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Senior Design

Spring 2016

Design Review II Report:


T.I.P.S.Y. Translating Inverse-kinematic Powered Spider Yaw-balancer

Group 1: The Off Campus Crew


TyQuish Keyes
Vasu Rabaib
Jacob Simmonds
Shaojie Zang

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Columbia University

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.

Executive Summary

II.

Introduction

III. Concept Generation


A.

Hexapod Body
1.

Rectangular

2.

Hexagonal

B.

Leg Design

C.

Size

D.

Actuators

E.

Power supply

F.

Payload

G.

Cost

IV.

Concept Selection

V.

Final Concept Description

VI. Literature Search Results


VII. Specifications & Parameter Analysis
VIII. Final Design
IX. Plan
X.

Problem Analysis

XI. Conclusion
XII. References

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Our senior design project is a self-balancing spider robot, which will have the ability
to utilize its legs to stabilize various objects placed onto its platform while moving. This
stabilization will occur during both inclines and declines, allowing it to traverse uneven
terrain. This robot will consist of a custom designed bi-layer hexapod which includes, but is
not limited to a resistive touch pad, servo motors, and a microcontroller. The bottom layer
of the hexapod houses the electronics,, and the resistive touchpad is mounted onto the top
layer. To determine the orientation of the hexapod platform, gyroscopes and accelerometers
are to be included. To get a sense of the loadings on each of the spiders components, force
transducers will be utilized on the feet to detect the terrain it is traveling on. For increased
stability and mobility, hexagonal body architecture was chosen. Unlike its rectangular
counterpart, which has a preferred direction consisting of front and rear sides, the
chosen geometry allows for greater turning action and because of its radial symmetry, more
fluidity in its movements, as well as simpler engineering analysis.

II. INTRODUCTION
Hexapods can be built for certain tasks or research purposes. Unfortunately, few of
them have been designed specifically to incorporate balancing algorithms. When a hexapod
moves along a flat plane, it's programmed gaits typically only allow the body to stay parallel
with the ground. However, an interesting analytical problem is introduced when a robot
attempts to balance. For example, consider a small ball resting on top of the robots
platform. If the hexapod pivots or tilts along any particular axes while the feet remain in the
same position, can the robot autocorrect itself to keep the ball in the same position? Can
the hexapod accomplish a similar feat while moving from one position to another? This
project aims to use all of the fundamental engineering concepts learned in a Mechanical
Engineering Undergraduate curriculum, as well as elementary and advanced mathematics

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and physics to answer these questions by designing,fabricating,and programming a unique
hexapod.

III.

CONCEPT GENERATION
A.

HEXAPOD BODY

In the process of determining the most effective and efficient design of this
apparatus, multiple methods were generated. This process began with the construction of
the Spider Robots platform, in which the balancing would occur. Multiple concepts were
generated in order to find the most efficient and practical approach to designing and
constructing the platform. During our research it was found that hexapod robots are
generally divided into two categories, rectangular or hexagonal. We explored both options in
the search for the ideal mechanism.

1.
RECTANGULAR
A rectangular chassis, similar to the chassis shown in figure () was the first design
option explored. A rectangular body allows for six legs to be distributed symmetrically along
two sizes. This rectangular architecture has simplistic walking gaits that have been widely
studied. This architecture's bilateral symmetry is optimal for movement along a straight line.
However, turning movements require more complicated gaits and often need four steps to
complete a turn.

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Figure 3.1: Example Rectangular Chassis for Hexapods

2.

HEXAGONAL

A hexagonal body consist of six legs distributed evenly around the body at 60
degrees each. This architecture creates more complicated walking gaits but allows for easier
radial movement.

Figure 3.2: Example Hexagonal Chassis for Hexapods

B.

LEG DESIGN

The next step taken in the pursuit of the ideal hexapod was the design and
fabrication of the legs. Various hexapod legs have been studied, design, and fabricated.
Each of these designs have their respective advantages and disadvantages. The various leg
types and configurations are shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3: Possible Leg configurations

C.

STABILIZATION SENSORS

Several ideas were proposed to determine the orientation and position of the
platform that balance objects.An initial idea was to generate an open loop control system
using the positions of the motor angles to determine the platform orientation, but this
assumed a perfect model of the system, which was unlikely. Another possibility was to use a
touchpad sensor as seen in previous stabilization videos. It was determined that the optimal
type of touchpad was a resistive touchpad, which offered advantages over capacitive
touchpads in that the object merely needed some weight to it as opposed to capacitive
properties. The final idea was to use an Inertial measurement Unit (IMU), which provides
data of angular orientation, velocity, and acceleration.

IV.

CONCEPT SELECTION
The objective of this project is to design and fabricate a hexapod that can balance

objects in place while moving in any direction over any terrain. It became apparent that the
hexagonal model consists of a larger stability margin as well as a higher turning angle than
the rectangular model when compared to their respective Q/P ratios, as can be seen in
Figures A.1 & A.2, which appeared optimal for our purposes. Q represents the length of
which a hexapod leg can reach and P represents the width of which a hexapod leg can

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reach. To further reach our goals, it was determined that arachnid based legs were the
optimal design for the hexapod. This is because of their greater degrees of freedom as well
as their ability to adjust vertically in order to balance itself.
The arachnid leg type was found to move radially better than the other configurations, and
appeared superior. Both a resistive touchpad and an IMU were selected as orientation
sensors. This was done as each sensor has advantages over the other for different objects
that we would balance on the robot - rolling objects such as balls would be better suited to
the resistive touchpad, while much more static objects or fluids such as a cup of water would
be much easier to work with an IMU. As such, they were chosen to work in conjunction with
each other.

