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# MATH 10021

Core Mathematics I
http://www.math.kent.edu/ebooks/10021/CMI.pdf

## Department of Mathematical Sciences

Kent State University
July 23, 2010

Contents
1 Real Numbers and Their Operations
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Integers, Absolute Values and Opposites
1.3 Integer Addition and Subtraction . . . .
1.4 Integer Multiplication and Division . . .
1.5 Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Primes, GCF, & LCM . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Fractions and Mixed Numbers . . . . . .
1.8 Fraction Addition and Subtraction . . .
1.9 Fraction Multiplication and Division . .
1.10 Decimals and Percents . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Decimal Operations . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Introduction to Radicals . . . . . . . . .
1.13 Properties of Real Numbers . . . . . . .

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5
5
19
36
55
62
77
91
125
146
162
189
207
216

2 Algebra
2.1 Variables and Algebraic Expressions
2.2 Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Proportions and Conversion Factors
2.5 Linear Inequalities . . . . . . . . . .

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229
229
241
260
270
285

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299
. 299
. 312
. 323
. 334
. 348

## 3 Graphing and Lines

3.1 Cartesian Coordinate System
3.2 Graphing Linear Equations .
3.3 Function Notation . . . . . .
3.4 Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Equations of Lines . . . . . .
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CONTENTS

361

365

369

Chapter 1

Operations
1.1

Introduction

## Welcome to Core Mathematics I (Math 10021) or Core Mathematics I and

II (Math 10006)! Beginnings are always difficult, as you and your fellow
students may have a wide range of backgrounds in previous math courses,
and may differ greatly in how long it has been since you last did math. So,
to start, we want to suggest some ground rules, refresh your memory on
some basics, and demonstrate what you are expected to know already. Lets
First, this course will be easier if you keep up with the material. Math
often builds upon itself, so if you dont understand one section, the next
section may be impossible. To avoid this, practice, practice, practice, and
get help from a tutor or the instructor immediately if you are having trouble.
This book has many problems after each section with answers to all in the
back, so feel free to do more than what is assigned to be collected! The
student who shows up an hour prior to the exam and tells the instructor
that they need to go over everything is going to be sorely disappointed.
to use this?, as this may lead him or her to develop nervous tics or to
begin muttering under his or her breath. This is college, and the students
role at college is to acquire knowledge. Some of the material in this book
may have obvious applications in your future job, some may have surprising
applications, and some you may never use again. ALL OF IT is required to
pass this course!
5

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Finally, you may already know, or will soon learn, that you will be
expected to do the first exam without a calculator. The idea is that the
material covered will just be basic operations on real numbers, and you
should know the mechanics behind all of these things. Then, later, if you
wish to use a calculator to save yourself some time and effort (and to have
less chance of making a simple error), that is fine. The calculator, however,
should NOT be an arcane and mysterious device which is relied upon like a
crutch. Letting it do your busy work is one thing; letting it do your thinking
is quite another. The dangers of letting machines do all of our thinking for
us is aptly illustrated in any of the Terminator or Matrix movies!
With all that being said, let us now move on to numbers. When you
first learned to count, you probably counted on your fingers and used the
numbers one through ten. In set notation, this group of numbers would be
written {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. Notice that for set notation we just listed
all the numbers, separated by commas, inside curly braces. If there are a lot
of numbers in the set, sometimes we use the notation . . ., called periods
of ellipsis, to take the place of some of the numbers. For example, the set
of numbers one through one hundred could be written {1, 2, . . . , 99, 100}.
When periods of ellipsis are used, the author assumes the reader can see a
pattern in the numbers in the set and can figure out what is missing. If the
periods of ellipsis occur after the last listed number, this means that the
numbers go on forever. An example of such a set of numbers is the first
listed in this book that is important enough to have an official name (three
names actually!):

## natural numbers = counting numbers = positive integers = {1, 2, 3, . . .}.

These numbers are the ones for which you probably have the best feel.
For example, you can imagine seven pennies or eighty-two cows, although
you probably get a little bit hazier for the bigger numbers. You will have
heard of a million or billion, and possibly even a trillion (like the national
deficit in dollars), but do you know the names of larger numbers? Try the
following example:
Example 1. Which of the following are natural numbers: (a) a quintillion,
(b) a zillion, (c) a bazillion, (d) an octillion, (e) a google?

1.1. INTRODUCTION

## Solution 1. Did you say (a), (d), and (e)?

(a) a quintillion = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000
(b) a zillion is a real word (in the dictionary), but it represents
an indeterminately large number (i.e. a whole heck of a lot)
(c) a bazillion is not in the dictionary; it is slang for a zillion
(d) an octillion = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
(e) a google = one followed by one hundred zeros. Thats right!
Before it was ever the name of an internet search engine, it was
the name of a large natural number.
The next number we would like to review is zero, another number of which
you should have a good understanding. For example, if you have four quarters in your pocket and your brother takes all four to buy a bottle of iced
tea, you are left with no quarters, or zero quarters. Once we add zero into
the number set, the set gets a new name:

## IMPORTANT NOTATION: Prior to this course, you should have seen

how to apply the four basic mathematical operations (addition, subtraction,
multiplication or division) to whole numbers. This book will insert the word
old-fashioned before any such operation whenever both the numbers AND
the result are whole numbers. For example, you are doing old-fashioned
subtraction when you are subtracting two whole numbers and the bigger
number is first. Note, even though we will illustrate how to do old-fashioned
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division without a calculator, the
use or lack of use of a calculator plays no role in our using the adjective
old-fashioned. The terminology is just to indicate the most basic use of the
operation. Once we mix in negative numbers, fractions, etc., there will be
new rules which will have to be applied. Note that all four of these operations require a number (or expression) both before and after the operation
sign. Therefore, later when we see an expression like 2, we will know
that the sign here does NOT mean subtract, as there is no number
before it.

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

For addition, we will use the standard symbol of +. The two numbers
property of addition which will be useful to know is that when you add two
numbers, the order in which you add them doesnt matter. Thus:
3+5 = 5+3.
This is the commutative property of addition which we will study in
more detail in section 1.13; for now, you just want to know that you can
switch the order. To do old-fashioned addition without a calculator, you
should have seen the tower method. When using the tower method, make
sure that the place-values of the two numbers are aligned, i.e. the ones digit
of the top number is over the ones digit of the bottom number, the tens
digit of the top number is over the tens digit of the bottom number, etc.
Example 2. Add 357 + 4, 282.

1
3 5 7
4 2 8 2
4 6 3 9

## So: 357 + 4, 282 = 4, 639.

Notice that when we added the five to the eight and got thirteen, we
carried the one to the next column. It is not unusual for you to have to
carry when using the vertical tower method. Some other comments on the
last example: First, it will be a good practice to have a separate line for
your solution versus your actual work space, especially later when you may
need to adjust the sign of your solution. Second, you should clearly indicate
your solution for your instructor. We will bold-face our solutions, while you
may wish to circle or box-in yours. Finally, it is always a good idea to check
your work if there is time. Here, we encourage you to check this answer.

1.1. INTRODUCTION

You can even see that the commutative property of addition holds if you
check by putting the 4,282 on top of the 357.
Example 3. Add 43, 578 + 7, 694.

1 1 1
4 3 5
7 6
5 1 2

1
7 8
9 4
7 2

## So: 43, 578 + 7, 694 = 51, 272.

Subtraction
We will use the standard symbol for subtraction. Addition and
subtraction are inverse operations, and this is probably how you first learned
to subtract. For example, 9 5 = 4 because 4 + 5 = 9. This also means
that addition and subtraction can undo each other. For example, you have
4 one-dollar bills, and your sister gives you 5 more, so now you have 9 onedollar bills (4 + 5 = 9). Later, she takes the 5 one-dollar bills back, so you
are back to 4 (9 5 = 4). You will see this concept of two operations which
undo each other recur over and over again in mathematics.
To do old-fashioned subtraction of large numbers without a calculator,
we will again use a tower method, and again we will make sure to align the
place-values of the two numbers.
Example 4. Subtract 1978 322.

1 9 7 8
3 2 2
1 6 5 6

10

## Now consider 1321 567. When we line these numbers up according to

place value, we see that we would like to take 7 away from 1 in the ones
place. This cannot happen. Therefore, we need to borrow from the next
column to the left, the tens. This is often referred to as borrowing 10,
but what you are borrowing ten of depends on the situation. It is similar to
how you can exchange 1 ten-dollar bill for 10 one-dollar bills, 1 one-dollar
bill for 10 dimes, and 1 dime for 10 pennies. Our number system uses a base
of 10, so each column is worth ten times more than the last. Therefore, in
the following example, we will first borrow 1 ten to get 10 more ones, then
1 hundred to get 10 more tens, then 1 thousand to get 10 more hundreds:
Example 5. Subtract 1321 567.

1 11
1 3 62 61

5 6 7
4

2 11 11
1 63 62 61

5 6 7
5 4

0 12 11
61 63 62

5 6
7 5

11
61
7
4

## Let us do one more subtraction example.

Example 6. Subtract 13200 4154.

1 10
1 3 62 60 0

4 1 5 4

## So: 13200 4154 = 9046.

1
1 3 62

4 1
0

9
60
5
4

10
60
4
6

0 13 1
61 63 62

4 1
9 0

9
60
5
4

10
60
4
6

1.1. INTRODUCTION

11

## In the last example, we were originally frustrated in our attempt to

borrow from the tens place since there was a zero there, so we had to first
borrow from the hundreds place.

Multiplication
In multiplication, the two numbers being multiplied are called the factors, and the result is called the product. You may have seen many different
notations for multiplication: , , , (). The * is mostly used in computer
science, and we will not use it in this book. The sign is the one you
probably learned originally, and it is the sign most often used for multiplication in applications (like on your calculator), but there is a problem with
it. In an algebra course like this, we will eventually be using the letter x
(variable), and the two are easily confused. Therefore, we will mostly use
the notation for multiplication. The one exception will be when we use
the tower method to multiply without a calculator. Here, we will use the
sign, as a sloppy could be mistaken for a decimal point. Parentheses also show multiplication, so that whenever the left parenthesis ( is
preceded by a number or a right parenthesis ), this means multiply.
Example 7. Multiply:
(4)(3) = 12
2(7) = 14.
This idea may be extended to any grouping symbol (we will see brackets
[. . .] and absolute value | . . . | later). One curious fact about multiplication is that it is sometimes hidden. You will see several cases in the Core
Math courses where different expressions are right next to each other with
no obvious operation indicated, and you will need to understand that you
are supposed to multiply. You could treat parentheses like this if it helps.
So the last example could have been written:
Example 8. Multiply:
(4)(3) = (4) (3) = 4 3 = 12
2(7) = 2 (7) = 2 7 = 14.
Multiplication is defined as repeated addition. Therefore, multiplying

12

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

four times three is the same as adding three to itself four times:
Example 9. The following are equal:
4 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12.
Multiplication is commutative just like addition, so that when you are
multiplying two numbers, you can multiply in either order:
Example 10. The following are equal:
4 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 3 4.
Even though you could do any old-fashioned multiplication problem
know your multiplication table for multiplying any single-digit whole number times any other single-digit whole number. This is probably already
the case, but just in case you have forgotten (or are helpless without your
calculator...), we will include it next.
Basic Multiplication Table

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

3
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27

4
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36

5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

6
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54

7
0
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63

8
0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72

9
0
9
18
27
36
45
54
63
72
81

The first test will be much easier if you take the time to memorize this
table as soon as possible. For multiplying larger numbers without a calculator, we will use a tower method. To refresh your memory on how this works,
let us look at an example.

1.1. INTRODUCTION

13

## Solution 11. Scratch work:

4 1
1 5 2

8
1 2 1 6
So 152 8 = 1216.

Notice that when we multiplied the 8 times the 2, we got 16, wrote down
the 6 and carried the 1 to the next column. Then, when we multiplied the
8 times the 5 and got 40, we added the 1 to get 41, and etc. If the bottom
number has two-digits, first multiply the ones digit by the entire top number
as in the last example. Then cancel or erase all of your previous carries,
put a zero below the rightmost digit of your previous product (well, that
might be old-school; some people just leave this spot blank), multiply the
tens digit by the entire top number, and add the two products together.
For example:
Example 12. Multiply 327 47.

1 4
3 2 7

4 7
2 2 8 9

3 2 7

4 7
2 2 8 9
0

1 2
3 2 7

4 7
2 2 8 9
1 3 0 8 0
1 5 3 6 9

14

## The zero we added in prior to multiplying the second time accounts

for the fact that we were multiplying by 40 rather than 4. If the bottom
number has three digits, start as in the last example, but do not add the
two products together. Instead, cancel or erase all of your previous carries,
put a zero below the rightmost digit AND the tens digit of your previous
product, multiply the hundreds digit of the bottom number by the entire
top number, and add the three products together. For example:
Example 13. Multiply 85 324.

2
8 5
3 2 4
3 4 0

1
8

3 2
3 4
1 7 0

5
4
0
0

2
2

3
3
1 7
5 5
7 5

1
8
2
4
0
0
4

5
4
0
0
0
0

## Recall that multiplication is commutative, so some people may prefer to

always put the number with the least digits on bottom. In that case, the
last example becomes:
Example 14. Multiply 85 324.

## Solution 14. 85 324 = 324 85

Scratch work:
1 2
3 2 4

8 5
1 6 2 0
So 85 324 = 27, 540.

1 3
3 2 4

8 5
1 6 2 0
2 5 9 2 0
2 7 5 4 0

1.1. INTRODUCTION

15

Division
Division is represented by the symbols or /. The / is used most
often in computer science, and we will not be using it in this book. We will
see later that the fraction bar also shows division.
Just as subtraction is the inverse operation of addition, division is the
inverse operation of multiplication. Thus, 15 5 = 3 because 3 5 = 15.
This means that multiplication and division should be able to undo each
other, but here we must be careful, as this isnt quite as straight-forward as
it was with addition-subtraction. For example, while it is still true that if
you multiply a number by 2, you could then get back the original number
by then dividing by 2:
as 8 2 = 16 and 16 2 = 8.
You must be more careful when 0 is involved. Lets examine what happens when you are dividing into 0 (0 is in front of sign), when you are
dividing by 0 (0 is after sign), and when you are doing both.
Example 15. Find 0 8 by treating division as the inverse operation of
multiplication.

Solution 15. 0 8 =

8 = 0.
What number can be placed in the blank to make this true? Well,
0 8 = 0 (and this is the only number which could be placed in
the blank to make a true statement), so:
0 8 = 0.
This is only one example, but we will spoil the suspense and go ahead
and state this more generally.

## Let a be any number other than 0, then: 0 a = 0.

This means that division into 0 (except by itself), is as trivially easy as
multiplication by 0 or 1 or division by 1. What about division by 0?

16

## Example 16. Find 8 0 by treating division as the inverse operation of

multiplication.

Solution 16. 8 0 =

0 = 8.
What number can be placed in the blank to make this true? The
answer is no number, as any number times 0 is 0, not 8. We
will call division by 0, undefined.
Therefore, 8 0 =undefined.

Thus, division into 0 makes the division very easy; division by zero makes
the division impossible. What happens when these two rules collide?
Example 17. Find 0 0 by treating division as the inverse operation of
multiplication.

Solution 17. 0 0 =

0 = 0.
What number can be placed in the blank to make this true? The
answer, of course, is 0! Or 1, ...er, or 2, or 16, or 137,.... While
this division is no longer impossible, it is actually too possible!
dividing two numbers, we get way too many options. Therefore,
we will label this as undefined as well, but not for the same reason
as before.
So, 0 0 =undefined.

## To do old-fashioned division of large numbers without a calculator, you

need to remember how to do long division.

1.1. INTRODUCTION

17

Solution 18.

3245
23 |74635
69
56
46
103
92
115
115
0

## 23 goes into 74 three times

23 3 = 69
Subtract then bring down the 6 from the 74635
23 goes into 56 two times; 23 2 = 46
Subtract then bring down the 3 from the 74635
23 goes into 103 four times; 23 4 = 92
Subtract then bring down the 5 from the 74635
23 goes into 115 five times; 23 5 = 115
Subtracting there is a remainder of zero.

## Thus, 74, 635 23 = 3, 245.

Dont forget that whenever you place a number on top of the division
bar, you immediately multiply this number by the divisor (number in front).
At this point, you may check to make sure you put the proper number up
top. For example, had we thought that 23 went into 74 four times at the
beginning of the last example, we would have multiplied 234 = 92, and then
we would have noticed that 92 is bigger than 74. That is a clear indication
that the number you are trying is too big. On the other hand, had we
thought 23 went into 74 two times, we would have multiplied 23 2 = 46
and subtracted 74 46 = 28. This difference is larger than the divisor (the
23), so we know that we are trying too small a number. Occasionally, after
bringing down the next number, the new number is still too small for the
divisor to divide into. This is fine, it just means that we need to enter a 0
on top. To illustrate this, let us do a few more examples.

18

Solution 19.

208
42 |8736
84
33
0
336
336
0

## 42 goes into 87 two times

42 2 = 84
Subtract then bring down the 3 from the 8736
42 goes into 33 zero times; 42 0 = 0
Subtract then bring down the 6 from the 8736
42 goes into 336 eight times; 42 8 = 336
Subtracting there is a remainder of zero.

Solution 20.

2002
34 |68068
68
00
0
06
0
68
68
0

## 34 goes into 68 two times

34 2 = 68
Subtract then bring down the 0 from the 68068
34 goes into 0 zero times; 34 0 = 0
Subtract then bring down the 6 from the 68068
34 goes into 6 zero times; 34 0 = 0
Subtract then bring down the 8 from the 68068
34 goes into 68 two times; 34 2 = 68
Subtracting there is a remainder of zero.

1.2

19

## Negative Integers - what are they?

Many people dislike negative numbers, because they believe (mistakenly)
that there is no good physical meaning for them. The idea being that
while you can picture what three pennies represent, and what five pennies
represent, how do you picture negative two pennies? It doesnt seem to
help if we tell you that three minus five is equal to negative two, because if
you have three pennies and try to take away five of them, nothing obvious
springs to mind. This just means, however, that we will have to develop a
new way of doing subtraction (next section), and a new way to think about
numbers rather than just a collection of objects.
One way in which negative numbers may arise is when you have assigned
a zero, and it is possible to go below this number as in the following examples.
Example 1. In America, we mostly use the Fahrenheit scale to measure
temperature, and we have thermometers which can measure the changes.
Winter in Ohio can get very cold, so what do we do if the temperature is
0 F , and then it gets colder? Wouldnt it be confusing if we kept calling the
temperature 0 F just because we dont feel as though we can take anymore
away?

## Example 2. Elevation is measured in height above sea level. This would

seem to make sense because any land next to the ocean which is lower would
be underwater (and hence not land). Inland, though, the elevation could
drop lower (e.g. Death Valley, California).
In both of these examples, we could have defined our scales to avoid
negative numbers, but then typical values would have become unwieldy. For
example, there is a Rankine scale where a change of one degree Rankine is the
same as one degree Fahrenheit, yet whose zero is defined to be absolute zero
(the coldest temperature possible). Some typical values you may encounter:
water freezes at 492 R, water boils at 672 R, and a pleasant summer day
would be 540 R (=80 F ). As for elevation, we could measure distance from
the center of the Earth, but since the radius of the Earth is approximately
4000 miles, the elevation of sea level would then become approximately
21,000,000 feet!

20

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Negative numbers can have a more physical meaning. Often there may
be other, equivalent, terminology used instead, but the idea is still there.
Example 3. A company is keeping track of how much profit it makes each
month. One month, due to a large number of renovations being made, its
revenue (amount of money taken in) is \$2000 less than its expenditures.
Therefore the companys profit is negative \$2000, or \$2000 in the red.

Example 4. You own a store which sells Item X. At the end of the month,
you restock your shelves, and you like to order enough to have 50 Item X
in stock at the beginning of the next month. One month there is an unusual
demand for Item X, and 73 customers request one. Selling to the first fifty
is no problem, but what do you do then? You could just explain to those
customers that you are sold out, and to try back again next month after you
get another shipment, but you might lose their business. Instead, you could
take their order and either have Item X shipped directly to them or promise
to set aside their order and have them called when it arrives. If you choose
this second method, you are choosing to use negative numbers. After all, you
certainly do not want to order just 50 more Item Xs - you have essentially
already sold 23 of them, and even a more normal demand month could run
you out of your product. Rather, you should think of your inventory as
negative 23 so that when you reorder, you will order 23 for those already
demanded, and then another 50 so that you begin the next month as usual.
It was in commerce, like this last example, where negative numbers first
appeared. Notice that in neither of these last two examples would redefining
zero make any sense - i.e. you would not want to define losing one million
dollars to be \$0 profit.
Another physical meaning for negative numbers occur whenever you have
two characteristics which cancel each other when combined. The most common example of this is electric charge.
Example 5. A sodium ion (N a+ ) with a charge of positive one will form
an ionic bond with a chlorine ion (Cl ) with a charge of negative one. The
resulting sodium chloride molecule (salt) will be neutral (charge equal to
zero).

21

## Other examples of this type of characteristic in nature would be matter

versus antimatter, and up versus down spin in elementary particles. It is
useful to remember that when you combine (i.e. add) a positive one with a
negative one, they make zero.
Finally, keep in mind that negative numbers may just mean that an
implication or direction is the wrong way. This was the case in the previous
example involving the company with the negative \$2000 profit. For that
month, the company did not make \$2000, rather they had to pay it out.
The following example also illustrates this point.
Example 6. Slick and the Kid are playing poker. The Kid consistently loses
so they are keeping track of how much he owes Slick every night, intending
to settle up at the end of the week. After one night, he owes Slick \$40; after
two nights, \$60; etc. After the sixth night, the Kid owes Slick \$270. On the
seventh and final night, Lady Luck smiles on the Kid, and he wins \$300.
Slick, getting ready to settle up, stacks \$270 worth of chips on the table.
Well, Kid, Slick says, this represents the amount of money you owed me
going into tonight. Let me settle up with you by removing your winnings
from this debt. After he counts out all \$270, Slick frowns. Hmmm, there
doesnt seem to be any more to take away, so I guess we are even. The Kid,
who only knows old-fashioned subtraction, nods and says Yup., thereby
ensuring that he would always find people willing to play him in poker.
Had that have been you instead of the Kid, you would surely have noticed
that Slick should still owe you \$30. This goes to show that you already know
how to do fancier subtraction than just the old-fashioned take-away kind!
By the way, while you might have said that Slick owes the Kid \$30, you
could also say that the Kid owes Slick negative \$30. The negative here
would indicate that the implication (in this case, who owes whom) is the
wrong way around.
Negative Integers - notation
To represent a negative, we will use the sign. That is right, the
same sign we use for subtraction. Similarly, if we wanted to emphasize that
a number is positive, we could place a + before it, such as +8 for positive
eight, but the + sign is traditionally left off. Therefore, in some of the
future problems, we may temporarily put a + sign to show positive in our
scratch work, but any final answer which is positive will not have the +.

22

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Now that we have negative integers, we can define the set of all integers:

integers = {. . . , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.

The periods of ellipsis at the beginning show that there are an infinite
number of numbers before the negative three. Sometimes people like to
illustrate the set of integers by making a number line.

12

10

10

12

Note that we only labeled every other tick mark, but this was done only
for space considerations - you could label every one if you would like. Also
note that the number line does not stop at -13 and 13 but continues on in
both directions as shown by the arrows on the ends. The spacing between
the numbers should be uniform - although the units may be feet, inches,
centimeters, miles, whatever. We will refer to the spacing as steps, marked
off by someone with a uniform stride length, but again any unit may be
substituted.
The number line may be thought of as a straight railroad track which
runs east - west, with you standing at 0. We could give you directions to any
point on the track by telling you how many steps to take to the east or how
many to take to the west, but the property of a negative sign of implying
the other direction may be exploited. Instead of having two directions
(east versus west), we only need one (in this case just east), and a negative
number means go the other way. Thus, with you standing at 0, the number
5 would be five steps to the east, while the number 7 is seven steps to the
west.
Less than, Greater than, Less than or equal to, Greater than or equal to

## Whenever you are working with a set of numbers, it may be necessary to

compare two numbers to see which is the bigger or the smaller. With whole

## 1.2. INTEGERS, ABSOLUTE VALUES AND OPPOSITES

23

numbers, this was fairly simple, and you should have no problem stating
which of the two numbers 5 and 12 is the greater. With the introduction
of negative numbers, this issue may seem to be a bit cloudy. For example,
which of the numbers 5 and 12 do you think is the greater? To extend the
same concept of greater or lesser that we use with whole numbers to the set
of integers, we will use the following definitions.
Definition: For any two integers (this definition will extend to all real numbers once we learn what they are), the number which is further to the left
on the number line is said to be less than, <, the other.
Definition: For any two integers (this definition will extend to all real numbers once we learn what they are), the number which is further to the right
on the number line is said to be greater than, >, the other.

## Let us look at an example.

Example 7. Insert a < or > between each of the following pair of numbers
to make a true statement. Then write out what each statement means in
words.
1. 2

2. 3

3. 5

12

4. 0

5. 2
6. 15

9
8

## Solution 7. The solutions are:

1. 2 < 7
Two is less than seven.

24

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

2. 3 < 6
Negative three is less than six.
3. 5 > 12
Five is greater than negative twelve.
4. 0 > 3
Zero is greater than negative three.
5. 2 > 9
Negative two is greater than negative nine.
6. 15 < 8
Negative fifteen is less than negative eight.

If you are having trouble remembering which sign is which, there are
several different mnemonics people use. Some people think of the signs as
greedy mouths which want to eat the larger number; some people think of
the signs as arrows which the larger number (the bully) is shooting at the
smaller.
In addition to these basic signs, there are two more which are a combination of these and an equals sign.
Definition: The symbol , read as less than or equal to, states that the
number to its left is EITHER less than OR equal to the number on its right.

Definition: The symbol , read as greater than or equal to, states that
the number to its left is EITHER greater than OR equal to the number on
its right.
Example 8. Insert a or between each of the following pair of numbers
to make a true statement. Then write out what each statement means in
words.
1. 5

2. 2

10

3. 3

4. 0

5. 11
6. 5

25

9
8

## Solution 8. The solutions are:

1. 5 6
Five is less than or equal to six.
2. 2 10
Negative is greater than or equal to negative ten.
3. Here either of the two signs would be correct:
33
Three is less than or equal to three.
OR
33
Three is greater than or equal to three.
4. 0 4
Zero is greater than or equal to negative four.
5. 11 9
Negative eleven is less than or equal to negative nine.
6. 5 8
Negative five is greater than or equal to negative eight.
Absolute Value
We have just learned that 124 < 2, since 124 is much further to the
left on the number line, but sometimes we are not interested in whether the
number is positive or negative, just how far away from zero the number is.
For example, if you are on stranded on a railroad track and one town is two
miles to the east and another is one hundred twenty-four miles to the west,
you would prefer to walk to the east. The fact that you were defining east
as the positive direction makes no difference in this case. Mathematically,
we will call this concept the absolute value.
Definition: The absolute value of a number a, written |a|, is the distance
the number is from zero on the number line.

26

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

This means that the absolute value of a positive number or zero (i.e. a
whole number) is itself, while the absolute value of a negative number is the
same number without the negative sign.
Example 9. Find the absolute value of the following numbers:
1. 16
2. 209
3. 0
4. 4
5. 82

## Solution 9. Evaluating the absolute values:

1. |16| = 16.
2. |209| = 209.
3. |0| = 0.
4. | 4| = 4.
5. | 82| = 82.
The absolute value bars represent an operation, and just as you would not
want to leave an answer as 5 + 3 but would add and write 8 instead (except
in very particular instances), you will always want to take the absolute value
of the number inside.
Example 10. Simplify.
1. |18|
2. | 31|
3. | 1|
4. | 22|

27

## Solution 10. We get:

1. |18| = 18.
2. | 31| = 31.
3. | 1| = 1.
4. | 22| = 22.
Opposites
Definition: Two numbers on the number line which are the same distance from zero, but on opposite sides, are called opposites.

## Example 11. The following numbers are opposites:

1. 2 and 2.
2. 7 and 7.
3. 3 and 3.
4. 1 and 1.
5. 0 and 0.
Notice in the last example that zero is considered its own opposite.
If we wish you to take the opposite of a number, we will indicate this
with the symbol . This is the third use you have seen for this same
symbol, so you need some rules to let you know how to interpret the sign.
Rules for determining meaning of sign:
1. Subtraction is an operation which requires something (for right now we
will examine the easiest case where the something is a number) both
immediately before and after it. If you want to compare mathematical
operations to English verbs (as they are telling you to do something),
then the operation of subtraction requires both a subject and a direct
object.

28

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

2. Negative is not an operation; it simply modifies the number after it.
Using the English grammar comparison again, it would be an adjective. There may be nothing in front of it, but if there is a number or
expression in front, there must be an operation between the two.
3. The opposite of is an operation, but unlike subtraction, it requires
only something (again, to start we will only use a number) immediately
after it. Like a negative, there may be nothing in front of it, but if there
is a number or expression in front, there must be another operation
in between. The difference between this and a negative sign, is that if
we wish to take the opposite of a number, we will use parentheses.

## This may become more clear with some examples.

Example 12. State in words what the following expressions represent, then
simplify if possible.
1. 73 45
2. 7
3. (2)
4. 17 8
5. (3)

## Solution 12. We have:

1. 73 45
Seventy-three minus forty-five; this is subtraction.
73 45 = 28, (do scratch work if necessary).
2. 7
Negative seven, no operation being done here, just a single
number being listed. Thus, simplified answer is just 7.

## 1.2. INTEGERS, ABSOLUTE VALUES AND OPPOSITES

29

3. (2)
The opposite of negative two. Neither sign can represent
subtraction as there is no number or expression in front (no
subject). Recalling that a negative is always immediately
followed by a number, the first sign cannot be a negative (as
there is a parenthesis and a sign before it and the two),
while the second sign is followed by a number. To simplify,
we need to take the opposite of negative two, which recall is
the number which is the same distance away from zero (two
steps), but on the other side. Thus:
(2) = 2.
4. 17 8
Seventeen minus eight, good old-fashioned subtraction.
17 8 = 9.
5. (3)
The opposite of three OR the opposite of positive three. Obviously not subtraction (no subject) and not immediately
followed by a number (the parenthesis is in between). Being
an operation, we need to simplify.
(3) = 3.
Please note that when we want you to take the opposite of a number,
we will usually put that number in parentheses. For negative numbers, this
avoids the unsightly notation of . For positive numbers, you could
interpret something like 7 from (2) of the last example as the opposite
of seven, but since this is an operation, you would then need to proceed
to take the opposite of seven to get that the opposite of seven is equal to
negative seven (7 = 7), which seems silly to write like this. Rather, if we
wish to emphasize the idea of taking the opposite of a positive number, we
will use parentheses like in (5) of last example. The only possible exception
to the parentheses use is zero. Both 0 and (0) are read as the opposite
of zero. This is due to zero being neither positive nor negative, so negative
zero would make no sense.
Example 13. Simplify.
1. (13)

30

2. (6)
3. (87)
4. (32)
5. 0

## Solution 13. The solutions are:

1. (13) = 13.
The opposite of (positive) thirteen is negative thirteen.
2. (6) = 6.
The opposite of negative six is (positive) six.
3. (87) = 87.
The opposite of negative eighty-seven is (positive) eightyseven.
4. (32) = 32.
The opposite of (positive) thirty-two is negative thirty-two.

5. 0 = 0.
The opposite of zero is zero.

## Combining the concepts

If both operations of taking the opposite of and absolute value are being
applied to a number, apply the operation nearest the number first, and work
Example 14. Simplify.
1. | 6|
2. |6|

31

3. | (4)|
4. |35|
5. | 0|
6. |0|

## Solution 14. We get:

1. | 6| is the opposite of the absolute value of negative six.
| 6| = (6)
= 6

## as the absolute value of negative six is positive six,

as the opposite of positive six is negative six.

Thus, | 6| = 6.
2. |6| is the opposite of the absolute value of six.
|6| = (6)
= 6

## as the absolute value of six is positive six,

as the opposite of positive six is negative six.

Thus, |6| = 6.
3. | (4)| is the absolute value of the opposite of negative
four.
| (4)| = |4|
= 4

## as the opposite of negative four is positive four,

as the absolute value of positive four is positive four.

Thus, | (4)| = 4.
4. |35| is the opposite of the absolute value of thirty-five.
|35| = (35)
= 35

## as the absolute value of thirty-five is thirty-five,

as the opposite of thirty-five is negative thirty-five.

## Thus, |35| = 35.

5. | 0| is the absolute value of the opposite of zero.
| 0| = |0|
= 0
Thus, | 0| = 0.

## as the opposite of zero is zero,

as the absolute value of zero is zero.

32

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

6. |0| is the opposite of the absolute value of zero.
|0| = (0)
= 0

## as the absolute value of zero is zero,

as the opposite of zero is zero.

Thus, |0| = 0.

You may also wish to compare numbers which involve taking the opposite
or absolute value. In this case, you should always simplify the numbers before
trying to compare them.
Example 15. Insert a or > between each of the following pair of numbers
to make a true statement.
1. (2)

| 5|

2. (3)

|7|

3. | 8|

| (8)|

4. (4)

(4)

5. 0

|0|

## Solution 15. Simplifying the numbers first gives:

1. (2)
| 5|
Left side: (2) = 2.
Right side: | 5| = 5.
Since 2 5, we have (2) | 5|.
2. (3)
|7|
Left side: (3) = 3.
Right side: |7| = (7) = 7.
Since 3 > 7, we have (3) > |7|.
3. | 8|
| (8)|
Left side: | 8| = 8.
Right side: | (8)| = |8| = 8.
Since 8 8 (as equality is included with the sign), we
have | 8| | (8)|.

## 1.2. INTEGERS, ABSOLUTE VALUES AND OPPOSITES

33

4. (4)
(4)
Left side: (4) = 4.
Right side: (4) = 4.
Since 4 4, we have (4) (4).
5. 0
|0|
Left side: 0 = 0.
Right side: |0| = 0.
Since 0 0 (as equality is included with the sign), we
have 0 |0|.

## SECTION 1.2 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 369.)
Insert a or > between each of the following pairs of numbers to make a
true statement.
1. 8

6. 19

2. 22

7. 33

3. 5

4. 18

5. 56

43

8. 14

19
54
4

9. 197

197

10. 3

true statement.
11. 12
12. 7

12
7

13. 3
14. 15
15. 0

9
13
10

16. 11

17. 25

52

18. 34

34

19. 9

10

20. 2

34

21. 206

26. 17

22. 34

27. 45

23. 16

28. 91

24. 0

29. 73

25. 28

30. 22

31. 52

36. 1

32. 17

37. 13

33. 8

38. 37

34. 0

39. 22

35. 102

40. 9

Simplify.
41. | 2|

46. | (3)|

42. (2)

47. | 4|

43. (9)

48. (18)

44. | 7|

49. | 6|

45. |5|

50. (32)

35

true statement.
51. (5)
52. | 3|
53. 0

| 5|
| 4|
|0|

56. | 12|
57. | 3|

|12|
|3|

58. (23)

54. (8)

59. |0|

55. | 6|

|6|

60. |13|

(20)
| 1|
| 2|

true statement.
61. (14)

12

66. 1

(1)

62. | 45|

(45)

67. |28|

| 32|

63. 0

| 0|

68. | 12|

64. 17

| 17|

69. (11)

65. | 8|

| (8)|

70. |0|

| 48|
(10)
| 109|

36

1.3

## Integer Addition - an easy method?

Instead of always adding two positive numbers as you may be more
familiar with, we now want to involve negative integers as well. Thus, we
want to be able to add quantities like:
4+7
3 + 4,
5 + (8),
or
2 + (9).
Note that when the number after the plus sign is a negative number, we
will place this number in parentheses. This will be true whenever a negative
number follows a +, , , or as we will see later. So, how can we do such
One method for adding integers involves using a number line. To use
this method, first you need a (sufficiently long) number line. You may refer
back to the number line we presented back on page 22, or you may draw
your own. To add two numbers, treat the first number as the starting point
on the number line, and then use the following rule:

## When you are adding a:

1. positive number - move (step) to the right on
the number line.
2. negative number - move (step) to the left on
the number line.

## So, for example, to add 5 + 4, we will start at negative five on the

number line, and take four steps to the right. Try this on your number line,
and you should get an answer of 5 + 4 = 1. While this method is easy to
do, it does have some problems. First, your number line must be long enough
all appear on it - try adding 53 + 28 with a number line, for example! Next,
while this method helps you to visualize how to add integers, it does not
work nearly as well once we start using fractions and decimals. Therefore,

## 1.3. INTEGER ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

37

we would rather encourage you to memorize some simple rules which work
well for integers and fractions and decimals. However, this number line
method is good if you are having trouble right from the start, and it may
be used as a rough check of your answer, even when we get to fractions and
decimals.
To do the rough check, just use the above rules and the commutative
let us look at the four examples we presented at the beginning.

## Solution 1. This is old-fashioned addition, so no special rules

should be needed, but we will practice using a number line. Start
at positive four and take seven steps to the right (as we are adding
a positive number). You should get that:
4 + 7 = 11.
Rough check:
Written as 4 + 7, we are starting at positive four and moving to
the right, so the answer should be greater than four. Is 11 > 4?
Yes, X.
Written as 7 + 4, we are starting at positive seven and moving to
the right, so the answer should be greater than seven. Is 11 > 7?
Yes, X.
We still recommend a true check of your work, if there is time, but you
may find the rough check useful as well. While the rough check looks like
a lot of work, the hope is that as you practice more and more of these
problems, you will be able to do this quickly in your head. In this case,
with both addends being positive, we were always adding a positive number
(and so moving to the right on the number line). This was the basis for
the old adage, when you add two numbers, you cant get less than what
you started with. While this was true back when you were learning oldfashioned addition, we will soon see that when one of the addends is negative,
it will no longer be true.

38

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 2. Start at negative three and take four steps to the
right. You should get that:
3 + 4 = 1.
Rough check:
Written as 3 + 4, we are starting at negative three and moving
to the right, so the answer should be greater than negative three.
Is 1 > 3? Yes, X.
Written as 4 + (3), we are starting at positive four and moving
to the left (as here we are adding a negative number), so the
answer should be less than four. Is 1 < 4? Yes, X.

Solution 3. Start at positive five and take eight steps to the left.
You should get that:
5 + (8) = 3.
Rough check:
Written as 5 + (8), we are starting at positive five and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than five. Is 3 < 5?
Yes, X.
Written as 8 + 5, we are starting at negative eight and moving
to the right, so the answer should be greater than negative eight.
Is 3 > 8? Yes, X.

Notice in the last two examples that when we are adding a positive
number to a negative number, the sum may be positive or it may be negative.

Solution 4. Start at negative two and take nine steps to the left.
You should get that:
2 + (9) = 11.
Rough check:

## 1.3. INTEGER ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

39

Written as 2 + (9), we are starting at negative two and moving to the left, so the answer should be less than negative two. Is
11 < 2? Yes, X.
Written as 9 + (2), we are starting at negative nine and moving to the left, so the answer should be less than negative nine.
Is 11 < 9? Yes, X.
To add two integers, you may do as is indicated in the following rules. We
encourage you to memorize these rules as soon as possible, as next section
we will be presenting different rules for multiplication, and it is very easy to
mix the two up if you have not learned them both well.

## Rules for adding two integers

is trivially easy as any number plus zero is itself.
If the addends have the same sign (both positive or
both negative):
1. Take the absolute value of both addends.
2. Add the two positive numbers like normal (i.e.
3. The sum should have the same sign as the two
If the addends have the opposite sign (one positive
and one negative number):
1. Take the absolute value of both addends.
2. Subtract the smaller number from the bigger
(i.e. do old-fashioned subtraction).
3. The answer should have the same sign as the
original sign of the addend which was larger in
absolute value (the number you subtracted from

40

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Let us start by redoing the first four examples using these rules.

Example 5. Add 4 + 7.

## Solution 5. This is old-fashioned addition, so no special rules

should be needed, but we will practice using the new ones. Cover
up the + sign with your finger to see that we are adding two
positive numbers (positive four and positive seven). So, the rules
say:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have positive
four and positive seven.
2. Add these numbers like normal.
Scratch work:
4 + 7 = 11.
3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends had
originally positive.
Therefore, 4 + 7 = 11.
Rough check:
Written as 4 + 7, we are starting at positive four and moving to
the right, so the answer should be greater than four. Is 11 > 4?
Yes, X.
Written as 7 + 4, we are starting at positive seven and moving to
the right, so the answer should be greater than seven. Is 11 > 7?
Yes, X.

Example 6. Add 3 + 4.

## Solution 6. Looking at the two addends, we see that one is

negative and one is positive. In this case the rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have positive
three and positive four.

## 1.3. INTEGER ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

2. Subtract bigger minus smaller.
Scratch work:
4 3 = 1.
3. The sum should have the same sign as the addend which
was larger in absolute value. Well, 4 > 3 and the fours
original sign was positive, so the sum will be positive.
Therefore, 3 + 4 = 1.
Rough check:
Written as 3 + 4, we are starting at negative three and moving
to the right, so the answer should be greater than negative three.
Is 1 > 3? Yes, X.
Written as 4 + (3), we are starting at positive four and moving
to the left (as here we are adding a negative number), so the
answer should be less than four. Is 1 < 4? Yes, X.

## Solution 7. Looking at the two addends, we see that one is

positive and one is negative. In this case the rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have positive
five and positive eight.
2. Subtract bigger minus smaller.
Scratch work:
8 5 = 3.
3. The sum should have the same sign as the addend which
was larger in absolute value. Well, 8 > 5 and the eights
original sign was negative, so the sum will be negative.
Therefore, 5 + (8) = 3.
Rough check:
Written as 5 + (8), we are starting at positive five and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than positive five. Is
3 < 5? Yes, X.

41

42

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Written as 8 + 5, we are starting at negative eight and moving
to the right, so the answer should be greater than negative eight.
Is 3 > 8? Yes, X.

## Solution 8. Both the numbers being added are negative, so the

rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have positive
two and positive nine.
2. Add these numbers like normal.
Scratch work:
2 + 9 = 11.
3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends had
originally negative.
Therefore, 2 + (9) = 11.
Rough check:
Written as 2 + (9), we are starting at negative two and moving to the left, so the answer should be less than negative two. Is
11 < 2? Yes, X.
Written as 9 + (2), we are starting at negative nine and moving to the left, so the answer should be less than negative nine.
Is 11 < 9? Yes, X.
We want to mention again that you should keep your scratch work separate from your final answer, as the scratch work will always give a positive
result (or possibly zero), and then you may need to adjust the sign for the
final answer. This will be even more apparent when the addition involves
larger numbers which you will need to add using the vertical tower method.
Example 9. Add 247 + (195).

## 1.3. INTEGER ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Solution 9. We are adding one number of each sign, so the
rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have positive
247 and positive 195.
2. Subtract larger minus smaller.
Scratch work:

2 4 7
1 9 5
2

1 14
62 64 7
1 9 5
5 2

3. The larger number in absolute value is the 247 (247 > 195),
and it was originally positive, so the sum is positive.
Therefore, 247 + (195) = 52.
Rough check:
Written as 247 + (195), we are starting at positive 247 and
moving to the left, so the answer should be less than 247. Is
52 < 247? Yes, X.
Written as 195+247, we are starting at 195 and moving to the
right, so the answer should be greater than 195. Is 52 > 195?
Yes, X.

## Example 10. Add 341 + (894).

Solution 10. Both the numbers being added are negative, so the
rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have 341 and
894.
2. Add these numbers like normal.
Scratch work:
1
3 4 1
+
8 9 4
1 2 3 5

43

44

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends had
originally negative.
Therefore, 341 + (894) = 1, 235.
Rough check:
Written as 341 + (894), we are starting at 341
to the left, so the answer should be less than 341.
341? Yes, X.
Written as 894 + (341), we are starting at 894
to the left, so the answer should be less than 894.
894? Yes, X.

and moving
Is 1235 <
and moving
Is 1235 <

## Solution 11. We are adding one number of each sign, so the

rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have 48 and
positive 573.
2. Subtract larger minus smaller.
Scratch work:

5 7 3
4 8

6
5 67
4
5 2

13
63
8
5

3. The larger number in absolute value is the 573 (573 > 48),
and it was originally negative, so the sum is negative.
Therefore, 48 + (573) = 525.
Rough check:
Written as 48 + (573), we are starting at 48 and moving to the
left, so the answer should be less than 48. Is 525 < 48? Yes,

## 1.3. INTEGER ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

45

X.
Written as 573 + 48, we are starting at 573 and moving to
the right, so the answer should be greater than 573. Is 525 >
573? Yes, X.

