258
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
1
13. 8(5x 3) + (4x 3) = 5
2
14.
3
1
3
(7 3x) + (3x + 7) = (4x 2)
5
2
4
2
1
1
(3x 4) + = x
3
3
9
5
1
1
19. x x
= (x + 1)
6
2
4
20. 4 (x + 3) 8 (x 3) = 6 (2x 1) 10
21. 3(2x 5) 5(6 4x) = 2 + 3(x 3)
22.
3x 7
8 5x
=
4
3
23.
2
1
(x + 12) + (x + 2) = 2x 3
3
6
24.
7 3x
2
=
3
5
1
9
1
1
(8x 1) + = (4x + 5)
4
4
2
2
27.
1
1
(x 12) + (x + 2) = 2x + 4
4
2
2
1
1
x x+
=
(x + 4)
3
4
12
29.
1
1
(2x 3) + 5 = (3x + 4)
2
3
3x 5
= 2
4
259
260
2.3
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Problem Solving
261
Before we do some problems, you will also need to know how some basic
English words and phrases translate into mathematical operations. There
are words we will consider math words when it comes to translation: sum
(+), difference (), product () and quotient (). These words not only
indicate a specific operation, but they also indicate grouping. They keep
statements in order. Consider the translation of these statements below,
where we have let x =the number.
Notice that sum, difference, product and quotient are always followed by
(something) and (something else). The number or variable before the and
goes before the operation (although this only matters for subtraction and
division).
There are other words we use in every day language that translate into
mathematical expressions. These words take statements out of order when
we express them in a mathematical sentence and they do not group.
Double a number: 2 x
262
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Twice a number: 2 x
Triple a number: 3 x
Subtract 5 from a number: x 5
Solution 1. First, what are we looking for? Rereading the problem, we see: blah, blah, blah,... Find the number. OK, so :
Let x = the number.
The rest of the problem is giving information which helps us find
the number. We need to change the English into math, so we
will take it piece by piece.
number is the {z
same as} double
sum of the number and 3
Triple a
 {z } the

{z
}
 {z }  {z } 
3
x
=
2
(x + 3)
Now all we need to do is solve this linear equation.
3x
3x
3x 2x
x
=
=
=
=
2(x + 3)
2x + 6
2x 2x + 6
6
263
Example 2. Twice the sum of a number and four is equal to the sum of
triple the number and eight. Find the number.
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
(3x + 8)
3x + 8
3x 2x + 8
x+8
x+88
x
0
Example 3. A 22 foot board is cut into two pieces such that the second
piece is two foot less than twice the length of the first. Find the lengths of
the two pieces.
Solution 3. This problem is not just matter of translating English into math; instead of looking for just a number, we are
looking for lengths of boards. First, whenever there are units involved, you want to make sure all the units match. Here, we are
only referring to lengths, and the only unit mentioned is feet, so
264
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
we are safe. Had the board length been given in feet, but the difference of the two pieces been in inches, we would have wanted
to convert one measurement to the other units.
Since the units all match, the next step is to define our variable.
Looking at the last sentence, we see that we are looking for TWO
things  the length of the first piece and the length of the second
piece. We will let x represent one of the lengths, but which one?
Rereading the problem, we see that the length of the second piece
refers back to the length of the first (the second piece is two foot
less than twice the length of the first). Therefore, it will be best
to let the variable be the length of the first piece. So we have:
x
?
=
=
=
=
24
3
x = 8
We wanted two lengths, so finding x is not enough. To find
the length of the second piece, plug our solution for x into the
algebraic expression which represents the length of the second
265
piece.
2(8) 2 = 16 2 = 14
Besides checking our work, we also need to remember that these
are lengths measured in feet, and we need to make sure our answers are not inappropriate. A length of a board may be an
integer or a fraction or decimal, but it MUST be a positive number. Both of our lengths are fine, so:
The length of the first piece is 8 feet, and the length of
the second piece is 14 feet.
Example 4. A 25 foot board is cut into three pieces such that the first piece
is two foot more than twice the length of the second piece, and the third piece
is three foot longer than the second piece. Find the lengths of all three pieces.
Solution 4. The units all match (feet), and the lengths of the
first and third pieces refer back to the second piece. Translating
as before, we get:
2x + 2
x
x+3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
25
25
25
25 5
20
4x
4
20
4
x = 5
This is the length of the second piece. The first piece will be:
2(5) + 2 = 10 + 2 = 12
266
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
and the third:
5+3=8
All answers are appropriate for lengths of boards, so after adding
on units and checking our work, we can say:
The first piece is 12 feet long, the second piece is 5 feet
long, and the third piece is 8 feet long.
Example 5. You open a book to a random spot, and notice that the left and
righthand page numbers add up to 329. What are the two page numbers?
Solution 5. No units this time, but we are looking for two different page numbers. One may be the variable, but we need to
find a relation between the two in order to make an algebraic
expression for the other. You could use that the sum of the two
pages is 329, but we are going to use this to make our equation;
there must be another relation between the two. If you are having
trouble figuring out what the other relation must be, try opening
a book to random pages and see if you can spot a relationship
between the lefthand and righthand page numbers. Could one
be 125 and the other 367, for example? No, the page numbers
must be consecutive, as the righthand page number is always one
bigger than the left. Thus, we may define our variables as:
x
x+1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
329
329
329
329 1
328
2x
2
328
2
x = 164
267
Substituting this into the expression for the righthand page number gives:
164 + 1 = 165
No units to worry about, and a page number should be a positive
integer, but both of our answers are, so:
The page numbers are 164 and 165.
Example 6. The boss makes $40, 000 more than the secretary. Together,
they make $130, 000. How much does each one earn?
Solution 6. Our units are dollars, and all the numbers match.
We are looking for two salaries, but notice that the bosss salary
refers back to the secretarys. Therefore, we will let the secretarys salary be the variable, and use the fact that the bosss
salary is $40, 000 more to make an algebraic expression involving
the variable:
x
x + 40,000
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
130, 000
130, 000
130, 000
130, 000 40, 000
90, 000
2x
2
90, 000
2
x = 45, 000
The bosss salary would then be:
45, 000 + 40, 000 = 85, 000
Both answers are appropriate numbers for salaries (positive numbers), so adding on dollar signs gives:
The boss is making $85, 000, and the secretary is making
$45, 000.
268
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
269
12. After buying two CDs, you notice that the second CD was $5 more
than the first, while the two together cost $29. How much did each
CD cost?
13. You bowl two games for a total score of 241. If your score for the
second game was nine points better, what did you bowl in each game?
14. After golfing eighteen holes, your total score is 86. If your score for
the front nine was four points higher than your score for the back nine,
how much did you shoot on each nine?
270
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
2.4
Ratios
Definition: A ratio is a quotient of two quantities.
You may see a ratio written in several different ways. The ratio of a to
b may be written:
a
, a to b, or a : b
b
We will prefer to write ratios as fractions, as fractions are easy to perform
mathematical operations on. For example, we have seen how to compare
two fractions (see page 118). This comes in handy as one common use of
ratios is to determine the better buy between two products.
Example 1. The local store sells salsa in two sizes: there is a 15 oz. jar
for $1.35, and a 32 oz. jar for $2.76. Which jar is the better buy?
1.35 15
15 15
0.09
1
271
2.76 32
32 32
0.08625
1
Example 2. The same store sells coffee in two sizes: a 13 ounce jar for
$2.75, and a 34 ounce jar for $7.34. Which is the better buy?
1.35 13
13 13
0.211538
1
272
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
While, for the 34 oz. jar:
7.34
34
7.34 34
34 34
0.215882
1
Proportions
Definition: A proportion is an equation which equates two ratios.
Therefore, a proportion is an equation of the form:
a
c
=
b
d
Notice that this is just a special case of an equation involving fractions,
which we have already seen. In general, we learned to clear the fractions by
multiplying every term by the LCD, but look at what happens here if we
multiply both fractions by the common multiple of the product:
a
b
c
d
bd a
1
b
bd c
1
d
6bd a
1
6b
b 6 d c
1
6d
da = bc
Thus, once we cleared the fractions, we ended up with each numerator being
multiplied by the other fractions denominator being equal. Since this is
always true (provided nothing is undefined!), this is considered a shortcut
to solving proportions.
273
Crossmultiplying:
To simplify a proportion, you may multiply each numerator by the
other denominator and set the products equal to each other.
Example 3. You have just invented a new recipe to enter in the local cooking
contest. As invented, the recipe calls for 2 cups of onions for three servings.
Contest rules state that the recipe must make four servings. How many cups
of onions must be used for the recipe to make four servings?
274
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Now we will crossmultiply and solve:
2
3
x
4
8 = 3x
8
3
x =
3x
3
8
3
2
Therefore, to make four servings, the recipe requires 2 cups of
3
onions.
1
Example 4. A recipe that makes 3 dozen peanut butter cookies requires 1
4
cups of flour. How much flour would you require for 5 dozen cookies?
5
x
3x =
5 5
1 4
3x =
25
4
3x
3
25 1
4 3
x =
25
12
275
1
Therefore, to make 5 dozen cookies, you need to use 2
cups
12
of flour.
Example 5. The driver at pump 2 filled her tank with 12.5 gallons of regular
unleaded gas for $33. How many gallons of regular unleaded gas did the
driver at pump 6 get if his total was $42.90?
x
42.9
33x
33
x = 16.25
Therefore, the driver at pump 6 got 16.25 gallons of gas.