## Example 12. Add 97 + (266).

Solution 12. Both the numbers being added are negative, so the
rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers so we have 97 and
266.
2. Add these numbers like normal.
Scratch work:

1 1
2 6 6
9 7
3 6 3

3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends had
originally negative.
Therefore, 97 + (266) = 363.
Rough check:
Written as 97 + (266), we are starting at 97 and moving to
the left, so the answer should be less than 97. Is 363 < 97?
Yes, X.
Written as 266 + (97), we are starting at 266 and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than 266. Is 363 <
266? Yes, X.
Integer Subtraction - the rules
You could memorize a whole new list of rules similar to the rules for
integer addition on page 39 to do integer subtraction, but this tends to get

46

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

tedious. Instead, we will present the following simple rule which lets you

## Rule to change subtraction to addition:

You may ALWAYS change subtraction to addition by completing
the following two steps.
1. Change the minus sign to a plus sign.
2. Change the number which used to follow the minus sign to its
opposite.

## Let us look at an example.

Example 13. Change the following subtraction problems into addition problems. You do not need to do the actual subtraction or addition yet.
1. 8 3
2. 5 19
3. 4 (13)
4. 8 (16)
5. 7 0
6. 5 42

Solution 13. Applying the above rule to the subtraction problems gives:
1. 8 3 = 8 + (3).
2. 5 19 = 5 + (19).
3. 4 (13) = 4 + 13.
4. 8 (16) = 8 + 16.

## 1.3. INTEGER ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

47

5. 7 0 = 7 + 0.
6. 5 42 = 5 + (42).

Notice that the number in front of the minus sign does not change sign,
only the number after it. Also, you probably will not want to change from
subtraction to addition if the subtraction is straightforward (old-fashioned),
only when the subtraction involves one or two negative numbers or two
nonnegative numbers being subtracted smaller minus larger. Let us see
some subtraction examples.
Example 14. Subtract 8 3.

## Solution 14. This is old-fashioned subtraction so we do not need

Therefore, 8 3 = 5.

## Solution 15. The first number is negative, so this is NOT good

old-fashioned subtraction. Let us change to addition and apply
5 19 = 5 + (19).
Both numbers in the addition are negative, so the rules state:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers to get 5 and 19.
2. Add like normal. Scratch work:
5 + 19 = 24.
3. The sum has the same sign as the two addends did originally
negative.
Therefore, 5 19 = 24.

48

## Solution 16. Not old-fashioned subtraction so let us change to

4 (13) = 4 + 13.
This is old-fashioned addition, so we do not need to refer back
to the new addition rules, 4 + 13 = 17.
Therefore, 4 (13) = 17.

## Solution 17. Not old-fashioned subtraction, so change to addition.

8 (16) = 8 + 16.
We are adding one of each sign so:
1. Taking absolute value of both numbers gives us 8 and 16.
2. Subtracting bigger minus smaller gives 16 8 = 8.
3. The larger of the two numbers in absolute value is the 16,
and the 16 was originally positive (make sure you go back
to the addition problem - NOT all the way back to the subtraction problem!!), so the sum should be positive.
Therefore, 8 (16) = 8.

## Solution 18. Old-fashioned subtraction - nothing fancy needs to

be done.
Therefore, 7 0 = 7.

49

## Example 19. Subtract 5 42.

Solution 19. Both numbers are positive, but the smaller number
is in front, so this is not old-fashioned subtraction. Changing to
5 42 = 5 + (42).
We are adding a positive number to a negative number, so the
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers to get 5 and 42.
2. Subtract larger minus smaller 42 5 = 37.
3. The larger of the two numbers in absolute value is the 42,
and it was originally negative (again, going back to the addition problem, not to the original subtraction one), so the
Therefore, 5 42 = 37.

Note that we did not do even a rough check in the last examples. If the
subtraction was changed to addition, the rough check can still be made,
same as before. If it was old-fashioned subtraction and you do not change
to addition, the same rough check can not be made (subtraction is not
commutative like addition), but you should have a good feel for what kind
of answers you can get - the answer must be positive (or zero) and less than
or equal to the number in front of the minus sign. We encourage you to go
back to the last example and roughly check all the solutions to make sure
they are reasonable.
Take your time, learn the rules, and do plenty of problems for practice.
We will end with a few more examples, some of which may require more
scratch work than the examples we have done so far.

50

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 20. Not old-fashioned subtraction, so we will start by
438 256 = 438 + (256).
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers to get 438 and 256.
2. Add like normal. Scratch work:

1
4 3 8
2 5 6
6 9 4

3. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends did
originally negative.
So, 438 256 = 694
Rough check:
Written as 438 + (256), we are starting at 438 and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than 438. Is 694 <
438? Yes, X.
Written as 256 + (438), we are starting at 256 and moving
to the left, so the answer should be less than 256. Is 694 <
256? Yes, X.

## Example 21. Subtract 698 3, 021.

Solution 21. Both numbers are positive, but the smaller one is
in front of the minus sign - not old-fashioned subtraction. Changing to addition gives:
698 3021 = 698 + (3021).
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers to get 698 and 3021.
2. Subtract bigger minus smaller. Scratch work:

1 11
3 0 62 61

6 9 8
3

51

2 10 1 11
63 60 62 61

6 9 8
3

9
2 6 10
63 60

6
2 3

## 3. The larger of the two numbers in absolute value is the 3021,

should be negative.
Thus, 698 3, 021 = 2, 323.
Rough check:
Written as 698 + (3021), we are starting at 698 and moving to
the left, so the answer should be less than 698. Is 2323 < 698?
Yes, X.
Written as 3021 + 698, we are starting at 3021 and moving
to the right, so the answer should be greater than 3021. Is
2323 > 3021? Yes, X.

## Solution 22. This is old-fashioned subtraction (both positive

numbers and the larger in front of the minus sign), so no special
rules are needed.
Scratch work:
1 11
4 62 61
3 5 4
7

11
3 61
64 62
3 5
6

11
61
4
7

## So, 421 354 = 67.

Rough check:
Since we never changed the subtraction problem to an addition

11
61
62
9
2

11
61
8
3

52

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

problem, we can not do the same rough check (unless you wish to
the answer should be nonnegative, 67 0 X; and less than or
equal to 421, 67 421 X.

## Solution 23. Both numbers are nonnegative, but the smaller

number is first, so this is not old-fashioned subtraction. Thus,
we will start by changing this to an addition problem.
0 302 = 0 + (302).
0 + (302) = 302.
Thus, 0 302 = 302.

Learning and being able to apply the addition and subtraction rules is
absolutely necessary to do well in this course. The following shortcuts MAY
be used if desired, or you may just do as in the previous examples.

## Subtraction shortcut 1: Minus a negative is the same as plus a

positive.
Many students will get into a habit of just crossing the minus signs to
make plus signs in this instance. For example:
Example 24. Subtract 3 (18).

## Solution 24. Using the shortcut, we get:

3 (18) = 3 + (+18)
= 3 + 18
= 21.
So, 3 (18) = 21.

## 1.3. INTEGER ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

You could also redo examples 16 and 17 using this shortcut.

Subtraction shortcut 2: When you are subtracting two nonnegative integers, but the smaller number is first, subtract the other way,

## Example 25. Subtract 5 16.

Solution 25. Using the new shortcut, we will subtract the other
way (making it an old-fashioned subtraction problem):
16 5 = 11.
And now we just need to make the answer negative.
Thus, 5 16 = 11.

You could also redo examples 19, 21, and 23 using this shortcut.

## SECTION 1.3 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 370.)
1. 5 + (8)

9. 4 (5)

2. 14 + (7)

10. 17 (2)

3. 3 + 9

11. 54 18

4. 18 + (11)

12. 36 + (22)

5. 6 + (1)

13. 125 + 67

6. 2 8

14. 82 (19)

7. 11 3

15. 14 (18)

8. 7 (5)

16. 63 + (19)

53

54

17. 0 15

18. 52 65

30. 84 + 82

19. 21 15

31. 20 + (16)

20. 16 (34)

32. 11 (5)

21. 111 + 74

33. 34 30

22. 15 25

34. 27 + (24)

23. 23 32

35. 8 12

24. 91 + (3)

36. 83 100

25. 18 + (17)

37. 74 24

26. 71 39

38. 12 + 33

27. 11 + (22)

39. 49 + 15

28. 2 (37)

40. 7 4

1.4

55

## Integer Multiplication and Division

The rules
To multiply or divide two integers together, apply the following rules.

## Rules for multiplying or dividing two integers

The basic rule is the same regardless of whether we are
multiplying or dividing. The only deviation arises when
zero is involved.
If you are multiplying two integers and one of the
factors is zero, the answer (product) is 0.
If you are dividing zero by anything other than itself,
the answer is 0 (see page 15).
If you are dividing by zero, the answer is undefined
(see page 16).
Otherwise:
1. Take the absolute value of both numbers, and
multiply or divide as normal, using the tower
method or long division if necessary.
2. The sign of the answer is:
(a) positive if the two numbers being multiplied
or divided have the same signs (i.e. both
positive or both negative).
(b) negative if the two numbers being multiplied or divided have opposite signs (i.e. one
positive and one negative).

Note that determining the proper numerical answer (step 1), and determining the proper sign (step 2) are totally unconnected. If you would
prefer, you may switch the order, and figure out the answers sign first; we
will show examples both ways. This was also true to some extent with the
or subtraction depended upon the signs of the addends.

56

## Also notice that there truly is a difference between these multiplication

and division rules and the addition rules of last section. For a simple example, recall that two negative numbers being added yield a negative answer
(adding two numbers of the same sign, the answer has the common sign),
while two negative numbers being multiplied or divided yield a positive answer (see above rule).
Example 1. Multiply (3)(5).

## Solution 1. To multiply, the rules say:

1. Take the absolute value of each number to get 3 and 5, and
3 5 = 15.
2. There was originally one negative factor and one positive
factor, so the answer should be negative.
So, (3)(5) = 15.

## Solution 2. To multiply, the rules state:

1. Take the absolute value of each number to get 4 and 7, and
4 7 = 28.
2. There was one positive factor and one negative factor, so
So, (4)(7) = 28.

## Solution 3. We are multiplying and zero is one of the factors

Thus, (0)(2) = 0.

57

## Solution 4. Following our new rules, we get:

1. The absolute values are 48 and 6, and 48 6 = 8.
2. There were two negative numbers in the division problem,
so the answer should be positive.
So, (48) (6) = 8.

## Solution 5. Division by zero is always undefined. Therefore,

(212) (0) = undefined.

Now we will do some examples where the scratch work is more difficult,
and we will also demonstrate figuring out the sign of the answer first, in case
you decide you would prefer that instead.

## Solution 6. We will choose to find the sign of our answer first

this time. By the sign formula (step 2) in our new multiplication
rules, we know that:
(38)(25) = + ,
where the + sign emphasizes that our answer will be positive.
Recall that in our final answer, we will not put a + sign to
show a positive number. Now that we have the sign figured out,
we can concentrate on finding the proper numerical answer.
Taking the absolute value of both numbers, we multiply:

58

4
3 8

2 5
1 9 0

1
3

2
1 9
7 6
9 5

8
5
0
0
0

## Example 7. Multiply 34 78.

Solution 7. You should recognize this as old-fashioned multiplication, and similar to the new addition rules, you do not need to
use the new rules when they are not required. All we need to do
is use the tower method to multiply the two numbers:

3
3 4

7 8
2 7 2

2
3

7
2 7
2 3 8
2 6 5

4
8
2
0
2

Thus, 34 78 = 2, 652

## Solution 8. Following the new rules:

1. Taking the absolute values of both numbers gives 273 and
13. To divide, we will use long division.

## 1.4. INTEGER MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

59

Scratch work:
21
13 |273
26
13
13
0
2. Since we have one negative number and one positive number
in the division, the answer should be negative.
Therefore, 273 13 = 21.

## Solution 9. We will find the sign of the answer first again in

this example.
1. Since we have one positive number and one negative number
in the division, the answer should be negative. So we now
know:
1715 (35) = .
2. Taking the absolute values of both numbers gives 1715 and
35. To divide, we will use long division.
Scratch work:
49
35 |1715
140
315
315
0
Therefore, 1715 (35) = 49.

After you do several problems, you will probably decide whether you
prefer to find the sign first or last, and stick with the one method.

60

## Important Note on Finding the Opposite

We have already seen and discussed the operation, take the opposite of, but
now we may add the following fact.

## The operation of take the opposite of is always equivalent

to multiplying by 1.
Refer back to example 13 on page 29. We can now redo this example
using this new concept, and our integer multiplication rules.
Example 10. Simplify.
1. (13)
2. (6)
3. (87)
4. (32)
5. 0

## Solution 10. The solutions are:

1. (13) = 1 13 = 13.
2. (6) = 1 (6) = 6.
3. (87) = 1 (87) = 87.
4. (32) = 1 32 = 32.
5. 0 = 1 0 = 0.

## SECTION 1.4 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 371.)
Multiply as indicated.
1. (4)(7)

11. (14)(6)

2. (8)(6)

12. (5)(4)

3. (10)(22)

13. (16)(0)

4. (6)(11)

14. (8)(9)

5. (0)(18)

15. (2)(34)

6. (9)(2)

16. (6)(7)

7. (17)(24)

17. (8)(11)

8. (15)(6)

18. (35)(62)

9. (1)(5)

19. (21)(33)

10. (1)(8)

20. (6)(1)

Divide as indicated.
21. 25 5

31. 345 15

22. 32 (8)

23. 18 (6)

33. 340 0

25. 0 (2)

26. 9 (3)

36. 0 (28)

27. 6 (6)

28. 22 0

38. 81 (9)

29. 14 (2)

39. 0 0

30. 14 (7)

61

62

1.5

## Grouping Symbols, Exponents and Order of

Operations

Three cars approach a four-way stop from three different directions at the
same time, who goes first? As you approach a traffic light, you notice that
the power is out and the light is not working, what is the proper procedure?
When, if ever, is it legal to make a left on red? The answers to these
questions and many others are supposed to be known by motorists to help
them navigate the roadways and avoid accidents. Mathematics has a similar
set of rules which must be followed to avoid incorrect solutions, and it is
called the order of operations.
Example 1. Robin and John wish to simplify the following expression.
3+57
Robin decides to do the operations in the order they appear, from left to
right, so he finds:
3+57 = 87
= 56.
John, meanwhile, likes multiplication better than addition, so he chooses to
multiply first:
3 + 5 7 = 3 + 35
= 38.
Obviously both answers cannot be correct, so who is right?

## Solution 1. Many peoples intuition tells them that Robin is

correct, but this is NOT the case. John did the problem correctly.
The above example certainly is not obvious, and it can only be done
correctly once you know the order of operations. A mnemonic which may
be useful when memorizing the order of operations is Please Excuse My
Dear Aunt Sally. The first letters of the words of the mnemonic represent:

## 1.5. ORDER OF OPERATIONS

63

Order of Operations
When more than one operation is present in an algebraic
expression, the proper order for doing the operations is:
1. Parentheses - or any grouping symbol
2. Exponents
3. Multiplication and Division, left to right
4. Addition and Subtraction, left to right

We will look at each of these steps separately, and then we will do many
examples combining everything.
Parentheses and other grouping symbols
The first step really should be labeled grouping symbols, but it seems
that no one has come up with a cute mnemonic beginning with GS instead
of P. There are four separate grouping symbols which you may encounter:
(parentheses), [brackets], {braces} and |absolute value|.
Parentheses are the most basic, and possibly the most common, grouping
symbol. They simply highlight where you should start. For example, in the
expression:
5 (4 3)
the parentheses indicate that you should subtract the three from the four
first to get:
5 (1)
If there are multiple operations inside the parentheses, you need to apply
the order of operations again. For example,
5 (2 2 3) = 5 (4 3) = 5 (1)
as inside the parentheses there is both multiplication and division, and order of operations states that multiplication comes first. We will see more
examples of this later.

64

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Once you are down to a single number, as above, you no longer need to
consider the parentheses as grouping symbols (as nothing is being grouped
like it was before). Sometimes, particularly if the number inside is positive,
you may drop the parentheses in these instances:
5 (1) = 5 1 = 4
However, if there is a number directly in front of the opening parenthesis (or
immediately after the closing parenthesis), recall that the parentheses then
show multiplication. Therefore:
3(4 2) = 3(2) = 6
If you have trouble remembering this, you may want to put in a multiplication sign as soon as you begin the problem:
3(4 2) = 3 (4 2) = 3 (2) = 3 2 = 6
Also, if you are down to a single negative number in the parentheses, and
there is an operation in front of the parentheses, you should not drop the
parentheses. For example:
5 (3 4) = 5 (1) = 6
Here we would leave the parentheses to avoid having the ugly notation
as we mentioned in the previous sections.
In any event, once there is only a single number inside the parentheses,
you may move on to the next step of the order of operations.
There may be times when there are two (or more) disjoint sets of parentheses. For example:
2 (3 + 5) (4 + 2)
In this case you simplify whichever one you wish first, or even both at the
same time, applying the order of operations inside each one separately. So:
2 (3 + 5) (4 + 2) = 2 (8) (6) = 2 8 6,
etc (we will finish examples like this after we introduce all the basic concepts).
There may also be times when there are two (or more) nested sets of
parentheses. For example:
2 (3 + (2 4)),

## 1.5. ORDER OF OPERATIONS

65

or
5 + (3 (2 + (7 8)))
out. Thus, in the first example above, you would first subtract the four from
the two, then add the result to the three, etc.
In these cases, it may be hard to see which opening parenthesis goes with
which closing parenthesis, and this is where brackets and braces come in.
Both brackets and braces behave exactly like parentheses, and they are only
used to make notation easier to read. Therefore, the above two expressions
could be written:
2 [3 + (2 4)],
and
5 + {3 [2 + (7 8)]}
Although you may see this elsewhere, we will save the braces for set notation,
and we will just alternate parentheses and brackets. Thus, we will write the
second expression:
5 + (3 [2 + (7 8)])
Once an expression is down to a single set of these grouping symbols, you
may revert back to parentheses, and we will do so in our examples. For
example,
2 [3 + (2 4)] = 2 [3 + (2)] = 2 (1),
etc (again, see later for finished examples).
The absolute value bars behave exactly like parentheses, with one big
difference. Recall that taking the absolute value of a number is an operation
itself, so once you have simplified what is between the absolute value bars
to a single number, you MUST IMMEDIATELY take the absolute value of
the number. You may replace the absolute value bars with parentheses if
you need be, for example:
4|3 5| 6 = 4| 2| 6 = 4(2) 6
Here we switched to parentheses after taking the absolute value to keep
showing multiplication with the four. Just remember that while it is fine to
leave parentheses in the problem once you are down to a single number inside
(to show multiplication or because you are adding or subtracting a negative,
etc.), you must never move past the first step of the order of operations with
an absolute value sign still around - you must always take the absolute value
of the number first.

66

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Exponents
We have already discussed how multiplication is really just repeated
addition, 4 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3, (see page 11). There is also an operation
which represents repeated multiplication, and it involves exponents.
Definition: For any positive integer, n, define:
an = a a a . . . a,
where there are n factors of the number a. The number a is called the base,
and the number n is called the exponent or power.
Example 2. For each of the following evaluate, and list what is the base
and what is the power.
1. 25
2. 14
3. 43
4. 52

## Solution 2. Using the definition, we get:

1. 25 = 2 2 2 2 2 = 32.
The base is 2; the exponent is 5.
This is read as two to the fifth power.
2. 14 = 1 1 1 1 = 1.
The base is 1; the exponent is 4.
This is read as one to the fourth power.
3. 43 = 4 4 4 = 64.
The base is 4; the exponent is 3.
This is read as four to the third power,
4. 52 = 5 5 = 25.
The base is 5; the exponent is 2.
This is read as five to the second power,

## 1.5. ORDER OF OPERATIONS

67

Notice that when you read a number with an exponent, the base is read
as usual (called a cardinal number), while the exponent is read as though
it was the place order of someone finishing a race (this is called an ordinal
number). Two special cases are whenever the exponent is a two or three.
If the exponent is a two, the to the second power may be replaced with
squared. This comes from the fact that the area of a square is found by
taking the length of one of its sides to the second power. If the exponent is a
three, the to the third power may be replaced with cubed. This comes
from the fact that the volume of a cube is found by taking the length of one
of its sides to the third power. Both of the words can be used as commands
as well. For example, if you are told to square five, this will mean take
five to the second power. Similarly, cube six means take six to the third
power.
Raising numbers to powers is fairly easy (at least when the power is a
positive integer like we are doing here), but you should do enough practice
problems to make sure you understand the idea. It is amazing the number of
people who eventually treat powers just like factors. For example, they will
see 33 and write nine as the solution. We would not have introduced new
notation to mean the same thing as regular multiplication! If we wanted you
to multiply three times three, what is wrong with writing 3 3? You NEED
to learn that the power indicates the number of times the base is written as
a factor, so:
33 = 3 3 3 = 27
There are two slight tricks to be wary of. First, some people have trouble
interpreting the exponent definition on page 66 when n = 1. For example,
what is 61 ? The definition states that there should be one factor of six, and
this means you do not need any multiplication signs. Thus,:
61 = 6
Now we can see that any number to the first power is itself. This rule may
also be used in reverse; if you need a number to have an exponent and it
does not have an obvious one, you may write the number as itself to the
first power. For example,
8 = 81
The second trick is a bit, well, trickier. How would you evaluate 32 ?
It may seem to be (3)(3) = 9, but this is NOT the case. To understand
why not, we need to make an important note.

68

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Important Note: For the base of an exponent to be negative, the
base MUST be written in parentheses with the power on the right
parenthesis.

## Therefore, if we really wanted to square negative three, we would write:

(3)2 = (3)(3) = 9
So how do we evaluate 32 ? Recall from page 29, that the sign
may be read as the opposite of instead of negative. The question then
becomes, where does taking the opposite fall in our order of operations?
Recall from page 60 that taking the opposite is equivalent to multiplying by
negative one. Therefore, the order of operations states that exponents take
precedence over multiplication, so:
32 = 1 32 = 1 (3 3) = 1 (9) = 9
Example 3. Evaluate each of the following.
1. 53
2. (2)4
3. 71
4. (9)1

## Solution 3. Applying our exponent definition and our important

note gives:
1. 53 = 1 53 = 1 (5 5 5) = 1 125 = 125.
Note that if you did this problem wrong and evaluated (5)3 ,
you would still have found the correct answer. This will
sometimes be the case, but certainly not always (see the
32 example above, and the next problem in this example),
so you want to learn to do it properly.
2. (2)4 = (2)(2)(2)(2) = (4)(2)(2) = (8)(2) =
16.
3. 71 = 1 71 = 1 7 = 7.

## 1.5. ORDER OF OPERATIONS

69

4. (9)1 = (9) = 9.

The following definition will allow you to raise numbers to the zeroth
power.
Definition: Define:
a0 = 1, for any a 6= 0, and
00 = undefined.
You will learn how this definition was derived in 10022 (or later in 10006),
but we want to present this now as it is an easy definition to learn, and it
introduces something else which is undefined.
Example 4. Evaluate each of the following.
1. 80
2. 130
3. 230
4. 70
5. (42)0
6. 00

## Solution 4. Applying our new definition:

1. 80 = 1.
2. 130 = 1.
3. 230 = 1.
4. 70 = 1 70 = 1 1 = 1.
This one didnt fool you, did it? This is the same trick as
before - if we want the base to be a negative number, it must
be in parentheses.
5. (42)0 = 1

70

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

6. 00 =undefined.

## Multiplication and Division, from left to right

We have already discussed multiplying and dividing integers, so there
are only two points to be made. First, even though the M comes before the
D in the mnemonic, multiplication and division have equal precedence and
should be done from left to right.
Example 5. Simplify 12 6 2.

## Solution 5. The only operations are multiplication and division,

which carry equal weight on the order of operations, so we will
do them from left to right.
12 6 2 = 2 2 = 4.
Had we done the multiplication first in the last example, we would have
found a different (incorrect) solution as 12 12 = 1.
Second, the rule of doing multiplication and division from left to right is
only important if the operations follow one another, as in the last example.
If there is a plus or minus sign (or several plus and/or minus signs) between
them, you may do them simultaneously if you wish.
Example 6. Simplify 5 5 + 3 2.

## Solution 6. First, we will solve by doing one step at a time,

and following the proper order of operations.
55+32 = 1+32
= 1+6
= 7.

In the original problem, there was a division, an addition, and a multiplication. Following the order of operations, we did the multiplication from

## 1.5. ORDER OF OPERATIONS

71

left to right, and then did the addition. Because addition (along with subtraction) is the very last step in the order of operations, nothing to the left
of the plus sign could interact with anything to its right until all multiplication and division was done. So, in this case, the example could have been
solved:
Example 7. Simplify 5 5 + 3 2.

55+32 =1+6
=
7.

## If you choose to use this shortcut, be sure that no two multiplications

and/or divisions follow one another. If you choose to not use the shortcut,
you will still get the correct solution (provided you do everything properly,
of course!); it will just take an extra step or two.
Addition and Subtraction, from left to right
When you get to this last step, there should be no more absolute value
symbols, exponents, multiplications, nor divisions. There may be parentheses still, but there should be no operations inside of them, nor should they
be showing multiplication. All that is left is to add or subtract from left
to right. The first comment we had about multiplication or division applies
here as well - even though A is listed before the S in the mnemonic, addition
and subtraction have equal precedence.
Putting it all together
OK, it is time to do some examples. You may wish to refer back to the
order of operations table (page 63), and the rules for adding, subtracting,
multiplying and dividing integers.
Example 8. Simplify 2(3 5 52 )2 |6|.

72

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 8. Starting with step one of the order of operations, we
look for any grouping symbols, and we see two sets: one parentheses and one absolute value. They are disjoint so we will work
on them simultaneously. Inside the parentheses, there is a multiplication, a subtraction and a power. Following the order of
operations, we will do the power first, and then the multiplication, and then the subtraction. As for the absolute value, there is
only a single number inside, so we just need to take the absolute
value.
2(3 5 52 )2 |6| = 2(3 5 25)2 6
= 2(15 25)2 6
= 2(10)2 6.
By the way, if you needed to do scratch work to figure out 52
or 3 5, you could have done this to the side. At this point, all
that is left inside the parentheses is a single number, so we may
move on. There is a multiplication (remember that a number immediately in front of an opening parenthesis means multiply), a
power, and a subtraction left. Following the order of operations,
we will do the power, then multiply, then subtract. Since the negative sign is inside the parentheses, we will square negative ten.
Thus,
2(3 5 52 )2 |6| = 2(10)2 6
= 2(100) 6
= 200 6
= 194.

## Solution 9. Looking for grouping symbols first, we see that there

are two sets, and they are nested. Recall that in this case we will
start on the innermost group, so we will start by subtracting the
six from the two, before simplifying the brackets.
3 + 2[6 (2 6)] 42 = 3 + 2[6 (4)] 42
= 3 + 2[6 + (+4)] 42
= 3 + 2(2) 42 .

73

## Be careful! The most common mistake in a problem like this

is students tend to add the three plus two very early on. You
must remember that because the two is immediately before an
opening grouping symbol (in this case a bracket), multiplication
is implied, and multiplication gains precedence over addition. If
you are having trouble remembering this, you may wish to insert
a times sign (dot) right away. In this case the above work would
have looked like:
3 + 2 [6 (2 6)] 42 = 3 + 2 [6 (4)] 42
= 3 + 2 [6 + (+4)] 42
= 3 + 2 (2) 42 .
We wish to comment on three points. First, notice that there was
no implied multiplication on the original parentheses, as there
was a minus sign in front of them, not a number. Second, once
we had simplified inside the brackets down to a single number,
we switched backed to parentheses. This is not always done, but
it is fairly common and we prefer it. Third, recall that you can
not always drop grouping symbols once you are down to a single
number. In the last line of above for example, had the inside of
the brackets simplified to a positive two, we could have written
it as 3 + 2 2 42 . But, since we actually have multiplication
of a negative number, and we do not write , we have left
the parentheses in. Since the inside of the parentheses is just a
single number though, we may consider the grouping symbol stage
done, and move on to the next step of order of operations. Well,
remaining we have an addition, a multiplication, a subtraction,
and a power. Following the order of operations, we will evaluate
the power first; then do the multiplication; then add and subtract
from left to right.
3 + 2 [6 (2 6)] 42 =
=
=
=
=
=

3 + 2 (2) 42
3 + 2 (2) 16
3 + (4) 16
1 16
1 + (16)
17.

For the following examples, we will still list every step, but now you are
encouraged to supply the proper reasoning.

74

72 3 3(4 6 3) =
=
=
=
=

72 3 3 (4 18)
72 3 3 (14)
24 (42)
24 + 42
66.

21 3 5 42 =
=
=
=
=

21 3 5 16
7 5 16
35 16
35 + (16)
51.

## Solution 12. Simplifying gives:

6 3 (4) (3 32 ) =
=
=
=
=
=

6 3 (4) (3 9)
6 3 (4) (6)
6 (12) (6)
6 2
6 + (2)
8.

75

2 |7 11| 23 =
=
=
=
=
=

2 | 4| 23
2 4 23
2 4 8
8 8
8 + (8)
16.

## Solution 14. Simplifying gives:

8 2 [50 + (7 10)] =
=
=
=
=
=

8 2 [50 + (3)]
8 2 [1 + (3)]
8 2 (2)
8 (4)
8 + (+4)
12.

90 (2 4 4 3) 4 =
=
=
=
=
=

90 (8 12) 4
90 (4) 4
1 (4) 4
1 (1)
1 + (+1)
2.

76

## SECTION 1.5 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 372.)
Evaluate each of the following.
1. 52

11. (3)3

2. 34

12. (1)6

3. 26

13. 07

4. 18

14. (12)0

5. 30

15. 72

6. 14

16. 111

7. 170

17. 00

8. 91

18. 82

9. (2)2

19. 01

10. 43

20. (3)4

Simplify.
21. 3 6 3

31. 3 2[4 + (6 42 )]

22. 4 + 8 3

23. 5 7 2 + 4

24. 10 2 (5)

## 34. |3 + (4 8)| |10 32 |

25. 42 22

35. 5 2 2 (1)

26. 3 + 5[2 + (1 32 )]

36. 3 + 2 6 3 80

27. 90 2 80

37. 32 2 50 + (42 52 )

28. (5 6) (20 32 )

38. 20 + 70

29. 41 2(3 50 )2

40. (4 22 ) 15 3

1.6

77

## Primes, GCF, & LCM

Prime Numbers
In this section, we will present some tools you may find useful later. For
this entire section, we will use only positive integer numbers. We will start
with some definitions.
Definition: If a positive integer, N , may be written as a product of two
positive integers A and B, i.e. N = A B, then the numbers A and B are
called factors of N . We will also say that A and B divide N .
Example 1. Find all the factors of the number 6.

Solution 1. Well,
1 is a factor of 6 as 1 6 = 6,
2 is a factor of 6 as 2 3 = 6,
3 is a factor of 6 as 2 3 = 6,
6 is a factor of 6 as 1 6 = 6.
Therefore, the factors of 6 are { 1,2,3,6 }.
By looking at the number of factors that a positive integer has, we can
separate the positive integers greater than one into two categories.
Definition: A positive integer greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and
itself is called prime.
Definition: A positive integer greater than 1 which has a positive integer
factor other than 1 or itself is called composite.

Important Note:
The number 1 is considered to be NEITHER prime NOR composite.

78

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Example 2. Determine whether each of the first ten positive integers are
prime or composite.

## Solution 2. Examining each number for factors, we find:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is

neither
prime
prime
composite
prime
composite
prime
composite
composite
composite

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

as
as
as
as
as
as
as
as
as
as

stated above.
its only factors
its only factors
2 is a factor of
its only factors
2 is a factor of
its only factors
2 is a factor of
3 is a factor of
2 is a factor of

are
are
4.
are
6.
are
8.
9.
10.

1 and 2.
1 and 3.
1 and 5.
1 and 7.

Notice that finding a single factor different from 1 or the number itself
is enough to make it composite. So, for example, for the number 10 above,
we did not have to list all of its factors, just one which wasnt 1 or 10.
An interesting fact about prime numbers is that any positive integer
greater than 1 may be written as a product of only primes. For example,
6 = 2 3 and 8 = 2 2 2. When you factor a number into the product of only
primes, this is called the prime factorization of the number. This concept is
the basis for something called the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic:

## Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic: Any positive integer

greater than 1 may be written as a product of prime numbers, and
the factors are unique except, possibly, for ordering.
To find the prime factorization of a number, we will use a factor tree.
To see how this is done, look at the following example:
Example 3. Find the prime factorization of 24.

79

## Solution 3. To start, figure out two numbers which multiply

together to give you 24. We will use 24 = 4 6 (at least at first).
Write the original number 24, and then below it, show two arrows
(considered branches - hence the title, factor tree) breaking it
into its two factors.
24
.&
4
6
Now we look at the end of our branches. For any factor which
is prime, the branch will end here. For any factor which is composite, continue splitting as before until all the branches end on
a prime number. So, to continue factoring 24:
24
.&
4
.&
2

6
.&
2

Now all the branches end on a prime number, so the prime factorization of 24 is: 24 = 2 2 2 3, OR 24 = 23 3.

## Some comments on the prime factorization. First, note that if we would

have written 24 = 6 4 and continued from there, the prime factorization
would have been 24 = 2 3 2 2. We have already discussed how multiplication is commutative, like addition, when multiplying two numbers, but
we will also soon learn (section 1.13) that when we are multiplying a bunch
of numbers, we may rearrange them in any order we wish. This is what
the Fundamental Theorem was referring to when it stated the factors are
unique except, possibly, for ordering. Second comment, even though different arrangements of the factors may all be correct, it is standard to list the
factors from smallest to largest as we did in the last example. For a small
number of factors, you (or your instructor) may prefer to list every factor as
shown in the first solution above, or you may prefer to use exponents to save
time and space. Finally, the Fundamental Theorem states that this factorization is unique, but what if you thought of 24 = 3 8 originally, instead of
24 = 4 6? Let us see with another example.

80

## Solution 4. Redoing our factor tree with this start gives:

24
.&
3

8
.&
2

4
.&
2

Therefore, 24 = 2 2 2 3, OR 24 = 23 3.

## Even though we started factoring differently, the prime factorization

ended up the same. You may try doing the prime factorization of 24 again
using 24 = 2 12, but you will again get the same end result. One comment
on this last example, be careful when some of the branches end at different
levels. It is very easy to miss a factor, especially if your branches crowd
together. One solution to this is that you may wish to simply extend the
branch ends with single arrows so that all the factors end up on the same
line. Doing this to the last example would give:
Example 5. Find the prime factorization of 24, starting with 24 = 3 8.

## Solution 5. Redoing our factor tree with this start gives:

24
.&
3

8
.&
2

4
.&
2

Therefore, 24 = 2 2 2 3, OR 24 = 23 3.

81

## Here are some more examples of finding the prime factorization.

Example 6. Find the prime factorization of 90.

90
.&
9
.&
3

10
.&
3

2 32 5.

20
.&
4
.&
2

22 5.

110
.&
10
.&
2

11

11

82

## Solution 9. 7 is a prime number, so its only factors are 1 and

7. In this case, the factor tree would look like:
7

7
So the prime factorization of 7 is 7 = 7.
In the last example we see that the prime factorization of prime numbers
is trivial (and do not require even as much work as we showed).

Useful Note:
The first ten prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 and 29.

## GCF (Greatest Common Factor)

Definition: The greatest common factor of two numbers, a and b, written
GCF(a,b), is the largest number which is a factor of both a and b.
Note that the greatest common factor, which we will in the future simply
abbreviate as GCF, does not have to be a prime number. For example:
Example 10. Find the greatest common factor of 8 and 12.

## Solution 10. One way to find the greatest common factor is to

list out all of the factors of both numbers, and compare.
8

= 1 2
4
8
l l
l
12 = 1 2 3 4 6
12

## 1.6. PRIMES, GCF, & LCM

83

We see that the factors they both have in common are 1, 2 and
4, so GCF(8,12) = 4.

## This straightforward comparison of factors is nice way to find the GCF

provided the numbers are both small or have few factors. For another example:

## Solution 11. Using the same technique as last example, we get:

10 = 1 2
5
10
l
27 = 1
3
9
27
So, GCF(10,27) = 1.

## When the GCF of two numbers is 1, we give this a special name.

Definition: Two numbers whose greatest common factor is 1 are called
relatively prime.
Notice that two numbers may be relatively prime even if neither number
itself is prime (in the last example, 10 and 27 are both composite).
When you are dealing with larger numbers, though, this method of listing out all the factors may be tiresome. Instead, you may use the prime

84

## To find the GCF(a,b) using prime factorization.

1. Find the prime factorization of both a and b.
2. Form the prime factorization of GCF(a,b) by listing
all the prime factors which are factors of both a and
b. There may be repetitions of the same factor!
3. Find GCF(a,b) by multiplying out its prime factorization.

## Lets try an example.

Example 12. Find the GCF(80,110).

and 110.
Scratch work:
80
.&
8
.&
4
.&
2

110
.&

10
.&
2

10
.&
2

11

11

## So the prime factorizations are:

80 = 2 2 2 2 5 = 24 5,
110 = 2 5 11.
Comparing the two, we see that the factors they share are one 2
and one 5,so the GCF(80,110) = 2 5 = 10.

85

and 84.
Scratch work:
60
.&
6
.&
2

84
.&
10
.&

4
.&
5

21
.&
2

## So the prime factorizations are:

60 = 2 2 3 5 = 22 3 5,
84 = 2 2 3 7 = 22 3 7.
Comparing the two, we see that the factors they share are two
2s and one 3,so the GCF(60,84) = 2 2 3 = 12.

## LCM (Least Common Multiple)

A related concept, and one even more important for our purposes, is the
least common multiple.
Definition: A multiple of a number, a, is the product of a with an integer.

## For example, 4, 8, 0 and 12 are all multiples of 4, as 4 = 41, 8 = 42, 0 = 40

and 12 = 4 (3). Recall that for this section, we will be working with
the positive integers only, so for now we are only concerned with positive
multiples of a number. Even with this restriction, every positive integer has
an infinite amount of positive multiples. We will be concerned with what
multiples two numbers have in common.
Definition: An integer which is a multiple of both numbers a and b is called
a common multiple of a and b.
Definition: The smallest, positive integer which is a multiple of both a and
b is called the least common multiple of a and b.

86

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

For example, 12, 24 and 36 are all common multiples of the numbers 3 and
4, while the number 12 is the least common multiple of 3 and 4. We will
abbreviate least common multiple with LCM, and when we wish you to
take the LCM of two numbers a and b, we will write this as LCM(a,b). For
example, LCM(3,4) = 12.
To find the LCM of two numbers, we will present two methods. The first
method works best when the two numbers are relatively small. All you do
is start with the larger number and find the smallest, positive multiple of it
into which the other number divides.

## Solution 14. The larger of the two numbers is 12, so:

12 1 = 12, does 8 divide into 12? No.
12 2 = 24, does 8 divide into 24? Yes, X.
Therefore, the LCM(8,12) = 24.

The most multiples you would have to check using this method is up
to the product, as the product is obviously always a common multiple. In
the last example, this means you would have had to check no further than
12 8 = 96. Because the product of the two numbers is always an easy-tofind common multiple, many people prefer to use it over the LCM when a
common multiple is needed, but it is still useful to be able to find the LCM
too.
When the numbers are larger, this method can be a bit tedious. In this
case, it would be better to use another method which utilizes the prime
factorization of the numbers.

87

## To find the LCM(a,b) using prime factorization.

1. Find the prime factorization of both a and b.
2. Form the prime factorization of LCM(a,b) by listing
all the prime factors which are factors of either a or
b or both.
3. Find LCM(a,b) by multiplying out its prime factorization.

## Lets try an example.

Example 15. Find the LCM(80,110).

## Solution 15. The first step is to find the prime factorization of

80 and 110. Refer back to example 12 to see the scratch work
where we found the prime factorizations to be: 80 = 22225 =
24 5,
110 = 2 5 11.
Combining the two, we see that we need four 2s, one 5 and one
11, so:
LCM(80,110) =
=
=
=
=
=
And a second example.
Example 16. Find the LCM(60,84).

2 2 2 2 5 11
4 2 2 5 11
8 2 5 11
16 5 11
80 11
880.

88

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 16. First, we will find the prime factorizations of 60
and 84.
Refer back to example 13 to see the scratch work where we found
the prime factorizations to be: 60 = 2 2 3 5 = 22 3 5,
84 = 2 2 3 7 = 22 3 7.
Combining the two, we see that we need two 2s, one 3, one 5
and one 7,so:
LCM(60,84) =
=
=
=
=

22357
4357
12 5 7
60 7
420.

Notice the difference between the GCF and LCM techniques. For the
GCF, you only kept prime factors which appeared in the prime factorizations
of both a and b. For the LCM, you kept as many factors of any prime number
which appeared in either of the prime factorizations of a or b. It is always

## Nifty Fact: For any two positive integers a and b:

GCF(a,b) LCM(a,b) = a b.

Example 17. Use the nifty fact to check on our solutions to examples 10
and 14.

## Solution 17. In those two examples, we found that:

GCF(8,12) = 4 and
LCM(8,12) = 24, so:
GCF(8,12) LCM(8,12) = 4 24 = 96.
Meanwhile, the product of 8 and 12 is:
8 12 = 96, so the nifty fact holds, X.

## 1.6. PRIMES, GCF, & LCM

89

Note that this check is not perfect as it is possible for you to make two
mistakes which cancel out. For example, if your GCF has an extra factor
of 2, the nifty fact would still check out right provided your LCM has one
you find both the GCF and LCM for the same two numbers. Still, in many
cases, this quick check can catch a careless mistake.
Example 18. Use the nifty fact to check on our solutions to examples 12
and 15.

## Solution 18. In those two examples, we found that:

GCF(80,110) = 10 and
LCM(80,110) = 880, so:
GCF(80,110) LCM(80,110) = 10 880 = 8800.
Meanwhile, the product of 80 and 110 is:
80 110 = 8800, so the nifty fact holds, X.

Example 19. Use the nifty fact to check on our solutions to examples 13
and 16.

## Solution 19. In those two examples, we found that:

GCF(60,84) = 12 and
LCM(60,84) = 420, so:
GCF(60,84) LCM(60,84) = 12 420 = 5040.
Meanwhile, the product of 60 and 84 is:
60 84 = 5040, so the nifty fact holds, X.

90

## SECTION 1.6 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 373.)
Find the prime factorizations of the following numbers.
1. 88

6. 100

2. 70

7. 108

3. 65

8. 40

4. 50

9. 135

5. 98

10. 78

## Find the following GCFs.

11. GCF(50,70)

16. GCF(50,65)

12. GCF(70,98)

17. GCF(108,135)

13. GCF(40,78)

18. GCF(65,70)

14. GCF(40,108)

19. GCF(100,135)

15. GCF(88,98)

20. GCF(88,100)

Find the following LCMs. Note that the same numbers are being used to find
LCMs as we used to find GCFs in the last group of homework problems.
This means that if you do both, you can check your answer with the Nifty
Fact from page 88.
21. LCM(50,70)

26. LCM(50,65)

22. LCM(70,98)

27. LCM(108,135)

23. LCM(40,78)

28. LCM(65,70)

24. LCM(40,108)

29. LCM(100,135)

25. LCM(88,98)

30. LCM(88,100)

1.7

91

## Fractions: the basics

Definition: A fraction is a ratio of two numbers.
22
For example, 35 , 10
, 4 and 8
4 are all fractions. The fraction bar represents
division, so that the fraction 8
4 is equal to the integer 2 as 8 4 = 2.
22
, to change the
We may also do the division on the other fractions, like 10
fraction into a decimal (section 1.10) or, when appropriate, into a mixed
number (later in this section). The top number of the fraction is called the
numerator and the bottom number is called the denominator.
There is a special group of fractions with which we will be concerned,
and that is all the fractions where both the numerator and the denominator
are integers. This set of numbers has a special name:

## rational numbers = { ab | a and b are both integers and b 6= 0}.

While this is still set notation, we didnt just list all or part of the
numbers (along with periods of ellipsis). Rather, the above is set-builder
notation. In set-builder notation, you first list an expression; here we have
a
b . Next, there is always a | or : which means such that. And lastly, you
the rational numbers are all the fractions a over b such that a and b are both
integers and b is not equal to zero.
The requirement that the denominator not be zero should come as no
surprise since we have mentioned that the fraction bar is equivalent to division. The two division rules given in the introduction (see page 15) translate
into the following two facts for fractions:

0
= 0.
a

92

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Fraction Fact 2: For any number a,
a
= undefined.
0

For all of this section, we will use the word fraction, but we will mostly
be referring to these specific type of fractions - rational numbers - where the
numerator and denominator are integers.
Positive fractions have a physical meaning; they can be thought of as
part of a whole. The denominator indicates how many equal-size pieces you
divide the original object up into, while the numerator indicates how many
of the pieces you are interested in.
Example 1. Illustrate

3
.
8

## Solution 1. We will start with a rectangular cake which we will

divide into eight equal-sized pieces.