Example 6. Akron, OH is located approximately 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. An Ohio map represents this distance as 3 inches. On the
same map, Youngstown, OH is represented by approximately 11
20 of an inch
from the Pennsylvania border. How far is Youngstown, OH actually from
the Pennsylvania border?
276
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 6. First we define our variable:
x = distance Youngstown is from PA
Set up the proportion:
60 miles
x miles
= 11
3 inches
20 inches
Now lets crossmultiply and solve:
60
=
3
11 60
20 1
x
11
20
= 3x
33 = 3x
33
3
3x
3
x = 11
Therefore, Youngstown is 11 miles from the PA border.
Conversion Factors
Another use for ratios is conversion factors. Conversion factors relate a
measurement of one type to its equivalent measure of a second type (e.g.
inches and feet). When we write conversion factors as fractions (ratios), the
numerator and denominator are different ways of writing the same amount,
and thus are just fancy ways of writing the number one. Therefore, any multiplication (or division) we do with conversion factors are simply changing
units; the amount remains unchanged.
To start, we present two tables of conversion factors. The first deals with
the English system for length, conversions between English and metric for
length and weight (sort of), and time.
Length (English)
1 ft = 12 in
1 yd = 3 ft
1 mi = 5, 280 ft
Length or Weight
1 km 0.62 mi
1 in 2.54 cm
1 kg 2.2 lb
Time
1 min = 60 s
1 hr = 60 min
1 day = 24 hr
277
Prefix
gigamegakilocentimillimicronano
Symbol
G
M
k
c
m
or mc
n
Factor
1, 000, 000, 000
1, 000, 000
1, 000
0.01
0.001
0.000 001
0.000 000 001
The factor indicates how many of the base unit is equal to one of the
prefixed unit. For the really small factors, we included a break after every
three zeros to make the numbers easier to read. For example:
Note that we included two symbols for the prefix micro: the Greek
letter mu, , and the English letters, mc. Mu is the official symbol, but the
mc is used as much as, if not more than, it  look at drug prescriptions, for
example. Also, note that small case versus upper case letters matter; mg
represents milligrams, while Mg represents megagrams.
278
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
In all of the following examples and exercises, we will use the conversions
listed in the two tables. If we ever need another conversion factor, it will be
listed in the example or exercise.
A typical conversion, no matter how it is done, will ultimately require
multiplication and/or division, but it can be hard to guess (based only on
intuition) which one and when. The following method for doing conversions
is simple and takes away the need for guess work!
Example 7. How much does a 200 pound man weight in kg? Round your
final answer to the nearest tenth.
200 lb
1
279
90.9 kg
1
1
2.2 6 lb
Therefore, the man weighs 9.9 kg.
287 mcg
1
= 0.000287 g
1
1
1 6 mcg
Onestep conversions like the last two examples may also be done using proportions. However, when there are two or more conversions to be
accomplished, like the next three examples, it is generally best to use this
multiplication method.
Example 9. Convert 0.0000813 kilometers to millimeters.
280
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Each arrow represents a conversion factor. So, we get:
0.0000813 km =
0.0000813 6 km 1, 000 6 m
1 mm
1
1 6 km
0.001 6 m
= 81.3 mm
Example 10. The height of Mount Everest is 8, 848 meters. Find the height
of Mount Everest to the nearest foot.
8, 848 6 m
1 6 km
0.62 6 mi 5, 280 f t
1
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km
1 6 mi
= 28, 965 ft
Example 11. The speed of sound in air is approximately 344 m/s. Find
the speed of sound to the nearest mi/hr.
281
1s
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km
If we would stop here, the units would be mi/s, which is not what
we want. Thus, we now need to convert the denominator.
344 m/s =
=
344 6 m
1 6 km
0.62 mi
1s
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km
344 6 m
1 6 km
0.62 mi 60 6 s 60 6 min
1 6s
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km 1 6 min
1 hr
= 768 mi/hr
Occasionally you may see units with powers. For example, a unit of area
is f t2 , or a unit of volume is m3 . To do the conversions in these cases, you
have two options:
1. write out the units as products rather than powers and apply the conversion factor as many times as is necessary to cancel all the undesired
units,
2. raise your conversion factor to the appropriate power to get a new
conversion factor for the higher power units.
We will do the following two examples both ways to illustrate:
Example 12. Convert 587 in2 to f t2 . Round your answer to the nearest
hundredth.
587 6 in 6 in 1 f t
1 ft
1
12 6 in 12 6 in
= 4.08 ft2
282
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
OR:
We notice that our units are squared, so we will square our conversion factor:
12 in = 1 f t = (12 in)2 = (1 f t)2 = 144 in2 = 1 f t2
Thus, we have a new conversion factor for the squared units:
587 in2 =
587 6 in2
1 f t2
1
144 6 in2
= 4.08 ft2
1 cm
1 cm
1 cm
0.045 6 m 6 m 6 m
1
0.01 6 m 0.01 6 m 0.01 6 m
0.045 6 m3
1 cm3
1
0.000 001 6 m3
283
284
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
2.5
285
Linear Inequalities
ax + b c,
ax + b > c,
or ax + b c
4
5
<x
9
2
286
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 1. We get:
1. Notice that there is no largest endpoint and also that 7 is
included in the interval. Hence, the interval notation is
[7, )
2. Notice that 4 is included in the interval, while 9 is not
included in the interval. Therefore, the interval notation is
[4, 9)
3. Here there is no smallest endpoint, and 14 is not included.
So, the interval notation is (, 14)
4. Finally, 45 is the smallest endpoint but it is not included in
the interval. The largest endpoint is 92 and it
in
is included
Interval Notation
x<b
xb
x>a
xa
a<x<b
ax<b
a<xb
axb
(, b)
(, b]
(a, )
[a, )
(a, b)
[a, b)
(a, b]
[a, b]
Solving a linear inequality in one variable is very similar to solving a linear equation in one variable with two exceptions. The Algebraic Expression
Tools dont change, as they only replace expressions with equivalent expressions, so it doesnt matter if the expressions are in an equation or in an
inequality. The Equation Tools, however, must be replaced with Inequality
Tools.
287
Inequality Tool 1
Additive Property of Inequality:
For any real numbers a, b and c,
If a < b then a + c < b + c.
Inequality Tool 2
Multiplicative Property of Inequality:
For any real numbers a, b and c, except c 6= 0.
1. If a < b and c > 0 then ac < bc.
2. If a < b and c < 0 then ac > bc.
Some comments:
288
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
In both of the Tools and the Fact, we started with a < sign, but these
rules may be used with >, and as well. The trick is to notice
whether the rule indicates that the sign needs to be flipped. Notice
that the additive property shows that you may add or subtract any
number to both sides of an inequality, and the inequality sign stays the
same. The multiplicative property shows that if you wish to multiply
or divide both sides of an inequality by a positive number, the sign
stays the same, BUT if you choose to multiply or divide both sides of
an inequality by a negative number, the inequality sign flips. The fact
indicates that if you ever wish to switch the left side for the right side,
of course you flip the sign in this case as well.
Other than the two cases where you may have to flip the sign, we will
solve a linear inequality by following the exact same rules as we used
to solve a linear equation. In fact, we can say that the only step which
will differ is step 5. Here is where you need to be careful when the
coefficient of x is a negative number, to remember to flip the sign.
289
keeping in mind the two cases where we need to flip the sign):
3(2x 4)
6x 12
6x 12 15x
9x 12
9x 12 + 12
9x
<
<
<
<
<
<
5(3x 1)
15x 5
15x 15x 5
5
5 + 12
7
9x
9
>
7
9
x >
7
9
5
,
9
instead, those same two check values would still give the same results since
0 is in this new interval and 1 is not. Still, this rough check is usually easy
to do (you will often be able to choose integers for the test values), and it
will catch some mistakes like forgetting to flip your inequality sign.
Example 3. Solve 5 2(3x + 1) 4x + 3
290
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 3. Following the rules for solving a linear equation (but
keeping in mind the two cases where we need to flip the sign):
5 2(3x + 1)
5 6x 2
6x + 3
6x + 6x + 3
33
0
10x
4x + 3
4x + 3
4x + 3
4x + 6x + 3
10x + 3 3
10x
0
10x
10
0
10
x 0
Here, we prefer to have the xterms on the left eventually, but we had
originally taken the xterms to the right side in order to keep the coefficient
on the xterm positive. Hence, at one point we simply switched the sides of
the inequality (along with the inequality sign).
Example 4. Solve
x
1
(x + 5) + 1
3
2
291
x
+1
2
6 x 6 5
+
1 3 1 3
6 x
+61
1 2
2x + 10
2x 3x + 10
x + 10 10
x
3x + 6
3x 3x + 6
6 10
4
x
1
4
1
x 4
So, the solution set is [4, ).
292
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 5. Following our rules:
9
9
9 3
12
12
6
< 3 (2x + 1)
<
6x + 3
< 6x + 3 3
<
6x
<
<
<
<
21
21
21 3
18
18
6
<
6x
6
<
2 <
< 3
2 (4 3x)
8 6x
8 8 6x
6x
<
<
<
<
16
16
16 8
8
>
8
6
13
6
6x
6
13
6
>
4
3
<
4
3
13
6
293
Example 7. Solve 3
2x + 1
9
3
2x + 1
3
2x 1
+
3
3
33
3 2x 3 1
+
1 3
1 3
9
91
8
2x + 1
2x + 1 1
2x
8
2
2x
2
13
39
27
27 1
26
26
2
Applications
Linear inequalities also arise in application problems.
Example 8. Jill scored an 88, 94, and 82 on her first three math tests. An
average of at least 90 will earn her an A in the course. What does Jill need
to score on her fourth and final test to earn an A in the course?
294
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 8. Let x = Jills fourth test score.
Then since her average needs to be at least a 90, we have
88 + 94 + 82 + x
4
88 + 94 + 82 + x
4(90) 4
4
360 88 + 94 + 82 + x
90
360 264 + x
360 264 264 + x 264
multiply by 4
simplify
subtract 264
96 x
[96, )
Therefore, in order for Jill to receive an A in the course, she
must score at least a 96 on the fourth test.
Example 9. The local grocery store rents carpet cleaners for $25 plus $5.50
per hour. If Chrissy can spend no more than $80 to clean her carpets, how
long can she rent the carpet cleaner? (Assume all portions of an hour are
prorated.)
5.50
5.50
x 10
subtract 25
divide by 5.50
295
4. 3 x
2. 2 < x 8
5. x
3. x < 7
6. 14 x
11
2
3
4
Solve each linear inequality. Give the solution set in interval notation.
7. 3x 7 5x + 3
8. 7x + 8 4 3x
9.
1
2
x+3 x4
2
3
10. 4(x 3) + 5 9 + 2x
11. 3 + 2x > 5 + 3(2x 7)
12. 2(5x 4) 3(6x + 2)
13. 7(2x 1) + 4 < 3(4x + 3)
14. 4x + 6(5 2x) 4(3 5x) + 7
15.
2
7
(10x 1) (6x + 5)
5
3
296
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
15 6x
<5
5
25. 2
4 + 5x
<6
7
26.
4
2
(2x 3) < 5
3
5
27. The Jones Family is renting a van for their 7 day family vacation.
Auto Depot rents minivans for $35 per day and $0.02 per mile. Car
Zone rents the same minivan for $43 per day with no additional charge
for mileage. How many miles would the Jones Family need to drive
for the the Car Zone rental to be the cheapest?
28. You are offered two different real estate positions. Job 1 pays $250
per week plus a 6% commission on sales. Job 2 pays 9% commission
only. What do the average weekly sales need to be in order for Job 1
to be the better deal?
297
29. The local parking garage calculates the cost for parking using the
formula c = 0.50 + 1.25h where c is the cost in dollars and h is the
number of hours parked rounded to the next highest integer.
(a) When will the cost be $5.50?
(b) When will the cost be more than $12.00?
(c) When will the cost be less than $9.00?
298
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Chapter 3
Solution 1.
(a)
equation we have
3(2) + (3) = 9
?
6+3=9
9 = 9X
Since the substitution results in a true statement, x = 2 and
y = 3 is a solution to 3x + y = 9.
299
300
3(3) + 2 = 9
?
9+2=9
11 6= 9
Hence, x = 3 and y = 2 is not a solution to 3x + y = 9.
We see from Example 1 that in a solution of an equation with two variables, it is important to be careful about which number replaces which variable. So we say that a solution of an equation in two variables is a pair
of numbers, one number assigned to each variable, such that the equation
is true when each occurrence of a variable in the equation is replaced by its
assigned number. We can keep things organized by establishing an order for
the variables. This allows us to abbreviate a solution of an equation in two
variables as an ordered pair of numbers, that is, two numbers in a particular order, written (a, b), where a is the first number and b is the second.
Using ordered pairs, we know from Example 1 that (2, 3) is a solution of
3x + y = 9 while (3, 2) is not.
1
Example 2. Determine whether , 3 is a solution of 5y = 7 14x.
2
301
where a, b and c are real numbers such that a and b are not both zero. If
a and b are both not zero, it is easy to fill in a missing component of an
ordered pair so that it becomes a solution of the linear equation as the next
example illustrates.
Example 3. Given 3x 2y = 7 complete the following ordered pairs to find
a solution to the given equation.
5
(a) (1, ?)
(b)
?,
2
Solution 3.
(a) We start by replacing x with 1 and
solve for y. This yields
3(1) 2y = 7
3 2y = 7
2y = 10
y = 5.
Hence, the ordered pair solution is (1, 5).
(b) This time, we start by replacing y with
x. This yields
5
3x 2
=7
2
3x 5 = 7
5
2
3x = 12
x = 4.
Hence, the ordered pair solution is
5
4,
.
2
In the previous example we solved for the missing coordinate in an ordered pair solution. However, suppose that we were interested in solving for
the missing term in several ordered pair solutions. Instead of writing each
ordered pair, we could organize them in a chart or table.
Example 4. Given 2x 4y = 3, complete the following table.
302
y
1
2
0
2x 4
2x = 1
1
x= .
2
For x = 0, we have
2(0) 4y = 3
4y = 3
3
y=
4
Finally, replacing y with 0, we get
2x 4(0) = 3
2x = 3
3
x= .
2
Thus, the table of solutions becomes
y
14
12
0
1
2
3
4
32
303
Quadrant II
Quadrant I
x < 0, y > 0
x > 0, y > 0
2
1
4
Quadrant III
x < 0, y < 0
2
3
Quadrant IV
x > 0, y < 0
304
4
3
2
1
Solution 5.
y
6
6
tD
5
4
tB
3
2
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
tA
C t3
4
5
6
305
0
1
To finish the problem, we substitute each of these values into x
and solve for the corresponding yvariable.
If x = 1, then
y = 3(1) + 1 = 3 + 1 = 2.
If x = 0, then
y = 3(0) + 1 = 0 + 1 = 1.
If x = 1, then
y = 3(1) + 1 = 3 + 1 = 4.
y
2
y
6s
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
s
0
x
s2
3
4
306
2(0) + 3y = 6
3y = 6 or
y=2
when y = 0,
2x + 3(0) = 6
2x = 6 or
x=3
2(3) + 3y = 6
3y = 12 or
y=4
when x = 3,
Hence, three solutions for 2x + 3y = 6 are (0, 2), (3, 0), and
(3, 4). The following graph shows these solutions plotted on
the same set of axes.
s
y
6
3
2
4 3 2 1
s x
3 4
1
2
3
4
Notice in the previous two examples that the three solutions appear to lie
in a straight line. Will this always happen when we graph a linear equation
in two variables? Yes, but this will be discussed in Section 3.2. For our final
examples, we turn our attention away from linear equations in two variables.
Example 8. Find four solutions of y = 2x2 1 and plot them.
307
see that
when x = 0,
y = 2(0)2 1 = 0 1 = 1
when x = 1,
y = 2(1)2 1 = 2 1 = 1
when x = 2,
y = 2(2)2 1 = 8 1 = 7
when x = 1,
y = 2(1)2 1 = 2 1 = 1
Hence, four solutions of y = 2x2 1 are (0, 1), (1, 1), (2, 7),
and (1, 1). Therefore, when we plot them we obtain
y
t
6
5
4
3
2
t1
6 5 4 3 2 1
t
0
t
1
2
3
4
5
6
Note that for the first time, the solutions do not lie in a straight line.
What is different between the equation given in the above example compared
to the two previous examples? If you said the exponent, you are right.
Let us consider another example whose graph is not a straight line. Can
you see the difference in this example?
Example 9. Find four solutions of x2 + y 2 = 4.
(0)2 + y 2 = 4
2
x + (0) = 4
= y 2 = 4
2
= x = 4
or y = 2
or x = 2.
308
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
t
2
x
3
4
y = 0 + 3 = 3
when x = 1,
y = 1 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4
when x = 1,
when x = 2,
when x = 2,
y =  1 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4
y = 2 + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5
y =  2 + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5
309
y
t
t 46 t
3t
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
2
3
4
1
3. Determine whether 2,
is a solution of 3x + 4y = 4.
2
4. Determine whether (2, 1) is a solution of 5x + 3y = 7.
5. Complete the following ordered pairs to find solutions of 5x 2y = 9.
(a) (4, )
1
,
(b)
2
(c) (0, )
(d) ( , 0)
2
(a) ( , 1)
(c)
,
7
1
(d)
,
(b) (2, )
3
7. Complete the following ordered pairs to find solutions of
6x + 5y = 7.
(a) (0, )
(b) (2, )
(c) ( , 1)
2
(d)
,
5
310
1
4
x + y = 2.
2
3
(c) ( , 6)
1
(d)
,
2
1
4
x
0
3
1
2
y
2
4
2
3
6
x
0
y
2
32
5
x
y
3
311
x
y
2
0
1
4
1
A = (3, 1), B = (5, 3), C =
, 4 , D = (2, 5)
2
16. Find three solutions of y = 5x 1 and plot them.
17. Find three solutions of 2x + 4y = 8 and plot them.
18. Find three solutions of 6y = 5x + 2 and plot them.
19. Find three solutions of y = 3x2 + 2 and plot them.
20. Find four solutions of x = y 2 + 3 and plot them.
21. Find four solutions of x2 + 4y 2 = 16 and plot them.
22. Find four solutions of x2 + y 2 = 25 and plot them.
23. Find five solutions of y = 3x 2 and plot them.
24. Find five solutions of y = 2x 1 + 3 and plot them.
25. Find five solutions of y = 2x + 1 + 3 and plot them.
312
3.2
Now that we know how to find the solutions of a equation, we want to discuss
the graph of a linear equation in two variables. The graph of a equation
is the set of all ordered pairs (x, y) that are a solution to the equation. The
graph of a linear equation in two variables will always be a straight line.
In Section 3.1, we were able to find the solutions of a linear equation. To
complete the graph, we connect these solutions with a straight line. It is
true that two points determine a line; therefore, it is necessary to find two
solutions in order to graph the line. However, it is recommended that a
third point be graphed as a check point.