Now that the cake is cut into eighths, we will darken the circles
in three of the eight pieces to indicate three-eighths ( 83 ).
3
8

## Let us do a few more examples.

Example 2. Illustrate

3
.
4

93

## Solution 2. We will start with a rectangular cake which we will

divide into four equal-sized pieces.

Now that the cake is cut into fourths, we will darken the circles
in three of the four pieces to indicate three-fourths ( 34 ).
3
4

Example 3. Illustrate

5
.
6

## Solution 3. We will start with a rectangular cake which we will

divide into six equal-sized pieces.

Now that the cake is cut into sixths, we will darken the circles in
five of the six pieces to indicate five-sixths ( 56 ).
5
6

In all of our examples, we started with a rectangular cake, but the original shape of the object is not important. For the fraction 83 , for example, we
could have started with a circular pizza, cut into eight equal- sized pieces,
and shaded three of the eight to represent three-eighths. All that matters is

94

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

that you divide the object up into the denominator number of equal-sized
pieces, and then indicate the numerator number of these pieces.
Now go back and look at example 2. What would happen if we cut each
of the four pieces in half again? Pictorially we get:

## The first picture represents 34 , while the second picture represents 68 ,

yet they both represent the same amount of the cake! The only difference
between the two is the size of the pieces. This leads to an interesting and

## Interesting and Important Facts:

Among integers, each integer is unique (no other integer represents the same number as the integer 2, for example).
Among fractions, for any given fraction, there are an infinite
number of other fractions which represent the same amount.

We have already seen that 34 = 68 . Recalling that the fraction bar means
32
divide, it is also easy to see that: 2 = 21 = 42 = 10
5 = 16 = . . .. Fractions like
these have a special name:
Definition: Different fractions which represent the same number are called
equivalent fractions.
We can generate equivalent fractions algebraically by using the following
rule:

95

## Fundamental Principle of Fractions:

Let a, b and c be any numbers, except b 6= 0 and c 6= 0. Then the
following is true:
a
ac
=
b
bc
This rule is extremely important, and it will be used often when working
with fractions. As an example, let us start with the situation where you have
a fraction which you wish had a different denominator (but still represented
the same amount!). The reason why we may wish to do this will become
apparent soon.
4
Example 4. Write as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 15.
5
Solution 4. Our original fraction has a denominator of 5 which
we wish to change to a 15. The fundamental principle of fractions tells us that we may make equivalent fractions by multiplying numerator and denominator by the same nonzero number.
As for which number we wish to multiply by, well to change a 5
to a 15, we would like to multiply by 3. Therefore:
43
4
=
5
53
=

Example 5. Write

12
15

2
as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 49.
7

## Solution 5. Applying the fundamental principle of fractions

with c = 7 (as 7 7 = 49):
2
27
=
7
77
=

14
49

96

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Example 6. Write

1
as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 24.
3

## Solution 6. This time, to change the 3 to a 24, we need to

multiply by 8, so the fundamental principle says:
1
3

18
38

8
24

Having all these different fractions representing the same number can be
confusing. For example, let us say we do an addition problem where we add
two fractions to get a fractional answer (next section). Since there are an
infinite number of correct solutions, which do we list in the back? This is not
unheard of, and you may encounter situations where there are many possible
correct solutions, but the annoying thing here is that all the equivalent
fractions represent the same number! In light of this, mathematicians have
decided that one form of a fraction is preferable to all of its equivalent forms.

## Fractions: simplest form

Definition: A fraction is said to be in simplest form, or in lowest terms,
if the greatest common factor of the numerator and denominator is 1.
One method of simplifying a fraction is to imagine that you are using
the fundamental principle backwards. Instead of starting with a fraction
and multiplying numerator and denominator by a common number, if you
can rewrite the numerator and denominator as a products with a common
factor, you may cancel this common factor. In other words, instead of using
the equality to:
ac
a

b
bc
you will use the equality to go the other way:
a
ac

bc
b

## 1.7. FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

Example 7. Simplify

4
6

## Solution 7. Noticing that the 4 and 6 have a common factor of

2, we will factor both numbers and cancel.
4
6

Example 8. Simplify

22
32

2 6 2
3 6 2

2
3

12
16

## Solution 8. Here, the GCF of 12 and 16 is 4, and this is the

would be the best number to factor out. Occasionally, however,
especially when the numbers get larger, you may not notice the
GCF, but rather just any common factor. That is fine, the problem will still work out, but this means you will have to do several
steps to simplify. Here, for example, let us say that we noticed
that 2 is a common factor of 12 and 16. Then we get:
12
16

6 6 2
8 6 2

6
8

3 6 2
4 6 2

3
4

97

98

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

So if you do not factor out the GCF right away, you may have several steps
where you are factoring out common factors. Just make sure that in your
final answer, the numerator and denominator have no common factors other
than 1.
Instead of searching for common factors one at a time, a slight modification of the above method is to use the prime factorization. Start off by doing
the prime factorization of both the numerator and denominator. Now you
will want to cancel any common factors in the numerator and denominator.
This may seem to be different from the fundamental principle of fractions,
as there may be more than one multiplication sign, but we may modify the
fundamental principle in the following way:

Fraction Fact 3: Provided that the only operation in your numerator and denominator is multiplication, you may cancel any factor
in the numerator with any matching factor in the denominator.

## The provision that only multiplication is present is important! Addition and

subtraction kill this ability to cancel. Let us redo our last example using
the prime factorization.
Example 9. Simplify

12
16

and 16.
Scratch work:
16
.&

12
.&
3

4
.&
2

4
.&
2

4
.&
2

## So, the prime factorizations are:

12 = 2 2 3
16 = 2 2 2 2
Replacing the numbers with their prime factorization allows us

## 1.7. FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

to cancel.

12
16

223
2222

6 2 6 2 3
6 2 6 2 2 2

3
22

3
4

99

This method is nice in that it makes the problem very easy once you have
the prime factorizations (provided they are correct). On the other hand,
many people do not like to take the time to do the prime factorization, so
you will have to decide what works best for you.
If you have ever simplified a fraction before, you may have done so in
yet another way, using division instead of canceling factors. To see how this
works, we will introduce a modified version of the fundamental principle of
fractions:

## Fundamental Principle of Fractions, version 2:

Let a, b and c be any numbers, except b 6= 0 and c 6= 0. Then the
following is true:
a
ac
=
b
bc

Notice that the only difference between this version of the fundamental
principle and the other is that the multiplication has been replaced with
division. The reason we are allowed to do this will be presented when we
introduce reciprocals (page 150). For now, this gives a third method for
simplifying fractions. Let us redo our two previous examples using this
method.

100

4
6

## Solution 10. Noticing that the 4 and 6 have a common factor

of 2, we will divide numerator and denominator both by it.
4
6

42
62

2
3

12
16

## Solution 11. We will do this problem as before, pretending that

our first thought is to divide out a factor of 2. Again, this situation of only recognizing a common factor instead of the GCF
may happen when you are trying to find factors of large numbers.
The bigger the factor you divide out, the faster you will simplify,
but provided you do not stop too soon (or give up!), you will still
get there in the end.
12
16

12 2
16 2

6
8

62
82

3
4

We will do three more examples, one for each of the simplifying methods
given.

## 1.7. FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

Example 12. Simplify

101

18
27

## Solution 12. The number 9 is a common factor of both 18 and

27 (the GCF in fact). So:
18
27

## Example 13. Simplify

2 6 9
3 6 9

2
3

330
396

Solution 13. We will simplify this fraction using the prime factorization method. A case like this where the numbers are large,
and you would probably have to do several steps using either of
the other methods (as the GCF is not obvious, but it is easy to
see that 2, for example, is a factor), is where this prime factorization method may be easier and just as fast.
First we need to find the prime factorization of 330 and 396.
Scratch work:
396
.&

330
.&
10
.&
2

4
.&

33
.&
5

11

99
.&
2
.

9
.&
3

11

11

## So, the prime factorizations are:

330 = 2 3 5 11
396 = 2 2 3 3 11
Replacing the numbers with their prime factorization allows us

102

to cancel.

330
396

2 3 5 11
2 2 3 3 11

6 2 6 3 5 6 11
6 2 2 6 3 3 6 11

5
23

5
6

48
66

## Solution 14. The number 6 is a factor of both numerator and

denominator, so dividing both by it gives:
48
66

48 6
66 6

8
11

Mixing in negatives
So far, we have only been dealing with positive fractions. Negative numbers, however, may appear in the numerator and denominator as well, and
you need to become adept at handling them. The trick is to remember
that the fundamental principle of fractions states that multiplying top and
bottom by the same nonzero number makes an equivalent fraction, and one
possible nonzero number is negative one. Let us look at a fraction where
both numerator and denominator are negative numbers, and see how this
helps.
2 (1)
2
2
=
=
.
7
7 (1)
7

103

## On the other hand, if the numerator and denominator have opposite

signs:
3
3 (1)
3
=
=
5
5 (1)
5

and in either case here, we are dividing two numbers of opposite sign which
gives us a negative result. Therefore:
3
3
3
=
= .
5
5
5
Generalizing this, we get:

a
a
=
b
b

and

## Fraction Fact 5: For any positive numbers a and b,

a
a
a
=
=
b
b
b

When both numerator and denominator have the same sign, we will
(obviously?) prefer to have them both positive. When the numerator and
denominator have the opposite sign, it is standard to prefer to have the negative sign either in the numerator or out front (depending on the situation).
Wanting to move an overall negative sign around in a fraction will occur
more often than you might think, so let us do some practice.

104

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Example 15. Use Fraction Facts 4 and 5 to find one or two equivalent
fractions for each of the following, where the equivalent fraction has the
same numerical value for its numerator and denominator, but the signs of
each have been changed.
1.

3
8

2.

5
7

3.

2
9

4.

4
13

5.

11
12

6.

2
3

7.

4
5

1.

3
3
3
=
=
8
8
8

2.

5
5
=
7
7

3.

2
2
=
9
9

4.

4
4
4
=
=
13
13
13

5.

105

11
11
11
=
=
12
12
12

## 6. This fraction seems to have way too many signs! Since

neither fraction fact 4 nor 5 covers this exact situation, we
will recall the sign all the way in front may be read as
take the opposite of. Thus,
2

2
=
3

2
=
3
2
=
3

4
5

4
5
4
=
5
4
=
5
=

## We will often want or need to move a negative sign around as part of

another problem. When simplifying a fraction, for example, we want there
to either be no negative signs or just one overall sign out in front.
Example 16. Simplify

18
22

106

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

of factor method.

18
22

18
22

9 6 2
11 6 2

9
11

In the first step we got rid of the negative signs as per Fraction Fact 4, and
then simplified as normal.
15
Example 17. Simplify
75
Solution 17. We will simplify this fraction using version 2 of
the fundamental principle of fractions.
15
75

15
75

15 15
75 15

1
5

84
32

## Solution 18. We will simplify this fraction using version 2 of

the fundamental principle of fractions.
84
32

84
32

84 4
32 4

21
8

## 1.7. FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

107

This last example may cause you to pause, but negative twenty-one over
eight is the correct answer in lowest terms. If the answer bothers you, this
means you are probably familiar with mixed numbers.
Mixed numbers
All fractions may be put into one of two categories.
Definition: A fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator, in
absolute value, is called a proper fraction.
Definition: A fraction whose numerator is greater than or equal to its
denominator, in absolute value, is called an improper fraction.

Example 19. State whether each of the following are proper or improper
fractions.
8
1.
9
13
2.
4
5
3.
8
4.

12
4
Solution 19. According the definitions:
1.

8
is a proper fraction.
9

2.

13
is an improper fraction.
4

3.

5
is a proper fraction.
8
Here we see the importance of taking the absolute value of
the numerator and denominator first. Without doing so, we
would have said that 5 > 8, but in absolute value, 5 < 8.

108

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

4.

12
is an improper fraction.
4
True, this fraction is not in lowest terms, and it can even
be simplified to an integer, but as written, it is an improper
fraction.

You may change an improper fraction into another type of number called
a mixed number. A mixed number is a combination of an integer and a
fraction.

## To change an improper fraction mixed number

1. Perform long division, dividing the numerator by the denominator, and taking note of the quotient and remainder.
2. The quotient is your integer, and next to it make a fraction of
the remainder over the old denominator.

## Example 20. Change

13
to a mixed number.
5

Solution 20. Following our new rule, we will start by doing long
division.
Scratch work:
2
5 |13
10
3
So our quotient is 2 with a remainder of 3. Therefore:
13
5

= 2 35

## 1.7. FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

Example 21. Change

109

37
to a mixed number.
2

Solution 21. Following our new rule, we will start by doing long
division.
Scratch work:
18
2 |37
2
17
16
1
So our quotient is 18 with a remainder of 1. Therefore:
37
2

= 18 21

If there are negative signs in your improper fraction, use the Fraction
Facts 4 (page 103) and 5 (page 103) to get either no negative signs, or just
one out in front of the fraction. If it is the case where there is one negative
sign out in front, change the improper fraction to a mixed number as normal,
and keep the negative sign tagging along.
Example 22. Change

21
to a mixed number.
8

## Solution 22. This was the answer to example 18 on page 106.

Since the only negative is already out in front, we will change the
fraction to a mixed number, and tag along the sign.
Scratch work:
2
8 |21
16
5
So our quotient is 2 with a remainder of 5. Therefore:

21
8

= 2 58

110

## Example 23. Change

51
to a mixed number.
10

## Solution 23. Using Fraction Fact 5, we may pull the negative

sign out front where it will now just tag along. Changing the
fraction to a mixed number gives: Scratch work:
5
10 |51
50
1
So our quotient is 5 with a remainder of 1. Therefore:
51
10

## Example 24. Change

1
= 5 10

47
to a mixed number.
3

Solution 24. Using Fraction Fact 4, we may get rid of both negative signs. Now, to change the fraction to a mixed number:
Scratch work:
15
3 |47
3
17
15
2
So our quotient is 15 with a remainder of 2. Therefore:
47
3

## Example 25. Change

= 15 23

54
to a mixed number.
3

111

## Solution 25. No negative signs to worry about, so we go ahead

and do long division.
Scratch work:
18
3 |54
3
24
24
0
Oops, we got a remainder of 0! This means that this improper
fraction can be turned into an integer, not a mixed number.
Therefore:
54
= 18
3
It is not always obvious whether an improper fraction will become a mixed
number or an integer until you do the long division. To acknowledge this,
the directions for similar problems at the end of this section will ask you to
convert improper fractions to either a mixed number or an integer.
We also need to know how to change a mixed number into an improper
fraction.

## To change a mixed number an improper fraction

1. The improper fraction should have the same sign as the mixed
number does.
2. To find the numerator of your fraction, multiply the old denominator by the absolute value of your integer and add this
to the old numerator.
3. The denominator of your improper fraction is the same as the
denominator of the fractional part of your mixed number.

112

## Example 26. Change 2 57 to an improper fraction.

Solution 26. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be positive. Then:
2 57

72+5
7

19
7

## Example 27. Change 3 38 to an improper fraction.

Solution 27. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be negative. Then:
3 38

83+3
8

27
8

In this last example, note the importance of multiplying the old denominator by the absolute value of the integer. Had you multiplied 8 times 3
and then added 3, you would have gotten a numerator of 21, which is
incorrect.
A few more examples.
Example 28. Change 25 12 to an improper fraction.

Solution 28. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be positive. Then:
25 12

2 25 + 1
2

51
2

113

## Example 29. Change 13 45 to an improper fraction.

Solution 29. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be negative. Then:
13 45

5 13 + 4
5

69
5

## Example 30. Change 11 59 to an improper fraction.

Solution 30. Following our rules, we first note that the fraction
will be positive. Then:
11 59

9 11 + 5
9

104
9

## Comparing rational numbers

We may wish to determine which of two rational numbers is the lesser
or greater (or even whether they are equal). This turns out to be more
difficult than it was with integers, even determining equality! For example,
obviously the integer 5 is equal to the integer 5 (5 = 5); not as obvious is
54
54
the fact that the fraction 37 is equal to the fraction 126
( 37 = 126
). To learn
how to compare fractions, we will look at some obvious cases first, and then
show what to do when the answer is not obvious.
Obvious case 1: If you are comparing a positive number to a nonpositive number, the arrow should point towards the nonpositive
number (or the mouth should be eating the positive number, if you
prefer). If you are comparing a negative number to a nonnegative
number, the arrow should point towards the negative number (or the
mouth should be eating the nonnegative number, if you prefer).

114

## It sounds a bit more complicated than it is.

Example 31. Insert a or > between each of the following.
1.

2.

13
14

14
15

25
8

31
10

3. 0

4.

18
5

5.

258
11

4
13
0
1
2

6. 9

110
113

## Solution 31. Since we are not comparing two numbers of the

same sign, we easily get:
1.
2.

13
14

25
8

3. 0

14
15

>

>

4.

18
5

5.

258
11

31
10

4
13

0
1
2

## 1.7. FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

6. 9

>

115

110
113

The next easiest case, is if the numbers are the same sign, but between
different integers.

## Obvious case 2: If one or both of the numbers you are comparing

is an improper fraction, convert it to a mixed number. Sometimes
this will let you estimate the numbers well enough to tell which is
the lesser.

1.

23
3

44
9

2.

25
4

3.

15
2

16
3

numbers gives:
1.

23
2
=7 ,
3
3
and

44
8
=4 .
9
9

## If you needed to do long division scratch work, you could

have done this on the side. Now it is easy to see that 7 32
4 89 , (as the first number is between 7 and 8 and the second
is between 4 and 5). Thus,
23
3

44
9

116

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

2.

25
1
=6 ,
4
4
and 7 is an integer.
Now it is easy to see that six-and-a-bit is < seven. Thus,
25
4

3.

<

15
1
= 7 ,
2
2
and

16
1
= 5 .
3
3

Now recall that the more negative a number is, the further
to the left it is on the number line. So, since seven-anda-bit is bigger than five-and-a-bit, negative seven-and-a-bit
is further to the left on the number line, or 7 12 < 5 31 .
Therefore:

15
2

<

16
3

## So what happens if we do not have an obvious case? For example, what

5
versus
if we are comparing two proper fractions of the same sign, like 11
11
5
?
Recall
that
physically
means
you
have
divided
something
(say
a
23
11
rectangular cake, if you prefer) into 11 equal-sized pieces and want 5 of
them. 11
23 means you have divided a similar object into 23 equal-sized pieces
and want 11 of them. It is possible that a physical picture could help,
say if one of the fractions represents a considerable amount more than the
other, but here, both fractions are a bit under half, and it would be hard
to judge with the naked eye. But wait, what if instead of dividing the two
objects up into a different number of pieces, you divide them both into
the same number. Wouldnt this make comparing the two fractions easier?
5
6
5
and 11
23 , we ask you to compare 11 to 11 . With the
denominators being the same (and thus the size of the pieces each is divided
into the same), it is now a simple matter of comparing the numerators.
This is the idea behind comparing fractions. If the two fractions you
wish to compare do not have the same denominator, you WILL MAKE
them have the same denominator by creating equivalent fractions. First
you will need to decide what you would like the denominators to be. A

117

## reasonable choice would be the least common multiple of the denominators,

but for comparison purposes, the common multiple of their product is more
often used.
Example 33. Insert a or > between the following two fractions.
5
11

11
23
Solution 33. First, we will multiply 23 11:
Scratch work:
2

1
2
2 3
2 5

3
1
3
0
3

## So a common multiple of the denominators is 253. We will use

the fundamental principle of fractions (page 95) to make equivalent fractions with the appropriate denominator.
5
11

5 23
11 23

115
253

11 11
23 11

while
11
23

121
253
You may have had to do a little bit of scratch work to get the
=

115
121

253
253
Therefore:

11
5

11
23

118

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

To save a little bit of work, a shortcut was developed, and this shortcut
is what you will wish to use when comparing.

General case: To compare two fractions, multiply each denominator by the other numerator, and write the product above the corresponding numerator. The same inequality symbol which goes between the two products, goes between the fractions.

5
11

11
23

## Solution 34. Redoing this problem using the shortcut:

115
121
5 -% 11
11 %- 23
Since 115 121, we get:
5
11

11
23
The shortcut works by finding only half of the appropriate equivalent fractions - just the numerators, as you will notice if you compare the numbers
115 and 121 to the true equivalent fractions we got when we did the problem
all out before. Some people refer (incorrectly!) to this as cross-multiplying.
We will see real cross-multiplying later in Chapter 2.
If you are always careful to look for the obvious cases first, you will
only need to use this shortcut on proper fractions. Let us do several more
examples.
Example 35. Insert a or > between the following two fractions.
3
5

9
16

## 1.7. FRACTIONS AND MIXED NUMBERS

Solution 35. Using the shortcut:
48
45
3 -% 9
5 %- 16
Since 48 > 45, we get:
3
9
>
5
16
Example 36. Insert a or > between the following two fractions.
28
5

37
7
Solution 36. Since both fractions are the same sign, you may go
right to the shortcut if wish, but since the fractions are improper,
we will check to see if the answer is obvious if we convert the
fractions to mixed numbers.
28
3
=5 ,
5
5
and

2
37
=5 .
7
7

Since both mixed numbers have the same integer part, the answer
is still not obvious. However, if we figure out which fractional
part is larger, this will be enough to tell us which mixed number is
larger. This means that by taking the time to change the improper
fractions to mixed numbers, we saved ourselves from having to
work with the larger numbers. Let us compare the two fractional
parts.
21
10
3 -% 2
5 %- 7
Since 21 > 10, we get:
3
2
3
2
> 5 > 5 , so:
5
7
5
7
37
28
>
5
7

119

120

38
11

17
5

## Solution 37. Both fractions are negative, so that is no help.

Again, you could jump right to the shortcut, but be careful about
the negative signs. Instead of trying to include them in the product, you should just ignore them and compare the absolute value
of the fractions, and then recall that a larger negative value is
further to the left on the number line. We, though, our going to
convert the two improper fractions to mixed numbers first.

38
5
= 3 ,
11
11

and

17
2
= 3 .
5
5

Since both mixed numbers have the same integer part, the answer is still not obvious. Just like before though, we only need to
compare the fractional parts. So,
25
22
5 -% 2
11 %- 5
Since 25 > 22, we get:
5
11
5
3 11
5
3 11

>

2
5

> 3 25

3 25

line. Therefore:

38
11

17
5

121

## Improper Fractions vs. Mixed Numbers

Now having seen both improper fractions and mixed numbers, you may
wonder which form is more preferable. Many people prefer mixed numbers,
but the truth is they both have good points.
In general, mixed numbers are better when you wish to know how
large the number is or wish to approximate it.
In general, improper fractions are better when you wish to perform a
As you can see, both forms has it uses. Therefore, a note on how we will
present solutions is in order.
IMPORTANT NOTATION: For the rest of this ebook:
except for problems where we specifically ask you to do otherwise (like
example 4 on page 95), we will expect all final answers involving fractions (including the fractional part of mixed numbers) to be simplified.
except for problems where we ask you to change an improper fraction
to a mixed number (like example 20 on page 108) or vice versa (like
example 26 on page 112), we will NOT care whether you leave your
final answer a mixed number or improper fraction. The solutions to
exercises and our examples will contain both.
And finally, one more thing to keep in mind about mixed numbers.

## Important Fact about Mixed Numbers

Even though we put the fractional part of a mixed number right next
to the integral part, there is a hidden plus sign there.

122

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Example 38. 6 23 = 6 +

2
3

## While this may not seem earth-shattering, it is actually quite significant.

Even though it is fairly common to hide a multiplication sign in mathematics
(you will see several cases of this in Core Math courses), it is almost unheard
number may help you to understand why the various shortcuts we use with
mixed numbers work, and we will demonstrate this in the next couple of
sections.
One other note, for negative mixed numbers, the fraction is the same
sign as the integer.
Example 39.

5 14

= 5 + 41
= 5 + 14

## SECTION 1.7 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 374.)
Rewrite the following fractions as equivalent fractions with the same numerical values in the numerator and denominator but either no negative signs,
or only one negative sign out in front.
1.

2
7

6.

21
22

2.

3
5

7.

5
6

3.

5
9

8.

3
4

4.

11
13

9.

3
11

5.

2
3

10.

7
10

123

## Rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction with the given denominator.

11.

2
with a denominator of 20
5

16.

12.

1
with a denominator of 8
4

17.

13.
14.

3
with a denominator of 21
7

1
with a denominator of 60
2

15.

2
with a denominator of 18
3

5
with a denominator of 32
8
4
with a denominator of 45
5

18.

7
with a denominator of 48
8

19.

1
with a denominator of 42
6

20.

2
with a denominator of 72
9

21.

24
36

26.

10
16

22.

3
15

27.

23.

10
25

28.

13
39

29.

20
50

24.

33
77

25.

32
72

30.

24
40

65
80

31.

11
3

32.
33.

57
4

34.
35.

15
2

35
8

62
3

36.
37.

54
11

38.
39.

29
2

104
9

82
3

40.

73
5

124

41. 3

2
7

46. 5

42. 2
43. 5

1
5

47. 9

3
4

3
10

48. 4
10
11

49. 8

2
3

50. 2

44. 1
45. 11

7
8

1
6

5
9
11
24

true statement.
51.

3
5

1
2

56.

100
3

52.

4
9

11
24

57.

15
17

53.

8
13

3
5

58.

11
5

9
4

5
7

31
8

52
19

54.
55.

11
15

59.
60. 6

5
6

53
9

65
2

110
133

4
5

1.8

125

## Adding or Subtracting Two Fractions

Imagine you have a pizza which is cut into eight equal-sized pieces, and
you take two pieces. This means you are going to eat two-eighths ( 28 ) of the
pizza. After eating them, you are still hungry, so you take another piece.
How much of the pizza have you eaten now? Isnt it fairly obvious that
you have eaten three-eighths ( 83 = 28 + 18 )? This shows that addition (and
subtraction) of fractions is easy provided the two fractions have the same
denominator ; i.e. the size of the pieces are the same. This leads to the
following rules.

## Adding Fractions with the Same Denominator

Let a, b and c be any numbers, except b 6= 0. Then:
a+c
a c
+ =
b b
b

and

## Subtracting Fractions with the Same Denominator

Let a, b and c be any numbers, except b 6= 0. Then:
a c
ac
=
b b
b

3
6
+
11 11

126

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 1. Following our rule, we get:
3
6
+
11 11

3+6
11

9
11

3 1
+
8 8

3 1
+
8 8

3+1
8

4
8

44
84

1
2

## This last example illustrates an important point. Even if both of your

original fractions are simplified, you may have to simplify your final answer.
Example 3. Subtract

5 1

9 9

5 1

9 9

51
9

4
9

## 1.8. FRACTION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Example 4. Subtract

127

7
5

12 12

## Solution 4. Following our rule, we get:

7
5

12 12

75
12

2
12

22
12 2

1
6

So far, so good, but what if we wish to add (or subtract) fractions which
have different denominators? Think back to the pizza example. Now say
we have two pizzas; one cut into eight equal-sized pieces with pepperoni,
and one cut into six equal-sized pieces with sausage. The overall size of
the two pizzas is the same, so this means that the pieces of the sausage
pizza are larger. Now you take two pieces of the pepperoni pizza and one of
the sausage. How much total pizza have you taken? The word piece can
be ambiguous in the English language, so you could feasibly get away with
saying three pieces, but obviously you have more than you would have had,
had you taken three of the smaller pieces, and less than you would have had,
had you taken three of the larger pieces. Therefore, we know that 28 + 16 > 38
and 28 + 16 < 36 . While it is nice to have bounds on our answer, we still want
to know what 28 + 16 equals. If you stop to think about it for a moment,
you will realize that we have all the information that we need. First, we
know that it is easy to add (or subtract) fractions when they have the same
denominator. Second, we know that we may change the denominator of
our fractions without changing their value, by making equivalent fractions
(fundamental principle of fractions, page 95). This is all we need to add or
subtract any two fractions we desire.

128

## Important and Useful Fact

To add or subtract two fractions with different denominators, you
will first MAKE THEM HAVE THE SAME DENOMINATOR by
forming equivalent fractions, and then add or subtract as before.

## Example 5. Let us solve our pizza problem. Notice that

form, so we are really trying to add:

2
8

1
4

in simplified

1 1
+ .
4 6

## Solution 5. A common multiple of the two denominators is 12,

so we will start by making equivalent fractions, then adding.
1 1
+
4 6

Example 6. Subtract

13 12
+
43 62

3
2
+
12 12

3+2
12

5
12

7
2
.
10 5

129

## so we will start by making equivalent fractions, then subtracting.

7
2

10 5

7
22

10 5 2

7
4

10 10

74
10

3
10

You can see that we will be making a lot of equivalent fractions when
adding and subtracting, so finding a common multiple is important. We
could use the common multiple of the product, as we did for comparisons,
but while this is an easy common multiple to find, there are a couple of
problems with it. First, we would prefer to keep the common multiple as
small as possible since we will be doing our scratch work by hand instead of
using a calculator. Second, currently we are only working with two fractions
at a time, but later we will see cases where we need to find a common
multiple of the denominators of three or even four fractions at once, and this
exacerbates the problem of the product of the denominators being large.
Therefore, we will prefer to work with the least common multiple of the
denominators.
Least Common Denominator (LCD)
Definition: The least common multiple of the denominators of all the
fractions involved is called the least common denominator, or LCD.
If necessary, you may wish to go back to the section on finding least
common multiples (section 1.6) to recall the two methods for finding the
LCD. Looking back at the previous two examples, you will see that we used
the LCD for the common denominator both times. Let us do a few more
examples of adding and subtracting fractions with different denominators
using the LCD.
5
Example 7. Add 2 + .
7

130

## Solution 7. Any integer can be changed to a fraction easily by

putting it over 1. Doing so gives:
5
2 5
=
+
7
1 7
The LCD of the two denominators is 7, so:
2+

2 5
+
1 7

27 5
+
17 7

14 5
+
7
7

14 + 5
7

19
5
or 2
7
7

Compare the original problem to the mixed number version of the final
answer. Does it seem trivial? It should! Here is the first example where the
important fact (page 121) about mixed numbers having a hidden plus sign
shows up. As you can see from this example, if you are adding an integer
and a proper fraction (it is important for both to be the same sign), the
solution as a mixed number is trivial. As for the solution as an improper
fraction, you may solve the long way, as in the last example, or you may
just convert the mixed number to an improper fraction using the shortcut
we learned last section. See example 26 on page 112 and compare to the
last example.
This last example also shows how the shortcut for changing a mixed
number to an improper fraction was developed. When you make the integer
a fraction, it will always go over 1, and the LCD of 1 and another number
is always the other number. Therefore, the denominator of the improper
fraction will always be the same as the denominator of the fractional part of
the mixed number. As for the numerator, the integer will always need to be
multiplied by the denominator of the fractional part (to make an equivalent
fraction with the right denominator), and the product will then be added
to the numerator of the fractional part. While it is easier to just use the
shortcut rather than the long way we did in the last example, what this

## 1.8. FRACTION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

131

means is that if you ever forget the shortcut, you can do one problem the
long way as above to refresh your memory.
Back to examples.

9 11
+ .
8 10

## Solution 8. Here the fractions are improper, but provided we do

not change them to mixed numbers, the method is still the same.
The LCD of the two denominators is 40, so:
9 11
+
8 10

Example 9. Subtract

9 5 11 4
+
8 5 10 4

45 44
+
40 40

45 + 44
40

9
89
or 2
40
40

3 1
.
8 4

3 1

8 4

3 12

8 42

3 2

8 8

32
8

1
8

132

11 2
.
6
9

## Solution 10. The LCD is 18, so:

11 2

6
9

11 3 2 2

63
92

33
4

18 18

33 4
18

29
11
or 1
18
18

To do addition involving mixed numbers, there are two methods you
could use. The first is:

## Mixed Number + or , method 1:

You may ALWAYS convert all mixed numbers into improper fractions, and then add or subtract following the fraction rules.
The first method is probably the easiest. However, if you wish, there
is another method, which we will call the mixed-number addition-shortcut,
you may use. To see how it works, let us look at an example:
Example 11. Add 2 38 + 4 14 .

## Solution 11. All the shortcuts involving mixed numbers stem

from remembering the hidden plus sign. The following work is
slightly beyond the scope of your current knowledge, as we will

## 1.8. FRACTION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

use the commutative and associative properties of addition (we
will see these in more detail in section 1.13 on page 216), but
follow along as best you can.
2 38 + 4 41

2 + 38 + 4 + 14
3

= (2 + 4) +

= 6+

12
42

= 6+

2
8

= 6+
= 6

8
8

1
4

5
8

53
5
or
8
8

## Mixed Number +, method 2:

1. Add the two fractions together. If the result is an improper
fraction, convert it to a mixed number.
2. Add the two integers together.
3. Add the two above results together.

133

134

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 12. Using our shortcut, first we will add the fractions.
3 1
+
4 6

33 12
+
43 62

2
9
+
12 12

11
12

5+4 = 9
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
5 43 + 4 16 = 9

11
119
or
12
12

## Example 13. Add 7 12 + 2 45 .

Solution 13. Using our shortcut, first we will add the fractions.
1 4
+
2 5

15 42
+
25 52

8
5
+
10 10

13
10

3
= 1 10

7+2 = 9
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
7 21 + 2 45

3
= 9 + 1 10

= 10

3
103
or
10
10

## 1.8. FRACTION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

135

This last example shows a situation where the fractional sum must be converted to a mixed number before adding to the integer sum. DO NOT give
an answer along the lines of 9 13
10 as this is an abomination of all that is pure
and true, much like Frankensteins monster (as opposed to Frankenstein
in lowest terms (either proper or improper) OR a true mixed number which
consists of an integer plus a proper fraction. Notice that the last step where
we added an integer to an improper fraction may be thought of as an application of this shortcut method, where the integer is thought of as a mixed
number with zero fractional part.
Example 14. Add 10 23 + 1 94 .

Solution 14. Using our shortcut, first we will add the fractions.
2 4
+
3 9

23 4
+
33 9

6 4
+
9 9

10
9

= 1 19
10 + 1 = 11
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
10 23 + 1 94

= 11 + 1 19
= 12

1
109
or
9
9

## This having to change an improper fraction to a mixed number if the

fractional sum is too large is similar to carrying in the tower method of
addition. If this was the only trick, most people would probably prefer
the shortcut, as it keeps the numbers being added and multiplied smaller.

136

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

However, once we mix in negative numbers, we shall see that there is yet
another trick to be wary of.
Mixed Number Subtraction
Again, the first method to subtract mixed numbers is to just change
everything to fractions. The second method is again a shortcut method,
whose rules are:

## Mixed Number , method 2:

1. Subtract the two fractions in the order that they appeared. If
necessary, borrow 1 from the integer.
2. Subtract the two integers in the order that they appeared.
3. Add the two above results together.

## Example 15. Subtract 4 34 1 12 .

Solution 15. Using our shortcut, first we will subtract the fractions.
3 1
3 12

4 2
4 22
=

3 2

4 4

1
4

## Then subtract the integers.

41 = 3
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
4 43 1 12 = 3

13
1
or
4
4

## 1.8. FRACTION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

137

1
Example 16. Subtract 3 10
2 45 .

Solution 16. Using our shortcut, first we will subtract the fractions.
1
4
1
42

10 5
10 5 2
1
8

10 10
Here we notice a problem, as the smaller fraction is first. If
we were using the tower method for old-fashioned subtraction,
we would look to borrow ten. Here we will borrow 1 whole from
the integer. So, cross out the 3 and make it a 2 and add this
borrowed 1 to the first fraction. On your paper, you could just
plug in a 1 to your previous work; here we will redo the work.
=

4
1

10 5

= 1

1
42

10 5 2

1
8

10 10
Now we will change the mixed number to a fraction and subtract.
= 1

1
8

10 10

11
8

10 10

3
10
Then subtract the integers. Dont forget we borrowed 1 from the
3.
=

22 = 0
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
1
3 10
2 45 =

3
10

Notice that the integers may totally cancel. That is fine, it just means your
answer is a proper fraction. You should NOT get a negative number using
this method - that is handled differently as we will see when we mix in
negative numbers later on. For now, let us do one more example.

138

## Solution 17. Our second number is not a mixed number, but

since it is a proper fraction, it is fine. We will just act like it
is a mixed number with integral part equal to 0. Had it been
improper fractions or made both mixed numbers. First we will
subtract the fractions.
1 2

9 3

1 23

9 33

1 6

9 9

1 6
1
9 9

10 6

9
9

4
9

## Then subtract the integers. Dont forget we borrowed 1 from the

5.
40 = 4
And the final answer is the sum of these two results. So,
5 91

2
3

=4

40
4
or
9
9

Mixing in negatives
So far this section, we have only dealt with nice, positive numbers. What
happens to our rules and methods if we mix in some negative numbers?

139

## If you are adding or subtracting fractions:

1. Find the LCD of the fractions.
2. Make equivalent fractions and combine into a single fraction,
leaving all signs as is.
3. You may now have to use the rules for addition or subtraction
of integers in the numerator.

Bottom line: you may put off worrying about fancy addition or subtraction rules until you have a single fraction, and then it is just a matter of
using the integer addition and subtraction rules in the numerator.

3
2
Example 18. Subtract
3
4

get:

3
24
33
2
=

3
4
34
43

8
9
=
12
12
=

8 (9)
12

## Note that we moved the negative signs to the numerators. Now

we will subtract as we learned to do back in section 1.3.

2
3
8 (9)

=
3
4
12
=

8 + (+9)
12

1
12

140

11
4
+
20
5

11
4
11
44
+
=
+
20
5
20
54
=

11
16
+
20
20

11 + (16)
20

5
20

55
20 5

1
4

## If choose to add or subtract mixed numbers using the shortcuts, however,

the order in which you do things changes.

## If you are adding or subtracting mixed numbers:

1. You MUST take signs into account first. See section 1.3 or
Appendix A.
2. Do scratch work by applying shortcuts.

This is where you may find it to be easier to always convert mixed numbers to fractions. Any of the following examples involving mixed numbers
will be done twice - once by changing to improper fractions and once using
the shortcuts.

## 1.8. FRACTION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Example 20. Add 3 12 + 1 15

## Solution 20. First we will solve this by changing everything to

fractions.
7 6
3 12 + 1 15 = +
2 5
=

75 62
+
25 52

35 12
+
10 10

35 + 12
10

23
3
or 2
10
10

Now let us redo the example leaving the mixed numbers as is.
Example 21. Add 3 12 + 1 15

Solution 21. Since we are adding a negative number to a positive one, we need to take the absolute value of both, and subtract
larger minus smaller.
Scratch work:
We want to subtract 3 12 1 15 , so first we subtract the fractions.
1 1

2 5

15 12

25 52

5
2

10 10

3
10

31 = 2

141

142

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

3
So the right numerical answer is 2 10
, but we need to think about
the sign. The larger of the two numbers in absolute value was
the 3 21 , and it was originally negative, so the answer should be
negative.
Therefore,

3 21 + 1 15

= 2

3
23
or
10
10

5
Example 22. Subtract 2 12
8 23

## Solution 22. First we will solve this by changing everything to

fractions.
29 26
5
8 23 =
2 12

12
3

5
Example 23. Subtract 2 12
8 23

29 26 4

12
34

29 104

12
12

29 104
12

75
12

75 3
12 3

25
1
or 6
4
4

## 1.8. FRACTION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Solution 23. Leaving the numbers as mixed, we need to note
that although both numbers are positive, the smaller number is
first. Using the subtraction shortcut 2 (page 53), we need to
subtract the other way around, and then just make the answer
negative. Scratch work:
5
We want to subtract 8 23 2 12
, so first we subtract the fractions.
5
2

3 12

24
5

3 4 12

8
5

12 12

3
12

33
12 3

1
4

## Next the integers.

82 = 6
Combining the two and making the answer negative gives:
5
2 12
8 23

= 6

25
1
or
4
4

2 3
Example 24. Subtract
9 5

Solution 24. There are no improper fractions nor mixed numbers here, so we will only solve this problem once. The LCD is

143

144

45, so:

2 3

9 5

25 39

95 59

10 27

45 45

10 27
45

10 + (27)
45

37
45

## SECTION 1.8 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 375.)
number, but in either case, it should be simplified.
1.

3 3
+
8 4

5 2
9.
9 3

2.

1 1
+
2 6

1 15
10. +
4
2

3.

3
4

5 10

4.

5
2

12 3

1
1
11. 2 4
4
3

8
1
12. +
9
7

1
1
5. 2 + 4
3
5
3
1
6. 3 1
2
4

15
1
7.
+
4
3
8.

1
5
4
3
2

13.

9
2

10 5

14.

20 11
+
3
4

1 5
15. 4
4 6
1
3
16. 6 + 2
5
2

1
1
17. 1 3
3
6

1
1
24. 2 + (1 )
5
2

1
3
18. 8 5
4
4

1
5
25. 1 6
9
3

19.

4 6
+
5 7

26. 0

3
5

1 5
20.
4 8

27.

1
5
21. 3 1
3
8

5
2
28. 2 5
6
3

22.
23.

7
3

10 2

3 7

4 8

5 1
+
6 7

29. 3 +
30.

4
7

13 5
+
16 8

145

146

1.9

## Fraction Multiplication and Division

Fraction Multiplication
To multiply two fractions, you will need the following rule:

Multiplying Fractions
Let a, b, c and d be any numbers, except b 6= 0 and d 6= 0. Then:
a c
ac
=
b d
bd

denominators and not worry about an LCD, fraction multiplication is exactly what you would like it to be. All you need do is multiply the two
numerators and the two denominators separately, and simplify your final
Example 1. Multiply

2 3

5 7

## Solution 1. Following our new rule:

2 3

5 7

Example 2. Multiply

5 6

8 15

23
57

6
35

147

## Solution 2. Following our new rule:

5 6

8 15

56
8 15

30
120

30 10
120 10

33
12 3

1
4

Seems pretty straightforward, doesnt it? There are two points you want
to keep in mind when multiplying fractions.

## Multiplying Fractions Note 1

Before multiplying out the numerators and denominators, you may
cancel any factor of either numerator with any matching factor of
either denominator.

The idea here is that prior to multiplying, you have a partially factored
form of your answer. Although it probably will not be the prime factorization (it was in the first example, though), it is still a factored form, and it
may be easier to recognize common factors. Also note that while any cancelation will usually be from one fractions numerator to the other fractions
denominator, the cancelation may be from the same fractions numerator
and denominator. This is rare as it means that one of the original fractions
was not in lowest terms, but it could happen (see the last example). Redoing
the last example with this in mind gives:
Example 3. Multiply

5 6

8 15

148

5 6

8 15

651 663

6 8 4 6 15 3

1 631

4 631

1
4

## In the first step, we canceled the common factor of 5 between

the 5 and 15, and the common factor of 2 between the 6 and
the 8. In the second step, we noticed that the second fractions
numerator and denominator had a common factor of 3, so we
canceled that. Finally, we multiplied the reduced numerators and
denominators.
While not a necessary process, note 1 will make the multiplication and
simplification easier.

## Multiplying Fractions Note 2

Do NOT go LCD crazy. While LCDs are very important in dealing
with fractions, they are NOT necessary for fraction multiplication
and fraction division.