Example 1. Graph x + 2y = 1 by plotting points.
H
Y
HH
y
6
3
2
HHs 1
HsHs
4 3 2 1
0 H
1 2 3 4 x
HH
1
HH
j
2
3
4
313
314
y
6
s 4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x
1
2
s
3
?
3
In the previous example, (0, 3) is the yintercept and (2, 0) is the xintercept of 3x 2y = 6. The xintercept is the point where the graph
crosses the xaxis. Likewise, the yintercept is the point where the graph
crosses the yaxis. How can we identify the xintercept(s) and yintercept(s)
without graphing? Well, all the points on the xaxis can be written as ordered pairs (x, 0). Therefore, in order to find the xintercept of an equation,
we let y = 0 and solve for x. Likewise, all the points on the yaxis can be
written as ordered pairs (0, y). So, to find the yintercept, we let x = 0 and
solve for y. These results are summarized below.
Since only two points determine a line, instead of finding arbitrary solutions of a linear equation, we can also graph a linear equation by finding the
xintercept and yintercept and connecting them with a straight line. We
illustrate this in the next example.
Example 3. Find the xintercept and yintercept of 5x + 2y = 10, and
graph.
315
L6
5Lt
L
4
L
3
L
L
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
0
1
2
3
4
5
L
L
Lt
L2
L
L
L
L
L
L
316
3t
2
4
t
4 3 2 1
1
0
x
1
2
3
4
Although the two previous examples were easily graphed using the intercepts, relying solely on the intercepts for graphing linear equations can
lead to a problem. Consider the following example.
Example 5. Find the intercepts of 3x 5y = 0 and graph.
317
t
""
"
"
"
1
5 4 3 2 1
"
t
"
"0
"
"
"
"t"
"
"
1
2
3
4
5
"
318
4
3 , 0 which can be difficult to graph. In order to try to avoid
fractions, we first solve the equation for y obtaining
3x 2y = 4
2y = 3x + 4
3
y = x 2.
2
Now we see that in order to avoid fractions we must choose values
of x that are divisible by 2. So, if we let x = 0, we obtain
3
y = (0) 2
2
y = 2.
If we let x = 2, we obtain
3
y = (2) 2
2
y = 3 2
y = 5.
Finally, if we let x = 2, we obtain
3
y = (2) 2
2
y =32
y = 1.
Therefore, (0, 2), (2, 5), and (2, 1) are points on the graph.
Plotting these points and connecting them with a straight line,
we obtain the following graph of 3x 2y = 4.
319
1
t
2 1
0
1 2 3 4
1
t
2
3
4
t 5
?
3
5 4 3
Solving a linear equation for y places the equation in the form y = mx+b
which is called the slopeintercept form of a linear equation. This will be
discussed in Section 3.4.
Example 7. Graph 2x + 3y = 9.
320
Q3 t
Q
Q
2
Qt
QQ
s
5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Plotting points or using the intercepts are not the only ways a linear
equation can be graphed. In Section 3.4, we will discuss graphing a line
using a point and the slope.
321
4.
y
6
4
y
6
4
1 0
4 3 2
X
y
XX2
4 3
0 1 2 3 4 x
X1
XXX
1
XXX
X
z
2
4 x
2
3
4
3
4
2.
5.
y
6
4
J
]
J3
2J
1 J
J
4 3 2 1
0 1 J2 3 4 x
J
1
J
2
^
J
3
4
y
6
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
2
? 3
4
3.
6.
y
46
y
46
*
4 3 2 1
0 1 2
3
4 x
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
3
4
x
4
322
2x y = 4
14.
2x + 3y = 10
8.
y + 3x = 6
15.
4x 5y = 12
9.
4x + 2y = 8
16.
6x 5y = 3
10.
3x 6y = 6
17.
8x 2y = 4
11.
2x + 5y = 4
18.
7x + 3y = 2
12.
3x 4y = 4
19.
6x 3y = 5
13.
3x 5y = 1
20.
9x + 2y = 11
x+y =3
27.
3x 4y = 12
22.
2x y = 6
28.
3x 6y = 6
23.
x + 3y = 6
29.
4x + y = 4
24.
2x y = 4
30.
2x 3y = 6
25.
y + 3x = 6
31.
3x 2y = 12
26.
4x + 2y = 8
32.
5x 2y = 10
y = 2x 4
41.
y = 3x
34.
y = 3x + 2
42.
y=x
35.
y = 13 x 2
43.
3x y = 4
36.
y = 32 x + 2
44.
2x + 3y = 9
37.
y = 32 x 2
45.
4x + y = 3
38.
x=3
46.
6x 2y = 4
39.
y = 2
47.
x + 3y = 5
40.
y = 2x
48.
4x 3y = 2
3.3
323
Function Notation
324
325
Example 3. The profit P (in dollars) from the production and sale of golf
hats is given by the function P (x) = 20x 4000, where x is the number of
hats produced and sold.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) What is P (250)? Interpret this result.
(d) What is the profit from the production and sale of 450 hats? Write
this in function notation.
326
(b) f (1)
(c) f (2)
Solution 4. (a) To find f (0), we replace the independent variable x with 0 to get
f (0) = 3(0) 4
= 4
(b) To find f (1), we replace the independent variable x with 1
obtaining
f (1) = 3(1) 4
=34
= 1
(c) Finally, to find f (2), we replace the independent variable
x with 2 which yields
f (2) = 3(2) 4
= 6 4
= 10
327
328
329
5. The manager of a flea market knows from past experience that if she
charges d dollars for each rental space at the flea market, then the number N of spaces she can rent is given by the equation
N (d) = 4d + 200.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find N (10) and interpret it in the context of the problem.
(d) Find the number of spaces the manager can rent if she charges
$20 for each rental space. Write answer using function notation.
6. A company buys and retails baseball caps. The total cost function is
linear and is given by C(x) = 12x + 280, where x is the number of
baseball caps, and C is the total cost in dollars.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find C(400) and interpret it in the context of the problem.
(d) Find the cost of buying 350 baseball caps. Write answer using
function notation.
7. The profit P (in dollars) from the production and sale of Christmas
ornaments is given by the function P (x) = 15x 1200, where x is the
number of ornaments produced and sold.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) What is P (200)? Interpret this result.
(d) What is the profit from the production and sale of 350 ornaments?
Write this in function notation.
8. A small appliance manufacturer finds that if he produces x microwaves
in a month his production cost C, in dollars, is given by
C(x) = 6x + 3000.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find C(150) and explain what it means.
330
331
332
(b) f (2)
(c) f (4)
(b) A(10)
(c) A(15)
(b) D(10)
(c) D(2)
1
(b) h
4
(c) h
(b) g(3)
(c) g(2)
(b) P (2)
(c) P (0)
(b) s(2)
(c) s(5)
1
(b) C
2
1
(c) C
2
1
(b) P
2
(c) P (5)
1
8
333
(b) h(7)
(c) h(4)
(b) Q(2)
(c) Q(6)
(b) F (2)
(c) F (1)
(b) G(2)
(c) G(1)
(b) g(2)
(c) g(0)
(b) f (2)
(c) f (0)
1
+ 2, find
p
(a) F (1)
1
28. If G(v) = 4 , find
v
(a) G(1)
29. If g(x) = x2 4, find
(a) g(3)
30. If f (x) = x2 + 4, find
(a) f (3)
334
3.4
Slope
y2 y1
change in y
rise
y1 y2
=
=
=
x1 x2
x2 x1
change in x
run
Note that it does not matter if you start with y1 or y2 in the numerator.
However, you must start with its corresponding x in the denominator.
Example 1. Find the slope of the line passing through (1, 3) and (5, 2).
y2 y1
x2 x1
2 3
5 (1)
5
6
Therefore, the slope of the line passing through (1, 3) and (5, 2)
5
is m = .
6
3.4. SLOPE
335
Example 2. Find the slope of the line passing through (9, 2) and (5, 5).
y2 y1
x2 x1
52
5 (9)
3
4
So, the slope of the line passing through (9, 2) and (5, 5) is
3
m= .
4
3 1
1
, 3 and , .
Example 3. Find the slope of the line passing through
2
4 5
Solution 3. Although some of the coordinates are fractions, we
still substitute the given information into the slope formula. This
yields
m=
y2 y1
x2 x1
1
(3)
5
3 1
4 2
16
5
5
=
=
Thus, the slope is m =
64
.
25
16
4
5
5
64
.
25
336
What if we want to find the slope of a line where we are given the graph.
We can still use the slope formula if we first identify two points on the
rise
line. However, we can also find the slope by reviewing slope as
. Both
run
methods will be illustrated in the next example.
Example 4. Determine the slope of the following line.
y
O4CC6
3C
C
2
C
1 C
4 3 2 1
0
1
C1
C
C
x
3
4
C
CW
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
x
3
4
Cr
C1
C
C
Cr
C
CW
Using the slope formula with (1, 0) and (2, 4), we obtain
m=
4 0
4
y2 y1
=
=
= 4.
x2 x1
21
1
3.4. SLOPE
337
direction we travel in order to get to the second point we identified as (2, 4). Therefore, we travel 4 units down, so the rise is
4. Then we travel 1 unit to the right, so the run is 1. Thus,
rise
4
=
= 4.
m=
run
1
Example 5. Determine the slope of x = 2.
y
6
3
2
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
x
3
4
Therefore, since (2, 1) and (2, 1) are points on this line, we can
use the slope formula to find the value of the slope. Hence,
m=
y2 y1
x2 x1
1 1
22
2
0
2
is undefined, we find that the slope of x = 2 is undeSince
0
fined.
In the last example, we found that the slope of the vertical line x = 2 was
undefined. In fact, the slope of every vertical line x = a is undefined. Is the
same true for a horizontal line? The next example answers this question.
338
y
6
r
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
2
3
4
Therefore, since (1, 3) and (1, 3) are points on this line, we can
use the slope formula to find the value of the slope. Hence,
m=
y2 y1
x2 x1
33
1 1
0
2
= 0.
Thus, the slope of y = 3 is zero.
In fact, the slope of every horizontal line y = b is zero. The equation of
vertical and horizontal lines will be discussed in Section 3.5.
We have seen examples of lines with positive slope, negative slope, zero
slope, and undefined slope. The following table summarizes information
concerning the slope of a line.
3.4. SLOPE
339
The slope formula is useful when we know two points located on the line.
What if we are given the equation of the line? We could use the equation
to locate two points on the line, and then use the slope formula as in the
previous examples. However, we could also use the slopeintercept form
of the line to identify the slope and yintercept.
Slopeintercept form: The slopeintercept form of an equation
with slope m and yintercept b is given by
y = mx + b.
When identifying the slope and yintercept using the slopeintercept form,
remember to divide each term by the coefficient on y. The slope and
yintercept can only be identified once you have isolated y.
Example 7. Identify the slope and the yintercept of each line.
(a) 3x 2y = 6
(b) 5x + 10y = 3
340
3
0,
.
10
Now we return to graphing a linear equation. However, instead of graphing it by plotting points we will use the slope and yintercept to graph the
line.
Example 8. Graph 3x 2y = 6 by finding the slope and yintercept.
3.4. SLOPE
341
y
6
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
2
t
3
The advantage the above method has for graphing a line is that it does
not require the equation of the line in order to graph it.
1
and which passes
2
342
HH
Y
H
4
HH
HH
HHt
H
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
HHt
H
H
j
4
1
2
3
4
5
1
In the previous example, the slope was . We know that
2
1
1
1
=
=
.
2
2
2
1
? No, but we will get
2
a different second point. To see this, the rise is now 1 so we rise one unit
up, and the run is 2 so we go 2 units to the left from the given point (3, 2).
Therefore, the second point would be (1, 3). Therefore, a different second
point but still the same line as shown below.
y
Will we get a different line if we view the slope as
HH
Y
H
4
HH
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
Ht
HH
HtH
H
0
1
2
3
4
5
HH
H
j
5
3.4. SLOPE
343
Next, let us consider parallel and perpendicular lines. Parallel lines are
two lines in the same plane that never intersect. Two lines are perpendicular lines if they intersect to form a 90 angle. However, since graphs can
be deceiving, can we tell if two lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither,
without graphing them? The next two facts give us the answer.
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
Parallel lines have the same slope. So, m1 = m2 .
Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal slopes. In other
words, m1 m2 = 1.
Example 10. Determine whether the following lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither.
3x 5y = 10
and
5x + 3y = 7
3x 5y = 10
5y = 3x + 10
3
y = x2
5
m=
3
5
5x + 3y = 7
3y = 5x + 7
5
7
y = x+
3
3
m=
5
3
3
5
Since
= 1, the two lines are perpendicular.
5
3
344
Example 11. Determine whether the following lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither.
2x + 5y = 9
and
6x + 15y = 3
2x + 5y = 9
5y = 2x 9
2
9
y = x
5
5
m=
6x + 15y = 3
2
5
15y = 6x + 3
6
3
y = x+
15
15
1
2
y = x+
5
5
m=
2
5
Since the slopes are identical, the two lines are parallel.
1
and passing through (3, 1).
2
3.4. SLOPE
345
6. m =
1
and passing through (4, 2).
2
7. m =
2
and passing through (0, 2).
3
8. m =
5
and passing through (0, 4).
2
9. m =
3
and passing through (1, 3).
2
10. m =
3
and passing through (2, 1).
4
Calculate the slope of the line passing through the given points.
1
11. (3, 4) and (2, 1)
, 2
19. (1, 4) and
2
12. (7, 6) and (4, 3)
1
1
13. (2, 7) and (2, 4)
20.
, 1 and , 3
2
2
14. (2, 3) and (4, 5)
1
2
15. (7, 1) and (5, 1)
21.
4,
and 2,
3
3
16. (5, 3) and (7, 4)
3x + 2y = 10
29.
3x + 5y = 4
24.
7x + 3y = 12
30.
7x 9y = 1
25.
14x 6y = 6
31.
5x + 2y = 13
26.
21x + 6y = 0
32.
3x 4y = 9
27.
18x + 12y = 1
33.
4x 3y = 9
34.
2x + 5y = 6
28.
8x 10y = 12
346
38.
y
KAA 4 6
A3
A2
1A
A
4 3 2 1
y
46
3
2
1
A1
A
0
1
4 3 2 1
A
AU
y
6
4
4
=
?
y
QQ4 6
k
Q
3
>
4 x
1
4 3
2
+
2
3
x
3
4
40.
4
4 3 2 1
39.
x
37.
y
46
4 3 2 1
36.
4 x
y
6
QQ
s
x
4
2
1
H
Y
4
2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x
H3
HH 1
HH
2
H
3 HH
H
j
4
?
3.4. SLOPE
347
41.
42.
y
46
4 3 2 1
1 2
0
1
2
x
4 3 2 1
x
0
1
y
6
? 4
y = 23 x 7 and y = 32 x + 2
48.
y = 12 x 7 and y = 2x + 3
44.
y = 17 x + 8 and y = 7x 2
49.
3x 4y = 2 and 4x + 3y = 1
45.
y = 2x 1 and y = 2x + 3
50.
2x 6y = 3 and x 3y = 4
46.
y = x and y = x
51.
47.
y = 4 and x = 2
52.
348
3.5
Equations of Lines
Finally, we are ready to find the equation of a line. We have already noted
that a linear equation in two variables can be written as ax + by = c where
a, b, and c are real numbers and a and b cannot both be zero. This form,
ax + by = c, is called the general form of a line.
In order to find the equation of any line (that is not horizontal or vertical) we will always need two items: the slope and a point on the line. Once
we have these two items, we need to use either the slopeintercept form
or the pointslope formula to find the equation of the line. Although we
have already discussed the slopeintercept form, it is stated here again for
convenience.
Either formula can be used to solve for the equation of a line. The next
example illustrates the use of each formula.
Example 1. Find the equation of the line with slope m = 3 and which
passes through (5, 2).
349
3
4
350
3
4
In order to use either the slopeintercept formula or the pointslope formula, we need to know the slope and a point on the line. However, what if
we know only two points on the line? Well, this means that we first need to
find the slope of the line by using the slope formula from Section 3.4.
Example 3. Find the equation of the line passing through (2, 3) and
(4, 5).
Solution 3. First, we must find the slope of the line. The slope
formula gives us
m=
5 3
8
4
=
=
.
4 (2)
6
3
351
23
y2 y1
1
1
=
=
=
x2 x1
7 0
7
7
Solution 5. Since the line has an xintercept at 2 and a yintercept at 4, this means that the line passes through (2, 0)
and (0, 4). Substituting these values into the slope formula gives
m=
40
4
y2 y1
=
= =2
x2 x1
0 (2)
2
352
Example 6. Find the equation of the vertical line through (6, 3).
2
,4 .
7
Solution 8. First you need to find the slope of the line 2x3y =
10 by placing it in slopeintercept form. Solving for y, we obtain
353
2x 3y = 10
3y = 2x + 10
2
10
y = x
3
3
2
Therefore, the slope of the given line is m = . Since we need
3
a line parallel to this one, the slope of the line we need is also
2
2
m = . Substituting m =
and (x1 , y1 ) = (8, 3) into the
3
3
pointslope formula, we obtain
y3=
2
(x + 8)
3
16
2
y3= x+
3
3
2
25
y = x+ .
3
3
354
Example 10. Find the equation of the line passing through (1, 4) which
is perpendicular to the line passing through (2, 3) and (4, 2).
Solution 10. First, we must find the slope of the line passing
through (2, 3) and (4, 2) using the slope formula. This yields
m=
y2 y1
32
1
1
=
=
= .
x2 x1
24
2
2
355
Example 11. Find the equation of the line parallel to x = 3 and passes
through (9, 5)
2.
y
AKA 4 6
A3
A2
1A
A
4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
A1 2
A
A
A
0
1
2
3
4
y
6
x
4 3 2 1
A
AU
=
?
>
4 x
1
2
356
3.
6.
y
kQ4 6
Q
Q
3
4 3 2 1
QQ
s
x
4 3 2 1
y
6
4.
x
7.
y
46
AK
A
x
1
2
3
4
5.
1
A
A
4 3 2 1
0 1
A
1
A
A 2
A 3
A 4
AU ?
4 3 2 1
y
6
x
8.
@
I
@
y
46
y
46
4 3 2 1
1
0
@1
@
2
@
3
4
x
4 3 2 1
0
1
@
R
@
x
357
10.
y
6 46
AK
A
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
4 3 2 1
A2
A1
A
0
? 4
y
6
A1
A
A
x
A
AU
Find the equation of the line having the following properties. Write answers
in slopeintercept form.
11. m = 4 and passing through (3, 2).
12. m =
1
and passing through (6, 12).
3
358
1 1
,
2 3
1
26. horizontal line through 4,
3
7 1
27. vertical line through
,
3 2
28. parallel to y = 5, through (1, 2)
29. perpendicular to y = 5, through (1, 2)
30. perpendicular to x = 3, through (2, 5)
31. parallel to x = 7, through (5, 2)
32. Passing through (5, 4) and parallel to y = 15 x 8.
33. Passing through (11, 4) and perpendicular to y =
11
4 x
+ 3.