While you may still get the problem right if you make equivalent fractions
(they are equivalent, after all), you will be doing unnecessary work which
will only complicate the problem. It is better to learn that no LCD is needed
for fraction multiplication and division.
Mixing in Negatives
Recall that when you multiplied two integers, you determined the numerical value of the answer, and the sign of the answer separately. The same

## 1.9. FRACTION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

149

is true for fractions. When there are negatives involved, you will do your
scratch work ignoring the signs and multiplying by the fraction rule we have
already learned, and then at the end (or at the beginning, your choice), you
will calculate the sign of the answer following the same rules as before (see
Appendix A if you need to review). Some examples:
5 3
Example 4. Multiply
6 5
Solution 4. First we will find the numerical value of the answer, so ignore the negative sign.
Scratch work:
5 3

6 5

651 631

662 651

1
2
As for sign, a negative times a positive makes a negative, so:
=

5 3
1
=
6 5
2

3
2
Example 5. Multiply
10
7
Solution 5. First we will find the numerical value of the answer, so ignore the negative signs.
Scratch work:
3 2

10 7

3
621

6 10 5 7

3
35
As for sign, a negative times a negative makes a positive, so:

3
2
3

=
10
7
35
=

150

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

1
Example 6. Multiply 5
5
Solution 6. For multiplying or dividing, you do not want to mix
integers with fractions, so let us change the integer to a fraction
by putting it over 1. Again, we will start with scratch work which
ignores the signs. Scratch work:
5 1

1 5

651 1

1 651

1
1

= 1
As for sign, a negative times a negative makes a positive, so:

1
=1
5
5
Reciprocals
Definition: Two numbers which multiply to give a product of positive one
are called reciprocals.

Given a fraction, to find its reciprocal, just flip the fraction (stays the
same sign). Given an integer or a mixed number, make it a fraction, and
then do the same.
Example 7. Find the reciprocal of the following numbers.
1.

2.

4
11

13
2

3. 5

## 1.9. FRACTION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

4. 1
5. 2

1
3

Solution 7. We have:
1. The reciprocal of

4
11
is
11
4

13
2
is
2
13

1
5
is
3. The reciprocal of 5 =
1
5

1
1
4. The reciprocal of 1 =
is = 1
1
1

1
7
3
5. The reciprocal of 2
=
is
3
3
7
2. The reciprocal of

## Interesting Reciprocal Fact 1

Positive and negative one are each their own reciprocals. These are
the only two numbers for which this is true.

## Interesting Reciprocal Fact 2

Zero has no reciprocal. This is the only number for which this is
true.

151

152

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Reciprocals are very useful. For one thing, we will use them to define
fraction division. Let us look at an example.

Example 8. Divide

3 2

4 7

## Solution 8. Recall that the fraction bar shows division, so we

could rewrite this problem as simplifying the following fraction:
3 2

4 7

3
4
2
7

## This ugly looking fraction is called a complex fraction, and you

will learn more about them later. For now, just recall the fundamental principle of fractions which says that we may multiply
numerator and denominator by the same number to make an
equivalent fraction. We will choose to multiply by the reciprocal
of the denominator.
3 2

4 7

3
4
2
7

3
4

72
1

7
2
7
2

3 7

4 2

21
8

In the above, we used the facts that the product of two reciprocals
is 1, and any number divided by 1 is itself.

## This concept of division by a fraction turning into multiplication by its

reciprocal generalizes regardless what fraction we are dividing by, and this
leads to the following shortcut for fraction division.

## 1.9. FRACTION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

153

Dividing Fractions
Let a, b, c and d be any numbers, except b 6= 0, c 6= 0 and d 6= 0.
Then:
a c
a d
=
b d
b c

## Similar to being able to switch subtraction to addition (or vice versa)

by changing the number following the operation to its opposite, this means
that you may change division to multiplication (or vice versa) by changing
the number following the operation to its reciprocal (provided zero is not
involved). Whereas, changing subtraction to addition (or vice versa) is commonly done, changing division to multiplication is only really useful when
fractions are involved. For example, when we get to decimal division, you
will have no desire to change the division to multiplication - it is easier to
just divide. Besides the rule for fraction division above, dont forget that
we have also seen the second version of the fundamental principle of fractions. The reason we sometimes prefer to change the multiplication sign in
the original version to a division sign is that we would prefer to talk about
division by an integer over multiplication by a fraction. For example, if you
have a fraction where the numerator and denominator have a common factor
of two, it is nicer to think of dividing numerator and denominator by 2 than
multiplying by 12 . In any case, now that we have seen reciprocals and this
rule for switching between multiplication and division, it is easy to see that
the two versions of the fundamental principle are the same. Before we do
some examples, one important hint:

## Fraction Division Hint

Do NOT cancel factors while you still have a division sign. You
MUST change to multiplication first.

154

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Example 9. Divide

4
3

5
10

## Solution 9. We will worry about the sign of our answer at the

end. For the scratch work, we need to first change the division
to multiplication.
Scratch work:
4
3

5 10

4 10

5 3

4 6 10 2

651
3

8
3
As for sign, a positive divided by a negative makes a negative,
so:

4
3
8

=
5
10
3
=

4
Example 10. Divide (8)
7
Solution 10. We will worry about the sign of our answer at the
end. For the scratch work, we need to first change the division
to multiplication.
Scratch work:
4 8

7 1

4 1

7 8

641 1

7 682

1
14
As for sign, a negative divided by a negative makes a positive,
4
1
so, (8) =
7
14
=

155

## Multiplying and Dividing Mixed Numbers

To multiply or divide mixed numbers, you only need to remember one
rule.

## Mixed Number Multiplication and Division

You MUST ALWAYS convert all mixed numbers into improper fractions first to multiply or divide.

The shortcuts for mixed numbers are not worth doing in the case of
multiplication and division (see Appendix B on page 365).
1 1
Example 11. Multiply 2 1
2 5
Solution 11. Changing to improper fractions, and ignoring the
signs for the moment:
1 1
2 1
2 5

5 6

2 5

651 663

621 651

= 3
A negative number multiplied by a positive number makes a negative number, so:
1 1
2 1 = 3
2 5

1
1
Example 12. Divide 2 3
4
3

156

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 12. Changing to improper fractions:
1
1
2 3
4
3

9 10

4
3

9 3

4 10

27
40

This example illustrates why you must wait until you switch to
multiplication before canceling. Once you switch here, you can
see that the 3 and 9 in the numerators have no factor greater
than 1 in common with the 4 and 10 in the denominators.

1
Example 13. Divide 3 (4)
5

## Solution 13. Changing to improper fractions, and ignoring the

signs for the moment:
1
3 4 =
5

16 4

5
1

16 1

5 4

6 16 4 1

5
641

4
5

number, so:
1
4
3 (4) =
5
5

## 1.9. FRACTION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

157

Order of Operations
Now that we can add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions, lets do
some order of operations problems involving them. Most of the problems will
be the same types as before, with some fractions mixed in with the integers,
but we will also add problems involving large fractions. For example,

## Example 14. Simplify

10(1) (2)(3)
2[8 (2 2)]

To do these type of problems, you may either recall that the fraction bar
means divide and rewrite the problems as [numerator][denominator], or,
perhaps more simply, do one step of order of operations on the numerator
and denominator separately until there is a single number in the numerator,
and a single number in the denominator. At this point, treat as a fraction
and simplify if possible. So, to solve the last example:

Solution 14. We will apply order of operations on the numerator and denominator separately.
10(1) (2)(3)
2[8 (2 2)]

10 6
2[8 (4)]

16
2(2)

## At this point, the numerator is just a single number, so it will

just tag along until we finish simplifying the denominator.
10(1) (2)(3)
2[8 (2 2)]

16
2(2)

16
4

= 4

158

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Some more order of operations examples.

## Example 15. Simplify

8+36
4 24

Solution 15. We will apply order of operations on the numerator and denominator separately.
8+36
4 24

8 + 18
4 16

26
12

26 2
12 2

13
1
or 2
6
6

1
2 [2

5(71 60 )] =

1
2 [2

5(7 1)]

1
2 [2

5(6)]

1
2 (2

30)

1
2 (28)

1 28

2
1

= 14

## 1.9. FRACTION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

Example 17. Simplify

159

52 33
2 8 42

Solution 17. We will apply order of operations on the numerator and denominator separately.
52 33
2 8 42

25 27
2 8 16

2
16 16

2
0

= undefined

is undefined.

## SECTION 1.9 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 376.)
Find the reciprocal of the following numbers.
1.

3
5

6.

2.

7
11

22
35

7. 0

3. 9

8. 84

1
5

9.

4. 2

5. 3

1
9

10. 6

12
17

1
7

160

## Multiply or divide. Your final answer may be either a fraction or a mixed

number, but in either case, it should be simplified.
3 5

20 27

6
5
12.
25
9

1
1
13. 2 5
4
3
11.

17 6

18 11

5
3
27.
6
10
26.

7 2
28. 1
9 7

1 7
14. 3
5 32

1
15. 6
4

10
125

16.
3
3

3
5
17. 2 1
4
6

29.

5 3
18. 1
8 5

33.

19.
20.

10 7

49 8

3
(8)
4

1
1
21. 2 1
8
6
3 2
22. 1 2
8 7

7
10
23.
21
15
24. 0
25.

3
13

3
0
13

8 2

27 3

8
2

27 3

1
31. 5
2
30.

2 6
32. 2
3 11
15
(5)
17

9
1

14 7

1
35. 7
3

4
6
36.
5
7
34.

37.

8 5

15 6

1
38. 2
2
3 1
39. 3 1
5 9
40.

5 5

7 7

Simplify.
41.

325
7(31 50 )

46.

42.

623
5 4(2 3)

1 2 15
47. 1 +
2 5 14

43.

42 + 33
50 80

48. 1

44.

|2 8| (3 5)
23 14

49.

|5 2| |2 5|
45.
6344

1 2 3 2

2 3 4 3

3 12 3

+
8 5
5

5
+ 3 12
12

4 3 3
8
50.
15 7 2
5

161

162

1.10

## Decimals - the basics

We use a base-10 numeration system. This means that the number 142
represents 2 ones, 4 tens, and 1 hundred, or:
142 = 1 100 + 4 10 + 2 1
This is called expanded form of the number. Notice that each digit further
to the left represents ten times more than the previous digit. Conversely,
this means that each digit further to the right is one-tenth as much as the
1
1
100, 1 = 10
10, etc.). If we wished to extend this
previous digit (10 = 10
concept, we could put a digit to the right of the ones digit, and this would
1
1
represent tenths (as 10
= 10
1). The only problem would be recognizing
where the ones digit would be. For example, if we put a 5 to the right of
our 142 from before, we would get 1425, and the 5 would be thought to be
the ones digit. This is where the decimal point comes in.

## Important Fact about the Decimal Point

The number immediately to the LEFT of the decimal point is the
ones digit.

## Thus, the number 142.50799 in expanded form would be:

1
1
1
1
1
142.50799 = 1 100 + 4 10 + 2 1 + 5 10
+ 0 100
+ 7 1,000
+ 9 10,000
+ 9 100,000

## To write or read such numbers, we need to be a bit more careful than we

are with integers. For example, officially the number 142 should be written
(or read) as one hundred forty-two. Sometimes, though, the sloppier one
hundred and forty-two is used, which is ok since and often means plus
in mathematics. Thus, one hundred and forty-two is 100 + 42 = 142. If
you are dealing with a decimal, on the other hand, you cannot afford to be
so casual, as the word and is reserved for the decimal point.

163

## To Write (or Read) a Decimal Number

1. Write (or say) the number to the left of the decimal point as
normal - the word and may NOT be used.
2. Write (or say) and for the decimal point.
3. Write (or say) the number to the right of the decimal point as
normal - the word and may NOT be used - and tack-on the
place value of the last (right-most) digit.

## Solution 1. Following our rules, we write:

142.50799 is one hundred forty-two and fifty thousand seven hundred ninety-nine hundred-thousandths.

You may need to count across to find the place value of the last digit; just
note that the place values going to the right are similar to the integral ones
going to the left with the ss replaced with thss (and no oneths!). So,
tens, hundreds, thousands, ten-thousands, hundred-thousands, millions, . . .
the decimal place values are:
tenths, hundredths, thousandths, ten-thousandths, hundred-thousandths, millionths, . . .

164

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 2. Following our rules, we write:
32.001 is negative thirty-two and one thousandth.

Note, since the decimal portion was just the number 1, we dropped the s
on thousandths. There is an informal way to write and read decimals as
well. Instead of using and for the decimal point, some people will just say
point. When you do this, all the numbers after the decimal point (and
sometimes even the ones in front) are usually read individually. Therefore,
the last example could have been written negative thirty-two point zero zero
one or negative three two point zero zero one. In all of our examples and in
all of our exercises, we will use the more formal language.

## Solution 3. Following our rules, we write:

500.20 is five hundred and twenty hundredths.

Necessary or Unnecessary?
In mathematics, sometimes we will have unnecessary zeros. To be able
to tell if a zero is necessary or unnecesary, use the following rule.

## In mathematics, a zero in a number is UNNECESSARY if:

it is to the left of the decimal point, and there are no nonzero
numbers to its left.
it is to the right of the decimal point, and there are no nonzero
numbers to its right.

## 1.10. DECIMALS AND PERCENTS

165

The first case is less common, although you may see room numbers
identified as 02 or 002. Since there are no nonzero numbers located to the
left of the zeros, they are unnecessary and may be removed or added as
desired. Thus,
002 = 02 = 2.
The most common use of an unnecessary zero to the left of the decimal point
occurs when the integral part of a number is zero. In that case, while it is
fine to just start with the decimal point, it is more common to put a zero
first. For example, .5 = 0.5. We will tend to put in the zero when there is
no integer.
Unnecessary zeros to the right of the decimal point are much more useful,
and we will use them frequently when dealing with decimals. The trouble
is there can be a bit of a controversy about whether the zeros are actually
necessary or not. For example, let us say you are going on a vacation, and
you need to weigh a suitcase to be sure that it is not too heavy. In your
home, you put the suitcase on a digital scale, and it reads 28 pounds. At the
airport, the airline weighs your suitcase, and they mark it at 28.0 pounds.
Is there any difference between the two numbers? In this case, yes, the
zero is significant. The discrepancy occurs because in mathematics, we are
referring to exact numbers. When we write 28, we mean the number 28.
In the sciences and the real world, most numbers are measurements of a
physical quantity up to a certain degree of accuracy. So, when you weighed
your suitcase with your home scale, even assuming it is accurate, it told you
that your suitcase 28 pounds to the nearest pound. The actual weight could
be anywhere between 27.5 pounds to just under 28.5 pounds. When the
airline weighed the suitcase and marked it as 28.0 pounds, they are claiming
that it weighs 28.0 pounds to the nearest tenth of a pound. Now the actual
weight is known to be between 27.95 pounds to just under 28.05 pounds.
For this course, we will usually be using exact numbers, but keep this point
in mind for other courses.
Example 4. Write the following numbers with only necessary zeros.
1. 0407.501
2. 100.0300
3. 0.1008

166

4. 007

## Solution 4. Removing all unnecessary zeros:

1. 0407.501 = 407.501
2. 100.0300 = 100.03
3. 0.1008 = .1008
4. 007 = 7
Provide we are talking about the number, of course. If you
are a British secret agent, the double-o is a license to kill
and is necessary.

## Changing Fractions Decimals

To convert a fraction all you need to do is remember that the fraction bar
means divide, similar to how you change an improper fraction to a mixed
number.

## Rules for changing fractions decimals

Perform long division, dividing numerator by denominator. Do not
stop dividing until you get either a remainder of zero, or have fallen
into a repetitive pattern which will continue forever. Note, you may
have to add unnecessary zeros to the dividend (the number you are
dividing into). The place-values of your quotient are right above the
equivalent place-values of your dividend, so the decimal points will
be in-line as well.

7
to a decimal.
2

167

Scratch work:
3.5
2 |7.0
6
10
10
0
Therefore,

7
= 3.5
2

5
to a decimal.
8

## Solution 6. We will start by doing long division.

Scratch work:
0.625
8 |5.000
48
20
16
40
40
0
Therefore,

5
= 0.625
8

Both of the last two examples had decimals which eventually stopped. These
have a special name.
Definition: A decimal with a finite number of digits is called a terminating decimal.

168

## Definition: A number whose decimal representation goes on forever, but

whose digits eventually fall into a repetitive pattern is called a repeating decimal.

2
to a decimal.
11

## Solution 7. The negative will make no difference in our scratch

work; it will just tag along at the end. We will start by doing
long division.
Scratch work:
0.1818 . . .
11 |2.0000
11
90
88
20
11
90
88
2
..
.
At this point we can tell that we are stuck in a loop.
Therefore,

2
= 0.1818 . . .
11

A nicer way to write repeating decimals is to put a bar over the part of the
decimal which repeats. For example,
0.1818 . . . = 0.18
0.3333 . . . = 0.3
0.51234234234 . . . = 0.51234

5
to a decimal.
12

169

## Solution 8. We will start by doing long division.

Scratch work:
0.4166 . . .
12 |5.0000
48
20
12
80
72
80
72
8
..
.
At this point we can tell that we are stuck in a loop.
Therefore,

5
= 0.416
12

There are other types of decimals which neither terminate nor repeat.
The most famous such number is pi, , whose decimal representation some
(crazy??) people memorize up to millions of digits. This wont arise in any
of the fractions which we ask you to change to a decimal, because of the
following fact.

## Important Fact 1 about Rational Numbers

The decimal representation of any rational number either terminates
or repeats.

## Since we will only be asking you to convert rational numbers (integers

divided by integers) to decimals, you may be confident that decimal will
either eventually terminate or repeat. It is interesting to note that you can
tell which is going to happen before you divide.

170

## Interesting Note about Rational Numbers

If you have a rational number written as a fraction in lowest terms,
look at the prime factorization of the denominator. If there are only
factors of two and/or five, its decimal representation will terminate.
If there are any other prime numbers in the factorization, its decimal
representation will repeat.

The fraction being in lowest terms is important since obviously you could
introduce other prime numbers into a denominator by making an equivalent
fraction. Looking back at examples 5 and 6, we see that the prime factorization of the denominators in these cases (2 = 2 and 8 = 2 2 2, respectively)
only had factors of 2 or 5 (only 2 in these cases), so they should become
terminating decimals. The prime factorization of the denominators from examples 7 and 8 (11 = 11 and 12 = 2 2 3, respectively), on the other hand,
contained other prime numbers, so they should become repeating decimals.
It should be noted that the reverse of Important Fact 1 is also true.

## Important Fact 2 about Rational Numbers

Every number whose decimal representation terminates or repeats is
a rational number.

## Changing Decimals Fractions

In this course, we will only ask you to change terminating decimals to
fractions. Changing repeating decimals to fractions is a bit harder, and is
covered in other courses (blatant plug for Math 14001: Basic Math Concepts
I and Math 14002: Basic Math Concepts II).

171

## Rules for changing terminating decimals fractions

1. Place entire number with the decimal point removed in the
numerator.
2. In the denominator, place the power of ten which matched the
last place-value of the original decimal.
3. Simplify, if desired.

Because many of these examples will involve very large numbers, we will
is a power of 10, you would only need to check if a 2 or 5 divides into the
numerator, possibly repeatedly).
Example 9. Change 62.14607 to a fraction. You do NOT need to simplify.

## Solution 9. First, we will remove the decimal point and place

the number into the numerator, inserting commas to make it
62.14607 =

6, 214, 607

## The last digit (the 7) was originally in the hundred-thousandths

spot, so 100, 000 goes into the denominator. Therefore,
62.14607 =

6, 214, 607
100, 000

Note, you may change decimals with a nonzero integral part directly to
a mixed number if you leave the integer alone and just do the above on the
decimal part only.
Example 10. Change 62.14607 to a mixed number. You do NOT need to
simplify.

172

0.14607 =

14, 607

## The last digit (the 7) was originally in the hundred-thousandths

spot, so 100, 000 goes into the denominator. Therefore,
14,607
62.14607 = 62 100,000

## Example 11. Change 3.886 to a fraction. You do NOT need to simplify.

Solution 11. First, we will remove the decimal point and place
the number into the numerator, inserting commas to make it
3, 886
3.886 =
The last digit was originally in the thousandths spot, so 1, 000
goes into the denominator. Therefore,
3.886 =

3, 886
1, 000

simplify.

0.886 =

886

## The last digit was originally in the thousandths spot, so 1, 000

goes into the denominator. Therefore,
886
3.886 = 3 1,000

173

## Example 13. Change 0.900416 to a fraction. You do NOT need to simplify.

Solution 13. First, we will remove the decimal point and place
the number into the numerator, inserting commas to make it

0.900416 =

900, 416

The last digit was originally in the millionths spot, so 1, 000, 000
goes into the denominator. Therefore,

0.900416 =

900, 416
1, 000, 000

Rounding Decimals
You may be asked to round a decimal to a certain place-value. If so,
there are only two digits which are important: the digit at the place-value
in question, and the digit to its immediate right.

174

## To Round a Decimal to a desired Place-Value:

If the desired place-value is to the right of the decimal point
AND the number to the immediate right is a 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, just
drop all the digits to the right of the desired place.
If the desired place-value is to the right of the decimal point
AND the number to the immediate right is a 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9,
drop all the digits to the right of the desired place AND add
one to the desired digit. If this digit is a nine, you may have
to carry.
If the desired place-value is to the left of the decimal point
AND the number to the immediate right is a 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4,
change any digits between desired place-value and the decimal
point to zeros and drop any digits after the decimal point.
If the desired place-value is to the left of the decimal point AND
the number to the immediate right is a 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, change
any digits between desired place-value and the decimal point
to zeros and drop any digits after the decimal point, AND add
one to the desired digit. If this digit is a nine, you may have
to carry.

## Example 14. Round the number 137.08996 to the nearest:

1. ten-thousandth.
2. thousandth.
3. hundredth.
4. tenth.
5. hundred.

## Solution 14. To start, we will always underline the digit in

question, and then follow our rules.

## 1.10. DECIMALS AND PERCENTS

1. nearest ten-thousandth, 137.08996
The digit to the right of the nine is a six, so we will drop
the 6 and add one to the nine. This makes a zero (ten),
carry the one. The next number is also a nine so plus one
again makes a zero, carry the one. The next number is an
eight, so plus one makes nine.
Therefore, 137.08996 rounded to the nearest ten-thousandth
is 137.0900.
Note, since we were asked to round to the nearest tenthousandth, it is good form to leave the unnecessary zeros
to show that this is the case.
2. nearest thousandth, 137.08996
The digit to the right of the nine is a nine, so we drop the
96 and add one to the nine. This makes a zero, carry the
one. The next number is an eight, plus one makes a nine.
Therefore, 137.08996 rounded to the nearest thousandth is
137.090.
3. hundredth, 137.08996
The digit to the right of the eight is a nine, so we drop the
996 and add one to the eight to make it a nine.
Therefore, 137.08996 rounded to the nearest hundredth is
137.09.
4. tenth, 137.08996
The digit to the right of the zero is an eight so we drop the
8996 and add one to the zero to get a one.
Therefore, 137.08996 rounded to the nearest tenth is 137.1.
5. hundred, 137.08996
Here is a case where we are rounding to a place-value which
is left of the decimal point. So, after seeing that the number
to the right of the one is a three, we only drop the .08996,
and change the 37 to zeros. As for the one, since the number
to its right was a 3, we leave it a one.
Therefore, 137.08996 rounded to the nearest hundred is 100.

175

176

## Example 15. Round the number 2.3915 to the nearest:

1. ten-thousandth.
2. thousandth.
3. hundredth.
4. tenth.

## Solution 15. With repeating decimals, write out enough of the

decimal to see the two important positions.
1. ten-thousandth, 2.39151 . . .
The digit to the right is a one, so we drop it and the rest of
the decimal and leave the 5 alone.
Therefore, 2.3915 rounded to the nearest ten-thousandth
is 2.3915.
2. thousandth, 2.3915 . . .
The digit to the right is a five, so we drop it and the rest of
the decimal and add one to the 1.
Therefore, 2.3915 rounded to the nearest thousandth is
2.392.
3. hundredth, 2.391 . . .
The digit to the right is a one, so we drop it and the rest of
the decimal and leave the 9 alone.
Therefore, 2.3915 rounded to the nearest hundredth is 2.39.
4. tenth, 2.39 . . .
The digit to the right is a nine, so we drop it and the rest
of the decimal and add one to the 3.
Therefore, 2.3915 rounded to the nearest tenth is 2.4.

## Comparisons and Orderings

To compare two decimals, use the following guidelines:

177

## To Compare Two Decimals:

1. First compare the integral parts, including positive versus negative. If there is a difference here, this will determine which is
the lesser.
2. If the integral parts are the same, start comparing place-value
to place-value, starting with tenths and moving to the right,
until there is a difference. Do not forget that you may add
unnecessary zeros to a terminating decimal if it helps.

## Example 16. Insert a < or between the following two numbers:

18.54
18.5389

Solution 16. First, we compare the two integral parts, but here
they are both 18. Next, we need to start comparing the decimal
places - to do so we will write one number above the other, and
start by comparing the tenths.

1 8 . 5 4 0 0
1 8 . 5 3 8 9
The tenths are the same, move on to hundredths.

1 8 . 5 4 0 0
1 8 . 5 3 8 9
4 3, so 18.54 18.5389

## This method is easy enough to expand, so that instead of comparing two

decimals at at time, you could be comparing several. This is called ordering
the decimals.

178

## Example 17. Write the following decimals from least to greatest:

134.545, 143.5, 134.54, 134.5445

## Solution 17. Before we begin ordering the numbers, a couple of

comments. First, we could just rewrite the numbers with commas between them, but to emphasize how we are ordering them,
we will write our solution as:
<
<
<
.
Second, be careful with the negative signs. Since all the numbers
are the same sign, there is no obvious least or greatest, but dont
forget that a large negative number is further to the left on the
number line than a small negative number. We will order the
numbers as if they were all positive, and then flip their order
when we make them negative.
Looking at the numbers: 134.545, 143.5, 134.54, 134.5445, notice
that one has a different integral part than the others. Since
143 > 134, we know that the 143 number is the largest:
<
<
< 143.5.
To order the other three numbers, we will write the three above
and below each other and compare the decimal places, step-bystep. We will write out plenty of decimal places for all three to
allow us to compare - note that this will mean adding a couple
of unnecessary zeros to the terminating decimal.

1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
1 3 4 . 5 4 4 5 4 ...
The tenths are the same, move on to hundredths.

1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
1 3 4 . 5 4 4 5 4 ...
The hundredths are the same, move on to the thousandths.

1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
1 3 4 . 5 4 4 5 4 ...

## 1.10. DECIMALS AND PERCENTS

179

4 < 5, so the bottom number is the smallest of the three. Updating our ordering gives:
134.5445 <
<
< 143.5.
As for the last two numbers, move on to the ten-thousandths.

1 3 4 . 5 4 5 0 0
1 3 4 . 5 4 5 4 5 ...
0 < 4, so the first number is the smallest. Therefore:
134.5445 < 134.545 < 134.54 < 143.5.
Finally, changing all the numbers back to negatives switches the
ordering, so:
143.5 < 134.54 < 134.545 < 134.5445.
One last comment, if you are asked to compare a decimal with a fraction,
you must either change the decimal to a fraction and compare fractions, OR
change the fraction to a decimal and compare the decimals (this last is
probably the easiest).
Example 18. Insert a or > between the following two numbers.
0.572

4
7
Solution 18. We will start by changing the fraction to a decimal.
Scratch work:
0.5714 . . .
7 |4.0000
35
50
49
10
7
30
28
2
..
.

180

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

We havent started repeating yet, but the other decimal only has
three decimal places, so four is the most we will need for our
fraction. Comparing the two, notice that the change occurs in
the thousandths place:

0 . 5 7 2 0
0 . 5 7 1 4 ...
Since 2 > 1, 0.572 > 0.5714 . . ., so:
0.572 >

4
7

Percents
Percentages are another way of describing parts of a whole. When dealing with one, you will almost always wish to change the percent into a fraction or decimal, and this is what we will look at here. In the next section
we will look at some applications.

## To Change a Percent Fraction

1. Drop the % sign.
2. Put number over 100.
3. Simplify.

## This transformation is obvious if you know a little Latin. The word

percent is roughly Latin for 100.
Example 19. Change the following percentages to fractions. Simplify your
1. 17%
2. 82%

181

3. 145%
4. 3.9%

1. 17% =

17
100

2.
82% =
=

82 2
100 2

41
50

3.
145% =

4. 3.9% =

82
100

145
100

145 5
100 5

29
20

3.9
100

next section.

182

## To Change a Percent Decimal

1. Drop the % sign.
2. Move the decimal point two places to the left.

1. 17%
2. 82%
3. 145%
4. 3.9%

## Solution 20. We have:

1. 17% = 0.17
2. 82% = 0.82
3. 145% = 1.45
4. 3.9% = 0.039

Note that if there arent enough digits to move the decimal point past,
you may need to add in unnecessary zeros (3.9 = 03.9, for example). Also,
this last method is easily reversed.

## To Change a Decimal Percent

1. Move the decimal point two places to the right.

183

1. 2.37
2. 0.9
3. 1.5407
4. 5.6

## Solution 21. We have:

1. 2.37 = 237%
2. 0.9 = 90%
3. 1.5407 = 154.07%
4. 5.6 = 566.6%
Changing fractions to percents is the hardest transformation involving
percents, and we will show two methods. The first is the general method
which will always work, while the second is a faster method which only works
well if the denominator of the fraction is a FACTOR of 100.

## To Change a Fraction Percent, General Method

1. Change the fraction to a decimal using long division.
2. Change the decimal to a percent as explained before.

## To Change a Fraction Percent, Shortcut

1. Make an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100.
2. Take the new numerator and add a % sign.

184

1.

1
8

2.

5
6

3.

3
10

4.

14
25

## Solution 22. We have:

1.

1
, 8 is not a factor of 100, so we will use the general
8
method.
Scratch work:
0.125
8 |1.000
8
20
16
40
40
0
So,

2.

1
= 0.125 = 12.5%
8

5
, 6 is not a factor of 100, so we will use the general
6
method.
Scratch work:

## 1.10. DECIMALS AND PERCENTS

185

0.833 . . .
6 |5.000
48
20
18
20
18
2
..
.
So,
3.

5
= 0.83 = 83.3%
6

3
, 10 is a factor of 100, so we will use the shortcut.
10
3
10

3 10
10 10

30
100

= 30%
4.

14
, 25 is a factor of 100, so we will use the shortcut.
25
14
25

14 4
25 4

56
100

= 56%

186

## SECTION 1.10 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 378.)
Change the following fractions to decimals.
1.

1
2

6.

10
11

2.

7
9

7.

7
25

3.

3
8

8.

13
16

4.

9
100

9.

19
4

5.

8
15

10.

5
22

11. 3.7630073

16. 55.88

12. 14.2178

17. 0.000007

13. 9.00035

18. 11.011

14. 5.124992

19. 18.7002

15. 156.2

20. 0.0306

21. 22.0849

24. 3.1415

22. 73.095128

25. 56.999

23. 1, 350.0072

26. 18.55532

187

true statement.
27. 1.56

1.56

28. 23.52

8.67
4.30

31. 2.9192
32.

3
5

4
9

34.

9
14

0.643

35.

16
5

3.1

23.52

29. 8.67
30. 4.3

33.

2.91
0.6

36.

0.45

1
6

0.167

## Order the following decimals from least to greatest.

37. 32.543, 32.54343, 32.54, 32.5
38. 18.71, 18.71, 18.7101, 18.7
39. 32.32, 23.23, 32.23, 23.32
40. 0.01, 0.0101, 0.01, 0.1
41. 24%

46. 75%

42. 33%

47. 80%

43. 5%

48. 1%

44. 130%

49. 0%

45. 19%

50. 200%

51. 24%

55. 19%

52. 33%

56. 75%

53. 5%

57. 80%

54. 130%

58. 1%

188

59. 0%

60. 200%

61. 0.52

66. 0.005

62. 0.031

67. 0.7

63. 0.18

68. 0.44

64. 2.5

69. 0.225

65. 9.99

70. 1.0

71.

1
3

76.

3
4

72.

1
2

77.

5
9

73.

1
4

78.

2
25

74.

1
5

79.

7
10

75.

1
6

80.

17
50

## 1.11. DECIMAL OPERATIONS

1.11

189

Decimal Operations

For all of this section, we will be dealing exclusively with terminating decimals.
To add or subtract two decimals without a calculator, we will use a
vertical tower method similar to how we do old-fashioned addition and subtraction without a calculator (see page 8). Just as before, you must make
sure that the place-values of the two numbers are aligned. With whole numbers this meant that the two numbers would be right-aligned, while this need
not be the case for decimals. Instead, just remember to align the decimal
points before adding or subtracting. Note, if you are adding two decimals, or
subtracting two decimals where the decimal after the minus sign has fewer
decimal places, you may add unnecessary zeros to make both decimals have
the same number of decimal places if you prefer. If you are subtracting two
decimals where the decimal before the minus sign has fewer decimal places,
you MUST add in unnecessary zeros to have something to take-away from.
Example 1. Add 13.8277 + 559.02

## Solution 1. We will align the numbers first. We are going to

add in zeros, but this is optional here.
Scratch work:

1
1 3 . 8 2 7 7
5 5 9 . 0 2 0 0
5 7 2 . 8 4 7 7

190

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 2. We will align the numbers first. We are going to
add in a zero, but this is optional here.
Scratch work:

1
1
4 6 3 .
2 9 5 .
7 5 9 .

1
9
3
3

1
8 7 0
9 6 6
8 3 6

## Solution 3. Here, we need to add a zero to the top number.

Scratch work:

3 12 6
12 4 10
64 62 67 . 62 65 60
9 3 . 8 1 2
3 3 3 . 4 3 8

## Solution 4. Here, we will add a zero to the bottom number, but

this is only a matter of preference.
Scratch work:

9
8 6 10
18
1 69 60 . 68 5 4
8 9 . 9 1 0
1 0 0 . 9 4 4

191

## So: 190.854 89.91 = 100.944

Mixing in Negatives
So far, we have looked at adding and subtracting positive decimals, but
what if a negative number is involved?

## If you adding or subtracting decimals:

1. You MUST take signs into account first. See Appendix A.
2. Do scratch work as shown in previous examples.

## Solution 5. When adding a negative number and a positive

number, we take the absolute value of both numbers, and subtract larger minus smaller.
Scratch work:

6
1 67 .
4 .
1 2 .

14 9
6 4 6 10 10
65 60 60
8
2
3
6
7
7

The larger number in absolute value is the 17.5, and it was originally positive, so the result should be positive.
So: 4.823 + 17.5 = 12.677

192

## Solution 6. This is obviously not straight-forward subtraction,

so let us change the subtraction to addition.
2.97 3.414 = 2.97 + (3.414)
When adding a negative number and a negative number, we take
the absolute value of both numbers, and add.
Scratch work:
1
2 . 9 7 0
3 . 4 1 4
6 . 3 8 4

When adding two numbers of the same sign, the sum has the
common sign. Therefore, here, the answer is negative.
So: 2.97 3.414 = 6.384

## Solution 7. We are subtracting two positive numbers, but the

smaller is first, so we will use subtraction shortcut 2 (page 53),
although you could just change the subtraction to addition and
says to subtract the numbers the other way around, and make
Scratch work:
0
61

12
62
10
63 . 60 9 1
5 . 1 8 0
7 . 9 1 1

## 1.11. DECIMAL OPERATIONS

193

Multiplication
To multiply two positive decimals, we will use a vertical tower method
just like we used for old-fashioned multiplication of large numbers without
a calculator.

To multiply decimals:
1. Write the two factors as if they were positive integers being
multiplied using the old-fashioned tower method (page 13).
You do NOT need to align place-values, and you do NOT wish
to write-in any unnecessary zeros (except, possibly, a zero for
zero integral part).
2. Multiply as before, ignoring the decimal points.
3. The final product should have the same number of decimal
places as the two factors together.

## Solution 8. Scratch work:

1 4
3. 2 7

4. 7
2 2 8 9

1 2
3 2 7

4 7
2 2 8 9
1 3 0 8 0
1 5 3 6 9

15, 369 (see example 11 on page 13). Instead, we now look back
at the factors and see that one factor had two decimal places,
while the other had one decimal place for a total of three decimal
places. Making our product have three decimal places gives:
3.27 4.7 = 15.369

194

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Note that in the above example, we didnt fill in the decimal place in the
product in the scratch work to emphasize that it was done last. In future
examples, we will fill it in, just remember that it is the last thing you do in
the scratch work.

## Solution 9. Dont forget that multiplication is commutative, so

we will choose to put the 0.91 number on bottom. Also, the zero
on the 0.91 is unnecessary so you do not need to write it if you
wish. We will leave it on, but we will not bother to multiply by
it when we do the scratch work. Scratch work:

2. 0 8
0. 9 1
2 0 8

2.

0.
2
1 8 7
1. 8 9

7
0
9
0
2
2

8
1
8
0
8

## So, 2.08 0.91 = 1.8928

Mixing in Negatives
Recall that the sign rules for multiplication are independent of the scratch
work, regardless of the type of numbers involved. Therefore, mixing in negatives only make the problems slightly harder.

## Example 10. Multiply 4.35 72

Solution 10. Ignoring the negative sign for the moment, we get:

195

Scratch work:

1
4. 3 5
7 2
8 7 0

2 3
4. 3 5

7 2
8 7 0
3 0 4 5 0
3 1 3. 2 0

## And a negative number times a positive number makes a negative

number, so, 4.35 72 = 313.2

Notice in the last problem that when we did our multiplying, the rightmost digit of the product was a zero. While this zero was unnecessary and
we did not include it when we wrote the final answer, it was necessary when
we were determining where to put the decimal point in the product. In this
case, the product should have two decimal places, so we moved it past the
0 and the 2. Only after the decimal point is in place does the zero become
unnecessary, and thus optional.
Example 11. Multiply 18.4 0.15

## Solution 11. Ignoring the negative signs for the moment, we

get: Scratch work:

4
1
0.
9

2
8. 4
1 5
2 0

1
0.
9
1 8
2. 7

8.
1
2
4
6

4
5
0
0
0

## And a negative number times a negative number makes a positive

number, so, 18.4 0.15 = 2.76

196

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 12. Ignoring the negative sign for the moment, we get:
Scratch work:

5 1. 5 4
1 0
0 0 0 0

5 1. 5

1
0 0 0
5 1 5 4
5 1 5. 4

4
0
0
0
0

## And a positive number times a negative number makes a negative

number, so, 51.54 10 = 515.4

## Because we use a base-ten numeration system, multiplying by powers of

10 is actually easier than we made it look in the last example. Back in the
days when you were doing old-fashioned multiplication, you may have heard
that when you multiplied a number by a power of 10, you just added the
same number of zeros to the number as there were zeros in the power of 10.
This rule may be generalized for any decimal number, not just integers.

## To multiply by a power of ten:

When multiplying a number by a power of ten, simply move the
decimal point in the number to the right by the same number of
places as there are zeros in the power of ten. You will still need to
figure out the sign of the product as usual.

## Solution 13. Ignoring the negative sign for a moment, we will

multiply 32.609 100. Because one of the factors is 100, the
multiplication is trivial; we just need to move the decimal point

## 1.11. DECIMAL OPERATIONS

197

in 32.609 two places to the right (as there are two zeros in 100).
Thus, the numerical answer is 3, 260.9.
As for sign, a negative times a positive makes a negative, so:
32.609 100 = 3, 260.9

## Solution 14. Ignoring the negative signs for a moment, we need

to move the decimal point in 87.93 four places to the right. If
you need to, you may add unnecessary zeros to a number, in this
case, you may make 87.93 = 87.9300 so that there are enough
digits to move past (some people prefer to just do this in their
As for sign, a negative times a negative makes a positive, so:
87.93 10, 000 = 879, 300

## This property of multiplication by powers of ten is useful for reducing

fractions as well.
Simplifying fractions which contain terminating decimals
3.9
Last section we saw the fraction: 100
. A fraction, such as this, whose
numerator or denominator (or both) are terminating fractions are not considered to be in lowest terms. To simplify such a fraction:

## Simplifying fractions involving terminating decimals

1. Make an equivalent fraction by multiplying numerator and denominator by a power of ten large enough to make both integers.
2. Simplify.

198

## Example 15. Simplify

3.9
100

Solution 15. The numerator has one decimal place; the denominator has none. Therefore, the most number of places we need
the decimal to move is one, so we will multiply numerator and
denominator by 10, and then simplify.
3.9
3.9 10
=
100
100 10
=

39
1000

The last solution was in lowest terms, but if you are having trouble seeing
it, you may wish to do the prime factorization of both the numerator and
denominator. In the last case, you would find that:
39 = 3 13, and
1000 = 2 2 2 5 5 5.
Now it is easier to see that there are no common factors greater than 1.
Example 16. Simplify

0.28
24.5

Solution 16. The numerator has two decimal places; the denominator has one. Therefore, the most number of places we
need the decimal to move is two, so we will multiply numerator and denominator by 100, and then simplify using the prime
factorizations.
0.28 100
0.28
=
24.5
24.5 100
=

28
2450

227
25577

2
557

2
175

## 1.11. DECIMAL OPERATIONS

199

Division
To do decimal division, we will look at a couple of different situations.
The easiest situation is when the dividend and divisor are both positive, and
the divisor is an integer.

## Dividing a positive decimal by a positive integer.

1. Perform long division, same as you do for whole
numbers (see page 17).
2. The decimal point in the quotient is directly above
the decimal point in the dividend (i.e. the placevalues of the dividend and quotient are in line).

Scratch work:
2.3
3 |6.9
6
09
9
0
So, 6.9 3 = 2.3

200

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Solution 18. Performing long division we get:
Scratch work:
1.472
5 |7.360
5
23
20
36
35
10
10
0
So, 7.36 5 = 1.472

Note that we had to add a zero to the dividend when we were dividing.
Just as you did for changing fractions to decimals, you should keep dividing
until either you get a zero remainder, or the division falls into a repetitive
pattern.
So, what do you do when the divisor has decimal places too? Let us look
at an example.
Example 19. Divide 1.04 0.2

## Solution 19. If we change the division problem to a fraction,

we will have a fraction containing decimals which we just learned
how to simplify. Applying the same idea here gives:
1.04
0.2

1.04 10
0.2 10

10.4
2
Had we really been trying to simplify the fraction, we would have
multiplied numerator and denominator by 100 instead of 10, but
we were really only concerned with removing the decimal from
the denominator. After all, this shows that:
=

## 1.11. DECIMAL OPERATIONS

201

since they are equivalent fractions, and now the divisor is an integer so we can divide as before.
Scratch work:
5.2
2 |10.4
10
04
4
0
So, 1.04 0.2 = 5.2
This method may be summarized by:

## Dividing a positive, terminating decimal

by a positive, terminating decimal
1. Move the decimal point in the divisor to the right
as many places as necessary to make the divisor an
integer.
2. Move the decimal point in the dividend to the right
the same number of places as you moved the decimal
point in step 1, to keep the quotient the same (i.e.
you are making equivalent fractions). Note, you may
3. Divide, using the long division rule for dividing a
positive decimal by a positive integer.

0.28 |6.3

28 |630

202

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Performing the long division we get:
Scratch work:
22.5
28 |630.0
56
70
56
140
140
0
So, 6.3 0.28 = 22.5

Mixing in Negatives
Division behaves like multiplication in that the sign rules have nothing
to do with your scratch work. Therefore, do scratch work using the absolute
value of all numbers, and then make the sign of your answer correct.
Example 21. Divide 19.872 0.54

Solution 21. Ignoring the negative sign for the moment, we will
move the decimal points:
0.54 |19.872

54 |1987.2

Scratch work:
36.8
54 |1987.2
162
367
324
432
432
0

203

## Now, to get the proper sign, recall that a negative divided by a

positive makes a negative.
So, 19.872 0.54 = 36.8

## Solution 22. Ignoring the negative signs for the moment, we

will move the decimal points:
0.3 |2.83

3 |28.3

## Performing the long division we get:

Scratch work:
9.433 . . .
3 |28.300 . . .
27
13
12
10
9
10
9
1
..
.
This quotient is now seen to be a repeating decimal. To get the
proper sign, recall that a negative divided by a negative makes a
positive.
So, 2.83 0.3 = 9.43

Percent applications
If asked to find a certain percent of a number, you need to know:

204

## To take a percentage of a number

Change the percent to a decimal (or fraction).
The word of in this context (and often in math) means multiply.

## Example 23. What is 8% of 250?

Solution 23. Changing the percent to a decimal and multiplying
gives:
8% of 250 = 0.08 250
So we need to decimal multiplication: Scratch work:
4
2 5 0

0. 0 8
2 0. 0 0
Therefore, 8% of 250 = 20

## Example 24. What is 12% of 88?

Solution 24. Changing the percent to a decimal and multiplying
gives:
12% of 88 = 0.12 88
So we need to decimal multiplication: Scratch work:

1
8 8
0. 1 2
1 7 6

0.
1
8
1 0.