359
360
Appendix A
361
362
Subtraction
If the numbers you are subtracting are:
fractions (either proper or improper).
1. Find the LCD of the denominators.
2. Make both fractions have the LCD for a denominator by creating
equivalent fractions.
3. Combine into a single fraction over the common denominator.
4. Subtract the numbers in the numerator (usually integers) according to the appropriate rules.
363
integers, mixed numbers or decimals AND the two numbers are both
positive with the larger number first.
1. Subtract as appropriate for the type of number.
integers, mixed numbers or decimals AND one or both of the numbers
is negative or they are both positive but the smaller number is first.
1. Change the minus sign to a plus sign, and change the number
following the sign to its opposite.
2. Add according to the addition rules.
Multiplication
If the numbers you are multiplying are:
mixed numbers.
1. Change the mixed numbers to improper fractions.
2. Multiply as listed below.
integers, fractions or decimals.
1. Multiply the absolute values of the numbers as appropriate for
the type of numbers.
2. Make the product have the proper sign as listed under the Sign
Rules for Multiplication Table.
364
Division
If the numbers you are dividing are:
mixed numbers.
1. Change the mixed numbers to improper fractions.
2. Divide as listed below.
integers, fractions or decimals.
1. Divide the absolute values of the numbers as appropriate for the
type of numbers.
2. Make the quotient have the proper sign as listed under the Sign
Rules for Division Table.
Appendix B
Multiplying or Dividing
Mixed Numbers
When adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing mixed numbers, you may
always convert the mixed numbers into improper fractions. For addition and
subtraction, however, we showed in section 1.8 shortcuts for adding and
subtracting mixed numbers. When we went on to section 1.9, we did not
list any such shortcut for multiplication or division of mixed numbers. In
this appendix, we will examine what the shortcuts would be, and why they
are never used.
Multiplication
Recall that the shortcuts arise from remembering the plus sign in the
mixed number. We will put the plus signs back in, and then simplify. The
following work is a bit beyond what you need to know at this point, but if you
remember how to FOIL from high school, you can follow along. Otherwise,
just take our word for the work, and see what the shortcut would be.
Example 1. Multiply 2 12 1 51
Solution 1. We will ignore the signs for the moment, and just
365
2 12 1 15 = 2 + 12 1 + 51
1
5
1
2
= 21+2
= 2+
2
1
1
5
= 2+
2
5
1
2
1
2
1+
1
2
1
5
1
10
1
10
= 2+
2
5
1
2
1
10
2
5
1
2
1
10
2
1
210
110
20
10
20+4+5+1
10
30
10
22
52
4
10
+
5
10
15
25
1
10
1
10
= 3
Multiplying a negative number times a positive number gives a
negative number.
Therefore, 2 21 1 15 = 3
Compare this to example 11 on page 155 to see why no one in their right
mind uses this shortcut.
Division
The shortcut for division is even further beyond the scope of this book,
but follow along the best you can.
367
Example 2. Divide 2 14 3 13
2+
3+
1
4
1
3
2 + 14 12
1
1
24 33 =
3 + 13 12
=
24 + 3
36 + 4
27
40
Compare this example to example 12 on page 155, and again you will
see why it is much better to just change the mixed numbers to fractions.
Appendix C
Answers to Exercises
Chapter 1
Section 1.2 (Exercises on page 33.)
1. 8
15. 0
2. 22
>
16. 11
3. 5
17. 25
<
52
18. 34
34
19. 9
10
20. 2
<
4. 18
5. 56
>
6. 19
7. 33
7
43
19
8. 14
9. 197
197
10. 3
>
11. 12
12
12. 7
21. 206
54
22. 34
23. 16
24. 0
25. 28
26. 17
27. 45
13. 3
28. 91
14. 15
13
29. 73
369
<
10
<
370
30. 22
51. (5)
31. 52
52.  3
32. 17
53. 0
33. 8
54. (8)
>
34. 0
55.  6
6
56.  12
>
12
35. 102
36. 1
37. 13
38. 37
39. 22
>
 4
57.  3
0
3
58. (23)
59. 0
>
60. 13
 5
(20)
 1
 2
40. 9
41. 2
42. 2
43. 9
44. 7
61. (14)
62.  45
12
(45)
63. 0
 0
64. 17
 17
65.  8
<
46. 3
66. 1
<
(1)
47. 4
67. 28
<
 32
48. 18
68.  12
49. 6
69. (11)
50. 32
70. 0
45. 5
3. 6
2. 21
4. 29
<
<
 (8)
 48
(10)
 109
371
5. 5
23. 55
6. 6
24. 88
7. 14
25. 35
8. 12
26. 32
9. 1
27. 33
10. 19
28. 35
11. 36
29. 15
12. 58
30. 2
13. 58
31. 36
14. 63
32. 16
15. 32
33. 64
16. 44
34. 3
17. 15
35. 4
18. 13
36. 17
19. 36
37. 50
20. 18
38. 21
21. 37
39. 34
22. 10
40. 11
6. 18
2. 48
7. 408
3. 220
8. 90
4. 66
9. 5
5. 0
10. 8
372
11. 84
26. 3
12. 20
27. 1
13. 0
28. undefined
14. 72
29. 7
15. 68
30. 2
16. 42
31. 23
17. 88
32. 19
18. 2170
33. undefined
19. 693
34. 9
20. 6
35. 42
21. 5
36. 0
22. 4
37. 18
23. 3
38. 9
24. 180
39. undefined
25. 0
40. 14
9. 4
2. 81
10. 64
3. 64
11. 27
4. 1
12. 1
5. 1
13. 0
6. 1
14. 1
7. 1
15. 49
8. 9
16. 11
373
17. undefined
29. 4
18. 64
30. 5
19. 0
31. 15
20. 81
32. 7
21. 1
33. 1
22. 20
34. 7
23. 0
35. 12
24. 25
36. 6
25. 12
37. 20
26. 27
38. 0
27. 1
39. 2
28. 7
40. 0
12. GCF(70,98) = 14
2. 70 = 2 5 7
13. GCF(40,78) = 2
3. 65 = 5 13
14. GCF(40,108) = 4
4. 50 = 2 5 5
5. 98 = 2 7 7
6. 100 = 2 2 5 5
7. 108 = 2 2 3 3 3
8. 40 = 2 2 2 5
9. 135 = 3 3 3 5
15. GCF(88,98) = 2
16. GCF(50,65) = 5
17. GCF(108,135) = 27
18. GCF(65,70) = 5
19. GCF(100,135) = 5
20. GCF(88,100) = 4
21. LCM(50,70) = 350
10. 78 = 2 3 13
11. GCF(50,70) = 10
374
2
7
15.
2.
3
5
16.
3.
5
9
17.
4.
11
13
5.
6.
20
32
42
48
19.
16
72
5
6
21.
2
3
3
4
22.
1
5
2
5
3
11
23.
10.
7
10
24.
8
20
3
7
25.
12.
2
8
26.
13.
9
21
27.
14.
7
42
20.
9.
11.
36
45
21
22
7.
8.
2
3
18.
12
18
30
60
28.
4
9
5
8
1
3
3
5
375
29.
2
5
45.
13
16
46.
2
3
47.
30.
31. 3
33. 14
1
4
49.
3
8
50.
59
24
2
3
51.
3
5
36. 14
38. 11
3
5
11
5
23
4
44.
21
11
25
6
77
9
1
2
11
24
52.
4
9
53.
8
13
>
3
5
5
7
>
31
8
>
52
19
54.
55.
23
7
42.
43.
5
9
1
3
40. 14
41.
1
2
10
11
39. 27
93
10
48.
34. 4
35. 20
47
8
1
2
32. 7
37. 4
35
3
56.
100
3
15
17
>
58.
11
5
9
4
5
6
60. 6
>
53
9
65
2
110
133
57.
59.
11
15
4
5
376
1.
9
1
or 1
8
8
16.
41
1
or 4
10
10
2.
2
3
17.
5
11
or 1
6
6
3.
1
2
18.
7
1
or 3
2
2
19.
58
23
or 1
35
35
4.
1
4
5.
98
8
or 6
15
15
20.
6.
7
3
or 1
4
4
21.
7.
41
5
or 3
12
12
22.
1
11
or 2
5
5
1
8
41
17
or 1
24
24
8.
17
5
or 2
6
6
23.
9.
11
2
or 1
9
9
24.
10.
29
1
or 7
4
4
7
8
7
10
25.
71
8
or 7
9
9
3
5
11.
25
1
or 2
12
12
26.
12.
65
2
or 1
63
63
27.
41
42
13.
1
2
28.
14.
113
5
or 9
12
12
29.
15.
41
5
or 3
12
12
30.
17
1
or 8
2
2
25
4
or 3
7
7
3
16
2
5
or 1
3
3
2.
4
11
or 1
7
7
377
3.
4.
5
11
5.
6.
1
9
9
28
35
13
or 1
22
22
7. none
8.
1
84
9.
17
5
or 1
12
12
51
23
or 1
28
28
22
1
22.
or 3
7
7
2
23.
9
24. 0
21.
25. undefined
17
26.
88
25
7
27.
or 2
9
9
28. 1
10.
7
43
29.
11.
1
36
30.
2
12.
15
13.
14.
27
64
7
10
15.
3
1
or 1
2
2
25
1
or 12
16.