8
1
7
8
5

8
2
6
0
6

205

## SECTION 1.11 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 380.)
1. 52.389 + 712.9333

2. 34.6 + 2.8944

3. 17.34 12.7

4. 821.077 49.75

## 14. 56.3 129.44

5. 28.567 + 14.39

6. 7.355 11.68

7. 29.05 243.782

## 17. 56.02 + (34.185)

8. 227.34 + (18.854)

9. 100.76 87.3

Multiply.
21. 43.05 2.9

33. 425.2834 10

35. 33.961 10

206

41. 163 5

46. 53 4

42. 32.788 14

51. 5% of 26

## 56. 16% of 111

52. 7% of 48

57. 82% of 90

53. 2% of 135

58. 33% of 78

54. 15% of 28

59. 50% of 35

55. 75% of 92

60. 100% of 19

1.12

207

We have seen how addition and subtraction can undo each other. For example, 5 + 7 = 12 and 12 7 = 5. More generally, if we tell you that we
are taking a number and adding 7 to it, and then we tell you the result,
you could tell what the original number was by subtracting 7. There is a
similar relationship between multiplication and division (provided you are
not multiplying or dividing by zero). For example, we tell you that we took
a number, multiplied it by 3, and got a result of 24. Can you tell what
number we started with? Certainly, all you have to do is divide our result
by 3 to undo my multiplication (thus, we started with 8). This property
of being able to undo an operation is important in mathematics. In this
section, we wish to define the operation which undoes raising a number to
a power.
Definition: The number a is said to be an nth root of the number b if
an = b.
Example 1. The following are all examples of roots:
1. 4 is a second root (or, more commonly, square root) of 16 as 4 4 = 16.
2. 2 is a third root (or, more commonly, cube root) of 8 as 2 2 2 = 8.
3. 3 is a fourth root of 81 as 3 3 3 3 = 81.
4. 2 is a fifth root of 32 as 25 = 32.
Notice that just as we commonly use squared instead of to the second
power, we even more commonly say square root instead of second root.
The same is also true for saying cube root instead of third root.
We need a notation for this concept of taking a root of a number, and
we will use a radical. We would like to use the notation:

index
to mean:

n
b = a an = b

## but there is a problem. In the last example, we mentioned that 4 is a

square root of 16 as 42 = 16, but 4 is also a square root of 16 since
(4)2 = (4)(4) = 16. This is bothersome as we do not wish the radical

208

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

to be ambiguous. Also, while this is a problem with square roots and fourth
roots and so on, it is not true for roots with odd indices. For example,
2 is a cube root of 8 as 23 = 8, AND it is THE ONLY cube root of 8 (as
(2)3 = (2)(2)(2) = 8 not 8). Therefore we need to define the radical
differently when the index is even versus when the index is odd.
First, note that a square root is the most common root you will encounter. As a result, it was decided that instead of writing the index of 2
on the radical, it will be understood that if there is no obvious
index, the
radical will represent a square root. For example, we will take 25 to mean
square root of 25 (we just need to clear up the ambiguity of which square
root).
When the index is even, the radicals behavior depends entirely on the
sign of the radicand. Let us look at the three possible cases.
In this case, there will be two roots, one positive and one negative. We will define the radical to mean the principal square root
which is the positive square root. The other square root will be
represented by putting a in front of the radical (recall this
means to take the opposite of or, equivalently, multiply by
negative one which when applied to the principal square root
will give a negative number).
Example 2. Evaluate the following.

(a) 25

(b) 25

(c) 4

(d) 4
Solution 2. We get:

(a) 25 = 5
The principal square root of 25 is 5.

(b) 25 = 5
The non principal square root of 25 is 5,

209

OR
The opposite of the principal square root of 25 is 5.

(c) 4 = 2
The principal square root of 4 is 4.

(d) 4 = 2
The non principal square root of 4 is 2,
OR
The opposite of the principal square root of 4 is 2.
There is no ambiguity here as
positive nor negative.

n
0 = 0. Recall zero is neither

## 3. The radicand is negative.

This is troublesome as
a positive number to an even power is positive.
zero to an even power is zero.
a negative number to an even power is positive.
Therefore, it seems to be impossible to find an even root of a negative number. In fact, mathematicians have defined such roots,
but the answers are not real numbers, so we will not be concerned
with the solutions in this course. Instead,

you may immediately say that this represents no real number.

210

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

(a) 25

(b) 13

(c) 1

(d) 8
Solution 3. As we just learned:

## (d) 8 = no real number

That is pretty easy, isnt it? Some people write no solution or
undefined in these instances, but since there are actually solutions, just ones dealing with numbers which arent real numbers,
we prefer the more accurate no real number.

Even though you may be more familiar with square roots, radicals with
odd indices are actually much nicer to work with as regardless of what the
1. unique.
2. real numbers.
No longer do we need to define a principal root - there is always only
one root.
Example 4. Evaluate the following:

1. 3 27

2. 3 27

3. 5 32

4. 5 32

1.

211

3
27 = 3

## The cube root of 27 is 3 as 33 = 27.

2. 3 27 = 3
The cube root of 27 is 3 as (3)3 = 27.

3. 5 32 = 2
The fifth root of 32 is 2 as 25 = 32.

4. 5 32 = 2
The fifth root of 32 is 2 as (2)5 = 32.
If you dont like working with the negative number under the radical,
there is an optional rule you may use.

you may pull it out in front of the radical.

Example 5. Evaluate

3
27

## Solution 5. We did this problem in the last example, but this

time we will use our new rule.

3
3
27 = 27 = 3
Tables for Perfect Squares and Perfect Cubes
You may find it useful to be able to recognize perfect squares and/or
perfect cubes. The following tables, or tables for higher powers, may be
reproduced easily.

212

## First Ten Positive Perfect Squares

11=1
22=4
33=9
4 4 = 16
5 5 = 25
6 6 = 36
7 7 = 49
8 8 = 64
9 9 = 81
10 10 = 100

The bold-faced numbers are the perfect squares, so one of the factors to the
left would be its principal square root.

## First Six Positive Perfect Cubes

111=1
222=8
3 3 3 = 27
4 4 4 = 64
5 5 5 = 125
6 6 6 = 216

The bold-faced numbers are the perfect cubes, so one of the factors to the
left would be its cube root.
While tables are nice when simplifying smaller radicals, they are not as
practical for larger radicands. To simplify these, we recommend you find
the prime factorization of the radicand, and then use the following fact:

213

When simplifying nth roots, every n like factors under the radical
may be pulled outside the radical as a single factor. Any such factor
comes out multiplying.

Example 6. Simplify

900

900
.&
90
.&
9
.&
3

10
.&
10
.&

3 2

2
&
5

## So, 900 = 2 2 3 3 5 5. Writing these factors under the radical,

grouping together like pairs of factors (since this is a square root
so n = 2), and using our new fact gives:
p

900 =
(2 2) (3 3) (5 5)
= 235
= 30
So for square roots, you need to group together two of the same factors;
we did this with parentheses. Then radical fact 3 says each grouping pulls
out of the radical as a single factor, so a pair of twos under the square root
comes out as a single two, etc. When all the factors under the radical pair
up, you may drop the radical once you have pulled out the single factors.
You may wonder what happens when not all the factors pair up - these
cases will be looked at in 10022 (or later in the semester in 10006). For now,
all of our examples and problems will have numbers whose factors pull out
perfectly.

214

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Also, note that radical fact 3 does not require the factors to be prime
numbers. Had you noticed that 900 = 30 30, you could have simplified by:
p

## 900 = (30 30) = 30

In general though, you will have an easier time just doing the prime factorization.

Example 7. Simplify

3
42, 875

42, 875
.&
5

8, 575
.&
5

1, 715
.&
5

343
.&
7

49
.&
7

## So, 42, 875 = 5 5 5 7 7 7. This time, though, we are dealing

with a cube root, so we must group three like-factors together.
p

3
42, 875 = 3 (5 5 5) (7 7 7)
= 57
= 35
So the type of root determines how many like-factors must be grouped
together, and then one factor of each group pulls outside the radical (multiplying any other factors which come out).
One last note must be made.

215

For any number but 0 and 1, there is a difference in squaring the
number and cubing the number. Similarly, for any number but 0
and 1, there is a difference in taking a square root and taking a cube
root. Therefore, do NOT become lazy and just drop the index of the

Many students like to simply quit writing in the index, but this IS NOT
correct, regardless of what is meant.

## SECTION 1.12 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 381.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

49

49

49

3
125

3
125

3 125

64

3
64

81

3
8

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

4
16

5
32

36

3 216

484

3
4, 096

576

3
19, 683

10, 000

1764

216

1.13

## Properties of Real Numbers

Many of the following properties of real numbers have already been introduced, but we want to summarize all of them in one section.
First, is the commutative property. For an operation to be commutative,
it shouldnt matter which number goes before the operation, and which goes
after the operation. Both addition and multiplication are commutative.

For any real numbers a and b,
a+b=b+a

## Commutative Property of Multiplication:

For any real numbers a and b,
ab=ba

## We have already used the commutative property of addition. Notice that

subtraction is not commutative (5 3 6= 3 5, for example), BUT recall
that we can change subtraction to addition. Therefore,
5 3 = 5 + (3) = 3 + 5
This shows that as long as you keep the sign if front of the same
numbers (possibly changing it from a negative sign to a minus sign or vice
versa), you may use the commutative property of addition in conjunction
with subtraction.
Similarly, division is not commutative (4 2 6= 2 4, for example), BUT
we may change division to multiplication and use the commutative property
of multiplication. For example,
42=4

1
1
= 4
2
2

## Next is the associative property. For an operation to be associative, you

need to be doing the same operation twice, and it shouldnt matter which of

## 1.13. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS

217

the two you do first. Again, addition and multiplication are both associative.

For any real numbers a, b and c,
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

## Associative Property of Multiplication:

For any real numbers a, b and c,
(a b) c = a (b c)

## As before, neither subtraction nor division is associative, but we may

change subtraction to addition or division to multiplication if necessary.
While both properties are important, they are most often used in conjunction. For example, since addition is both commutative and associative,
whenever we have a situation where we have several additions going on
(and nothing else!), we may rearrange the numbers and add in any order
we wish. We used this useful property when we developed the shortcut for
mixed number addition (see example 11 on page 132).
A property which we havent seen yet is the distributive property. Technically, it is called the Distributive Property of Multiplication over Addition
or the Distributive Property of Multiplication over Subtraction, but we will
generally just use the abbreviated title of distributive property.

Distributive Property:
For any real numbers a, b and c,
a(b + c) = a b + a c
(b + c)a = b a + c a
a(b c) = a b a c
(b c)a = b a c a

218

## Solution 1. Using the distributive property:

3(4 + 5) = 3 4 + 3 5
= 12 + 15
= 27

You may check the last result using the normal order of operations on
the original problem. This begs the question, why dont we just use the
order of operations instead of this new property? Well, soon we will be
dealing with expressions like (x + 2) which cannot be added, and to get rid
of the parentheses, we will need to use the distributive property.
Example 2. State the property used:
1. 5 + 4 = 4 + 5
2. (2 + 3) + 7 = 2 + (3 + 7)
3. (2 3) 7 = (3 2) 7
4. (2 + 3) 7 = 7 (2 + 3)
5. 2(7 + 3) = 2 7 + 2 3

## Solution 2. You should have said:

1. 5 + 4 = 4 + 5 is the commutative property of addition since
the 4 and 5 changed places.
2. (2+3)+7 = 2+(3+7) is the associative property of addition
since 2 and 3 are grouped together on the left side and 3 and
7 are grouped on the right side.
3. (2 3) 7 = (3 2) 7 is the commutative property of multiplication since the grouping did not change, but the 2 and 3
changed places.

## 1.13. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS

219

4. (2 + 3) 7 = 7 (2 + 3) is commutative property of multiplication since the group (2 + 3) changes places with 7 around
multiplication.
5. 2(7 + 3) = 2 7 + 2 3 is the distributive property since the
The distributive property may also be used when there is no obvious
number in front of the opening parenthesis. In this case, you may act as
though there is a 1 in front.
Example 3. Remove the parentheses by using the distributive property. You
dont need to simplify.
1. (5 + 2) 3
2. 4 + (9 15)

Solution 3. We get:
1.

2.

(5 + 2) 3 = 1 (5 + 2) 3
= 15+123
= 5+23
4 + (9 15) = 4 + 1 (9 15)
= 4 + 1 9 1 15
= 4 + 9 15

After telling you not to simplify, you may wonder why we did several
steps, but there was a reason for this. In the very beginning, you may need
to write out every step, as we did. You want to practice this technique,
though, until you can go from the the original problem to the final answer
in one step. You should be able to imagine the 1 and multiply, without
having to write it all down. Once you get rid of the parentheses, of course
you will add or subtract where possible.
The distributive property is also used when there is a minus sign or negative sign in front of the opening parenthesis, but now you will be distributing
a 1.

220

## Example 4. Remove the parentheses by using the distributive property. You

dont need to simplify.
1. (4 + 6) 3
2. 13 (2 + 1)

Solution 4. We get:
1.

2.

(4 + 6) 3 = 1 (4 + 6) 3
= 1 4 + (1) 6 3
= 4 6 3
13 (2 1) = 13 + (1) (2 1)
= 13 + (1) 2 (1) 1
= 13 2 + 1

Again, even though we showed several steps, you want to get good
enough to go from the original to the end in one step. This is sometimes
called distributing the minus sign (or negative sign).
Now that we have seen the commutative property of addition, the associative property of addition, and the distributive property, we can illustrate
why the shortcut for mixed number subtraction works.
Example 5. Refer back to example 15 on page 136. Using our new knowledge of the above properties, show why the subtraction shortcut works.

## Solution 5. We wanted to subtract 4 34 1 12 .

4 43 1 12 = 4 + 34 1 + 12
= 4+

3
4

= (4 1) +

3
4

1
2

1
2

before.

221

## Zero plays an important role in addition, as it has the unique property

of not changing another number when being added to it.

For any real number a,
a+0=0+a=a

It is also important to know that no matter what number you start with,
there is always another number you may add to it to get zero.

For any real number a, there is a number (a), such that:
a + (a) = (a) + a = 0

## Note that the additive inverse of a number is just its opposite.

Zero also plays an important role in multiplication, but it is not the multiplicative identity as multiplying by zero generally does change the number
you are multiplying. Rather, the number 1 has the property of not changing
a number it is multiplying.

Multiplicative Identity:
For any real number a,
a1=1a=a

If you start with any number but 0, there is another number which you
may multiply by to go back to 1.

222

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

Multiplicative Inverse:
For any real number a except a 6= 0,
a

1
1
= a=1
a
a

## A numbers multiplicative inverse is its reciprocal.

Example 6. State (a) the additive inverse, and (b) the multiplicative inverse, for the following numbers.
1. 5
2.

3
7

3. 3
4. 0

Solution 6. We have:
1. 5
(a) The additive inverse of 5 is 5.
(b) The multiplicative inverse of 5 is
2.

1
5.

3
7

## (a) The additive inverse of 37 is 37 .

(b) The multiplicative inverse of 37 is

7
3.

3. 3
(a) The additive inverse of 3 is 3.
(b) The multiplicative inverse of 3 is 31 .
4. 0
(a) The additive inverse of 0 is 0.
(b) 0 does NOT have a multiplicative inverse, so none.

223

## Example 7. State the property used:

1. 5 1 = 5
2. 0 + (3 + 2) = (3 + 2)
3.

1
3

3=1

4. 45 +

4
5

=0

Solution 7. We have:
1. 5 1 = 5 is multiplicative identity.
2. 0 + (3 + 2) = (3 + 2) is additive identity.
3.

1
3

3 = 1 is multiplicative inverse.

4. 45 +

4
5

Applications
These properties of real numbers may be used to simplify addition and
multiplication problems. Let us look at several examples.
Example 8. At a fast food restaurant, your order costs:
\$1.29 + \$0.99 + \$0.99 + \$0.99
How much do you need to pay?

## Solution 8. Many people would either use a calculator (or just

believe the cashier) or would estimate the solution, but it is easy
to calculate the exact value if we apply the real number properties
that we just learned. To avoid the ugly-looking numbers we are
starting with, let us add a penny to each one, so now we wish to
\$1.30 + \$1.00 + \$1.00 + \$1.00 = \$4.30

224

## CHAPTER 1. REAL NUMBERS AND THEIR OPERATIONS

At the moment, this is an estimate, but to go back to the exact
value, recall that we added in four pennies, so all we need to do
is subtract away four cents:
\$4.30 \$0.04 = \$4.26
So, your bill will be \$4.26 (provided there is no tax - say that you
get the food to go and dont order a pop or sweet tea). You really
The idea of adding in four cents provided we later take away four
cents is the additive identity (as we are actually adding zero) and
additive inverse (as our zero is four plus ones and four minus
ones) properties. We then used the commutative and associative
properties of addition to rearrange the numbers nicely. Written
out:
1.29 + .99 + .99 + .99 =
=
=
=
=

## 1.29 + .99 + .99 + .99 + 4(.01 .01)

(1.29 + .01) + 3(.99 + .01) .04
1.30 + 1 + 1 + 1 .04
4.30 .04
4.26

## Solution 9. To add this as is, you have to be good at doing

98, however, you should be able to do the math in your head
easily.
98 + 156 = 100 + 154 = 254
This uses the associative property of addition. To see this, we
will write out more steps:
98 + 156 =
=
=
=

98 + (2 + 154)
(98 + 2) + 154
100 + 154
254

225

## Example 10. Simplify 3 8 + 2 6 + 7 4.

Solution 10. First, let us change all the subtractions to additions so we may use the commutative and associative properties
of addition. Then, in a case like this where you are adding several
positive and negative numbers, you may find it easier to group
all the positive numbers together, and all the negative numbers
together as the sign rule for addition says that when you are
and the sum keeps the common sign. We will also rearrange the
numbers in each group to make nice sums. For example, instead of 3 + 2 + 7, you may prefer 3 + 7 + 2, since 3 + 7 = 10 and
10 is an easy number to add.
3 8 + 2 6 + 7 4 = (3 + 7 + 2) + [(6) + (4) + (8)]
= 12 + (18)
= 6

This same idea of rearranging to simplify the problem may also work
when you are doing several multiplications.
Example 11. Multiply 2 7 6 5

## Solution 11. As is, this problem may be difficult to do in your

head, but by utilizing the commutative and associative properties
of multiplication, it can be made easier.
2 7 6 5 = (7 6) (2 5)
= 42 10
= 420

226

## SECTION 1.13 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 382.)
Find the additive inverse of the following numbers.
1. 3

4. 4.1

2. 8

5.

3. 2.9

6.

1
6
2
17

7. 2
8. 18
9.

1
4

10.

13
15

11.

2
3

12. 45

## State which property of real numbers is being used.

1
13. (5 + 3) + 17 = 5 + (3 + 17)
23. 3
=1
3
14. 6 + (6) = 0
24. 2.8 (1.5) = (1.5) 2.8
15. 5(3 4) = 5 3 5 4
16. 6.5 1 = 6.5

## 25. (2 + 16) + 3 = 2 + (16 + 3)

17. 8 3 = 3 8

1
1
18.
+
=0
17
17

26.

2
2
+9=9+
3
3

27.

3 8
=1
8 3

19. (2 5) 3 = 2 (5 3)
20. 7 + 0 = 7

## 29. 8.9 1 = 8.9

22. 6(4 + 7) = 6 4 + 6 7

## 1.13. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS

227

Add or multiply as indicated. If you use the real number properties to make
the problems easier, you should be able to do the math in your head.
31. 0.99 + 0.99 + 1.19 + 0.99 + 0.99

34. 9 5 3 2

## 32. 199 + 312

35. 97 + 98 + 106

33. 15 18 + 12 2

36. 5 5 5 2

228

Chapter 2

Algebra
2.1

## Introduction to Variables and Algebraic Expressions

Definition: A variable is a letter or symbol used to represent a number
or group of numbers.
Using a letter, particularly an English letter, to be a variable is very
common as letters are easy to write and easy to recognize. Still, there is
no real limit on what you may use when choosing a variable, and if you are
willing to take the time and effort, you may draw pictures of cows or aliens
or whatever.
There are two main reasons for using variables:
1. to show a pattern or represent numbers in a general setting. Mathematicians often use the letters a, b or c in these instances.
2. to represent an unknown number or numbers which we are trying to
find or waiting to be given. Mathematicians often use the letters x, y
or z in these instances.
Example 1. When we presented the additive identity in section 1.13, we
wrote it as:
a+0=0+a=a
229

230

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

for any real number a. Here the a is representing a general pattern. For a
specific example of the additive identity property, we need to replace a with
an actual number.

## Example 2. When we defined the set of rational numbers, we used the

expression:
a
b
for any integers a and b except b 6= 0. This is a general expression, and to
see a specific rational number, we must replace a and b with integers, say
a = 2 and b = 3 to get 32 is a rational number.
So far, we havent seen the second use of variables, and this is where
algebraic expressions and equations come into play.
Definition: An algebraic expression is a combination of mathematical
operations on numbers and variables. Sometimes we will simply say an
expression.

## Example 3. The following are all algebraic expressions.

1. 7 3 x

3. 6 x4 3 x2 + 5 x 18

2. x2 + y z

## In algebraic expressions, multiplication signs between a number and a

variable, or between two variables are usually hidden, and division is typically turned into fractions.

Example 4. The algebraic expressions from last example are more commonly written:
1. 7 3x
2. x2 +

y
z

3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18

## 2.1. VARIABLES AND ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

231

Definition: A term is a number or the product of a number and variables raised to powers.
In an algebraic expression, terms are truly only separated by a plus sign
- any subtraction should be changed to addition. It may be easier to learn
that terms are separated by plus or minus signs, but you must remember
to treat the minus sign as a negative (or opposite) in the following term.
Multiplication and division do NOT separate terms, rather these operations
are part of terms.
Example 5. State how many terms the following algebraic expressions have,
and list what they are.
1. 7 3x
2. x2 +

y
z

3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18

Solution 5. We have:
1. 7 3x; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: 7.
The second term is: 3x.
2. x2 + yz ; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: x2 .
The second term is: yz .
3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18; this expression has four terms.
The first term is: 6x4 .
The second term is: 3x2 .
The third term is: 5x.
The fourth term is: 18.

Definition: A term which does not contain a variable is called a constant term,
or simply a constant.

232

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

## Definition: A term which contains one or more variables is called a

variable term. Every variable term has a multiplying number associated
with it, this number is called the coefficient of the variable. If there is no
obvious number, recall that you may always write 1 in front of any expression (multiplicative identity), so the coefficient will be 1 (or 1 if there is a
sign). Note, typically the coefficient is written before the variables in
the term.
Example 6. In the following algebraic expressions, state whether each term
is a constant term or variable term, and if the term is a variable term, state
its coefficient.
1. 7 3x
2. x2 +

y
z

3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18

Solution 6. We have:
1. 7 3x; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: 7, and this is a constant term.
The second term is: 3x, and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 3.
2. x2 + yz ; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: x2 , and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 1.
The second term is: yz , and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 1 ( yz = 1 yz ).
3. 6x4 3x2 + 5x 18; this expression has four terms.
The first term is: 6x4 , and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 6.
The second term is: 3x2 , and this is a variable term
with coefficient = 3.
The third term is: 5x, and this is a variable term with
coefficient = 5.
The fourth term is: 18, and this is a constant term.

233

## Evaluating Algebraic Expressions

To evaluate an algebraic expression,
you must be given the algebraic expression and values for every variable
which appears in the expression.
you are required to:
1. replace all variables with their numerical value. A good habit to
get into is to always use parentheses when replacing the variables.
Sometimes this will be necessary (usually if the number you are
replacing the variable with is negative), and sometimes not, but
it never hurts to do so.
2. simplify according to the order of operations.

z = 5.

x2 2yz =
=
=
=
=
=

(2)2 2(1)(5)
4 2(1)(5)
4 (2)(5)
4 (10)
4 + 10
14

## Example 8. Evaluate the algebraic expression x when:

1. x = 4
2. x = 0
3. x = 6

234

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 8. Substituting in for x gives:
1. x = (4) = 4
2. x = (0) = 0
3. x = (6) = 6

## One comment on the last example. The expression x is often read as

negative x, but technically it is the opposite of x. After all, we saw
that if we evaluate the expression for x = a negative number, the expression
became positive. Hence, negative x need not be negative. This illustrates
an important point, be careful about making assumptions of the sign of a
term involving a variable. There will certainly be times when you are confident (we will see cases later involving absolute values or raising variables to
even powers), but it certainly is not as obvious as looking at the sign of the
coefficient. Note here that x = 1 x (either by changing the opposite
of to multiplication or recalling what we do when no multiplying number
is obvious on a variable term) so the coefficient of x is 1. This is a fact
we are confident in; we just cannot extend this to the sign of the overall
expression.
Example 9. Evaluate each of the following expressions for x = 4 and
y = 2.
1. x2 y 2
2. |y| |x|
3. 5 +

y
x

4. 11 xy + 5y

## Solution 9. Substituting in and applying the order of operations

gives:
1.

x2 y 2 = (4)2 (2)2
= 16 4
= 12

## 2.1. VARIABLES AND ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

2.

3.

235

|y| |x| = | 2| | 4|
= 24
= 2

5+

y
x

= 5+

2
4

= 5+

1
2

= 5 12 or

11
2

4.
11 xy + 5y =
=
=
=

11 (4)(2) + 5(2)
11 8 10
3 10
7

## Like Terms versus Unlike Terms

Definition: Terms with exactly the same variables raised to exactly the
same powers are called like terms, or similar terms. Terms which are not like
terms are called unlike terms. Notice that only the variables of the terms
matter - the coefficients have no effect on whether two terms are like terms
or not.
Example 10. In each of the following cases, you are given two terms separated by a comma. State whether the terms are like terms or unlike terms.
1. 3x, 8x

4. 2xy 2 , 5x2 y

2. 3x, 3y
3. 7, 23

5. 3x2 y, 7yx2

236

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 10. Comparing the variables of each term:
1. 3x, 8x are like terms.
2. 3x, 3y are unlike terms.
3. 7, 23 are like terms. These are both constants and have
the same variables (none).
4. 2xy 2 , 5x2 y are unlike terms.
5. 3x2 y, 7yx2 are like terms. This last one didnt fool you
did it? Dont forget that multiplication is commutative and
associative, so it doesnt matter the order in which we write
the parts of a term. Thus, 7yx2 = 7x2 y and this term has x
squared and y to the first power, same as the other term. As
a side note, it is standard that when we are using English
letters to write them in alphabetical order in the term, so
we would normally write 7x2 y, but it is not incorrect to
rearrange the letters.

Given that terms may be like terms or unlike terms, why does it matter?
It turns out that like terms which are being added or subtracted my be
combined, while unlike terms may not.

## Algebraic Expressions Tool 1

subtract the coefficients, and the result stays the same type of
term.
When adding or subtracting unlike terms, there is no way of
combining the terms, so you cannot simplify.

237

possible.
2. 3x2 2x

1. 5x 14x

## Solution 11. Simplifying gives:

1. 5x 14x = 9x
2. 3x2 2x = 3x2 2x

Simplifying like terms is actually an application of the distributive property. Refer back to page 217 to see all the various manifestations of the
distributive property. Currently, we are mostly concerned with using the
distributive property to remove parentheses. There will be times, however,
like this one, where we would rather use the distributive property to factor
out a common factor. Notice that since like terms have exactly the same
variables to exactly the same powers, all of the variables may be factored
out. What remains behind in the parentheses will be the sum or difference
of regular numbers, which of course may be added or subtracted. Looking
back at the first part of the last example:
5x 14x = (5 14)x = 9x
Unlike terms, on the other hand, have different variables or different amounts
of the same variables. Therefore, you will NOT be able to factor out all of
the variables, and the parentheses will include more than just numbers.
Look at the second part of the last example:
3x2 2x = (3x 2)x
You may wish to keep this in mind when you are simplifying, but you should
learn and use Tool 1 as it is quick and simple.
Example 12. Simplify each of the following by combining like terms.
1. 4a 2ab + 5ab 7b + b 9a
2. x2 + 2x + 7 + 14 10x 5x2

238

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

3. 5m 11n + 2n + 18m
4. 8x2 17x 5 2x + 3 15x2

## Solution 12. Grouping together like terms and simplifying gives:

1.
4a 2ab + 5ab 7b + b 9a = (4a 9a) + (5ab 2ab) + (b 7b)
= 5a + 3ab 6b
2.
x2 + 2x + 7 + 14 10x 5x2 = (x2 5x2 ) + (2x 10x) + (7 + 14)
= 4x2 8x + 21
3.
5m 11n + 2n + 18m = (5m + 18m) + (2n 11n)
= 23m 9n
4.
8x2 17x 5 2x + 3 15x2 = (8x2 15x2 ) + (17x 2x) + (3 5)
= 7x2 19x 2
Simplifying Algebraic Expressions
We have just seen that you may simplify an algebraic expression by
combining like terms, but there is one other way in which we will want to
simplify, and that is getting rid of parentheses. To do so, we will use the
distributive property (see page 217 if you need to review). Dont forget that
if there is no obvious number in front of the opening parenthesis, you may
always write in a 1 in front (or 1 if there is a in front).

## Algebraic Expressions Tool 2

If an algebraic expression contains parentheses which include addition and/or subtraction, you may get rid of them by applying the
distributive property.

239

## Example 13. Simplify the following algebraic expressions.

1. 3(4m 2) 2(3m + 2n 5)
2. 5(2x + y + 1) 3(x 2y)
3. 2(3a 5) (a + 10)
4. 4(7x 3) (x 5)

## Solution 13. Getting rid of parentheses and combining like terms:

1.
3(4m 2) 2(3m + 2n 5) = 12m 6 6m 4n + 10
= (12m 6m) 4n + (10 6)
= 6m 4n + 4
2.
5(2x + y + 1) 3(x 2y) = 10x + 5y + 5 3x + 6y
= (10x 3x) + (5y + 6y) + 5
= 7x + 11y + 5
3.
2(3a 5) (a + 10) = 6a + 10 a 10
= (6a a) + (10 10)
= 7a
4.
4(7x 3) (x 5) = 28x + 12 x + 5
= (28x x) + (12 + 5)
= 29x + 17

## SECTION 2.1 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 383.)

240

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

For the following algebraic expressions, state whether each term is a constant term or a variable term, and if the term is a variable term, state its
coefficient.
1. 3x5 4x4 + x2

4. 13x2 11x + 1

2. xy 2yz

5. x + y + xy

3. 5 x

6. 8 + 3x2 y 2xy 2

Evaluate x 3, when:
7. x = 3
8. x = 1

9. x = 2
10. x = 5

3.
11. |x| |y|

16. |x| + y

12. xy + 5

17.

13. 3x y

18. x2 y 2

14. y 5x

19. 1 x y

15. x2 + y 2

20. x y

x
y

## Simplify the following algebraic expressions by getting rid of any parentheses

and combining like terms.
21. 2(3x 1) + 5x 2

## 29. 7(x 3) + 3(8 x)

23. 5x (3x + y 2)

30. xy 9x + 2y + 3x 5xy

24. (x y) 3y

## 25. 7(x + 2) 3(5x 1)

32. (3x + 5) (x 2)

## 26. 5x2 2x + 3 7x2 + 3x 13

33. 8m 2n + 6m + 3n 9m

## 2.2. LINEAR EQUATIONS

2.2

241

Linear Equations

Introduction to equations
Definition: An equation is a mathematical statement equating two algebraic expressions.
You may think of an equation as a balance, like you may use in a chemistry or physics course.

Important Notation
Throughout this book, we will use the following notation:
LHS = left-hand side of the equation (or later, inequality),
RHS = right-hand side of the equation (or later, inequality).

## Example 1. 4x 3 = 12 x is an equation with:

LHS = 4x 3, and
RHS = 12 x
The most interesting equations involve at least one variable (how exciting
is it writing 2 = 2 or 8 = 8?). When the equation contains one or more
variables, not every value of the variables will make the equation true.
Definition: A solution of an equation is any value for the variable(s) which
make the equation true.
Example 2. For the equation 4x 3 = 12 x:
1. show that x = 1 is NOT a solution.
2. show that x = 3 IS a solution.

## Solution 2. Looking at the LHS and RHS separately, we get:

242

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
1. When x = 1:

While:

LHS = 4(1) 3
= 43
= 1
RHS = 12 1
= 11

4x 3 = 12 x.
2. When x = 3:

While:

LHS = 4(3) 3
= 12 3
= 9
RHS = 12 3
= 9

12 x.

## Example 3. For the equation 5x + 3 = 15 x:

1. show that x = 1 is NOT a solution.
2. show that x = 2 IS a solution.

1. When x = 1:
LHS = 5(1) + 3
= 5 + 3
= 2
While:

RHS = 15 (1)
= 16

5x + 3 = 15 x.

2. When x = 2:

While:

243

LHS = 5(2) + 3
= 10 + 3
= 13
RHS = 15 2
= 13

## Since 13 = 13, x = 2 IS a solution of the equation 5x + 3 =

15 x.

Unfortunately, trying to find solutions (even if you know how many total
there should be) by guessing is not practical except in the simplest cases.
What we would like to have is an algebraic way to find any and all solutions.
To aid us, we have the two Algebraic Expressions Tools from last section,
but we need more help.
Equation Tools
There are two equation tools which we will find useful.

Equations Tool 1
For any real numbers a, b and c:
If a = b then a + c = b + c.

Since c may be negative, this really means that you may add or subtract
any number from both sides of an equation, and you will get an equivalent
equation.
Definition: Two equations are said to be equivalent if they are both true
or both false for a given value of the variable(s).

244

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

Equations Tool 2
Multiplicative Property of Equality:
For any real numbers a, b and c, except c 6= 0,
If a = b then a c = b c.

## Since c is any nonzero real number, we may change the multiplication

to division by changing c to its reciprocal, so this really means you may
multiply or divide both sides of an equation by any nonzero number and get
an equivalent equation.
With these two equation tools, and the two algebraic expression tools
from last section, we are ready to solve, well - not ALL equations - but at
least a certain type of equation.
Linear Equations in One Variable
Definition: A linear equation in one variable is an equation which may be
written in the form:
ax + b = c
for any real numbers a, b and c, except a 6= 0.
They are also called first-degree equations, because the variable is raised
to the first power. For this whole section, whenever we say linear equation,
we will mean linear equation in one variable. Before we illustrate how to
solve them, we will first present an important fact.

## Important Linear Equation Fact:

A linear equation in one variable always has exactly one solution.

So, how do we find this solution? You will be able to solve every linear
equation if you follow these steps:

245

## To solve a linear equation in one variable:

1. Remove all parentheses by using the distributive property.
2. Clear any fractions (or decimals) by multiplying every term by
the LCD (or appropriate power of 10), if desired.
3. Combine any like terms on the LHS and RHS separately.
4. Move all x-terms to one side of the equation, and all constants
to the other side by using the additive property of equality.
5. At this point, you should have a single x-term on one side, and
a single constant on the other. If the coefficient of the x-term
is not 1, divide both sides of the equation by this coefficient.
6. Check that you answer is a solution to the original equation as
we did back in examples 2 and 3, if you have time.

## Some comments on these rules:

Step 2 is optional. If you are using a calculator, you may not mind
having decimals or fractions, and if this is the case, you may leave
them in. We will do an example of a linear equation involving decimals
both by clearing them and by leaving them in. We will always clear
fractions.
If you do decide to get rid of any fractions or decimals, you may switch
steps 1 and 2 if you wish. You will just have to be wary when any
fraction or decimal is inside parentheses. To avoid complications, we
will always follow the rules as listed.
Step 2 uses the multiplicative property of equality, and it illustrates
an important difference between expressions and equations. If you are
given an expression with fractions, all you may do is make equivalent
fractions to simplify. If, instead, you are given an equation, you may
multiply the fractions by the LCD (just numerator, not numerator and
denominator) to get rid of the fractions. Remember, an equation is

246

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
a balance scale; if we have five pounds on each side of the scale (so
the scale is balanced), and we triple the weight on each side to get
fifteen pounds on each, the scale stays balanced. Sure we changed
the amounts on both sides, but we maintained the balance (made an
equivalent equation).

The first three steps are all tidying up steps. After you have done
all three, your equation should have the form:
Ax + B = Dx + C
for some numbers (possibly zero) A, B, C and D. The possibly zero
indicates that some of the terms may be missing, but the most you
should have is a single x-term and a single constant on both sides. This
seems like the simplest, most basic way of writing a linear equation, so
you may wonder why our definition only had an x-term on the LHS.
We shall see why later in this section.
When doing step 4, some people prefer to always take the x-terms to
the LHS, and the constants to the RHS, while others prefer to take
the x-terms to whichever side makes the coefficient positive. We will
do an example each way, but you should find and do what works best
for you. After step 4, your equation should have the form:
ax = b
We switched from capital letters to small case as the coefficient on the
x and the constant may have no relation to the capital A and B we
used earlier.
After step 5, your equation should have the form:
x=c
for some real number c. This is your solution.
Step 6 is an optional check, but you should always check your answers
provided you have the time. Of course, if you are running out of
time on a test, this step will be skipped. We will check our first few
examples, but we will then leave the checks to you for practice.
There is one last equation fact which you may find useful. If you think
of an equation as a balance scale, what happens if you turn the scale

247

## around? If it was balanced before, it still is, while if it was unbalanced

before, it is still unbalanced. This means you may, at any time, flip
the LHS and RHS without changing any signs.

## Important General Equation Fact:

If a = b then b = a.

## Finally, do NOT connect equivalent equations with an equals sign.

Usually, it is best to write equivalent equations underneath one another, but if you need to write them side-by- side, use an arrow instead.
For example,
x + 2 = 5 x = 3
A string of equal signs (as we have used before) indicates equivalent
expressions. Recall that with equivalent equations, the algebraic expressions are being changed; the equality is just being maintained.
Ok, let us see some examples.
Example 4. Solve for x: 3x 7 = 5

## Solution 4. No parentheses, no fractions, no decimals, and the

LHS and RHS are both simplified, so we may skip the first three
steps. Next we should get all the x-terms to the left - done already. With all the x-terms on the left, we want all the constants
on the right. To move the 7 over, we will add 7 to both sides:
3x 7 = 5
3x 7 + 7 = 5 + 7
3x = 12
3x
3

12
3

x = 4

248

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Therefore, the solution is x = 4.
Check:
LHS = 3(4) 7
= 12 7
= 5
While:
RHS = 5
So, LHS = RHS X

Example 5. Solve 6x + 3 = 7

## Solution 5. No parentheses, no fractions, no decimals, and the

LHS and RHS are both simplified, so we may skip the first three
steps. Next we should get all the x-terms to the left - done already. With all the x-terms on the left, we want all the constants
on the right. To move the 3 over, we will subtract 3 from both
sides:
6x + 3 = 7
6x + 3 3 = 7 3
6x = 4
=

4
6

x =

2
3

6x
6

Check:
LHS = 61 23 + 3
= 4+3
= 7
While:
RHS = 7
So, LHS = RHS X

## 2.2. LINEAR EQUATIONS

249

As mentioned earlier, for the sake of space, we will stop checking our
solutions, but you are encouraged to do so for practice. More examples:

## Solution 6. There are parentheses, so starting with step 1, we

get:
2(x 4) = 5x + 7
2x 8 = 5x + 7
Here is a situation where some people prefer to take the x-terms
to the LHS (always) and some prefer to take the x-terms to the
RHS (to get a positive coefficient). In this example, we will take
them to the left, in the next example, we will go for the positive
coefficient.
2(x 4)
2x 8
2x 5x 8
3x 8
3x 8 + 8
3x

=
=
=
=
=
=

5x + 7
5x + 7
5x 5x + 7
7
7+8
15

3x
3

15
3

x = 5
Therefore, the solution is x = 5.

## Solution 7. Starting with step 1, and taking the x-terms to the

250

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
right this time:
7 (2x + 4)
7 2x 4
3 2x
3 2x + 2x
3
3+7
10
4x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

3 + 2(x 5)
3 + 2x 10
2x 7
2x + 2x 7
4x 7
4x 7 + 7
4x
10

4x
4

10
4
5
2

x =
Therefore, the solution is x =

5
2

or 2 12

## Now for some examples involving fractions which we wish to clear.

Example 8. Solve for x:

1
x
(x 3) = + 7
2
4

Solution 8. This is a situation where you may clear the fractions first if you like, but we will do our steps in order.
1
(x 3) =
2

x
+7
4

x 3

2 2

x
+7
4

4 x 4 3

1 2 1 2

4 x
+47
1 4

2x 6
2x x 6
x6
x6+6
x

=
=
=
=
=

x + 28
x x + 28
28
28 + 6
34

## 2.2. LINEAR EQUATIONS

251

In the last example, notice that we multiplied every term by the LCD.
When the term we were multiplying by was a fraction, we made the LCD a
fraction by putting it over 1 (so we could multiply fraction times fraction).
When the term was an integer, we left the LCD as an integer as well.

Example 9. Solve

4x 2
3x
=
+2
3
3
5

fractions.
4x 2

3
3

3x
+2
5

15 4x 15 2

1 3
1 3

15 3x

+ 15 2
1 5

20x 10
20x 9x 10
11x 10 + 10
11x

=
=
=
=

9x + 30
9x 9x + 30
30 + 10
40

11x
11

40
11

x =

40
11

40
7
or 3
11
11

x
2x + 3
= 1
2
4

## Solution 10. When you have a more complicated fraction like

the one on the LHS here, you have several options. You could
rewrite it as 12 (2x+3) and handle it as we did in the last example,
but even easier is to split the fraction. You already know the

252

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
rule that when you are adding or subtracting fractions with the
same denominator, you may make a single fraction by adding or
subtracting the numerators and putting them over the common
denominator. You may also use that rule in reverse. When there
are plus or minus signs in the numerator of a fraction, you may
break the fractions across the plus or minus signs by putting the
separate terms all over the common denominator. This is what
we will do here.
2x + 3
2

x
1
4

2x 3
+
2
2

x
1
4

4 3

1 2

4 x
41
1 4

4x + 6
4x x + 6
3x + 6 6
3x

=
=
=
=

x4
xx4
4 6
10

3x
3

10
3

4x+

x =
Therefore, the solution is x =

10
3

10
1
or 3
3
3

## If there are decimals in the equation, we mentioned before that it is your

option whether to keep them or get rid of them. With a calculator, decimal
operations are straight-forward, so we will do the next example both ways,
and you may decide which method you prefer. As for technique, the rules
state that you are to multiply by the appropriate power of ten, but what
is the appropriate power of ten? Since you will have already done step 1
and removed all of the parentheses, it will be easy to distinguish the terms
in the equation. Look at each term, and note what is the largest number
of decimal places which appear. You will want to multiply every term by 1

## 2.2. LINEAR EQUATIONS

253

followed by that many zeros. For example, if the number of decimal places
in the terms of an equation are: none, one, two and two, the most is two,
so you would multiply all the terms by 100. Let us see an example:

## Solution 11. First, we will solve by clearing the decimals. After

we distribute, you will notice that the most number of decimal
places will be two, so we will multiply every term by 100.
0.2(x 3) + 0.53(2x + 1)
0.2x 0.6 + 1.06x + 0.53
100 0.2x 100 0.6 + 100 1.06x + 100 0.53
20x 60 + 106x + 53
126x 7
126x 7 + 7
126x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.56
0.56
100 0.56
56
56
56 + 7
63

126x
126

63
126

x =
Therefore, the solution is x =

1
2

1
2

## Example 12. Solve 0.2(x 3) + 0.53(2x + 1) = 0.56

Solution 12. Now, let us leave the decimals in and solve. You

254

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
may need to use a calculator or scratch paper.
0.2(x 3) + 0.53(2x + 1)
0.2x 0.6 + 1.06x + 0.53
1.26x 0.07
1.26x 0.07 + 0.07
1.26x

=
=
=
=
=

0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56 + 0.07
0.63

1.26x
1.26

0.63
1.26

x = 0.5
Therefore, the solution is x = 0.5
Notice that the last two examples are the same, we simply left the answer
in the first proper form we came to (remember to NOT suggest a fraction
like 0.63
Example 13. Solve 0.34(2x 5) + 0.2 = 0.4(x 3)

Solution 13. We will clear the decimals again here. After distributing, you will see that the most number of decimal places
will be two, so we will again multiply every term by 100.
0.34(2x 5) + 0.2
0.68x 1.7 + 0.2
100 0.68x 100 1.7 + 100 0.2
68x 170 + 20
68x 150
68x + 40x 150
108x 150 + 150
108x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.4(x 3)
0.4x + 1.2
100 0.4x + 100 1.2
40x + 120
40x + 120
40x + 40x + 120
120 + 150
270

108x
108

270
108

x = 2.5
Therefore, the solution is x = 2.5

255

## They look like linear equations, but ....

Some equations are obviously not linear. They may include an x2 term

or a x term or etc. There are some equations, though, which at first glance
seem to be linear, but, in reality, are not. For example:
Example 14. Solve for x: 3(x + 5) 8(x + 3) = 5(x + 2)

## Solution 14. Following our rules, we get:

3(x + 5) 8(x + 3)
3x + 15 8x 24
5x 9
5x + 5x 9
9

=
=
=
=
=

5(x + 2)
5x 10
5x 10
5x + 5x 10
10

## This is obviously nonsense, so there is no solution.

When we tried to take all of the x-terms to the LHS, the x-terms not
only canceled on the RHS, but on the LHS as well. If this ever happens, you
are left with an equation involving two numbers. This kind of equation will
either be nonsense, like our last example, or obviously true, like 5 = 5. It is
for this very reason that in the definition of a linear equation (page 244),
there was only a single x-term in the equation, and it was stated that its
coefficient could not be zero.
In the case where you get nonsense, there is no solution. This is annoying, in that if you wish to check your answer, you can only check your
work.
In the case where you get something which is obviously true, your solution is x may be any real number. This type of equation is called an
identity equation. This solution may be checked as all you need to do is
show that two separate values for x (x = 0 and x = 1 are nice, easy choices)
are both solutions. Let us see an example of this kind:

## Example 15. Solve for x:

1
1
1
(6x 7) = (4x 5) +
3
2
6

256

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

## Solution 15. Again, this equation looks like a linear equation.

We will distribute and clear fractions to start.
1
(6x 7) =
3
2x
6 2x

7
3

6 7

1 3

12x 14
12x 14
12x 12x 14
14

1
1
(4x 5) +
2
6

= 2x

5 1
+
2 6

= 6 2x
=
=
=
=

6 5 6 1
+
1 2 1 6

12x 15 + 1
12x 14
12x 12x 14
14

## Obviously true, so the answer is x may be any real number.

Beware, though, it does not matter if the constants cancel; only the
variable terms.
Example 16. Solve 5(x 3) = 3(x 5)

5(x 3)
5x 15
5x 3x 15
2x 15 + 15
2x

=
=
=
=
=

3(x 5)
3x 15
3x 3x 15
15 + 15
0

2x
2

0
2

x = 0
Thus, x = 0

## 2.2. LINEAR EQUATIONS

257

Zero is a perfectly fine solution, and this last example WAS a linear
equation.

## SECTION 2.2 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 384.)
1. A student correctly applies all properties to get to 2x = 4x in a problem. The students then divides both sides by x obtaining 2 = 4 and
writes no solution as his/her answer. Is this correct?
Solve the following equations.
2. 2x + 3 x = 4x 5
3.

4(5 x)
= x
3

4.

5
1
2
x x3= x5
3
6
2

5. 2x 5 = 3(x + 6)
6. 7 5(x 3) = 2(4 3x)
7. 4(x + 2) = 2(2x 1) + 10
8.

x+3
3x 1
=
2
4

## 9. 0.03(2x + 7) = 0.16(5 + x) 0.13

10. 4(x + 3) = 6(2x + 8) 4
11. 5(x 6) = 2(x + 4) + 3x
12. 7x 3(4x 2) + 6x = 8 9(3x + 2)

258

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

1
13. 8(5x 3) + (4x 3) = 5
2
14.

3
1
3
(7 3x) + (3x + 7) = (4x 2)
5
2
4

## 15. 7x 4(2x + 1) = 5(x + 3) 6x

16. 3x 2 [2x 4 (x 5)] = 7
17. x [2 3 (2x + 4)] = 61
18.

2
1
1
(3x 4) + = x
3
3
9

5
1
1
19. x x
= (x + 1)
6
2
4
20. 4 (x + 3) 8 (x 3) = 6 (2x 1) 10
21. 3(2x 5) 5(6 4x) = 2 + 3(x 3)
22.

3x 7
8 5x
=
4
3

23.

2
1
(x + 12) + (x + 2) = 2x 3
3
6

24.

7 3x
2
=
3
5

## 25. 9(2x + 3) 3x = 5 3(2x 5)

26.

1
9
1
1
(8x 1) + = (4x + 5)
4
4
2
2

27.

1
1
(x 12) + (x + 2) = 2x + 4
4
2

## 2.2. LINEAR EQUATIONS

28.

2
1
1
x x+
=
(x + 4)
3
4
12

29.

1
1
(2x 3) + 5 = (3x + 4)
2
3

31.

3x 5
= 2
4

## 32. .12(x 6) + .06x = .08x .07(10)

259

260

2.3

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

Problem Solving

## Word problems have become well-known as students worst nightmares. The

problems often sound so complicated and difficult that you feel like you need
not only a calculator, but a high-powered computer and rocket scientist as
well. They are further complicated by the fact that there isnt really a single
set of rules which always work. Instead, we will list some general strategies
to keep in mind, and encourage you to get plenty of practice.

## Strategies for Solving Word Problems

Dont get intimidated when you first read the problem! Word problems
may sound incredibly difficult, but the trick is to keep reading and
rereading the problem, and break it up into manageable bits.
Start at the end. Usually it is the last sentence where you find out
what you are looking for. Once you have that figured out, try to put
the rest of the problem in perspective.
Decide if a picture or drawing will help. Sometimes they will, sometimes not.
Define your variable. We highly recommend taking the time to write
out what your variable stands for. This will make your work more
understandable to your instructor and to yourself. You may always
use x for a variable, or you may use something which indicates what
you are looking for, e.g. a for the number of apples, c for a childs
ticket price, etc.
Recall that you have only learned how to solve linear equations in
one variable! You may be asked to find two or three different things,
but you dont yet know how to solve equations involving two or more
variables. This means that one of the things you are looking for may be
the variable; the others will have to be algebraic expressions involving
this variable. Hint: the object which keeps getting referred back to is
the one you want to make the basic variable.
Make a mathematical equation. OK, this is the tricky one. If you
complete this step properly, the rest of the problem will be all downhill.
If you do this part wrong, you will get the wrong answer, and since you
will usually check your answer with the equation, it will seem right.

## 2.3. PROBLEM SOLVING

261

out - you dont want the length of something to be a negative number,
or you cant have a fractional number for a page number.

Before we do some problems, you will also need to know how some basic
English words and phrases translate into mathematical operations. There
are words we will consider math words when it comes to translation: sum
(+), difference (-), product () and quotient (). These words not only
indicate a specific operation, but they also indicate grouping. They keep
statements in order. Consider the translation of these statements below,
where we have let x =the number.

## The sum of 2 and a number: (2 + x).

The difference of a number and 3: (x 3).
The product of 2 and a number: (2 x).
The quotient of a number and 7: (x 7).

Notice that sum, difference, product and quotient are always followed by
(something) and (something else). The number or variable before the and
goes before the operation (although this only matters for subtraction and
division).
There are other words we use in every day language that translate into
mathematical expressions. These words take statements out of order when
we express them in a mathematical sentence and they do not group.

## Three more than a number: x + 3

Four less than a number: x 4

## Some other mathematically translated words are:

Double a number: 2 x

262

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

Twice a number: 2 x
Triple a number: 3 x
Subtract 5 from a number: x 5

## Let us see some examples.

Example 1. Triple a number is the same as double the sum of the number
and three. Find the number.

Solution 1. First, what are we looking for? Rereading the problem, we see: blah, blah, blah,... Find the number. OK, so :
Let x = the number.
The rest of the problem is giving information which helps us find
the number. We need to change the English into math, so we
will take it piece by piece.
number is the {z
same as} double
sum of the number and 3
Triple a
| {z } the
|
{z
}
| {z } | {z } |
3
x
=
2
(x + 3)
Now all we need to do is solve this linear equation.
3x
3x
3x 2x
x

=
=
=
=

2(x + 3)
2x + 6
2x 2x + 6
6

## Before we circle our answer, we should reconsider the problem.

We were just looking for a number, so there are not any units
and no bad possible answers (a number may be positive, negative, zero, an integer, a fraction, etc.). Therefore, the only thing
else you may wish to do is check the answer with the original
equation, and check that the original equation matches the word
problem properly. After doing so, we are confident:
The number is 6.

## 2.3. PROBLEM SOLVING

263

Example 2. Twice the sum of a number and four is equal to the sum of
triple the number and eight. Find the number.

Let x = the number.
Now we need to translate the word problem into a mathematical
equation.
Twice
sum of a number and 4 is equal to the sum of triple the number and 8.
| {z } the
|
{z
} | {z } |
{z
}
2
(x + 4)
=
(3x + 8)
Now we solve:
2(x + 4)
2x + 8
2x 2x + 8
8
88
0
x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(3x + 8)
3x + 8
3x 2x + 8
x+8
x+88
x
0

## Again, we were just looking for a number, so we do not need

The number is 0.

Example 3. A 22 foot board is cut into two pieces such that the second
piece is two foot less than twice the length of the first. Find the lengths of
the two pieces.

Solution 3. This problem is not just matter of translating English into math; instead of looking for just a number, we are
looking for lengths of boards. First, whenever there are units involved, you want to make sure all the units match. Here, we are
only referring to lengths, and the only unit mentioned is feet, so

264

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
we are safe. Had the board length been given in feet, but the difference of the two pieces been in inches, we would have wanted
to convert one measurement to the other units.
Since the units all match, the next step is to define our variable.
Looking at the last sentence, we see that we are looking for TWO
things - the length of the first piece and the length of the second
piece. We will let x represent one of the lengths, but which one?
Rereading the problem, we see that the length of the second piece
refers back to the length of the first (the second piece is two foot
less than twice the length of the first). Therefore, it will be best
to let the variable be the length of the first piece. So we have:
x
?

=
=

## the length of the first piece

the length of the second piece

## So what do we call the length of the second piece? Going back to

the problem and translating the bit where the length of the second
is referred back to the first, we get:
x
2x - 2

=
=

## the length of the first piece

the length of the second piece

## Now, we need to make an equation to solve. The only other piece

of information in the problem is the total length of the board. If
you stop and think about it (or perhaps make a picture), except
for a tiny sliver which gets turned to sawdust by the saw, the
length of the two pieces should add up to the original length.
Thus,
x + (2x 2) = 22
x + 2x 2 = 22
3x 2 = 22
3x 2 + 2 = 22 + 2
3x = 24
3x
3

24
3

x = 8
We wanted two lengths, so finding x is not enough. To find
the length of the second piece, plug our solution for x into the
algebraic expression which represents the length of the second

## 2.3. PROBLEM SOLVING

265

piece.
2(8) 2 = 16 2 = 14
Besides checking our work, we also need to remember that these
are lengths measured in feet, and we need to make sure our answers are not inappropriate. A length of a board may be an
integer or a fraction or decimal, but it MUST be a positive number. Both of our lengths are fine, so:
The length of the first piece is 8 feet, and the length of
the second piece is 14 feet.

Example 4. A 25 foot board is cut into three pieces such that the first piece
is two foot more than twice the length of the second piece, and the third piece
is three foot longer than the second piece. Find the lengths of all three pieces.

Solution 4. The units all match (feet), and the lengths of the
first and third pieces refer back to the second piece. Translating
as before, we get:
2x + 2
x
x+3

=
=
=

## the length of the first piece

the length of the second piece
the length of the third piece

## Since the three lengths should add up to 25 feet, we get:

(2x + 2) + x + (x + 3)
2x + 2 + x + x + 3
4x + 5
4x + 5 5
4x

=
=
=
=
=

25
25
25
25 5
20

4x
4

20
4

x = 5
This is the length of the second piece. The first piece will be:
2(5) + 2 = 10 + 2 = 12

266

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
and the third:
5+3=8
on units and checking our work, we can say:
The first piece is 12 feet long, the second piece is 5 feet
long, and the third piece is 8 feet long.

Example 5. You open a book to a random spot, and notice that the left- and
right-hand page numbers add up to 329. What are the two page numbers?

Solution 5. No units this time, but we are looking for two different page numbers. One may be the variable, but we need to
find a relation between the two in order to make an algebraic
expression for the other. You could use that the sum of the two
pages is 329, but we are going to use this to make our equation;
there must be another relation between the two. If you are having
trouble figuring out what the other relation must be, try opening
a book to random pages and see if you can spot a relationship
between the left-hand and right-hand page numbers. Could one
be 125 and the other 367, for example? No, the page numbers
must be consecutive, as the right-hand page number is always one
bigger than the left. Thus, we may define our variables as:
x
x+1

=
=

## the left-hand page number,

the right-hand page number.

x + (x + 1)
x+x+1
2x + 1
2x + 1 1
2x

=
=
=
=
=

329
329
329
329 1
328

2x
2

328
2

x = 164

## 2.3. PROBLEM SOLVING

267

Substituting this into the expression for the right-hand page number gives:
164 + 1 = 165
No units to worry about, and a page number should be a positive
integer, but both of our answers are, so:
The page numbers are 164 and 165.

Example 6. The boss makes \$40, 000 more than the secretary. Together,
they make \$130, 000. How much does each one earn?

Solution 6. Our units are dollars, and all the numbers match.
We are looking for two salaries, but notice that the bosss salary
refers back to the secretarys. Therefore, we will let the secretarys salary be the variable, and use the fact that the bosss
salary is \$40, 000 more to make an algebraic expression involving
the variable:
x
x + 40,000

=
=

## the secretarys salary,

the bosss salary.

## Since the sum of the their salaries is \$130, 000, we get:

x + (x + 40, 000)
x + x + 40, 000
2x + 40, 000
2x + 40, 000 40, 000
2x

=
=
=
=
=

130, 000
130, 000
130, 000
130, 000 40, 000
90, 000

2x
2

90, 000
2

x = 45, 000
The bosss salary would then be:
45, 000 + 40, 000 = 85, 000
Both answers are appropriate numbers for salaries (positive numbers), so adding on dollar signs gives:
The boss is making \$85, 000, and the secretary is making
\$45, 000.

268

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

## SECTION 2.3 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 385.)
Write an equation for the following problems and solve.
1. The difference of five and twice a number is the same as three times
the difference of the number and five. Find the number.
2. The sum of two times a number and seven is equal to the difference of
the number and six. Find the number.
3. The product of five and a number is the same as two times the difference of the number and three. Find the number.
4. Twice the difference of a number and three is equal to the difference
of three and the number. Find the number.
5. A fifteen foot board is cut into two pieces such that the second piece is
three foot less than twice the length of the first piece. Find the lengths
of the two pieces.
6. A twelve foot board is cut into two pieces such that the first piece is
five times the length of the second piece. Find the lengths of the two
pieces.
7. A twelve foot board is cut into three pieces such that the first piece is
one foot less than twice the length of the second piece, while the third
piece is one foot more than three times the length of the second piece.
Find the lengths of the three pieces.
8. A seventeen foot board is cut into three pieces such that the second
piece is one foot less than twice the length of the first piece, while the
third piece is two foot longer than the first piece. Find the lengths of
the three pieces.
9. The cook makes \$7, 000 more than the waitress. Together they make
\$57, 000. How much does each make?
10. The owner of a business earns twice as much as the secretary. Together
they make \$81, 000. How much does each make?
11. Opening a book to a random place, you notice that the left-hand and
right-hand page numbers add up to 297. What are the page numbers?

## 2.3. PROBLEM SOLVING

269

12. After buying two CDs, you notice that the second CD was \$5 more
than the first, while the two together cost \$29. How much did each
CD cost?
13. You bowl two games for a total score of 241. If your score for the
second game was nine points better, what did you bowl in each game?
14. After golfing eighteen holes, your total score is 86. If your score for
the front nine was four points higher than your score for the back nine,
how much did you shoot on each nine?

270

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

2.4

## Proportions and Conversion Factors

Ratios
Definition: A ratio is a quotient of two quantities.
You may see a ratio written in several different ways. The ratio of a to
b may be written:
a
, a to b, or a : b
b
We will prefer to write ratios as fractions, as fractions are easy to perform
mathematical operations on. For example, we have seen how to compare
two fractions (see page 118). This comes in handy as one common use of
ratios is to determine the better buy between two products.
Example 1. The local store sells salsa in two sizes: there is a 15 oz. jar
for \$1.35, and a 32 oz. jar for \$2.76. Which jar is the better buy?

## Solution 1. Right off the bat, we need to be a bit careful. We

wish to make ratios to compare, but if we just throw numbers
together, we might not be comparing the same things. To determine the better buy, we will make ratios of price per volume for
the two jars. We will leave the units on for the first step, to
make sure we have the fractions the right way round, but then
ignore them temporarily while we do the math. Anyway, we wish
to compare:
\$1.35 \$2.76
15 oz 32 oz
We could compare as we did back on page 118, but now that we
are using calculators, there is an easier way. Let us use the Fundament Principle of Fractions (version 2) and make equivalent
fractions by dividing each numerator and denominator by that
fractions denominator. So, for the 15 oz. jar:
1.35
15

1.35 15
15 15

0.09
1

271

2.76
32

2.76 32
32 32

0.08625
1

## This goes back to idea that it is easy to compare fractions if

they have the same denominator, but instead of making equivalent fractions with a denominator of the product or LCD of the
denominators, we make equivalent fractions with denominators
equal to 1. This is easy when we use a calculator and are unafraid
of ugly decimals.
So, how do we compare? Here we must ask ourselves what these
fractions represent, and this means going back and examining
the units. Our fractions here have units of price (dollars) per
amount (ounces), so these fractions are telling us how much it
costs for 1 ounce (this is called unit pricing). Hence, for the 15
ounce jar, we would be paying 9 cents per ounce, while for the
32 ounce jar we would be paying just under 9 cents per ounce.
Thus, the better buy is the 32 ounce jar.
Had we put ounces in the numerators and dollars in the denominators, then after making equivalent fractions with a 1 denominator, we would have seen how many ounces each would be giving
for 1 dollar, and the better buy would be the larger amount. As a
check, try making the fractions this way to see that the 32 ounce

Example 2. The same store sells coffee in two sizes: a 13 ounce jar for
\$2.75, and a 34 ounce jar for \$7.34. Which is the better buy?

## Solution 2. Again making equivalent fractions of price per amount,

we get that the 13 ounce jar is:
2.75
13

1.35 13
13 13

0.211538
1

272

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
While, for the 34 oz. jar:
7.34
34

7.34 34
34 34

0.215882
1

## Therefore, the better buy is the 13 ounce jar.

Proportions
Definition: A proportion is an equation which equates two ratios.
Therefore, a proportion is an equation of the form:
a
c
=
b
d
Notice that this is just a special case of an equation involving fractions,
which we have already seen. In general, we learned to clear the fractions by
multiplying every term by the LCD, but look at what happens here if we
multiply both fractions by the common multiple of the product:
a
b

c
d

bd a

1
b

bd c

1
d

6bd a

1
6b

b 6 d c

1
6d

da = bc
Thus, once we cleared the fractions, we ended up with each numerator being
multiplied by the other fractions denominator being equal. Since this is
always true (provided nothing is undefined!), this is considered a shortcut
to solving proportions.

## 2.4. PROPORTIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

273

Cross-multiplying:
To simplify a proportion, you may multiply each numerator by the
other denominator and set the products equal to each other.

## Be careful, though, cross-multiplying only works on proportions; i.e. a

single fraction equalling a single fraction. If there is another term, like a +7
say, you must go back to the general method of multiplying every term by
the LCD.
Proportions are useful anytime you know you want two ratios to represent the same amount. We recommend that you keep the units in the first
step to make sure you are setting up the ratios in the right way, drop the
units to do the math, and then make sure your final answer has the right
units again at the end. Let us see some examples:

Example 3. You have just invented a new recipe to enter in the local cooking
contest. As invented, the recipe calls for 2 cups of onions for three servings.
Contest rules state that the recipe must make four servings. How many cups
of onions must be used for the recipe to make four servings?

## Solution 3. Just as we did when solving general word problems,

we will start by defining our variable to be what we are looking
for:
x = cups of onions needed in recipe for four servings
Using our units to guide us, we set up the proportion:
2 cups onions
x cups onions
=
3 servings
4 servings

274

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Now we will cross-multiply and solve:
2
3

x
4

8 = 3x
8
3

x =

3x
3
8
3

2
Therefore, to make four servings, the recipe requires 2 cups of
3
onions.
1
Example 4. A recipe that makes 3 dozen peanut butter cookies requires 1
4
cups of flour. How much flour would you require for 5 dozen cookies?

## Solution 4. First we define our variable:

x = amount of flour for 5 dozen cookies
Set up the proportion:
=
1
x cups of flour
1 4 cups of flour
Now lets cross-multiply and solve:
3
5
4

5
x

3x =

5 5

1 4

3x =

25
4

3x
3

25 1

4 3

x =

25
12

## 2.4. PROPORTIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

275

1
Therefore, to make 5 dozen cookies, you need to use 2
cups
12
of flour.

Example 5. The driver at pump 2 filled her tank with 12.5 gallons of regular
unleaded gas for \$33. How many gallons of regular unleaded gas did the
driver at pump 6 get if his total was \$42.90?

## Solution 5. First we define our variable:

x = gallons of gas bought by driver at pump 6
Set up the proportion:
12.5 gallons
x gallons
=
33 dollars
42.9 dollars
Now lets cross-multiply and solve:
12.5
33

x
42.9

## 42.9 12.5 = 33x

536.25 = 33x
536.25
33

33x
33

x = 16.25
Therefore, the driver at pump 6 got 16.25 gallons of gas.

Example 6. Akron, OH is located approximately 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. An Ohio map represents this distance as 3 inches. On the
same map, Youngstown, OH is represented by approximately 11
20 of an inch
from the Pennsylvania border. How far is Youngstown, OH actually from
the Pennsylvania border?

276

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 6. First we define our variable:
x = distance Youngstown is from PA
Set up the proportion:
60 miles
x miles
= 11
3 inches
20 inches
Now lets cross-multiply and solve:
60
=
3
11 60

20 1

x
11
20

= 3x

33 = 3x
33
3

3x
3

x = 11
Therefore, Youngstown is 11 miles from the PA border.
Conversion Factors
Another use for ratios is conversion factors. Conversion factors relate a
measurement of one type to its equivalent measure of a second type (e.g.
inches and feet). When we write conversion factors as fractions (ratios), the
numerator and denominator are different ways of writing the same amount,
and thus are just fancy ways of writing the number one. Therefore, any multiplication (or division) we do with conversion factors are simply changing
units; the amount remains unchanged.
To start, we present two tables of conversion factors. The first deals with
the English system for length, conversions between English and metric for
length and weight (sort of), and time.

Length (English)
1 ft = 12 in
1 yd = 3 ft
1 mi = 5, 280 ft

Length or Weight
1 km 0.62 mi
1 in 2.54 cm
1 kg 2.2 lb

Time
1 min = 60 s
1 hr = 60 min
1 day = 24 hr

277

## The weight is actually incorrect in that kilograms (kg) are a measure

of mass, while pounds (lb) are a measure of weight. For people on the
surface of the Earth, mass and weight may be considered similar, and this
conversion is often used.
The other table we will present is a table for some of the metric prefixes.
The very nice property of the metric system is that all the conversion factors
are powers of ten. For example, 100 centimeters (cm) = 1 meter (m) and
1, 000 m = 1 kilometer (km), as opposed to the English system where 12
inches (in) = 1 foot (ft) and 5, 280 ft = 1 mile (mi). The U.S. has been
slow to adopt the metric system, but it is used often in the industrial and
medical fields.

Prefix
gigamegakilocentimillimicronano-

Symbol
G
M
k
c
m
or mc
n

Factor
1, 000, 000, 000
1, 000, 000
1, 000
0.01
0.001
0.000 001
0.000 000 001

The factor indicates how many of the base unit is equal to one of the
prefixed unit. For the really small factors, we included a break after every
three zeros to make the numbers easier to read. For example:

## 1. 1 megabyte = 1, 000, 000 bytes.

2. 1 microgram = 0.000 001 grams.

Note that we included two symbols for the prefix micro-: the Greek
letter mu, , and the English letters, mc. Mu is the official symbol, but the
mc is used as much as, if not more than, it - look at drug prescriptions, for
example. Also, note that small case versus upper case letters matter; mg
represents milligrams, while Mg represents megagrams.

278

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

In all of the following examples and exercises, we will use the conversions
listed in the two tables. If we ever need another conversion factor, it will be
listed in the example or exercise.
A typical conversion, no matter how it is done, will ultimately require
multiplication and/or division, but it can be hard to guess (based only on
intuition) which one and when. The following method for doing conversions
is simple and takes away the need for guess work!

## The Multiplication Method for Conversion Factors.

1. Make the number you are trying to convert into a fraction,
including units.
2. Plan out what changes you need to make, and find the appropriate conversion factors.
3. Set up each conversion factor so that the undesired units will
cancel away when multiplied by the conversion factor. You will
be able to cancel units just as you cancel common factors.
4. Do the final calculation.

Example 7. How much does a 200 pound man weight in kg? Round your
final answer to the nearest tenth.

200 lb =

200 lb
1

## Notice that the denominator is unitless. Now let us plan our

changes. Can we go directly from pounds to kilograms? Yes, we
have a conversion factor which lets us do this, so we will need
to only multiply by the one conversion factor. The big question
is which way do we write the conversion factor. Well, the pound
units, which we dont want, are in the numerator, so we need the

279

## pound units of our conversion factor to be in the denominator so

that the two units will cancel. Thus we get:
200 lb
200 6 lb 1 kg
=

90.9 kg
1
1
2.2 6 lb
Therefore, the man weighs 9.9 kg.

287 mcg =

287 mcg
1

## Now we ask ourselves, can we go directly from mcg to g? Yes, this

is a simple changing of a metric prefix to the base unit. When
doing metric conversions, the fancy prefix always gets a 1, while
the base unit gets the factor listed on the table. So:
287 mcg
287 6 mcg 0.000 001 g
=

= 0.000287 g
1
1
1 6 mcg

One-step conversions like the last two examples may also be done using proportions. However, when there are two or more conversions to be
accomplished, like the next three examples, it is generally best to use this
multiplication method.
Example 9. Convert 0.0000813 kilometers to millimeters.

## Solution 9. This conversion could be done in one step if you

are comfortable enough with the metric prefixes to do so, but we
will just use the conversion factors listed on the table, so we wish
to convert:
kilometers meters millimeters

280

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Each arrow represents a conversion factor. So, we get:
0.0000813 km =

0.0000813 6 km 1, 000 6 m
1 mm

1
1 6 km
0.001 6 m

= 81.3 mm

Example 10. The height of Mount Everest is 8, 848 meters. Find the height
of Mount Everest to the nearest foot.

## Solution 10. This is a conversion between the metric system

and the English system. Looking at our tables, we see that we
dont have a direct meter to feet conversion, so we will have to
use one of the two which are listed. Let us choose to use the 1
kilometer 0.62 mile conversion. Then, we need to convert:
m km mi f t
We get:
8, 848 m =

8, 848 6 m
1 6 km
0.62 6 mi 5, 280 f t

1
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km
1 6 mi

= 28, 965 ft

Example 11. The speed of sound in air is approximately 344 m/s. Find
the speed of sound to the nearest mi/hr.

## Solution 11. Units written with a slash / or with the word

per in them mean that the first part of the unit is in the numerator, while the other part is in the denominator. In some cases,
like this one, we may wish to convert both units. In that case,
figure out which conversions need to be done on the numerator
and which need to be done on the denominator. Here, for our
numerator, we wish to change:
m km mi

281

## while for the denominator:

s min hr
Therefore, we will need a total of four conversions. We will start
with the numerator:
344 6 m
1 6 km
0.62 mi
344 m/s =

1s
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km
If we would stop here, the units would be mi/s, which is not what
we want. Thus, we now need to convert the denominator.
344 m/s =
=

344 6 m
1 6 km
0.62 mi

1s
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km
344 6 m
1 6 km
0.62 mi 60 6 s 60 6 min

1 6s
1, 000 6 m 1 6 km 1 6 min
1 hr

= 768 mi/hr
Occasionally you may see units with powers. For example, a unit of area
is f t2 , or a unit of volume is m3 . To do the conversions in these cases, you
have two options:
1. write out the units as products rather than powers and apply the conversion factor as many times as is necessary to cancel all the undesired
units,
2. raise your conversion factor to the appropriate power to get a new
conversion factor for the higher power units.
We will do the following two examples both ways to illustrate:
Example 12. Convert 587 in2 to f t2 . Round your answer to the nearest
hundredth.

## Solution 12. First we will convert by changing in2 to in in.

587 in2 =

587 6 in 6 in 1 f t
1 ft

1
12 6 in 12 6 in

= 4.08 ft2

282

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

OR:
We notice that our units are squared, so we will square our conversion factor:
12 in = 1 f t = (12 in)2 = (1 f t)2 = 144 in2 = 1 f t2
Thus, we have a new conversion factor for the squared units:
587 in2 =

587 6 in2
1 f t2

1
144 6 in2

= 4.08 ft2

## Solution 13. Using the first method of changing the power to a

product:
0.045 m3 =

1 cm
1 cm
1 cm
0.045 6 m 6 m 6 m

1
0.01 6 m 0.01 6 m 0.01 6 m

## = 45, 000 cm3

OR:
We notice that our units are cubed, so we will cube our conversion factor:
1 cm = 0.01 m = (1 cm)3 = (0.01 m)3 = 1 cm3 = 0.000 001 m3
Thus, we have a new conversion factor for the squared units:
0.045 m3 =

0.045 6 m3
1 cm3

1
0.000 001 6 m3

283

## SECTION 2.4 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 386.)
1. Yogurt: 8 ounces for \$1.29 or 14 ounces for \$2.39.
2. Cereal: 45 ounces for \$3.49 or 64 ounces for \$4.69.
3. Eggs: 8 for \$0.59 or 12 for \$0.85.
4. Walnuts: 8 ounces for \$3.99 or 12 ounces for \$6.09.
All of the following may be solved using proportions or conversion factors.
5. A recipe for 36 cookies requires 2 cups of chocolate chips. How many
cups are requires for 90 cookies?
6. If 7 gallons of premium gasoline costs \$22.50, how much would it cost
to fill up with 16 gallons of premium gasoline? Round to two decimal
places.
7. If it takes 15 minutes to burn 6 CDs, how long will it take to burn 10
CDs?
1
8. A recipe which makes 4 dozen oatmeal raisin cookies requires 1 cups
2
of flour. How much flour is required to make 5 dozen cookies?
9. The architect has drawn up the blueprints for your new house. In the
1
drawing, inch represents 3 feet. The length of the house is 42 feet.
2
How many inches would this represent on the blueprint?
10. A family purchases 2 gallons of milk every 3 weeks. At this rate, how
many gallons of milk will the family purchase in a year (52 weeks)?
Round to the nearest whole gallon.
11. The weight of an object on the moon is proportional to its weight on
Earth. If a 144 pound woman weighs 24 pounds on the moon, what
would an 84 pound boy weigh on the moon?
12. The property tax for a home with an assessed value of \$145, 000 is
\$1, 373.88. What is the property tax for a home with an assessed
value of \$124, 000? Round to the nearest cent.

284

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

## 13. Convert 8, 365 mcm to cm.

14. Convert 2.3 mi to yd.
15. Convert 2000 m to mi.
16. Convert 90 km/hr to mi/hr.
17. Convert 200 m/s to mi/hr.
18. Convert 45 kg to lb.
19. Convert 0.15 m2 to mm2 .
20. Convert 36, 000 in3 to yd3 . Round to the nearest hundredth.

## 2.5. LINEAR INEQUALITIES

2.5

285

Linear Inequalities

## Definition: A linear inequality in one variable is an inequality that can be

written in one of the following forms:
ax + b < c,

ax + b c,

ax + b > c,

or ax + b c

## where a, b, and c are real numbers with a 6= 0. A solution of an inequality

in one variable is a number that makes the inequality true when all the
occurrences of the variable in the inequality are replaced with that number.
To solve an inequality means to find all of its solutions.
The solution of a linear inequality can be written in two different ways:
inequality or interval notation. Before we start solving linear inequalities,
we need to discuss these two different ways.
An inequality uses the inequality signs along with a number or numbers
which represent bounds for the solution. For example, x 3 represents all
of the real numbers less than or equal to 3. Here, 3 is considered an upper
bound of the solution.
Interval Notation may also be used to describe a set of numbers. For
interval notation, the bounds become endpoints. The interval always consists of an opening parenthesis or bracket, the lower endpoint (lower bound),
a comma, the upper endpoint (upper bound) and a closing parenthesis or
bracket. A parenthesis is used to denote that the endpoint is not included
in the interval; whereas, a bracket is used to denote that the endpoint is
included in the interval. It is important that the smallest endpoint be written on the left and the largest endpoint be written on the right. If there
is no smallest endpoint of the interval, we use the symbol (negative
infinity). The symbol is not a number, but indicates that the interval
continues indefinitely through all the negative real numbers. Likewise, if
there is no largest endpoint of the interval, we use the symbol (infinity).
Once again, is not a number, but is used to indicate that the interval
continues indefinitely through all the positive real numbers.
Example 1. Rewrite the following inequalities in interval notation.
1. x 7
2. 4 x < 9
3. x < 14
4.

4
5

<x

9
2

286

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

Solution 1. We get:
1. Notice that there is no largest endpoint and also that 7 is
included in the interval. Hence, the interval notation is
[7, )
2. Notice that 4 is included in the interval, while 9 is not
included in the interval. Therefore, the interval notation is
[4, 9)
3. Here there is no smallest endpoint, and 14 is not included.
So, the interval notation is (, 14)
4. Finally, 45 is the smallest endpoint but it is not included in
the interval. The largest endpoint is 92 and it
in
is included

## the interval. Thus, the interval notation is 54 , 92

The following chart summarizes various inequalities in interval notation.
Inequality

Interval Notation

x<b
xb
x>a
xa
a<x<b
ax<b
a<xb
axb

(, b)
(, b]
(a, )
[a, )
(a, b)
[a, b)
(a, b]
[a, b]

Solving a linear inequality in one variable is very similar to solving a linear equation in one variable with two exceptions. The Algebraic Expression
Tools dont change, as they only replace expressions with equivalent expressions, so it doesnt matter if the expressions are in an equation or in an
inequality. The Equation Tools, however, must be replaced with Inequality
Tools.

287

## The Inequality Tools

Inequality Tool 1
For any real numbers a, b and c,
If a < b then a + c < b + c.

Inequality Tool 2
Multiplicative Property of Inequality:
For any real numbers a, b and c, except c 6= 0.
1. If a < b and c > 0 then ac < bc.
2. If a < b and c < 0 then ac > bc.

## Before we comment, we also wish to convert the Important General

Equation Fact to an Important General Inequality Fact.

## Important General Inequality Fact:

If a < b then b > a.

288

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

In both of the Tools and the Fact, we started with a < sign, but these
rules may be used with >, and as well. The trick is to notice
whether the rule indicates that the sign needs to be flipped. Notice
that the additive property shows that you may add or subtract any
number to both sides of an inequality, and the inequality sign stays the
same. The multiplicative property shows that if you wish to multiply
or divide both sides of an inequality by a positive number, the sign
stays the same, BUT if you choose to multiply or divide both sides of
an inequality by a negative number, the inequality sign flips. The fact
indicates that if you ever wish to switch the left side for the right side,
Other than the two cases where you may have to flip the sign, we will
solve a linear inequality by following the exact same rules as we used
to solve a linear equation. In fact, we can say that the only step which
will differ is step 5. Here is where you need to be careful when the
coefficient of x is a negative number, to remember to flip the sign.

## Solving Linear Inequalities

As mentioned, we will be using the same steps to solve linear inequalities
as we did to solve linear equations (see page 245). We only have to worry
about flipping the sign if we decide to switch the LHS and RHS, or when
we get to step 5 and the x-coefficient is negative.
Let us see some examples. Note that for inequalities, we will always wish

## 2.5. LINEAR INEQUALITIES

289

keeping in mind the two cases where we need to flip the sign):
3(2x 4)
6x 12
6x 12 15x
9x 12
9x 12 + 12
9x

<
<
<
<
<
<

5(3x 1)
15x 5
15x 15x 5
5
5 + 12
7

9x
9

>

7
9

x >

7
9

## Therefore, the solution set is 79 ,

In the last example, note that we did need to switch the sign when we
divided both sides of the equation by 9.
By the way, if you wish to check your solution, you may of course check
your work, but you can also do a rough check by picking a value for x in the
interval and making sure this value of x makes the initial inequality true,
and picking a value for x outside the interval and making sure this value of
x makes the initial inequality false. For example, if you try x = 0 in the
original inequality in the last example, you will get 12 < 5 which is true
X; whereas if try x = 1 in the original inequality, you will get 18 < 20
which is false X. This is only a rough check as notice if we made a minor
mistake and the answer should have been:

5
,
9
instead, those same two check values would still give the same results since
0 is in this new interval and 1 is not. Still, this rough check is usually easy
to do (you will often be able to choose integers for the test values), and it
will catch some mistakes like forgetting to flip your inequality sign.
Example 3. Solve 5 2(3x + 1) 4x + 3

290

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 3. Following the rules for solving a linear equation (but
keeping in mind the two cases where we need to flip the sign):

5 2(3x + 1)
5 6x 2
6x + 3
6x + 6x + 3
33
0
10x

4x + 3
4x + 3
4x + 3
4x + 6x + 3
10x + 3 3
10x
0

10x
10

0
10

x 0

## Therefore, the solution set is (, 0]

Here, we prefer to have the x-terms on the left eventually, but we had
originally taken the x-terms to the right side in order to keep the coefficient
on the x-term positive. Hence, at one point we simply switched the sides of
the inequality (along with the inequality sign).

Example 4. Solve

x
1
(x + 5) + 1
3
2

291

## first, we will distribute:

x 5
+
3 3

x
+1
2

6 x 6 5
+
1 3 1 3

6 x
+61
1 2

2x + 10
2x 3x + 10
x + 10 10
x

3x + 6
3x 3x + 6
6 10
4

x
1

4
1

x 4
So, the solution set is [4, ).

## Compound Linear Inequalities

Not every linear inequality has a left and right hand side only. In fact,
some consist of three parts left hand side, middle, and right hand side (we
saw a couple of these when we introduced interval notation). The example,
2 < x 5, is considered to be a compound inequality (also called a double inequality) because it is the combination of two inequalities. Namely,
2 < x 5 says that 2 < x AND x 5 at the same time. To solve a three
part, or compound inequality, we need to isolate the variable in the middle
part (as opposed to the left-hand side as we did before). The Algebraic Expression Tools dont change, but the additive and multiplicative properties
of inequalities need to be generalized for compound inequalities. Instead of
adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing both sides by a number, you
now must do the same operation on all three parts.

## Example 5. Solve 9 < 3 (2x + 1) < 21

292

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 5. Following our rules:
9
9
9 3
12
12
6

< 3 (2x + 1)
<
6x + 3
< 6x + 3 3
<
6x

<
<
<
<

21
21
21 3
18
18
6

<

6x
6

<

2 <

< 3

## So, the solution set is (2, 3)

It is standard to write compound inequalities as lower bound < x <
upper bound, so that it matches interval notation. If the inequality signs
go the other direction, you need to flip the inequality around (remember to
flip inequality signs as well). For example 5 > x > 3 3 < x < 5.
You should NEVER write a compound inequality with a mix of signs. For
example, 5 > x < 8 is nonsense.
Example 6. Solve 5 2 (4 3x) < 16

5
5
5 8
13

2 (4 3x)

8 6x
8 8 6x

6x

<
<
<
<

16
16
16 8
8

>

8
6

13
6

6x
6

13
6

>

4
3

<

6

4
3

13
6

293

## In three part inequalities, we can still eliminate fractions by multiplying

every term in all three parts by the LCD.

Example 7. Solve 3

2x + 1
9
3

its plus sign:
3

2x + 1
3

2x 1
+
3
3

33

3 2x 3 1

+
1 3
1 3

9
91
8

2x + 1
2x + 1 1
2x

8
2

2x
2

13

39
27
27 1
26
26
2

## So the solution set is [4, 13]

Applications
Linear inequalities also arise in application problems.
Example 8. Jill scored an 88, 94, and 82 on her first three math tests. An
average of at least 90 will earn her an A in the course. What does Jill need
to score on her fourth and final test to earn an A in the course?

294

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
Solution 8. Let x = Jills fourth test score.
Then since her average needs to be at least a 90, we have
88 + 94 + 82 + x
4

88 + 94 + 82 + x
4(90) 4
4
360 88 + 94 + 82 + x
90

360 264 + x
360 264 264 + x 264

multiply by 4

simplify
subtract 264

96 x
[96, )
Therefore, in order for Jill to receive an A in the course, she
must score at least a 96 on the fourth test.

Example 9. The local grocery store rents carpet cleaners for \$25 plus \$5.50
per hour. If Chrissy can spend no more than \$80 to clean her carpets, how
long can she rent the carpet cleaner? (Assume all portions of an hour are
prorated.)

## Solution 9. Let x = the number of hours carpet cleaner is

rented.
This means that her cost for renting the carpet cleaner is given
by 25 + 5.5x. Therefore,
25 + 5.50x 80
25 + 5.50x 25 80 25
5.50x 55
55
5.50x

5.50
5.50
x 10

subtract 25

divide by 5.50

hours.

295

## SECTION 2.5 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 386.)
Rewrite the following inequalities in interval notation.
1. 3 x

4. 3 x

2. 2 < x 8

5. x

3. x < 7

6. 14 x

11
2

3
4

Solve each linear inequality. Give the solution set in interval notation.
7. 3x 7 5x + 3
8. 7x + 8 4 3x
9.

1
2
x+3 x4
2
3

10. 4(x 3) + 5 9 + 2x
11. 3 + 2x > 5 + 3(2x 7)
12. 2(5x 4) 3(6x + 2)
13. 7(2x 1) + 4 < 3(4x + 3)
14. 4x + 6(5 2x) 4(3 5x) + 7
15.

2
7
(10x 1) (6x + 5)
5
3

## 16. 4(2x 3) + 7 > 3(2x 5) 9(3x 2)

2
1
17. (x 7) + (3x 4) 3
3
6

296

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

## 18. 2(4 + 7x) 7 + 6x 5 9x

19. (9 + 2x) 5 + 4x 4 + 5x
1
3
20. (x + 6) + (2x 5) < 10
4
2
21. 4 3x 5 7
22. 3 < 5(4 3x) 12
23. 7 3(2x 5) < 10
24. 2

15 6x
<5
5

25. 2

4 + 5x
<6
7

26.

4
2
(2x 3) < 5
3
5

27. The Jones Family is renting a van for their 7 day family vacation.
Auto Depot rents minivans for \$35 per day and \$0.02 per mile. Car
Zone rents the same minivan for \$43 per day with no additional charge
for mileage. How many miles would the Jones Family need to drive
for the the Car Zone rental to be the cheapest?
28. You are offered two different real estate positions. Job 1 pays \$250
per week plus a 6% commission on sales. Job 2 pays 9% commission
only. What do the average weekly sales need to be in order for Job 1
to be the better deal?

## 2.5. LINEAR INEQUALITIES

297

29. The local parking garage calculates the cost for parking using the
formula c = 0.50 + 1.25h where c is the cost in dollars and h is the
number of hours parked rounded to the next highest integer.
(a) When will the cost be \$5.50?
(b) When will the cost be more than \$12.00?
(c) When will the cost be less than \$9.00?

298

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA

Chapter 3

3.1

## In a previous chapter, we solved linear equations in one variable. Recall

that a solution of an equation in one variable is a number that makes the
equation true when the variable is replaced by that number. For an equation
having two variables, two numbers will be required for a solution, one for
each variable.
Example 1. (a)
Determine whether x = 2 and y = 3 is a solution of
the equation 3x + y = 9.
(b)

3x + y = 9.

Solution 1.
(a)
equation we have

## Substituting x = 2 and y = 3 into the

3(2) + (3) = 9
?

6+3=9
9 = 9X
Since the substitution results in a true statement, x = 2 and
y = 3 is a solution to 3x + y = 9.
299

300

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

(b) Substituting x = 3 and y = 2 into the equation we
have
?

3(3) + 2 = 9
?

9+2=9
11 6= 9
Hence, x = 3 and y = 2 is not a solution to 3x + y = 9.

We see from Example 1 that in a solution of an equation with two variables, it is important to be careful about which number replaces which variable. So we say that a solution of an equation in two variables is a pair
of numbers, one number assigned to each variable, such that the equation
is true when each occurrence of a variable in the equation is replaced by its
assigned number. We can keep things organized by establishing an order for
the variables. This allows us to abbreviate a solution of an equation in two
variables as an ordered pair of numbers, that is, two numbers in a particular order, written (a, b), where a is the first number and b is the second.
Using ordered pairs, we know from Example 1 that (2, 3) is a solution of
3x + y = 9 while (3, 2) is not.