2
2
17.
3
1
or 1
2
2
18. 1
19.
5
28
20.
3
32
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
16
81
4
9
10
16
11
3
17
9
or
2
21
24
35
4
37.
9
1
38.
4
39. 4
36.
40. 1
41.
1
2
or 1
1
2
5
11
378
42. 1
47.
27
13
or 1
14
14
48.
7
10
43. undefined
44.
8
1
or 1
7
7
45. 0
46.
2
9
49.
50.
1
6
1
21
3. 0.375
5, 588
88
or 55
100
100
7
17.
1, 000, 000
4. 0.09
18.
1. 0.5
2. 0.7
5. 0.53
16.
19.
6. 0.90
7. 0.28
11, 011
11
or 11
1, 000
1, 000
20.
187, 002
7, 002
or 18
10, 000
10, 000
306
10, 000
8. 0.8125
21. 22.08
9. 4.75
22. 73.10
10. 0.227
11.
7, 630, 073
37, 630, 073
or 3
10, 000, 000
10, 000, 000
12.
142, 178
2, 178
or 14
10, 000
10, 000
13.
14.
900, 035
35
or 9
100, 000
100, 000
5, 124, 992
124, 992
or 5
1, 000, 000
1, 000, 000
2
1, 562
or 156
15.
10
10
23. 1, 350.01
24. 3.14
25. 57.00
26. 18.56
27. 1.56
28. 23.52
29. 8.67
30. 4.3
31. 2.9192
1.56
<
23.52
8.67
4.30
<
2.91
379
3
0.6
5
4
33.
< 0.45
9
9
34.
< 0.643
14
32.
35.
16
5
3.1
1
6
0.167
36.
6
25
33
42.
100
43.
1
20
44.
13
3
or 1
10
10
45.
19
100
3
46.
4
47.
4
5
1
48.
100
49.
0
or 0
1
2
50.
or 2
1
53. 0.05
54. 1.3
55. 0.19
56. 0.75
57. 0.8
58. 0.01
59. 0
60. 2
61. 52%
62. 3.1%
63. 18%
64. 250%
65. 999%
66. 0.5%
67. 70%
51. 0.24
68. 44%
52. 0.33
69. 22.5%
380
70. 100%
76. 75%
71. 33.3%
77. 55.5%
72. 50%
73. 25%
78. 8%
74. 20%
79. 70%
75. 16.6%
80. 34%
18. 155.76
2. 37.4944
19. 12.65
3. 4.64
20. 584.693
4. 771.327
5. 14.177
6. 4.325
21. 124.845
22. 0.7955
23. 241.92
24. 3.7
7. 272.832
25. 2.0832
8. 208.486
26. 9.792
9. 13.46
27. 263.11
10. 269.795
28. 0.8194
11. 256.851
29. 28.52
12. 198.418
13. 29.5097
14. 73.14
30. 0.0924
31. 1, 737.2
32. 4.72
33. 4, 252.834
15. 10.22
34. 2, 400.23
16. 337.41
35. 339.61
17. 21.835
381
37. 201.9
49. 3.002
38. 1.56
50. 51.8
51. 1.3
40. 200.5
52. 3.36
41. 32.6
53. 2.7
42. 2.342
54. 4.2
43. 1.54
55. 69
44. 200.4
56. 17.76
45. 0.314
57. 73.8
46. 13.25
58. 25.74
47. 3.22
59. 17.5
48. 2.005
60. 19
2. no real number
12. 2
3. 7
13. 6
4. 5
14. 6
5. 5
15. 22
6. 5
16. 16
7. 8
17. 24
8. 4
18. 27
9. no real number
10. 2
20. 42
382
1
6
2
17
1
7.
2
1
18
9. 4
8.
10.
15
2
or 1
13
13
1
3
11. or 1
2
2
12.
1
45
383
Chapter 2
Section 2.1 (Exercises on page 239.)
1. 3x5 4x4 + x2 ; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 3x5 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 3.
The second term is: 4x4 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 4.
The third term is: x2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 1.
2. xy 2yz; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: xy, and this is a variable term with coefficient = 1.
The second term is: 2yz, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 2.
3. 5 x; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: 5, and this is a constant term.
The second term is: x, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 1.
4. 13x2 11x + 1; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 13x2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 13.
The second term is: 11x, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 11.
The third term is: 1, and this is a constant term.
5. x + y + xy; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 3x5 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 3.
The second term is: 4x4 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 4.
The third term is: x2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 1.
6. 8 + 3x2 y 2xy 2 ; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 8, and this is a constant term.
The second term is: 3x2 y, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 3.
The third term is: 2xy 2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 2.
384
7. 6
21. 11x 4
8. 2
22. m + 4n
9. 1
23. 2x y + 2
10. 8
24. x 2y
11. 1
25. 8x + 17
12. 11
26. 2x2 + x 10
13. 3
27. 3
14. 7
28. 11a
15. 13
29. 4x + 3
16. 1
30. 4xy 6x + 2y
2
17.
3
31. 7x 14
18. 5
32. 4x 3
19. 6
33. 5m + n
20. 1
34. x + 33
8
2
or 2
3
3
3. x = 20
4. x = 3
8. x = 7
9. x = 4.6
10. x = 4
11. No solution
12. x =
4
7
13. x =
35
76
6. x = 14
14. x =
92
26
or 2
33
33
15. No solution
5. x = 23
385
16. x =
17. x =
18. x =
19. x =
20. x =
21. x =
22. x =
23. x =
47
7
51
7
21
17
3
5
13
4
38
23
53
29
68
7
5
7
2
or 7
7
4
or 1
17
or 6
1
4
15
or 1
23
24
or 1
29
5
or 9
7
or 3
24. x =
29
14
or 1
15
15
25. x =
1
3
24
4
or 4
5
5
28. x =
7
2
or 1
5
5
29. No solution
30. x =
13
5
or 1
8
8
31. x = 1
32. x = 0.2
6. 5x + x = 12;
First piece = 10 feet;
Second piece = 2 feet.
12. x + (x + 5) = 29;
First CD cost $12; Second CD
cost $17.
13. x + (x + 9) = 241;
First game = 116;
Second game = 125.
8. x + (2x 1) + (x + 2);
First piece = 4 feet;
Second piece = 7 feet;
Third piece = 6 feet.
14. (x + 4) + x = 86;
Front nine score = 45;
Back nine score = 41.
386
11. 14 pounds
3. 12 for $0.85.
13. 0.8365 cm
5. 5 cups
6. $51.43
7. 25 minutes
8. 1
7
cups of flour
8
9. 7 inches
10. 35 gallons
18. 99 pounds
19. 150, 000 mm2
20. 0.77 yd3
4. 3, 11
2
5. 43 , )
6. (, 14]
7. [5, )
8. 52 ,
9. [42, )
10. (, 8]
11. , 19
4
7
12. 4 ,
13. (, 6)
14. , 54
71
15. , 150
16. 16
,
13
17. (, 42]
18. (, 20]
19. (, 6]
20. , 76
11
21. [3, 4]
8 23
22. 15
, 15
4 25
23. 3 , 6
24. 53 , 25
6
38
25. 18
5 , 5
387
26.
23
37
12 , 8
(c) when h 6
388
Chapter 3
Section 3.1 (Exercises on page 309.)
1. solution
10.
x
0
1
2
2
3
19
3
11
6
5. (a) (4, 29
2 )
x
5
y
2
(b) (2, 12 )
2
3
x
0
y
4
18
10
32
37
2. not a solution
3. not a solution
4. solution
(c)
(d)
6. (a)
11.
(0, 92 )
( 95 , 0)
11
7
, 1
(b) (2, 2)
(c) 27 , 2
(d) 1, 13
7. (a) 0, 75
(b) (2, 1)
(c) 13 , 1
(d) 32 , 25
12.
13.
8. (a) (4, 0)
(b) (4, 3)
(c) (12, 6)
(d) 83 , 12
9.
x
1
1
4
y
7
3
1
3
17
3
14.
x
2
3
y
3
17
2
52
x
32
y
2
57
389
15.
y
6
3
2
y
46
tB
4 3 2 1
t4 x
tA
1
4 3 2 1
0
1
x
1
2
3
tD
tC
?
18. 0, 13 , 1, 12 , (4, 3)
y
6
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
t
0
t1
x
1
2
y
6
t y t
46
x
3
2
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
3
4
x
390
4 3 2 1
1
0
t x
3 4
t1
t2
4 3 2 1
3
4
y
6
4
0
1
x
3
4
24. (0, 5), (1, 7), (1, 3), (2, 5), (2, 9)
3
2
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
1
1
t x
4
6
s
3
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
3
4
t?
tx
x
391
25. (1, 3), (0, 1), (2, 1), (1, 1), (3, 1)
y
6
t3
2
1t
4 3 2 1
0 1
t
t
1
x
2
3
4
16.
17.
2, 0
0, 35
, (0, 2)
18. 27 , 0 , 0, 23
19. 56 , 0 , 0, 53
11
20. 11
0, 2
9 ,0 ,
21.
2, 0
y
6
@3 t
2@
@
I
@
12. 43 , 0 , (0, 1)
13. 13 , 0 , 0, 15
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
3
4
@ t 2 @
3 4 x
@
R
392
22.
y
6
25.
4
3
t
3
3
4
6 5 4 3 2 1
t
6
?
26.
y
AK4 6
t
3A
2 A
5
4
t5
)
6
4 3 2 1
1
0
t
6
?
t
2
t2
23.
5
4
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
At2
A
x
AU
5
6
24.