1
Example 2. Determine whether , 3 is a solution of 5y = 7 14x.
2

1
5(3) = 7 14
2
15 = 7 + 7
15 6= 14.

## Hence, 21 , 3 is not a solution to 5y = 7 14x.

Examples 1 and 2 are examples of a special kind of equation in two
variables called linear equations. We will see some nonlinear later in this
section. A linear equation in two variables is an equation that can be
written in the form
ax + by = c

## 3.1. CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM

301

where a, b and c are real numbers such that a and b are not both zero. If
a and b are both not zero, it is easy to fill in a missing component of an
ordered pair so that it becomes a solution of the linear equation as the next
example illustrates.
Example 3. Given 3x 2y = 7 complete the following ordered pairs to find
a solution to the given equation.

5
(a) (1, ?)
(b)
?,
2

Solution 3.
(a) We start by replacing x with 1 and
solve for y. This yields
3(1) 2y = 7
3 2y = 7
2y = 10
y = 5.
Hence, the ordered pair solution is (1, 5).
(b) This time, we start by replacing y with
x. This yields

5
3x 2
=7
2
3x 5 = 7

5
2

## and solve for

3x = 12
x = 4.
Hence, the ordered pair solution is

5
4,
.
2

In the previous example we solved for the missing coordinate in an ordered pair solution. However, suppose that we were interested in solving for
the missing term in several ordered pair solutions. Instead of writing each
ordered pair, we could organize them in a chart or table.
Example 4. Given 2x 4y = 3, complete the following table.

302

x
2
0

y
1
2
0

## Solution 4. We begin by substituting the given value into the

specified variable. Therefore, replacing x with 2 we get
2(2) 4y = 3
4 4y = 3
4y = 1
1
y= .
4
1
When y = , we obtain
2

1
= 3
2
2x 2 = 3

2x 4

2x = 1
1
x= .
2
For x = 0, we have
2(0) 4y = 3
4y = 3
3
y=
4
Finally, replacing y with 0, we get
2x 4(0) = 3
2x = 3
3
x= .
2
Thus, the table of solutions becomes

x
2

y
14

12
0

1
2
3
4

32

303

## Suppose we now wanted to plot the solutions to a linear equation in two

variables. We will need to have two axes one for the x variable and another
for the y variable. Together these axes will form the Rectangular Coordinate System, or Cartesian Coordinate System.
The horizontal
axis is the xaxis and the vertical axis is the yaxis. These two axes divide
the xyplane into four quadrants and the intersection of the two axes is
called the origin and is denoted (0, 0). See the following diagram.
y
4

x < 0, y > 0

x > 0, y > 0

2
1
4

x < 0, y < 0

2
3

x > 0, y < 0

## To plot an ordered pair on the Cartesian coordinate system we start

at the origin and move the number of places determined by the x and y
coordinates. For example, to plot (2, 4), starting at the origin, we move 2
units to the left, and then four units up on a line parallel to the yaxis, as
illustrated in the following diagram.

304

y
(2, 4)

4
3
2
1

## Example 5. Plot the following points on the same set of axes:

A = (2, 3), B = (2, 3), C = (1, 4), and D = (1, 5).

Solution 5.
y
6

6
tD

5
4

tB

3
2
1

6 5 4 3 2 1

1
2

tA

C t3
4
5
6

## The next example is a prelude to graphing linear equations in Section 3.2.

Example 6. Find 3 solutions of y = 3x + 1 and plot them.

## Solution 6. As with Example 4, we will organize our results in a

table. However, unlike Example 4, we are not provided with any
coordinates. Hence we choose any number for either x or y and
solve for its corresponding coordinate. Consider the following:

## 3.1. CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM

x
1

305

0
1
To finish the problem, we substitute each of these values into x
and solve for the corresponding yvariable.
If x = 1, then

y = 3(1) + 1 = 3 + 1 = 2.

If x = 0, then

y = 3(0) + 1 = 0 + 1 = 1.

If x = 1, then

y = 3(1) + 1 = 3 + 1 = 4.

x
1

y
2

4

y
6s

3
2
1

4 3 2 1

s
0

-x

s2
3
4

## In the previous example, we randomly chose numbers for x and solved

for their corresponding yvalues. We could also have chosen values for y
and solved for their corresponding xvalues. Furthermore, we could also
have chosen many different values of both x and y and complete the ordered
pairs.

306

## Solution 7. Instead of organizing our results in a table, let us

consider a few ordered pairs to complete. For this example, consider (0, ), ( , 0), and (3, ). Hence, substituting the values
in for the correct variable we see that
when x = 0,

2(0) + 3y = 6

3y = 6 or

y=2

when y = 0,

2x + 3(0) = 6

2x = 6 or

x=3

2(3) + 3y = 6

3y = 12 or

y=4

when x = 3,

Hence, three solutions for 2x + 3y = 6 are (0, 2), (3, 0), and
(3, 4). The following graph shows these solutions plotted on
the same set of axes.
s

y
6

3
2

4 3 2 1

s -x
3 4

1
2
3
4

Notice in the previous two examples that the three solutions appear to lie
in a straight line. Will this always happen when we graph a linear equation
in two variables? Yes, but this will be discussed in Section 3.2. For our final
examples, we turn our attention away from linear equations in two variables.
Example 8. Find four solutions of y = 2x2 1 and plot them.

## Solution 8. Consider the following ordered pairs (0, ), (1, ), (2, ),

and (1, ). Substituting the values in for the correct variable we

## 3.1. CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM

307

see that
when x = 0,

y = 2(0)2 1 = 0 1 = 1

when x = 1,

y = 2(1)2 1 = 2 1 = 1

when x = 2,

y = 2(2)2 1 = 8 1 = 7

when x = 1,

y = 2(1)2 1 = 2 1 = 1

Hence, four solutions of y = 2x2 1 are (0, 1), (1, 1), (2, 7),
and (1, 1). Therefore, when we plot them we obtain
y
t
6

5
4
3
2

t1

6 5 4 3 2 1

t
0

t
1

2
3
4
5
6

Note that for the first time, the solutions do not lie in a straight line.
What is different between the equation given in the above example compared
to the two previous examples? If you said the exponent, you are right.
Let us consider another example whose graph is not a straight line. Can
you see the difference in this example?
Example 9. Find four solutions of x2 + y 2 = 4.

## Solution 9. We start by considering the following ordered pairs:

(0, ) and ( , 0). We see that
when x = 0,
when y = 0,

(0)2 + y 2 = 4
2

x + (0) = 4

= y 2 = 4
2

= x = 4

or y = 2
or x = 2.

308

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

Hence, we have four solutions; namely, (0, 2), (0, 2), (2, 0),
and (2, 0). When we plot these four solutions on the same axes
we obtain
y
6
4
3
2

4 3 2 1

0
1
2

t
2

-x

3
4

## In a later course it will be discussed that x2 + y 2 = r2 is the equation

of a circle centered at the origin with radius r. Hence, x2 + y 2 = 4 is the
circle centered at the origin with radius 2. For our last example, recall that
the absolute value of a, denoted |a|, is the distance a number is from zero
on the real number line.
Example 10. Find five solutions of y = |x| + 3 and plot them

## Solution 10. We will consider the following ordered pairs:

(0, ), (1, ), (1, ), (2, ), and (2, ). Hence,
when x = 0,

y = |0| + 3 = 3

when x = 1,

y = |1| + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

when x = 1,
when x = 2,
when x = 2,

y = | 1| + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4
y = |2| + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5
y = | 2| + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5

t

309

y
t
t 46 t
3t
2
1

4 3 2 1

-x

1
2
3
4

## SECTION 3.1 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 388.)
1. Determine whether x = 3 and y = 2 is a solution of 4x 2y = 16.
2. Determine whether (3, 1) is a solution of 5x + 3y = 12

1
3. Determine whether 2,
is a solution of 3x + 4y = 4.
2
4. Determine whether (2, 1) is a solution of 5x + 3y = 7.
5. Complete the following ordered pairs to find solutions of 5x 2y = 9.
(a) (4, )

1
,
(b)
2

(c) (0, )
(d) ( , 0)

## 6. Complete the following ordered pairs to find solutions of 7x + 3y = 8.

2
(a) ( , 1)
(c)
,
7

1
(d)
,
(b) (2, )
3
7. Complete the following ordered pairs to find solutions of
6x + 5y = 7.
(a) (0, )
(b) (2, )

(c) ( , 1)

2
(d)
,
5

310

(a) ( , 0)
(b) (4, )

1
4
x + y = 2.
2
3

(c) ( , 6)

1
(d)
,
2

x
1

1
4

x
0

3
1
2

y
2
4

2
3

6
x
0

y
2

32
5
x

y
3

4
25

311
x

y
2

0
1
4

## 15. Plot the following points on the same coordinate plane:

1
A = (3, 1), B = (5, 3), C =
, 4 , D = (2, 5)
2
16. Find three solutions of y = 5x 1 and plot them.
17. Find three solutions of 2x + 4y = 8 and plot them.
18. Find three solutions of 6y = 5x + 2 and plot them.
19. Find three solutions of y = 3x2 + 2 and plot them.
20. Find four solutions of x = y 2 + 3 and plot them.
21. Find four solutions of x2 + 4y 2 = 16 and plot them.
22. Find four solutions of x2 + y 2 = 25 and plot them.
23. Find five solutions of y = 3|x| 2 and plot them.
24. Find five solutions of y = 2|x 1| + 3 and plot them.
25. Find five solutions of y = 2|x + 1| + 3 and plot them.

312

3.2

## Graphing Linear Equations

Now that we know how to find the solutions of a equation, we want to discuss
the graph of a linear equation in two variables. The graph of a equation
is the set of all ordered pairs (x, y) that are a solution to the equation. The
graph of a linear equation in two variables will always be a straight line.
In Section 3.1, we were able to find the solutions of a linear equation. To
complete the graph, we connect these solutions with a straight line. It is
true that two points determine a line; therefore, it is necessary to find two
solutions in order to graph the line. However, it is recommended that a
third point be graphed as a check point.
Example 1. Graph x + 2y = 1 by plotting points.

## Solution 1. We begin by finding three solutions of x + 2y = 1.

If we let x = 0, we get
0 + 2y = 1
2y = 1
1
y= .
2
If we let x = 1, we find that
1 + 2y = 1
2y = 0
y = 0.
Finally, if we let x = 1, we obtain
1 + 2y = 1
2y = 2
y = 1.

## Therefore, 0, 12 , (1, 0), and (1, 1) are solutions of x + 2y = 1.

Graphing these three points on a common set of axes and connecting them with a straight line, we obtain the following graph
of x + 2y = 1.

4

H
Y
HH

y
6

3
2

HHs 1
HsHs

4 3 2 1
0 H
1 2 3 4 x
HH
1
HH
j
2
3
4

## Solution 2. We begin by finding three solutions of 3x 2y = 6.

If we let x = 0, then
3(0) 2y = 6
2y = 6
y = 3.
So, (0, 3) is a solution of our equation. If we let y = 0, then
3x 2(0) = 6
3x = 6
x = 2.
Thus, (2, 0) is also a point on the graph. Finally, if we let y = 3,
then
3x 2(3) = 6
3x 6 = 6
3x = 12
x = 4.
So, a third point on the graph is (4, 3). If we plot (0, 3), (2, 0),
and (4, 3) on a common set of axes and connect them with a
straight line, we obtain the following graph of 3x 2y = 6.

313

314

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

4

y
6

s 4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x

1
2
s
3

?
3

In the previous example, (0, 3) is the y-intercept and (2, 0) is the xintercept of 3x 2y = 6. The x-intercept is the point where the graph
crosses the x-axis. Likewise, the y-intercept is the point where the graph
crosses the y-axis. How can we identify the x-intercept(s) and y-intercept(s)
without graphing? Well, all the points on the x-axis can be written as ordered pairs (x, 0). Therefore, in order to find the x-intercept of an equation,
we let y = 0 and solve for x. Likewise, all the points on the y-axis can be
written as ordered pairs (0, y). So, to find the y-intercept, we let x = 0 and
solve for y. These results are summarized below.

## Finding x-intercepts and y-intercepts of a graph

To find the x-intercept: Let y = 0 and solve for x.
To find the y-intercept: Let x = 0 and solve for y.

Since only two points determine a line, instead of finding arbitrary solutions of a linear equation, we can also graph a linear equation by finding the
x-intercept and y-intercept and connecting them with a straight line. We
illustrate this in the next example.
Example 3. Find the x-intercept and y-intercept of 5x + 2y = 10, and
graph.

315

## equation and solve for x. Thus,

5x + 2(0) = 10
5x = 10
x = 2.
To find the y-intercept we substitute x = 0 into the equation and
solve for y. This gives us
5(0) + 2y = 10
2y = 10
y = 5.
Therefore, (2, 0) is the x-intercept and (0, 5) is the y-intercept.
Plotting both of these on a common set of axes and connecting them with a straight line, we obtain the following graph of
5x + 2y = 10.
y

L6
5Lt
L
4
L
3
L
L
2
1

5 4 3 2 1

0
1
2
3
4
5

L
L

Lt
L2
L

L
L

L
L
L

316

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

Solution 4. First, we will find the y-intercept by letting x = 0.
This gives us
3(0) + 4y = 12
4y = 12
y = 3.
To find the x-intercept, we let y = 0. This gives us
3x + 4(0) = 12
3x = 12
x = 4.
Therefore, (4, 0) is the x-intercept and (0, 3) is the y-intercept.
Plotting both of these on a common set of axes and connecting them with a straight line, we obtain the following graph of
3x + 4y = 12.
y
>
6

3t

2
4

t
4 3 2 1

1
0

-x

1
2
3
4

Although the two previous examples were easily graphed using the intercepts, relying solely on the intercepts for graphing linear equations can
lead to a problem. Consider the following example.
Example 5. Find the intercepts of 3x 5y = 0 and graph.

x. This yields
3x 5(0) = 0
3x = 0
x = 0.

317

## To find the y-intercept, we let x = 0 and solve for y. Thus,

3(0) 5y = 0
5y = 0
y = 0.
Therefore, we find that (0, 0) is both the x-intercept and the yintercept. Therefore, it would be impossible to graph this line
using only the intercepts. We will finish by finding two additional
points. If we let x = 5, we find
3(5) 5y = 0
15 5y = 0
5y = 15
y = 3.
So, (5, 3) is a point on the graph. If we let y = 3, then
3x 5(3) = 0
3x + 15 = 0
3x = 15
x = 5.
Thus, (5, 3) is an additional point on the graph. Plotting
(0, 0), (5, 3), and (5, 3) and connecting them with a straight
line, we obtain the following graph of 3x 5y = 0.
y
5

t
""

"

"

"

1
5 4 3 2 1

"

t
"

"0

"

"

"

"t"

"

"

1
2
3
4
5

"

318

## In the previous example, we were able to avoid graphing any solutions

containing fractions by choosing appropriate x and y values. However, it can
sometimes be difficult to see which values of x and y will avoid fractions.
To help with this, it is sometimes better to rewrite the linear equation by
solving for y first. This is illustrated in the next example.
Example 6. Graph 3x 2y = 4.

## 6. Note that for this linear equation the x-intercept is

Solution

4
3 , 0 which can be difficult to graph. In order to try to avoid
fractions, we first solve the equation for y obtaining
3x 2y = 4
2y = 3x + 4
3
y = x 2.
2
Now we see that in order to avoid fractions we must choose values
of x that are divisible by 2. So, if we let x = 0, we obtain
3
y = (0) 2
2
y = 2.
If we let x = 2, we obtain
3
y = (2) 2
2
y = 3 2
y = 5.
Finally, if we let x = 2, we obtain
3
y = (2) 2
2
y =32
y = 1.
Therefore, (0, 2), (2, 5), and (2, 1) are points on the graph.
Plotting these points and connecting them with a straight line,
we obtain the following graph of 3x 2y = 4.

## 3.2. GRAPHING LINEAR EQUATIONS

y
5

319

1
t

2 1
0
1 2 3 4
1

t
2

3
4
t 5

?
3

5 4 3

Solving a linear equation for y places the equation in the form y = mx+b
which is called the slope-intercept form of a linear equation. This will be
discussed in Section 3.4.
Example 7. Graph 2x + 3y = 9.

## Solution 7. First, we solve the equation for y to obtain

2x + 3y = 9
3y = 2x + 9
2
y = x + 3.
3
So, in order to avoid fractions, we will choose values of x that
are divisible by 3. If x = 0, then
2
y = (0) + 3
3
y = 3.
If x = 3, then
2
y = (3) + 3
3
y =2+3
y = 5.

320

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

Finally, if x = 3, then
2
y = (3) + 3
3
y = 2 + 3
y = 1.
Therefore, (0, 3), (3, 5), and (3, 1) are all points on the graph.
Plotting these and connecting them with a straight line we obtain
the following graph of 2x + 3y = 9.
y
QQt
k
Q

Q3 t
Q
Q
2

Qt
QQ
s

5 4 3 2 1

1
2
3
4
5

Plotting points or using the intercepts are not the only ways a linear
equation can be graphed. In Section 3.4, we will discuss graphing a line
using a point and the slope.

321

## SECTION 3.2 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 391.)
Find the intercepts of each graph. Write answers as ordered pairs.
1.

4.
y
6
4

y
6
4

1 0
4 3 2

X
y

XX2
4 3
0 1 2 3 4 x
X1
XXX
1
XXX
X
z
2

4 x

2
3
4

3
4

2.

5.
y
6
4
J
]
J3
2J
1 J
J

4 3 2 1
0 1 J2 3 4 x
J
1
J
2
^
J
3
4

y
6

3
2
1

4 3 2 1

-x

1
2

? 3
4

3.

6.
y
46

y
46

*
4 3 2 1
0 1 2
3
4 x

4 3 2 1

0
1
2
3
4

-x
4

322

7.

2x y = 4

14.

2x + 3y = 10

8.

y + 3x = 6

15.

4x 5y = 12

9.

4x + 2y = 8

16.

6x 5y = 3

10.

3x 6y = 6

17.

8x 2y = 4

11.

2x + 5y = 4

18.

7x + 3y = 2

12.

3x 4y = 4

19.

6x 3y = 5

13.

3x 5y = 1

20.

9x + 2y = 11

21.

x+y =3

27.

3x 4y = 12

22.

2x y = 6

28.

3x 6y = 6

23.

x + 3y = 6

29.

4x + y = 4

24.

2x y = 4

30.

2x 3y = 6

25.

y + 3x = 6

31.

3x 2y = 12

26.

4x + 2y = 8

32.

5x 2y = 10

33.

y = 2x 4

41.

y = 3x

34.

y = 3x + 2

42.

y=x

35.

y = 13 x 2

43.

3x y = 4

36.

y = 32 x + 2

44.

2x + 3y = 9

37.

y = 32 x 2

45.

4x + y = 3

38.

x=3

46.

6x 2y = 4

39.

y = 2

47.

x + 3y = 5

40.

y = 2x

48.

4x 3y = 2

## 3.3. FUNCTION NOTATION

3.3

323

Function Notation

## Each of the nonvertical lines graphed in Section 3.2 is an example of a

function. A function f is a process that takes each element of a set A and
transforms it into a unique element of another set B. The elements of A are
the input and the elements of B are the output. Since a function assigns to
each input a unique output, you can think of the output as being dependent
on the input. Therefore, we call the input of a function the independent
variable and the output the dependent variable.
In the previous section we graphed linear equations in two variables x
and y. The ordered pairs (x, y) can be thought of as
(independent variable, dependent variable)
or (input, output).
Because functions are important in mathematics is is vital to be able to
represent when a relationship is a function. To use the x and y variables
that we have used before, we could say that
y is a function of x.
This can be transformed into
y is f of x.
Using function notation, this becomes y = f (x). The symbol f (x), read f
of x, is called the value of the function at x and is equated with the
variable y. In other words, we write y = f (x). So, the exercise y = 2x + 4
from the previous section, can be written as f (x) = 2x + 4 using function
notation. It is important to note here that f (x) does NOT mean f times x.
Instead, it means f evaluated at x.
Example 1. Suppose the cost C, in dollars, of producing x beach balls is
given by C(x) = 2x + 300.
(a) Identify the independent variable (input).
(b) Identify the dependent variable (output).
(c) Find the cost of producing 50 beach balls. Write answer using function
notation.
(d) Find C(25), and interpret its meaning in the context of the problem.

324

## Solution 1. (a) The independent variable is x beach balls

(b) The dependent variable is cost C, because cost depends on
the number of beach balls.
(c) To find the cost of producing 50 beach balls, we substitute
50 in for x in C(x) = 2x + 300. Therefore,
C(50) = 2(50) + 300 = 100 + 300 = 400.
So, the cost of producing 50 beach balls is \$400.
(d) To find C(25), we substitute 25 into x to get
C(25) = 2(25) + 300 = 50 + 300 = 350.
Therefore, the cost of producing 25 beach balls is \$350.
Example 2. Suppose a car travels at a rate of 65 miles per hour. The
distance D, in miles, that the car has traveled after t hours is given by
D(t) = 65t.
(a) Identify the independent variable (input).
(b) Identify the dependent variable (output).
(c) Find the distance traveled after 3 hours. Write answer using function
notation.
(d) Find D(2.5), and interpret its meaning in the context of the problem.

## Solution 2. (a) The independent variable is time t.

(b) The dependent variable is the distance D traveled, because
the distance depends on the number of hours t.
(c) To find the distance traveled in 3 hours, we replace t with
3 to get
D(3) = 65(3) = 195 miles.
(d) To find D(2.5), we substitute 2.5 for t to get
D(2.5) = 65(2.5) = 162.5.
Therefore, the distance traveled in 2.5 hours is 162.5 miles.

## 3.3. FUNCTION NOTATION

325

Example 3. The profit P (in dollars) from the production and sale of golf
hats is given by the function P (x) = 20x 4000, where x is the number of
hats produced and sold.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) What is P (250)? Interpret this result.
(d) What is the profit from the production and sale of 450 hats? Write
this in function notation.

## Solution 3. (a) The independent variable is x, the number of

hats produced and sold.
(b) The dependent variable is P , since the profit depends on the
number of hats sold.
(c) To find P (250), we substitute 250 in for x to obtain
P (250) = 20(250) 4000
= 5000 4000
= 1000.
Therefore, a profit of \$1000 is made from the production
and sale of 250 golf hats.
(d) To find the profit from the production and sale of 450 hats,
we substitute 450 in for x to obtain
P (450) = 20(450) 4000
= 9000 4000
= 5000.
Thus, the production and sale of 450 hats yields a \$5000
profit.
Now that we can identify the input and output values, let us turn our
attention to evaluating a function using function notation. Remember, the
independent variable serves as a placeholder.

326

## Example 4. If f (x) = 3x + 4, find

(a) f (0)

(b) f (1)

(c) f (2)

Solution 4. (a) To find f (0), we replace the independent variable x with 0 to get
f (0) = 3(0) 4
= 4
(b) To find f (1), we replace the independent variable x with 1
obtaining
f (1) = 3(1) 4
=34
= 1
(c) Finally, to find f (2), we replace the independent variable
x with 2 which yields
f (2) = 3(2) 4
= 6 4
= 10

## In Section 3.2 we graphed linear equations in two variables. The function

f (x) = 3x + 4 in the previous example, is a linear equation where y has been
replaced by the function notation f (x). The values of the function found
in the previous example, f (0) = 4, f (1) = 1, and f (2) = 10, refer
to the ordered pairs (0, 4), (1, 1), and (2, 10). Graphing these three
points we would obtain the graph of the given function.
Although this chapter is restricted to discussing linear functions, not all
functions are linear. The following example is a quadratic function that
will be discussed in Core Mathematics III.
Example 5. The height of a rocket is measured by the function
H(t) = 16t2 + 120t + 80,
where H is measured in feet and t is time in seconds.

327

## (a) Identify the independent variable.

(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Evaluate H(1) and interpret what it means in the context of the problem.
(d) Determine the height of the rocket at 4 seconds. Write answer using
function notation.

## Solution 5. (a) The independent variable is t measured in seconds.

(b) The dependent variable is H because the height of the rocket
depends on the time.
(c) To find H(1) we replace the independent variable t with 1
obtaining
H(1) = 16(1)2 + 120(1) + 80
= 16 + 120 + 80
= 184.
Since H(1) = 184, this means that the height of the rocket
at 1 second is 184 feet.
(d) To find the height of the rocket at 4 seconds, we replace the
independent variable t with 4 to get
H(4) = 16(4)2 + 120(4) + 80
= 16(16) + 480 + 80
= 256 + 480 + 80
= 304
Thus, the height of the rocket at 4 seconds is 304 feet.

328

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

SECTION 3.3 EXERCISES
(Answers are found on page 396.)

## 1. The sales tax, in dollars, due on an item costing x dollars is given by

S(x) = 0.065x.
(a) Determine the independent variable.
(b) Determine the dependent variable.
(c) Find S(12) and interpret in the context of the problem.
(d) Find the sales tax due on a DVD costing \$20. Write answer in
function notation.
2. Suppose a car travels at a rate of 55 miles per hour. The distance D,
in miles, that the car has traveled after t hours is given by D(t) = 55t.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find the distance traveled after 2 hours. Write answer using
function notation.
(d) Find D(3), and interpret its meaning.
3. The area of lawn A, in square yards, remaining to be mowed after h
hours spent mowing is written as A(h) = 1500 300h.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find A(2) and interpret it in the context of the problem.
(d) Find the area of lawn remaining after 4 hours spent mowing.
4. The local plumbing company charges C, in dollars, is given by the
function C(t) = 45t + 50, where t is the number of hours on the job.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Evaluate C(2) and interpret what it means in the context of the
problem.
(d) Determine charges if the plumber is on the job for 3 hours. Write

## 3.3. FUNCTION NOTATION

329

5. The manager of a flea market knows from past experience that if she
charges d dollars for each rental space at the flea market, then the number N of spaces she can rent is given by the equation
N (d) = 4d + 200.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find N (10) and interpret it in the context of the problem.
(d) Find the number of spaces the manager can rent if she charges
\$20 for each rental space. Write answer using function notation.
6. A company buys and retails baseball caps. The total cost function is
linear and is given by C(x) = 12x + 280, where x is the number of
baseball caps, and C is the total cost in dollars.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find C(400) and interpret it in the context of the problem.
(d) Find the cost of buying 350 baseball caps. Write answer using
function notation.
7. The profit P (in dollars) from the production and sale of Christmas
ornaments is given by the function P (x) = 15x 1200, where x is the
number of ornaments produced and sold.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) What is P (200)? Interpret this result.
(d) What is the profit from the production and sale of 350 ornaments?
Write this in function notation.
8. A small appliance manufacturer finds that if he produces x microwaves
in a month his production cost C, in dollars, is given by
C(x) = 6x + 3000.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find C(150) and explain what it means.

330

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

(d) Find the cost of producing 75 microwaves in a month and write
this in function notation.

## 9. The revenue R, in dollars, from selling x computer is given by the

function R(x) = 1500x.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find R(8) and explain what it means.
(d) Find the revenue from selling 10 computers and write this in
function notation.
10. The water level W , measured in feet, in a reservoir is given by the
function W (t) = 5t + 30, where t is the number of years since the
reservoir was constructed.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Find W (4) and explain what it means.
(d) Find the water level 7 years after the reservoir was constructed.
11. The perimeter P , measured in meters, of a garden with fixed length
14 meters is given by P (w) = 28 + 2w, where w is the width of the
garden in meters.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Evaluate P (12) and interpret what it means in the context of the
problem.
(d) Determine the perimeter of the garden if the width is 20 meters.
12. The local phone companys monthly bill is calculated using the function A(m) = 0.09m + 5.25, where A is the monthly cost in dollars, and
m is the number of minutes of phone usage.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.

331

## (c) Evaluate A(100) and interpret what it means in the context of

the problem.
(d) Determine the monthly bill if the phone usage was 250 minutes.
13. The height of a rocket is measured by the function
H(t) = 16t2 + 40t + 100,
where H is measured in feet and t is time in seconds.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Evaluate H(2) and interpret what it means in the context of the
problem.
(d) Determine the height of the rocket at 3 seconds. Write answer
using function notation.
14. The area of a rectangle A, in square feet, is measured by the function
A(w) = w2 + 8w, where w is the width of the rectangle measured in
feet.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Evaluate A(4) and interpret what it means in the context of the
problem.
(d) Determine the area of the rectangle if the width is 2 feet. Write
15. The area of a square A, in square meters, is measured by the function
A(s) = s2 , where s is the length of the side of the square measured in
meters.
(a) Identify the independent variable.
(b) Identify the dependent variable.
(c) Evaluate A(10) and interpret what it means in the context of the
problem.
(d) Determine the area of a square with a side measuring 13 meters.

332

(a) f (1)

(b) f (2)

(c) f (4)

(b) A(10)

(c) A(15)

(b) D(10)

(c) D(2)

1
(b) h
4

(c) h

(b) g(3)

(c) g(2)

(b) P (2)

(c) P (0)

(b) s(2)

(c) s(5)

1
(b) C
2

1
(c) C
2

1
(b) P
2

(c) P (5)

## 17. If A(w) = 12w, find

(a) A(1)
18. If D(t) = 25t, find
(a) D(2)
19. If h(x) = 16x, find

1
(a) h
2

1
8

## 20. If g(x) = 4x 2, find

(a) g(0)
21. If P (n) = 12n + 35, find
(a) P (10)
22. If s(t) = 2t + 3, find
(a) s(0)
23. If C(x) = 4x 3, find
(a) C(1)

(a) P (13)

333

(a) h(1)

(b) h(7)

(c) h(4)

(b) Q(2)

(c) Q(6)

(b) F (2)

(c) F (1)

(b) G(2)

(c) G(1)

(b) g(2)

(c) g(0)

(b) f (2)

(c) f (0)

## 26. If Q(w) = 2 |w + 3|, find

(a) Q(5)
27. If F (p) =

1
+ 2, find
p

(a) F (1)
1
28. If G(v) = 4 , find
v
(a) G(1)
29. If g(x) = x2 4, find
(a) g(3)
30. If f (x) = x2 + 4, find
(a) f (3)

334

3.4

Slope

## An important part of a line is how much it slants or its steepness. The

slope of a line measures its steepness. The slope, denoted by m, measures
the vertical change and the horizontal change as we move along the line.
The vertical change, also called the rise, is the difference between the ycoordinates. Therefore, rise is an up and down change. The horizontal
change, also called the run, is the difference between the x-coordinates.
Thus, run is a left and right change.
If the coordinates of two points on the line are known, we can use the
slope formula to find the slope of the line.
Slope formula: The slope of the line through the points (x1 , y1 )
and (x2 , y2 ) is given by
m=

y2 y1
change in y
rise
y1 y2
=
=
=
x1 x2
x2 x1
change in x
run

Note that it does not matter if you start with y1 or y2 in the numerator.
Example 1. Find the slope of the line passing through (1, 3) and (5, 2).

## Solution 1. Using the slope formula, we obtain

m=
=

y2 y1
x2 x1
2 3
5 (1)

5
6

Therefore, the slope of the line passing through (1, 3) and (5, 2)
5
is m = .
6

3.4. SLOPE

335

Example 2. Find the slope of the line passing through (9, 2) and (5, 5).

## Solution 2. Using the slope formula, we obtain

m=

y2 y1
x2 x1

52
5 (9)

3
4

So, the slope of the line passing through (9, 2) and (5, 5) is
3
m= .
4

3 1
1
, 3 and , .
Example 3. Find the slope of the line passing through
2
4 5
Solution 3. Although some of the coordinates are fractions, we
still substitute the given information into the slope formula. This
yields
m=

y2 y1
x2 x1
1
(3)
5
3 1

4 2

16
5
5

=
=
Thus, the slope is m =

64
.
25

16
4

5
5

64
.
25

336

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

What if we want to find the slope of a line where we are given the graph.
We can still use the slope formula if we first identify two points on the
rise
line. However, we can also find the slope by reviewing slope as
. Both
run
methods will be illustrated in the next example.
Example 4. Determine the slope of the following line.
y
O4CC6
3C
C
2
C
1 C

4 3 2 1

0
1

C1
C
C

-x

3
4

C
CW

## Solution 4. To use the slope formula we will identify two points

on the line. Note that (1, 0) and (2, 4) are two points on this
line.
y
O4CC6
3C
C
2
C
1 C

4 3 2 1

0
1
2

-x

3
4

Cr
C1
C
C

Cr
C
CW

Using the slope formula with (1, 0) and (2, 4), we obtain
m=

4 0
4
y2 y1
=
=
= 4.
x2 x1
21
1

## We can also find the answer to this problem by viewing slope as

rise
. Starting at (1, 0), we note the number of units and the
run

3.4. SLOPE

337

direction we travel in order to get to the second point we identified as (2, 4). Therefore, we travel 4 units down, so the rise is
4. Then we travel 1 unit to the right, so the run is 1. Thus,
rise
4
=
= 4.
m=
run
1
Example 5. Determine the slope of x = 2.

## Solution 5. If we graph the line x = 2, we get the vertical line

shown below.
4

y
6

3
2

4 3 2 1

0
1
2

-x

3
4

Therefore, since (2, 1) and (2, 1) are points on this line, we can
use the slope formula to find the value of the slope. Hence,
m=

y2 y1
x2 x1

1 1
22

2
0

2
is undefined, we find that the slope of x = 2 is undeSince
0
fined.
In the last example, we found that the slope of the vertical line x = 2 was
undefined. In fact, the slope of every vertical line x = a is undefined. Is the
same true for a horizontal line? The next example answers this question.

338

## Solution 6. If we graph the line y = 3, we get the horizontal

line shown below.

y
6
r

2
1

4 3 2 1

-x

1
2
3
4

Therefore, since (1, 3) and (1, 3) are points on this line, we can
use the slope formula to find the value of the slope. Hence,
m=

y2 y1
x2 x1

33
1 1

0
2

= 0.
Thus, the slope of y = 3 is zero.
In fact, the slope of every horizontal line y = b is zero. The equation of
vertical and horizontal lines will be discussed in Section 3.5.
We have seen examples of lines with positive slope, negative slope, zero
slope, and undefined slope. The following table summarizes information
concerning the slope of a line.

3.4. SLOPE

339

## If the slope is positive (m > 0), then the line slants up %

If the slope is negative (m < 0), then the line slants down &
If the slope is zero (m = 0), then the line is horizontal
If the slope is undefined, then the line is vertical

The slope formula is useful when we know two points located on the line.
What if we are given the equation of the line? We could use the equation
to locate two points on the line, and then use the slope formula as in the
previous examples. However, we could also use the slope-intercept form
of the line to identify the slope and y-intercept.
Slope-intercept form: The slope-intercept form of an equation
with slope m and yintercept b is given by
y = mx + b.

When identifying the slope and yintercept using the slope-intercept form,
remember to divide each term by the coefficient on y. The slope and
yintercept can only be identified once you have isolated y.
Example 7. Identify the slope and the yintercept of each line.
(a) 3x 2y = 6

(b) 5x + 10y = 3

## Solution 7. (a) In order to identify the slope and y-intercept,

we need to solve the equation for y. This gives us
3x 2y = 6
2y = 3x + 6
3
y = x 3.
2

340

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

Next, the slope is the coefficient on x and the y-intercept is
3
the constant term. Therefore, m = and the y-intercept is
2
(0, 3).
(b) Solving for y, we get
5x + 10y = 3
10y = 5x 3
5
3
y = x
10
10
1
3
y = x .
2
10
1
Therefore, m = and the y-intercept is
2

3
0,
.
10

Now we return to graphing a linear equation. However, instead of graphing it by plotting points we will use the slope and y-intercept to graph the
line.
Example 8. Graph 3x 2y = 6 by finding the slope and y-intercept.

## Solution 8. To find the slope and y-intercept of 5x 2y = 6,

we first must solve for y. So,
5x 2y = 6
2y = 5x + 6
5
y = x3
2
5
The slope of this line is and the y-intercept is (0, 3). To graph
2
the line using the slope and y-intercept we plot the y-intercept
rise
5
and then think of slope as
= . Since the rise is 5 and the
run
2
run is 2, we start at the y-intercept and rise 5 units up and run
2 units to the right. This gives us a second point on the graph;
namely, (2, 2). Connecting these with a straight line, we obtain
the following graph of 5x 2y = 6.

3.4. SLOPE

341
y
6
5
4
3
2
1

5 4 3 2 1

2
t
3

The advantage the above method has for graphing a line is that it does
not require the equation of the line in order to graph it.

through (3, 2).

1
and which passes
2

## Solution 9. In order to graph this by plotting points, we would

first need to find the equation of the line. However, we can graph
this line using just the slope and the given point. First, we plot
rise
1
(3, 2). Again, viewing the slope as
= , we see that the
run
2
rise is 1 and the run is 2. Therefore, starting at (3, 2), we go 1
unit down and 2 units to the right. Therefore, we end at (5, 1).
Connecting these two points with a straight line we obtain

342

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

y
5

HH
Y
H

4
HH

HH
HHt
H

3
2
1

5 4 3 2 1

HHt
H
H
j
4

1
2
3
4
5

1
In the previous example, the slope was . We know that
2
1
1
1
=
=
.
2
2
2
1
? No, but we will get
2
a different second point. To see this, the rise is now 1 so we rise one unit
up, and the run is 2 so we go 2 units to the left from the given point (3, 2).
Therefore, the second point would be (1, 3). Therefore, a different second
point but still the same line as shown below.
y
Will we get a different line if we view the slope as

HH
Y
H

4
HH
3
2
1

5 4 3 2 1

Ht
HH
HtH
H

0
1
2
3
4
5

HH
H
j
5

3.4. SLOPE

343

Next, let us consider parallel and perpendicular lines. Parallel lines are
two lines in the same plane that never intersect. Two lines are perpendicular lines if they intersect to form a 90 angle. However, since graphs can
be deceiving, can we tell if two lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither,
without graphing them? The next two facts give us the answer.
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
Parallel lines have the same slope. So, m1 = m2 .
Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal slopes. In other
words, m1 m2 = 1.

Example 10. Determine whether the following lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither.
3x 5y = 10

and

5x + 3y = 7

## Solution 10. First, we will rewrite each line in slope-intercept

form. Once in this form, the slope is the coefficient on x. Solving
each equation for y yields

3x 5y = 10
5y = 3x + 10
3
y = x2
5

m=

3
5

5x + 3y = 7
3y = 5x + 7
5
7
y = x+
3
3
m=

5
3

3
5
Since
= 1, the two lines are perpendicular.
5
3

344

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

Example 11. Determine whether the following lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither.
2x + 5y = 9

and

6x + 15y = 3

## Solution 11. Again, we rewrite each line in slope-intercept form.

Solving for y gives us

2x + 5y = 9
5y = 2x 9
2
9
y = x
5
5
m=

6x + 15y = 3

2
5

15y = 6x + 3
6
3
y = x+
15
15
1
2
y = x+
5
5
m=

2
5

Since the slopes are identical, the two lines are parallel.

## SECTION 3.4 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 399.)
Graph the line that satisfies the following conditions.
1. m = 2 and passing through (1, 1).
2. m = 3 and passing through (4, 3).
3. m = 1 and passing through (2, 3).
4. m = 1 and passing through (1, 0).
5. m =

1
and passing through (3, 1).
2

3.4. SLOPE

345

6. m =

1
and passing through (4, 2).
2

7. m =

2
and passing through (0, 2).
3

8. m =

5
and passing through (0, 4).
2

9. m =

3
and passing through (1, 3).
2

10. m =

3
and passing through (2, 1).
4

Calculate the slope of the line passing through the given points.

1
11. (3, 4) and (2, 1)
, 2
19. (1, 4) and
2
12. (7, 6) and (4, 3)

1
1
13. (2, 7) and (2, 4)
20.
, 1 and , 3
2
2
14. (2, 3) and (4, 5)

1
2
15. (7, 1) and (5, 1)
21.
4,
and 2,
3
3
16. (5, 3) and (7, 4)

## 17. (4, 1) and (3, 6)

1 1
1 1
,
and ,
22.
2 4
4 2
18. (5, 2) and (7, 4)
Calculate the slope and y-intercept (do not graph).
23.

3x + 2y = 10

29.

3x + 5y = 4

24.

7x + 3y = 12

30.

7x 9y = 1

25.

14x 6y = 6

31.

5x + 2y = 13

26.

21x + 6y = 0

32.

3x 4y = 9

27.

18x + 12y = 1

33.

4x 3y = 9

34.

2x + 5y = 6

28.

8x 10y = 12

346

35.

38.

y
KAA 4 6
A3
A2
1A
A

4 3 2 1

y
46
3
2
1

A1
A

0
1

4 3 2 1

A
AU

y
6
4

4
=

?
y
QQ4 6
k
Q
3

>

4 x

1
4 3
2
+

2
3

-x

3
4

40.
4

4 3 2 1

39.

-x

37.

y
46

4 3 2 1

36.

4 x

y
6

QQ
s
-x
4

2
1

H
Y
4
2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x
H3
HH 1
HH
2
H
3 HH
H
j
4
?

3.4. SLOPE

347

41.

42.
y
46

4 3 2 1

1 2

0
1
2

-x

4 3 2 1

-x

0
1

y
6

? 4

## Determine if the following lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither.

43.

y = 23 x 7 and y = 32 x + 2

48.

y = 12 x 7 and y = 2x + 3

44.

y = 17 x + 8 and y = 7x 2

49.

3x 4y = 2 and 4x + 3y = 1

45.

y = 2x 1 and y = 2x + 3

50.

2x 6y = 3 and x 3y = 4

46.

y = x and y = x

51.

47.

y = 4 and x = 2

52.

348

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

3.5

Equations of Lines

Finally, we are ready to find the equation of a line. We have already noted
that a linear equation in two variables can be written as ax + by = c where
a, b, and c are real numbers and a and b cannot both be zero. This form,
ax + by = c, is called the general form of a line.
In order to find the equation of any line (that is not horizontal or vertical) we will always need two items: the slope and a point on the line. Once
we have these two items, we need to use either the slope-intercept form
or the point-slope formula to find the equation of the line. Although we
have already discussed the slope-intercept form, it is stated here again for
convenience.

## Slope-intercept form: The slope-intercept form of an equation

with slope m and yintercept b is given by
y = mx + b.

## Point-slope formula: The equation of the line with slope m and

passing through (x1 , y1 ) can be found using
y y1 = m(x x1 ).

Either formula can be used to solve for the equation of a line. The next
example illustrates the use of each formula.
Example 1. Find the equation of the line with slope m = 3 and which
passes through (5, 2).

## Solution 1. We will illustrate how to find the equation of this

Here, m = 3 and (x1 , y1 ) = (5, 2). Substituting these values

349

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y (2) = 3(x 5)
y + 2 = 3x + 15
y = 3x + 13

## To use the slope-intercept formula, we know that m = 3, x = 5,

and y = 2. Substituting these values into the slope-intercept
formula, and solving for b, we get
y = mx + b
2 = 3(5) + b
2 = 15 + b
13 = b
Now, that we have the value of b, we substitute the value of m
and b into the slope-intercept form to get y = 3x + 13 as the
equation of the given line.

## The answer to Example 1 could also be written in general form as

3x + y = 13. However, we will write all answers using slope-intercept form
because of its ease in identifying the slope and y-intercept.
Both the point-slope formula and the slope-intercept formula can be
used to find the equation of a line. However, remember that with the slopeintercept formula, you must first find the value of b. So, the slope-intercept
formula finds the equation of the line indirectly.
Example 2. Find the equation of the line with m =
(1, 2).

3
4

350

mula. Here, m =

3
4

## and (x1 , y1 ) = (1, 2). Thus,

y y1 = m(x x1 )
3
y 2 = (x (1))
4
3
3
y2= x+
4
4
11
3
y = x+
4
4

In order to use either the slope-intercept formula or the point-slope formula, we need to know the slope and a point on the line. However, what if
we know only two points on the line? Well, this means that we first need to
find the slope of the line by using the slope formula from Section 3.4.
Example 3. Find the equation of the line passing through (2, 3) and
(4, 5).

Solution 3. First, we must find the slope of the line. The slope
formula gives us
m=

5 3
8
4
=
=
.
4 (2)
6
3

## Next, we substitute all known information into the point-slope

formula to get
y y1 = m(x x1 )
4
y 3 = (x (2))
3
4
8
y3= x
3
3
1
4
y = x+ .
3
3
Example 4. Find the equation of the line passing through (7, 2) and has
a yintercept at 3.