27.
y
6
4
KA
A
1
At
4 3 2A1
0 1
A 1
A2
A
3
At
4
A?
U
x
>
6
4
3
t
2
t
4 3 2 1
1
0
1
2
3
4
x
393
31.
28.
y
6
t
0
1 2 3 4 x
t
4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x
4
5
t
6
?
2
1
3
4
29.
y
t6
32.
3
2
t 0 1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
?
x
3
2
1
t
6 5 4 3 2 1
0
y
6
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
0
1
5t
30.
3t
3 4 x
394
33.
36.
4
y
6
4 3 2 1
x
4 3 2 1
1
2
Q
2 Q
3 4 x
QQ
s
y
6
Q
Q2
Q
k
Q
37.
34.
y
BMB 4 6
B3
2B
1B
B
4 3 2 1
0B 1
1
B
B
2
3
4
y
6
4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x
3
4 ?
4
3
x
B
BN
38.
35.
y
46
y
46
2
1
4 3 2 1
4 x
1
4 3 2 1
x
395
39.
42.
y
46
y
46
2
1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
x
3
4
0 1
x
2
3
43.
40.
y
46
3
2
2
1
3
4 x
4 3 2 1
x
4
?
3
4
0
1
y
6
4 3 2 1
41.
BMB
y
46
B
4 3 2 1
44.
B2
B1
B
1
2
B
B
4
? BN
3
y
46
Q
Q3
Q
2
Q
k
Q
x
Q
Q
4 3 2 1
0
1
2
3
4
QQ
x
s
4
396
45.
47.
y
6
3
2
1
4
4 3 2 1
3
P
iP
PP 2
PP
1 PP
PP
P
P
qx
x
4 3 2 1
y
6
46.
48.
y
6
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
1
x
4 3 2 1
1
2
4
y
6
x
3
4
397
(d) A(4) = 300 sq yds
4. (a) number of hours t on the
job
(b) the charges C
(c) C(2) = 140. For 2 hours
on the job, the charge is
$140.
(d) C(3) = $185.
5. (a) dollars
space.
(b) number
rented.
charged
N
of
per
spaces
(c) C(150) = 3900. The production cost for 150 microwaves is $3900.
(d) C(75) = $3450
9. (a) x computers
(b) revenue R
(c) R(8) = 12000. The revenue from the sale of 8
computers is $12, 000.
(d) R(10) = $15, 000
10. (a) number of years t since
reservoir constructed
(b) water level W measured
in feet.
(c) W (4) = 50. Four years after reservoir constructed,
the water level is 50 feet.
(d) W (7) = 65 feet
11. (a) width w measured in meters
(b) perimeter P measured in
meters
(c) P (12) = 52. The perimeter of the garden with
width 12 meters is 52 meters.
(d) P (20) = 68 meters.
12. (a) minutes m
(b) monthly cost A in dollars
(c) A(100) = 14.25. The
monthly cost for 100 minutes is $14.25.
(d) A(250) = $27.75
13. (a) time t in seconds
(b) height H of the rocket
398
18. (a) 50
(b) 250
(c) 50
28. (a) 3
7
(b)
2
(c) 5
19. (a) 8
(b) 4
(c) 2
29. (a) 5
(b) 0
(c) 4
20. (a) 2
(b) 14
(c) 6
30. (a) 5
(b) 0
(c) 4
399
4.
y
46
3
2
1 2
0
1
2
1
3
4 x
4 3 2 1
?
4
3.
4 3 2 1
4 x
x
1
2
3
4
6.
y
6
4
y
6
4
H
Y
HH
2
1
4 3 2 1
0 1
@
I
@
1
@
2
@ 3
@
4
@
R
@?
4 3B2 1
0 1
B
1
B
2
B 3
B 4
BN
?
x
y
6
4
5.
y
6
4
B
1 2
BM
B
2.
y
6
4 3 2 1
x
HH 1
HH
4 3 2 1
H1H2 3 4 x
HH
H
j
1
2
3
4
400
7.
10.
y
46
QQ
k
Q2
Q
1
4 3 2 1
Z
}
Z
2
Q3Q
s4 x
y
6
3
2
1
0
1
2
1 2
4
?
3
15. m = 0
16. m =
7
2
17. m = 7
1
2
19. m = 12
18. m =
9.
y
46
4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x
1
4
?
3
20. m = 4
1
18
1
m=
3
3
m = , (0, 5)
2
7
m = , (0, 4)
3
7
m = , (0, 1)
3
7
m = , (0, 0)
2
21. m =
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Z
~
Z
14. m = 1
4 x
Z
Z
11. m = 5
9
12. m =
11
13. slope undefined
8.
4 3 2 1
Z
1
4 3 2 1Z
y
6
x
401
3
1
27. m = , 0,
2
12
4
6
28. m = , 0,
5
5
3
4
29. m = , 0,
5
5
7
1
30. m = , 0,
9
9
5
13
31. m =
0,
2
2
9
3
32. m =
0,
4
4
4
(0, 3)
33. m =
3
2
6
34. m =
0,
5
5
35. m = 2
36. m =
3
4
2
37. m =
3
38. m = 0
39. m =
2
3
40. m =
41.
1
2
4
3
2
4
6. y = x +
3
3
7. y = 2x 7
2
3. y = x + 4
3
4
8. y = x 2
3
4. y = 3
9. x = 2
5. y = x 2
10. y = 2x + 1
402
11. y = 4x 14
31. x = 5
1
12. y = x 10
3
1
32. y = x + 3
5
13. y = 6x 10
14. y = 8x 13
17
1
15. y = x
2
2
2
43
16. y = x +
3
3
33. y =
4
x+8
11
34. y = x + 19
35. y = x 14
2
25
36. y = x +
3
3
17.
2
y = x3
5
3
37. y = x 9
2
18.
3
y = x+8
7
3
9
38. y = x
4
2
19. y = 2x 4
20. y = 3x 16
21. y = 8x + 11
4
1
22. y = x +
3
3
2
23. y = x
3
24. x = 0
1
3
27. x =
28. y = 2
29. x = 1
30. y = 5
1
40. y = x + 9
2
1
41. y = x 1
2
3
3
42. y = x +
4
2
14
5
43. y = x +
3
3
25. y = 4
26. y =
3
11
39. y = x
2
2
5
44. y = x 4
2
7
3
1
45. y = x 1
4
1
5
46. y = x
2
2
5
47. y = x + 10
3
Index
absolute value, 25
Addition
decimals, 189
fractions, 125
integer, 39
mixed numbers, 132
oldfashioned, 8
Additive Identity, 221
Additive Inverse, 221
Algebraic Expressions
definition, 230
evaluating, 233
Associative Property
of addition, 217
of multiplication, 217
cartesian coordinate system, 303
origin, 303
quadrants, 303
Commutative Property
of addition, 216
of multiplication, 216
Composite numbers, 77
crossmultiplying, 272
Decimals
addition, 189
changing to fractions, 170
changing to percents, 182
comparing, 177
division, 199
expanded form, 162
404
INDEX
addition, 125
greater than, 22
changing to decimals, 166
greater than or equal to, 24
changing to mixed numbers, 108
less than, 22
changing to percents, general method, less than or equal to, 24
183
Integers, 22
changing to percents, shortcut, intercepts
183
x, 314
comparing two, 113
y, 314
containing decimals, 197
interval notation, 285
division, 153
LCD, 129
equivalent, 94
LCM, 85
Fundamental Principle, 95
Fundamental Principle, version 2, least common denominator, 129
least common multiple, 85
99
LHS, 241
improper, 107
linear equation, 312, 348
lowest terms, 96
two variables, 300
multiplication, 146
solution, 300
proper, 107
Linear
Inequalities
simplest form, 96
Additive Property of Inequality,
subtraction, 125
287
zero in denominator, 92
compound,
291
zero in numerator, 91
definition, 285
functions
Multiplicative Property of Inequaldefinition of, 323
ity, 287
dependent variable, 323
solving, 288
domain, 323
lines
independent variable, 323
equations, 348
input, 323
pointslope formula, 348
output, 323
slopeintercept form, 348
range, 323
value of, 323
Mixed numbers
addition, 132
GCF, 82
changing to fractions, 111
graph
subtraction, 136
linear equation, 312
Multiplication
greatest common factor, 82
by powers of ten, 196
grouping symbols, 63
decimals, 193
independent variable, 323
fractions, 146
Inequalities
integer, 55
INDEX
oldfashioned, 11
Multiplication table, basic, 12
Multiplicative Identity, 221
Multiplicative Inverse, 221
Natural numbers, 6
nonnegative Integers, 7
number line, 22
opposites, 27
order of operations, 63
ordered pairs, 300
origin, 303
Percents
changing to decimals, 181
changing to fractions, 180
pointslope formula, 348
positive Integers, 6
Prime numbers
definition, 77
first ten, 82
prime factorization, 78
proportion, 272
quadrant, 303
quadrants, 303
Radicals
definition of a root, 207
definition of principal root, 208
with even indices, 208
with odd indices, 210
range, 323
ratio, 270
Rational numbers, 91
reciprocals, 150
rectangular coordinate system, 303
RHS, 241
slope, 334
405
formula, 334
rise, 334
run, 334
slopeintercept form, 348
Subtraction
decimals, 189
fractions, 125
integer, 46
mixed numbers, 136
oldfashioned, 9
Table of perfect cubes, 212
Table of perfect squares, 212
Terms
combining like, 236
constant, 231
definition, 231
like, 235
similar, 235
unlike, 235
variable, 232
variable, 229
Whole numbers, 7