351

## Solution 4. First, we must find the slope of the line. Remember

that a yintercept at 3 translates to the ordered pair (0, 3). Using
the slope formula on (7, 2) and (0, 3), we get
m=

23
y2 y1
1
1
=
=
=
x2 x1
7 0
7
7

## Since we know that m = 17 and the y-intercept b = 3, we use the

slope-intercept formula to get
y = mx + b
1
y = x+3
7
Example 5. Find the equation of the line which has an xintercept at 2
and a yintercept at 4.

Solution 5. Since the line has an x-intercept at 2 and a yintercept at 4, this means that the line passes through (2, 0)
and (0, 4). Substituting these values into the slope formula gives
m=

40
4
y2 y1
=
= =2
x2 x1
0 (2)
2

## Again, we know m = 2 and the y-intercept b = 4, so using the

slope-intercept formula gives
y = mx + b
y = 2x + 4.
In Section 3.4 we found that the slope of a vertical line is undefined and
the slope of a horizontal line is zero. For a every point on the graph of a
vertical line, the x-coordinate is the same. Therefore, every vertical line
has the equation x = a where a is some constant. Likewise, every point on
the graph of a horizontal line has exactly the same y-coordinate. Therefore,
every horizontal line has the equation y = b where b is some constant.
These results are summarized below.

352

## Vertical and Horizontal Lines

Vertical Lines always have the equation x = c, for some constant c. For example, the equation of the vertical line through
(a, b) is x = a.
Horizontal Lines always have the equation y = c, for some
constant c. For example, the equation of the horizontal line
through (a, b) is y = b.

Example 6. Find the equation of the vertical line through (6, 3).

## Solution 6. Recall that all the x-coordinates on a vertical line

are the same. Since this line passes through (6, 3), the xcoordinate must be 6. Hence, the equation of the line is x = 6

2
,4 .
7

## Solution 7. Since all the y-coordinateson ahorizontal line are

2
, 4 , the y-coordinate
the same and this line passes through
7
must be 4. Hence, the equation of the line is y = 4.
Finally, we discuss finding the equation of parallel and perpendicular
lines. In Section 3.4, it was noted that two lines are parallel if their slopes
are equal and the lines are perpendicular if their slopes are negative reciprocals.
Example 8. Find the equation of the line parallel to the 2x 3y = 10 and
which passing through (8, 3).

Solution 8. First you need to find the slope of the line 2x3y =
10 by placing it in slope-intercept form. Solving for y, we obtain

## 3.5. EQUATIONS OF LINES

353

2x 3y = 10
3y = 2x + 10
2
10
y = x
3
3
2
Therefore, the slope of the given line is m = . Since we need
3
a line parallel to this one, the slope of the line we need is also
2
2
m = . Substituting m =
and (x1 , y1 ) = (8, 3) into the
3
3
point-slope formula, we obtain
y3=

2
(x + 8)
3

16
2
y3= x+
3
3
2
25
y = x+ .
3
3

## Example 9. Find the equation of the line perpendicular to 2x + 3y = 8

passing through (1, 4).

## Solution 9. First, we need to find the slope of the given line by

placing it in slope-intercept form. Solving for y we get
2x + 3y = 8
3y = 2x + 8
2 8
y= + .
3 3
2
Therefore, the slope of this line is m = . Since perpendicular
3
lines have negative reciprocal slopes, the slope of the line perpen3
3
dicular to 2x + 3y = 8 is m = . Now, substituting m = and
2
2

354

## CHAPTER 3. GRAPHING AND LINES

(x1 , y1 ) = (1, 4) into the point-slope formula gives
y y1 = m(x x1 )
3
y 4 = (x (1))
2
3
y 4 = (x + 1)
2
3
3
y4= x+
2
2
3
11
y = x+ .
2
2

Example 10. Find the equation of the line passing through (1, 4) which
is perpendicular to the line passing through (2, 3) and (4, 2).

Solution 10. First, we must find the slope of the line passing
through (2, 3) and (4, 2) using the slope formula. This yields
m=

y2 y1
32
1
1
=
=
= .
x2 x1
24
2
2

## Therefore, the slope of the line perpendicular to this one is m =

2. Using the point-slope formula with m = 2 and (x1 , y1 ) =
(1, 4) we get
y y1 = m(x x1 )
y 4 = 2(x (1))
y 4 = 2(x + 1)
y 4 = 2x + 2
y = 2x + 6.
In terms of vertical and horizontal lines, a vertical line is parallel to
another vertical line. Similarly, a horizontal line is parallel to another horizontal line. Furthermore, a vertical line is perpendicular to a horizontal line
and vice versa.

## 3.5. EQUATIONS OF LINES

355

Example 11. Find the equation of the line parallel to x = 3 and passes
through (9, 5)

## Solution 11. We know that x = 3 is a vertical line, and one

vertical line is parallel to another vertical line. Therefore, the
line that we are looking for is the vertical line through (9, 5).
Therefore, the line we are looking for is x = 9.

(1, 5).

## Solution 12. We know that y = 2 is a horizontal line and a

vertical line is perpendicular to a horizontal line. Therefore, we
are looking for the vertical line through (1, 5). The equation is
x = 1.

## SECTION 3.5 EXERCISES

(Answers are found on page 401.)
Find the equation of each line. Write answers in slope-intercept form.
1.

2.

y
AKA 4 6
A3
A2
1A
A

4 3 2 1

4
3
2
1

A1 2
A
A
A

0
1
2
3
4

y
6

-x

4 3 2 1

A
AU

=
?

>

4 x

1
2

356

3.

6.
y
kQ4 6
Q
Q
3

4 3 2 1

QQ
s
-x

4 3 2 1

y
6

4.

-x

7.
y
46

AK
A

-x

1
2

3
4

5.

1
A

A
4 3 2 1
0 1
A
1
A
A 2
A 3
A 4
AU ?

4 3 2 1

y
6

-x

8.

@
I
@

y
46

y
46

4 3 2 1

1
0

@1
@
2
@
3
4

-x

4 3 2 1

0
1

@
R
@

-x

## 3.5. EQUATIONS OF LINES

9.

357
10.

y
6 46

AK
A

3
2
1

4 3 2 1

-x

4 3 2 1

A2
A1
A
0

? 4

y
6

A1
A
A

-x

A
AU

Find the equation of the line having the following properties. Write answers
in slope-intercept form.
11. m = 4 and passing through (3, 2).
12. m =

1
and passing through (6, 12).
3

## 13. m = 6; passing through (2, 2)

14. m = 8; passing through (1, 5)
1
15. m = ; passing through (5, 6)
2
2
16. m = ; passing through (8, 9)
3
17. Passing through the points (5, 1) and (10, 7).
18. Passing through the points (7, 5) and (7, 11).
19. passing through (3, 2) and (5, 6)

358

## 20. passing through (6, 2) and (8, 8)

21. passing through (1, 3) and (2, 5)
22. passing through (2, 3) and (1, 1)

1 1
,
2 3

## 24. vertical line through (0, 2)

25. horizontal line through (1, 4)

1
26. horizontal line through 4,
3

7 1
27. vertical line through
,
3 2
28. parallel to y = 5, through (1, 2)
29. perpendicular to y = 5, through (1, 2)
30. perpendicular to x = 3, through (2, 5)
31. parallel to x = 7, through (5, 2)
32. Passing through (5, 4) and parallel to y = 15 x 8.
33. Passing through (11, 4) and perpendicular to y =

11
4 x

+ 3.

359

## 35. Passing through (8, 22) and parallel to y = x.

36. parallel to the line 2x 3y = 10, passing through (8, 3)
37. perpendicular to the line 2x 3y = 10, passing through (8, 3)
38. parallel to 3x 4y = 5, through (2, 3)
39. perpendicular to 2x + 3y = 8, through (1, 4)
40. perpendicular to 2x y = 7, through (8, 5)
41. parallel to x + 2y = 10, through (2, 2)
42. parallel to 3x + 4y = 10, through (2, 0)
43. perpendicular to 3x + 5y = 2, through (1, 3)
44. passing through (2, 1), parallel to the line passing through (0, 4) and
(2, 9)
45. passing through (4, 2), parallel to the line passing through (1, 3)
and (3, 2)
46. passing through (3, 1), perpendicular to the line passing through
(4, 2) and (0, 6)
47. passing through (3, 5), perpendicular to the line passing through
(2, 1) and (3, 2)

360

Appendix A

## Real Number Operations

This appendix is a summary of what to do when you are adding, subtracting,
multiplying or dividing two real numbers. In all the following cases, we will
assume you are operating on two numbers of the same type (both fractions,
both decimals, etc.), and neither number is zero (since a zero in addition,
subtraction and multiplication is easy, while a zero in division is either easy
or undefined). Hence, if you wish to multiply a fraction and a decimal,
change the fraction to a decimal first (or the decimal to a fraction). The
only exceptions are if you are adding or subtracting a mixed number to
either an integer or a proper fraction. This is covered in section 1.8 under
the shortcuts for mixed number addition and subtraction.
If the numbers you are adding are:
fractions (either proper or improper).
1. Find the LCD of the denominators.
2. Make both fractions have the LCD for a denominator by creating
equivalent fractions.
3. Combine into a single fraction over the common denominator.
4. Add the numbers in the numerator (usually integers) according
to the appropriate rules.

361

362

## integers, mixed numbers or decimals.

1. Consult the Sign Rules for Addition Table to see whether your
scratch work should involve addition or subtraction.
2. Either add or subtract the absolute value of the numbers as indicated by the Table in step 1, and following the appropriate rules
for the type of numbers.
3. Make the sum have the appropriate sign.

If the numbers are both positive, or both negative:
1. Add the absolute values of the numbers.
2. The sum should have the same sign as the two addends
did originally.
If one number is positive and one is negative:
1. Subtract the larger absolute value minus the smaller absolute value.
2. The sum should have the same sign as the original sign of
the number with the larger absolute value.

Subtraction
If the numbers you are subtracting are:
fractions (either proper or improper).
1. Find the LCD of the denominators.
2. Make both fractions have the LCD for a denominator by creating
equivalent fractions.
3. Combine into a single fraction over the common denominator.
4. Subtract the numbers in the numerator (usually integers) according to the appropriate rules.

363
integers, mixed numbers or decimals AND the two numbers are both
positive with the larger number first.
1. Subtract as appropriate for the type of number.
integers, mixed numbers or decimals AND one or both of the numbers
is negative or they are both positive but the smaller number is first.
1. Change the minus sign to a plus sign, and change the number
following the sign to its opposite.

Multiplication
If the numbers you are multiplying are:
mixed numbers.
1. Change the mixed numbers to improper fractions.
2. Multiply as listed below.
integers, fractions or decimals.
1. Multiply the absolute values of the numbers as appropriate for
the type of numbers.
2. Make the product have the proper sign as listed under the Sign
Rules for Multiplication Table.

## Sign Rules for Multiplication

If the numbers are both positive, or both negative, the product
is positive.
If one number is positive and one is negative, the product is
negative.

364

## APPENDIX A. REAL NUMBER OPERATIONS

Division
If the numbers you are dividing are:
mixed numbers.
1. Change the mixed numbers to improper fractions.
2. Divide as listed below.
integers, fractions or decimals.
1. Divide the absolute values of the numbers as appropriate for the
type of numbers.
2. Make the quotient have the proper sign as listed under the Sign
Rules for Division Table.

## Sign Rules for Division

If the numbers are both positive, or both negative, the quotient
is positive.
If one number is positive and one is negative, the quotient is
negative.

Appendix B

Multiplying or Dividing
Mixed Numbers
When adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing mixed numbers, you may
always convert the mixed numbers into improper fractions. For addition and
subtraction, however, we showed in section 1.8 shortcuts for adding and
subtracting mixed numbers. When we went on to section 1.9, we did not
list any such shortcut for multiplication or division of mixed numbers. In
this appendix, we will examine what the shortcuts would be, and why they
are never used.
Multiplication
Recall that the shortcuts arise from remembering the plus sign in the
mixed number. We will put the plus signs back in, and then simplify. The
following work is a bit beyond what you need to know at this point, but if you
remember how to FOIL from high school, you can follow along. Otherwise,
just take our word for the work, and see what the shortcut would be.

Example 1. Multiply 2 12 1 51

Solution 1. We will ignore the signs for the moment, and just
365

## 366 APPENDIX B. MULTIPLYING OR DIVIDING MIXED NUMBERS

multiply the absolute values of the mixed numbers:

2 12 1 15 = 2 + 12 1 + 51
1
5

1
2

= 21+2
= 2+

2
1

1
5

= 2+

2
5

1
2

1
2

1+

1
2

1
5

1
10

1
10

## So the shortcut would be to multiply the two integers, multiply the

two fractions, and multiply each integer times the other fraction
and add it all together. Of course we dont want to leave our
answer like this, so we will find the LCD, make all the fractions
2 21 1 15

= 2+

2
5

1
2

1
10

2
5

1
2

1
10

2
1

210
110

20
10

20+4+5+1
10

30
10

22
52

4
10

+
5
10

15
25

1
10

1
10

= 3
Multiplying a negative number times a positive number gives a
negative number.
Therefore, 2 21 1 15 = 3
Compare this to example 11 on page 155 to see why no one in their right
mind uses this shortcut.
Division
The shortcut for division is even further beyond the scope of this book,
but follow along the best you can.

367
Example 2. Divide 2 14 3 13

2 14 3 13

2+
3+

1
4
1
3

## This is a complex fraction. To simplify, we will multiply the

big numerator and big denominator by the LCD of all the little
fractions.

2 + 14 12
1
1

24 33 =
3 + 13 12
=

24 + 3
36 + 4

27
40

Compare this example to example 12 on page 155, and again you will
see why it is much better to just change the mixed numbers to fractions.

## 368 APPENDIX B. MULTIPLYING OR DIVIDING MIXED NUMBERS

Appendix C

Chapter 1
Section 1.2 (Exercises on page 33.)
1. 8

15. 0

2. 22

>

16. 11

3. 5

17. 25

<

52

18. 34

34

19. 9

10

20. 2

<

4. 18
5. 56

>

6. 19
7. 33

7
43

19

8. 14

9. 197

197

10. 3

>

11. 12

12

12. 7

21. 206

54

22. 34
23. 16
24. 0
25. 28
26. 17

27. 45

13. 3

28. 91

14. 15

13

29. 73
369

<

10
<

370

30. 22

51. (5)

31. 52

52. | 3|

32. 17

53. 0

33. 8

54. (8)

>

34. 0

55. | 6|

|6|

56. | 12|

>

|12|

35. 102
36. 1
37. 13
38. 37
39. 22

>

| 4|

57. | 3|

|0|

|3|

58. (23)
59. |0|

>

60. |13|

| 5|

(20)

| 1|

| 2|

40. 9
41. 2
42. 2
43. 9
44. 7

61. (14)
62. | 45|

12
(45)

63. 0

| 0|

64. 17

| 17|

65. | 8|

<

46. 3

66. 1

<

(1)

47. 4

67. |28|

<

| 32|

48. 18

68. | 12|

49. 6

69. (11)

50. 32

70. |0|

45. 5

1. 3

3. 6

2. 21

4. 29

<

<

| (8)|

| 48|
(10)

| 109|

371
5. 5

23. 55

6. 6

24. 88

7. 14

25. 35

8. 12

26. 32

9. 1

27. 33

10. 19

28. 35

11. 36

29. 15

12. 58

30. 2

13. 58

31. 36

14. 63

32. 16

15. 32

33. 64

16. 44

34. 3

17. 15

35. 4

18. 13

36. 17

19. 36

37. 50

20. 18

38. 21

21. 37

39. 34

22. 10

40. 11

1. 28

6. 18

2. 48

7. 408

3. 220

8. 90

4. 66

9. 5

5. 0

10. 8

372

11. 84

26. 3

12. 20

27. 1

13. 0

28. undefined

14. 72

29. 7

15. 68

30. 2

16. 42

31. 23

17. 88

32. 19

18. 2170

33. undefined

19. 693

34. 9

20. 6

35. 42

21. 5

36. 0

22. 4

37. 18

23. 3

38. 9

24. 180

39. undefined

25. 0

40. 14

1. 25

9. 4

2. 81

10. 64

3. 64

11. 27

4. 1

12. 1

5. 1

13. 0

6. 1

14. 1

7. 1

15. 49

8. 9

16. 11

373
17. undefined

29. 4

18. 64

30. 5

19. 0

31. 15

20. 81

32. 7

21. 1

33. 1

22. 20

34. 7

23. 0

35. 12

24. 25

36. 6

25. 12

37. 20

26. 27

38. 0

27. 1

39. 2

28. 7

40. 0

## Section 1.6 (Exercises on page 90.)

1. 88 = 2 2 2 11

12. GCF(70,98) = 14

2. 70 = 2 5 7

13. GCF(40,78) = 2

3. 65 = 5 13

14. GCF(40,108) = 4

4. 50 = 2 5 5
5. 98 = 2 7 7
6. 100 = 2 2 5 5
7. 108 = 2 2 3 3 3
8. 40 = 2 2 2 5
9. 135 = 3 3 3 5

15. GCF(88,98) = 2
16. GCF(50,65) = 5
17. GCF(108,135) = 27
18. GCF(65,70) = 5
19. GCF(100,135) = 5
20. GCF(88,100) = 4
21. LCM(50,70) = 350

10. 78 = 2 3 13

## 22. LCM(70,98) = 490

11. GCF(50,70) = 10

374

## 24. LCM(40,108) = 1080

25. LCM(88,98) = 4312
26. LCM(50,65) = 650
27. LCM(108,135) = 540

## 28. LCM(65,70) = 910

29. LCM(100,135) = 2700
30. LCM(88,100) = 2200

1.

2
7

15.

2.

3
5

16.

3.

5
9

17.

4.

11
13

5.
6.

20
32

42
48

19.

16
72

5
6

21.

2
3

3
4

22.

1
5
2
5

3
11

23.

10.

7
10

24.

8
20

3
7

25.

12.

2
8

26.

13.

9
21

27.

14.

7
42

20.

9.

11.

36
45

21
22

7.
8.

2
3

18.

12
18

30
60

28.

4
9

5
8

1
3

3
5

375
29.

2
5

45.
13
16

46.

2
3

47.

30.
31. 3

33. 14

1
4

49.

3
8

50.

59
24

2
3

51.

3
5

36. 14

38. 11

3
5

11
5

23
4

44.

21
11

25
6

77
9

1
2

11
24

52.

4
9

53.

8
13

>

3
5

5
7

>

31
8

>

52
19

54.
55.

23
7

42.
43.

5
9

1
3

40. 14
41.

1
2

10
11

39. 27

93
10

48.

34. 4
35. 20

47
8

1
2

32. 7

37. 4

35
3

56.

100
3

15
17

>

58.

11
5

9
4

5
6

60. 6

>

53
9

65
2

110
133

57.

59.

11
15

4
5

376

1.

9
1
or 1
8
8

16.

41
1
or 4
10
10

2.

2
3

17.

5
11
or 1
6
6

3.

1
2

18.

7
1
or 3
2
2

19.

58
23
or 1
35
35

4.

1
4

5.

98
8
or 6
15
15

20.

6.

7
3
or 1
4
4

21.

7.

41
5
or 3
12
12

22.

1
11
or 2
5
5
1
8

41
17
or 1
24
24

8.

17
5
or 2
6
6

23.

9.

11
2
or 1
9
9

24.

10.

29
1
or 7
4
4

7
8

7
10

25.

71
8
or 7
9
9
3
5

11.

25
1
or 2
12
12

26.

12.

65
2
or 1
63
63

27.

41
42

13.

1
2

28.

14.

113
5
or 9
12
12

29.

15.

41
5
or 3
12
12

30.

17
1
or 8
2
2

25
4
or 3
7
7
3
16

1.

2
5
or 1
3
3

2.

4
11
or 1
7
7

377
3.
4.

5
11

5.
6.

1
9

9
28

35
13
or 1
22
22

7. none
8.

1
84

9.

17
5
or 1
12
12

51
23
or 1
28
28
22
1
22.
or 3
7
7
2
23.
9
24. 0
21.

25. undefined
17
26.
88
25
7
27.
or 2
9
9
28. 1

10.

7
43

29.

11.

1
36

30.

2
12.
15
13.
14.

27
64

7
10

15.

3
1
or 1
2
2

25
1
or 12
16.
2
2
17.

3
1
or 1
2
2

18. 1
19.

5
28

20.

3
32

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

16
81
4
9
10
16

11
3

17
9
or
2
21

24
35
4
37.
9
1
38.
4
39. 4
36.

40. 1
41.

1
2

or 1

1
2

5
11

378

42. 1

47.

27
13
or 1
14
14

48.

7
10

43. undefined
44.

8
1
or 1
7
7

45. 0
46.

2
9

49.
50.

1
6

1
21

3. 0.375

5, 588
88
or 55
100
100
7
17.
1, 000, 000

4. 0.09

18.

1. 0.5
2. 0.7

5. 0.53

16.

19.

6. 0.90
7. 0.28

11, 011
11
or 11
1, 000
1, 000

20.

187, 002
7, 002
or 18
10, 000
10, 000

306
10, 000

8. 0.8125

21. 22.08

9. 4.75

22. 73.10

10. 0.227
11.

7, 630, 073
37, 630, 073
or 3
10, 000, 000
10, 000, 000

12.

142, 178
2, 178
or 14
10, 000
10, 000

13.
14.

900, 035
35
or 9
100, 000
100, 000

5, 124, 992
124, 992
or 5
1, 000, 000
1, 000, 000

2
1, 562
or 156
15.
10
10

23. 1, 350.01
24. 3.14
25. 57.00
26. 18.56
27. 1.56

28. 23.52
29. 8.67
30. 4.3

31. 2.9192

1.56
<

23.52

8.67
4.30
<

2.91

379
3
0.6
5
4
33.
< 0.45
9
9
34.
< 0.643
14
32.

35.

16
5

3.1

1
6

0.167

36.

## 37. 32.5 < 32.54343 < 32.543 < 32.54

38. 18.7 < 18.71 < 18.7101 < 18.71
39. 23.23 < 23.32 < 32.23 < 32.32
40. 0.1 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.0101
41.

6
25

33
42.
100
43.

1
20

44.

13
3
or 1
10
10

45.

19
100

3
46.
4
47.

4
5

1
48.
100
49.

0
or 0
1

2
50.
or 2
1

53. 0.05
54. 1.3
55. 0.19
56. 0.75
57. 0.8
58. 0.01
59. 0
60. 2
61. 52%
62. 3.1%
63. 18%
64. 250%
65. 999%
66. 0.5%
67. 70%

51. 0.24

68. 44%

52. 0.33

69. 22.5%

380

70. 100%

76. 75%

71. 33.3%

77. 55.5%

72. 50%
73. 25%

78. 8%

74. 20%

79. 70%

75. 16.6%

80. 34%

1. 765.3223

18. 155.76

2. 37.4944

19. 12.65

3. 4.64

20. 584.693

4. 771.327
5. 14.177
6. 4.325

21. 124.845
22. 0.7955
23. 241.92
24. 3.7

7. 272.832

25. 2.0832

8. 208.486

26. 9.792

9. 13.46

27. 263.11

10. 269.795

28. 0.8194

11. 256.851

29. 28.52

12. 198.418
13. 29.5097
14. 73.14

30. 0.0924
31. 1, 737.2
32. 4.72
33. 4, 252.834

15. 10.22

34. 2, 400.23

16. 337.41

35. 339.61

17. 21.835

381
37. 201.9

49. 3.002

38. 1.56

50. 51.8

51. 1.3

40. 200.5

52. 3.36

41. 32.6

53. 2.7

42. 2.342

54. 4.2

43. 1.54

55. 69

44. 200.4

56. 17.76

45. 0.314

57. 73.8

46. 13.25

58. 25.74

47. 3.22

59. 17.5

48. 2.005

60. 19

1. 7

## 11. no real number

2. no real number

12. -2

3. 7

13. 6

4. 5

14. 6

5. 5

15. 22

6. 5

16. 16

7. 8

17. 24

8. 4

18. 27

9. no real number

10. 2

20. 42

382

1. 3
2. 8
3. 2.9
4. 4.1
5.
6.

1
6

2
17

1
7.
2

## 19. Associative Property of Multiplication

22. Distributive Property
23. Multiplicative Inverse
24. Commutative Property of Multiplication

1
18

9. 4

8.

10.

15
2
or 1
13
13

1
3
11. or 1
2
2
12.

1
45

## 13. Associative Property of Addition

15. Distributive Property
16. Multiplicative Identity
17. Commutative Property of Multiplication

## 27. Multiplicative Inverse

28. Associative Property of Multiplication
29. Multiplicative Identity
31. 5.15
32. 511
33. 7
34. 270
35. 301
36. 250

383

Chapter 2
Section 2.1 (Exercises on page 239.)
1. 3x5 4x4 + x2 ; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 3x5 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 3.
The second term is: 4x4 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 4.
The third term is: x2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 1.
2. xy 2yz; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: xy, and this is a variable term with coefficient = 1.
The second term is: 2yz, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 2.
3. 5 x; this expression has two terms.
The first term is: 5, and this is a constant term.
The second term is: x, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 1.
4. 13x2 11x + 1; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 13x2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 13.
The second term is: 11x, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 11.
The third term is: 1, and this is a constant term.
5. x + y + xy; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 3x5 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 3.
The second term is: 4x4 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 4.
The third term is: x2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 1.
6. 8 + 3x2 y 2xy 2 ; this expression has three terms.
The first term is: 8, and this is a constant term.
The second term is: 3x2 y, and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 3.
The third term is: 2xy 2 , and this is a variable term with coefficient
= 2.

384

7. 6

21. 11x 4

8. 2

22. m + 4n

9. 1

23. 2x y + 2

10. 8

24. x 2y

11. 1|

25. 8x + 17

12. 11

26. 2x2 + x 10

13. 3

27. 3

14. 7

28. 11a

15. 13

29. 4x + 3

16. 1

30. 4xy 6x + 2y

2
17.
3

31. 7x 14

18. 5

32. 4x 3

19. 6

33. 5m + n

20. 1

34. x + 33

## Section 2.2 (Exercises on page 257.)

1. No. Move all terms containing a variable to one side of
be x = 0
2. x =

8
2
or 2
3
3

3. x = 20
4. x = 3

8. x = 7
9. x = 4.6
10. x = 4
11. No solution
12. x =

4
7

13. x =

35
76

6. x = 14

14. x =

92
26
or 2
33
33

15. No solution

5. x = 23

385
16. x =
17. x =
18. x =
19. x =
20. x =
21. x =
22. x =
23. x =

47
7
51
7
21
17
3
5
13
4
38
23
53
29
68
7

5
7
2
or 7
7
4
or 1
17
or 6

1
4
15
or 1
23
24
or 1
29
5
or 9
7
or 3

24. x =

29
14
or 1
15
15

25. x =

1
3

27. x =

24
4
or 4
5
5

28. x =

7
2
or 1
5
5

29. No solution
30. x =

13
5
or 1
8
8

31. x = 1
32. x = 0.2

## Section 2.3 (Exercises on page 268.)

1. 5 2x = 3(x 5); x = 4
2. 2x + 7 = x 6; x = 13
3. 5 x = 2(x 3); x = 2
4. 2(x 3) = 3 x; x = 3
5. x + (2x 3) = 15;
First piece = 6 feet;
Second piece = 9 feet.

## 9. x + (x + 7, 000) = 57, 000;

Waitress earns \$25, 000;
Cook earns \$32, 000.
10. x + 2x = 81, 000;
Secretary
earns
\$27, 000;
Owner earns \$54, 000.
11. x + (x + 1) = 297;
Page numbers are 148 and 149.

6. 5x + x = 12;
First piece = 10 feet;
Second piece = 2 feet.

12. x + (x + 5) = 29;
First CD cost \$12; Second CD
cost \$17.

## 7. (2x 1) + x + (3x + 1) = 12;

First piece = 3 feet;
Second piece = 2 feet;
Third piece = 7 feet.

13. x + (x + 9) = 241;
First game = 116;
Second game = 125.

8. x + (2x 1) + (x + 2);
First piece = 4 feet;
Second piece = 7 feet;
Third piece = 6 feet.

14. (x + 4) + x = 86;
Front nine score = 45;
Back nine score = 41.

386

## Section 2.4 (Exercises on page 283.)

1. 8 ounces for \$1.29.

11. 14 pounds

3. 12 for \$0.85.

13. 0.8365 cm

5. 5 cups

6. \$51.43

7. 25 minutes

8. 1

7
cups of flour
8

9. 7 inches
10. 35 gallons

18. 99 pounds
19. 150, 000 mm2
20. 0.77 yd3

1. [3, )
2. (2, 8]
3. (, 7)

4. 3, 11
2

5. 43 , )
6. (, 14]
7. [5, )

8. 52 ,
9. [42, )
10. (, 8]

11. , 19
4
7

12. 4 ,

13. (, 6)

14. , 54

71
15. , 150

16. 16
,

13
17. (, 42]
18. (, 20]
19. (, 6]

20. , 76
11
21. [3, 4]
8 23
22. 15
, 15
4 25
23. 3 , 6

24. 53 , 25
6

38
25. 18
5 , 5

387
26.

23

37
12 , 8

than 2800 miles.

(c) when h 6

388

## APPENDIX C. ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

Chapter 3
Section 3.1 (Exercises on page 309.)
1. solution

10.

x
0

1
2

2
3
19
3
11
6

5. (a) (4, 29
2 )

x
5

y
2

(b) (2, 12 )

2
3

x
0

y
4

18

10

32

37

2. not a solution

3. not a solution
4. solution

(c)
(d)
6. (a)

11.

(0, 92 )
( 95 , 0)
11
7

, 1

(b) (2, 2)

(c) 27 , 2

(d) 1, 13

7. (a) 0, 75
(b) (2, 1)

(c) 13 , 1

(d) 32 , 25

12.

13.

8. (a) (4, 0)
(b) (4, 3)
(c) (12, 6)

(d) 83 , 12
9.

x
1
1
4

y
7
3
1
3
17
3

14.

x
2
3

y
3

17
2

52

x
32

y
2

57

389
15.

y
6

3
2

y
46
tB

4 3 2 1

t4- x

tA

1
4 3 2 1

0
1

-x

1
2
3

tD

tC
?

18. 0, 13 , 1, 12 , (4, 3)

## For exercises #16#25 there

are many solutions. Given below is one example for each
problem.

y
6
4
3
2
1

4 3 2 1

t
0

t1

-x

1
2

y
6

t y t
46

-x

3
2

4 3 2 1

0
1

2
3
4

-x

390

## 20. (3, 0), (2, 1), (2, 1), (1, 2)

23. (0, 2), (1, 1), (1, 1), (2, 4), (2, 4)
y
46
3
2

4 3 2 1

1
0

t -x
3 4

t1

t2

4 3 2 1

3
4

y
6
4

0
1

-x

3
4

## 21. (0, 2), (0, 2), (4, 0), (4, 0)

y
46

24. (0, 5), (1, 7), (1, 3), (2, 5), (2, 9)

3
2

4 3 2 1

0
1
2

1
1

t- x
4

6
s

3
4

## 22. (0, 5), (0, 5), (5, 0), (5, 0)

ty
46

3
2
1

4 3 2 1

0
1
2
3
4

t?

-tx

-x

391
25. (1, 3), (0, 1), (2, 1), (1, 1), (3, 1)

y
6

t3
2

1t

4 3 2 1
0 1
t
t
1

-x

2
3
4

## Section 3.2 (Exercises on page 321.)

1. (2, 0), (0, 1)

16.

17.

2, 0

0, 35

## 5. (2, 0), no y-intercept

, (0, 2)

18. 27 , 0 , 0, 23

19. 56 , 0 , 0, 53

11
20. 11
0, 2
9 ,0 ,

21.

## 3. (4, 0), (0, 2)

4. (4, 0), (0, 1)

2, 0

y
6
@3 t
2@

@
I
@

## 9. (2, 0), (0, 4)

10. (2, 0), (0, 1)

## 11. (2, 0), 0, 45

12. 43 , 0 , (0, 1)

13. 13 , 0 , 0, 15

3

5

4 3 2 1

0
1
2
3
4

@ t 2 @
3 4 x
@
R

392

22.
y
6

25.

4
3

t
3

3
4

6 5 4 3 2 1

t
6
?

26.

y
AK4 6
t
3A
2 A

5
4

t5
)

6
4 3 2 1

1
0

t
6
?

t
2

t2

23.

5
4

1
6 5 4 3 2 1

4 3 2 1

At2
A

-x

AU

5
6

24.

27.

y
6
4
KA

A
1
At

4 3 2A1
0 1
A 1
A2
A
3
At
4
A?
U

-x

>

6
4

3
t
2

t
4 3 2 1

1
0
1
2
3
4

-x

393

31.

28.
y
6

t
0
1 2 3 4 x
t

4 3 2 1

6 5 4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

4
5
t
6

?
2
1

3
4

29.
y
t6

32.

3
2

t 0 1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
?

-x

3
2
1
t

6 5 4 3 2 1
0

y
6
4

3
2
1
4 3 2 1

0
1

5t

30.

3t

3 4 x

394

33.

36.
4

y
6

4 3 2 1

-x

4 3 2 1

1
2

Q
2 Q
3 4 x
QQ
s

y
6

Q
Q2

Q
k
Q

37.

34.
y
BMB 4 6
B3
2B
1B
B

4 3 2 1
0B 1
1
B
B
2
3
4

y
6

4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x

3
4 ?

4
3

-x

B
BN

38.

35.
y
46

y
46

2
1

4 3 2 1

4 x
1

4 3 2 1

-x

395
39.

42.
y
46

y
46

2
1

4 3 2 1

4 3 2 1

-x

3
4

0 1

-x

2
3

43.

40.
y
46

3
2

2
1
3

4 x

4 3 2 1

-x

4
?

3
4

0
1

y
6

4 3 2 1

41.
BMB

y
46
B

4 3 2 1

44.

B2
B1
B

1
2

B
B
4
? BN
3

y
46
Q
Q3
Q
2

Q
k
Q

-x

Q
Q

4 3 2 1

0
1
2
3
4

QQ
-x
s
4

396

45.

47.
y
6

3
2
1
4

4 3 2 1

3
P
iP
PP 2
PP
1 PP
PP
P

P
qx

-x

4 3 2 1

y
6

46.

48.
y
6
3
2
1

4 3 2 1

4
3

2
1
1

-x

4 3 2 1

1
2
4

y
6

-x

3
4

## Section 3.3 (Exercises on page 328.)

1. (a) cost of item x
(b) sales tax amount S
(c) S(12) = 0.78. The sales
tax amount for an item
costing \$12 is \$0.78.
(d) D(20) = \$1.30
2. (a) time t hours
(b) distance D in miles
(c) D(2) = 110 miles

## (d) D(3) = 165. In 3 hours,

the car travels 165 miles.
3. (a) number of hours h spent
mowing
(b) area of lawn A remaining
to be mowed.
(c) A(2) = 900. After mowing for 2 hours, 900 square
yds remains to be mowed.

397
(d) A(4) = 300 sq yds
4. (a) number of hours t on the
job
(b) the charges C
(c) C(2) = 140. For 2 hours
on the job, the charge is
\$140.
(d) C(3) = \$185.
5. (a) dollars
space.
(b) number
rented.

charged
N

of

per

spaces

## (c) N (10) = 160. The manager can rent 160 spaces if

she charges \$10 per rental
space.
(d) N (20) = 120 spaces.
6. (a) number x of baseball caps
(b) total cost C
(c) C(400) = 5080. The total
cost for 400 baseball caps
is \$5080.
(d) C(350) = \$4480.
7. (a) the number of ornaments
x
(b) the profit P
(c) P (200) = 1800. A profit
of \$1800 is made from the
product and sale of 200
ornaments.
(d) P (350) = \$4050.
8. (a) x microwaves
(b) production cost C

(c) C(150) = 3900. The production cost for 150 microwaves is \$3900.
(d) C(75) = \$3450
9. (a) x computers
(b) revenue R
(c) R(8) = 12000. The revenue from the sale of 8
computers is \$12, 000.
(d) R(10) = \$15, 000
10. (a) number of years t since
reservoir constructed
(b) water level W measured
in feet.
(c) W (4) = 50. Four years after reservoir constructed,
the water level is 50 feet.
(d) W (7) = 65 feet
11. (a) width w measured in meters
(b) perimeter P measured in
meters
(c) P (12) = 52. The perimeter of the garden with
width 12 meters is 52 meters.
(d) P (20) = 68 meters.
12. (a) minutes m
(b) monthly cost A in dollars
(c) A(100) = 14.25. The
monthly cost for 100 minutes is \$14.25.
(d) A(250) = \$27.75
13. (a) time t in seconds
(b) height H of the rocket

398

## APPENDIX C. ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

(c) H(2) = 116. The height
of the rocket at 2 seconds
is 116 feet.
(d) H(3) = 76 feet

## 14. (a) width w measured in feet

(b) area A measured in square
feet
(c) A(4) = 16. When the
width is 4 feet the area is
16 square feet.
(d) A(2) = 12 square feet
15. (a) length s of the side in meters
(b) area A of the square in
square meters
(c) A(10) = 100. The area of
a square with side 10 meters is 100 square meters.
(d) A(13) = 169 sq meters
16. (a) 3
(b) 6
(c) 12
17. (a) 12
(b) 120
(c) 180

(b) 11
(c) 35
22. (a) 3
(b) 1
(c) 13
23. (a) 7
(b) 1
(c) 5
24. (a) 56
(b) 31
(c) 40
25. (a) 1
(b) 9
(c) 2
26. (a) 4
(b) 10
(c) 6
27. (a) 3
5
(b)
2
(c) 1

18. (a) 50
(b) 250
(c) 50

28. (a) 3
7
(b)
2
(c) 5

19. (a) 8
(b) 4
(c) 2

29. (a) 5
(b) 0
(c) 4

20. (a) 2
(b) 14
(c) 6

30. (a) 5
(b) 0
(c) 4

399

1.

4.

y
46

3
2

1 2

0
1
2

1
3

4 x

4 3 2 1

?
4

3.

4 3 2 1

4 x

-x

1
2
3
4

6.

y
6
4

y
6
4

H
Y
HH

2
1

4 3 2 1
0 1
@
I
@
1
@
2
@ 3
@
4
@
R
@?

4 3B2 1
0 1
B
1
B
2
B 3
B 4
BN
?

-x

y
6
4

5.

y
6
4
B

1 2

BM
B

2.

y
6

4 3 2 1

-x

HH 1
HH

4 3 2 1

H1H2 3 4 x
HH
H
j

1
2
3
4

400

## APPENDIX C. ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

7.

10.
y
46

QQ
k

Q2
Q
1

4 3 2 1

Z
}
Z
2

Q3Q
s4 x

y
6

3
2
1
0
1
2

1 2

4
?
3

15. m = 0
16. m =

7
2

17. m = 7
1
2
19. m = 12
18. m =

9.
y
46

4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 x
1

4
?
3

20. m = 4
1
18
1
m=
3
3
m = , (0, 5)
2
7
m = , (0, 4)
3
7
m = , (0, 1)
3
7
m = , (0, 0)
2

21. m =
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Z
~
Z

14. m = 1
4 x

Z
Z

11. m = 5
9
12. m =
11
13. slope undefined

8.

4 3 2 1

Z
1

4 3 2 1Z

y
6

-x

401

3
1
27. m = , 0,
2
12

4
6
28. m = , 0,
5
5

3
4
29. m = , 0,
5
5

7
1
30. m = , 0,
9
9

5
13
31. m =
0,
2
2

9
3
32. m =
0,
4
4
4
(0, 3)
33. m =
3

2
6
34. m =
0,
5
5
35. m = 2
36. m =

3
4

2
37. m =
3

38. m = 0
39. m =

2
3

40. m =
41.

1
2

4
3

## 42. slope undefined

43. perpendicular
44. neither
45. parallel
46. perpendicular
47. perpendicular
48. neither
49. perpendicular
50. parallel
51. parallel
52. neither

1. y = 2x + 2
3
2. y = x 3
4

2
4
6. y = x +
3
3
7. y = 2x 7

2
3. y = x + 4
3

4
8. y = x 2
3

4. y = 3

9. x = 2

5. y = x 2

10. y = 2x + 1

402

## APPENDIX C. ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

11. y = 4x 14

31. x = 5

1
12. y = x 10
3

1
32. y = x + 3
5

13. y = 6x 10
14. y = 8x 13
17
1
15. y = x
2
2
2
43
16. y = x +
3
3

33. y =

4
x+8
11

34. y = x + 19
35. y = x 14
2
25
36. y = x +
3
3

17.

2
y = x3
5

3
37. y = x 9
2

18.

3
y = x+8
7

3
9
38. y = x
4
2

19. y = 2x 4
20. y = 3x 16
21. y = 8x + 11
4
1
22. y = x +
3
3
2
23. y = x
3
24. x = 0

1
3

27. x =
28. y = 2
29. x = 1
30. y = 5

1
40. y = x + 9
2
1
41. y = x 1
2
3
3
42. y = x +
4
2
14
5
43. y = x +
3
3

25. y = 4
26. y =

3
11
39. y = x
2
2

5
44. y = x 4
2
7
3

1
45. y = x 1
4
1
5
46. y = x
2
2
5
47. y = x + 10
3

Index
absolute value, 25
decimals, 189
fractions, 125
integer, 39
mixed numbers, 132
old-fashioned, 8
Algebraic Expressions
definition, 230
evaluating, 233
Associative Property
of multiplication, 217
cartesian coordinate system, 303
origin, 303
Commutative Property
of multiplication, 216
Composite numbers, 77
cross-multiplying, 272
Decimals
changing to fractions, 170
changing to percents, 182
comparing, 177
division, 199
expanded form, 162

## inside fractions, 197

multiplication, 193
ordering, 177
repeating, 168
rounding, 173
subtraction, 189
terminating, 167
writing of, 163
dependent variable, 323
Distributive Property, 217
Division
by zero, 16
decimals, 199
fractions, 153
integer, 55
into zero, 15
old-fashioned, 15
domain of a function, 323
Equations
definition, 241
linear, 244
Multiplicative Property of Equality, 244
solving linear, 245
Exponents
positive integer, 66
zero, 69
Fractions
403

404

INDEX

greater than, 22
changing to decimals, 166
greater than or equal to, 24
changing to mixed numbers, 108
less than, 22
changing to percents, general method, less than or equal to, 24
183
Integers, 22
changing to percents, shortcut, intercepts
183
x, 314
comparing two, 113
y, 314
containing decimals, 197
interval notation, 285
division, 153
LCD, 129
equivalent, 94
LCM, 85
Fundamental Principle, 95
Fundamental Principle, version 2, least common denominator, 129
least common multiple, 85
99
LHS, 241
improper, 107
linear equation, 312, 348
lowest terms, 96
two variables, 300
multiplication, 146
solution, 300
proper, 107
Linear
Inequalities
simplest form, 96
subtraction, 125
287
zero in denominator, 92
compound,
291
zero in numerator, 91
definition, 285
functions
Multiplicative Property of Inequaldefinition of, 323
ity, 287
dependent variable, 323
solving, 288
domain, 323
lines
independent variable, 323
equations, 348
input, 323
point-slope formula, 348
output, 323
slope-intercept form, 348
range, 323
value of, 323
Mixed numbers
GCF, 82
changing to fractions, 111
graph
subtraction, 136
linear equation, 312
Multiplication
greatest common factor, 82
by powers of ten, 196
grouping symbols, 63
decimals, 193
independent variable, 323
fractions, 146
Inequalities
integer, 55

INDEX
old-fashioned, 11
Multiplication table, basic, 12
Multiplicative Identity, 221
Multiplicative Inverse, 221
Natural numbers, 6
nonnegative Integers, 7
number line, 22
opposites, 27
order of operations, 63
ordered pairs, 300
origin, 303
Percents
changing to decimals, 181
changing to fractions, 180
point-slope formula, 348
positive Integers, 6
Prime numbers
definition, 77
first ten, 82
prime factorization, 78
proportion, 272
definition of a root, 207
definition of principal root, 208
with even indices, 208
with odd indices, 210
range, 323
ratio, 270
Rational numbers, 91
reciprocals, 150
rectangular coordinate system, 303
RHS, 241
slope, 334

405
formula, 334
rise, 334
run, 334
slope-intercept form, 348
Subtraction
decimals, 189
fractions, 125
integer, 46
mixed numbers, 136
old-fashioned, 9
Table of perfect cubes, 212
Table of perfect squares, 212
Terms
combining like, 236
constant, 231
definition, 231
like, 235
similar, 235
unlike, 235
variable, 232
variable, 229
Whole numbers, 7