V.

FINAL CONCEPT DESCRIPTION


Our final concept is a bi-layer radially-symmetric hexapod with arachnid style legs

that can balance objects on it while moving over any terrain, utilizing resistive touchpads
and IMUs to determine the orientation and position of any object placed on its platform. The
robot will walk in a tripod gait, as the 3 legs that will remain on the ground will act as pivot
points for the robot to act as a stewart platform as it moves. In order to control the robots
movement, a playstation controller will be interfaced with the robot.

VI. LITERATURE SEARCH RESULTS


In an effort to generate ideas as well as conceptualize the dynamics, designs, and
control theory of hexapods, a literature search was conducted. In this search, multiple peer
review articles as well as patents gave insightful, beneficial, and clarifying information
during our design process. Some of the articles that were found useful include: Dynamic
Modeling and Simulation of PEM Fuel Cells which goes into great details on the analysis of
dynamics and kinematics of Stewart platforms. "Force-Based Locomotion Control of
Hexapod Robot" which discusses hexapod stabilization over terrain with various control law
methods and "Kinematics, Navigation, and Path Planning of Hexapod Robot which discusses

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in great detail kinematics and dynamics for hexapod robots. There were also a few patents
that have been established for a similar project. These patents include a hexapod walking
system with multiple degrees of freedom; a bionic hexapod Robot, which consist of 18 servo
motors, and a Hexapod Robot Device with six legs, each of which is controlled to generate a
combined horizontal and vertical movements. A complete, detailed summary of our
literature search can be found in the Appendix. Despite the various hexapod literature and
patents, we have been unable to find literature that utilizes a hexapod for the purpose of
stabilization of balancing an object, especially over terrain. Our literature search confirmed
that despite the existence of hexapods, the design and control of our hexapod is truly
unique.

VII. SPECIFICATIONS & PARAMETER ANALYSIS


A.

MOTOR SELECTION

With a great variety of servo motors available, a static analysis was performed on
robot body in order to determine the minimum required Torque. This was done by cutting the
robot into three congruent subassemblies where each leg on the ground carried one third of
the load. The configuration where the motors required the greatest Torque would be when
the legs are completely horizontal, as seen in Figure A.3. The torque can then be found by
treating each leg as a beam and finding the Moment where the Motor would be located.
Units of torque for servomotors tend to be in kg-cm, and so the expression for torque
is simply

The mass of the robot is calculated in Table A.1, and is approximately 2.2716kg. Our
design requires leg lengths of approximately 5cm and 6cm. Thus, the Torque required to
carry a moment of M2 and M3 can be found.

The Torque on Motor 3 is then 4.53 kg-cm, while the Torque on Motor 2 is 8.33 kg-cm.
With a safety factor of 1.15, the highest Torque necessary is then 9.578kg-cm. A servomotor
that both achieves this Torque and is affordable is the HS-645MG, which performs at 9.6 kgcm while costing only $30 a motor.

B.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The FEA of the spider robots foot, Figure A.4, was performed in PTC Creo, prescribing
a vertical load of approximately 7.43 N onto the tip that makes contact with the ground. A
Multi-Pass Adaptive with Polynomial Orders 1-9 for Min and Max, with a 5% Convergence
were the parameters set for the analysis. As shown, the maximum Von Mises stress is
approximately 2.28 MPa, a value that is well below the average yield strength of acrylic (i.e.
45 MPa). This design is not only suitable for fabrication, but holds under the specified forces.
In order to reduce high concentrations of stress, sharp corners were rounded. This
adjustment proved to be critical to preventing failure of the hexapods members.

C.

V-REP

While Simulink provides a powerful tool in testing/implementing complex control


algorithms , it lacks an intuitive 3D environment for physical interaction with other objects.
V-Rep (Virtual Robotics Experimentation Platform) has a friendly UI that can easily be
customized to integrate functions from external applications.

The program is compatible

with C/C++, Python, and Matlab based software through an Application Programming

Interface (API).

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In essence, this functionality allows V-Reps ongoing simulation to be

affected by the control system designed in Matlab.

Furthermore, there are already pre-

programmed robots inside V-Rep, including a ball balancing robot but more importantly,
spider robots. V-Rep will be used in conjunction with Simulink, though V-Rep by itself allows
us to analyze our spider robot gaits and inverse kinematics used to generate those walking
patterns with ease. Figure A.5, in the appendix, is a screenshot of our spider robot, TIPSY
(left), in the V-Rep virtual world, shown in comparison to the V-Rep hexapod model (right).
Simulating our robot in V-REP with the motor parameters provided by the HS-645MG,
using the graph object function to map out the hexapods displacement with respect to its
body frame, it moves at about 0.05 m/s or 2 inches a second. The animation was performed
on the Bullet physics engine, with masses and principal moments of inertia of each
component added manually to their properties.

D.

BATTERY SELECTION

A critical part of the robots functionality is the onboard battery. With 18 servomotors, a microcontroller, servo controller, and sensors, it will be drawing a lot of power.
Thus it is necessary to determine what battery is necessary to power these components,
while remaining under a low weight. Table 7-1 displays the voltage, current, and power
requirements for each component.
Table 7.1: Electric Properties of Components
Component

Voltage(V)

Max
Current (A)

Safety Factor
Current (1.2)
(A)

Power (W)

Safety Factor
Power (1.2) (W)

Resistive Touch
Pad

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Servo controller

0.031

0.0372

0.155

0.186

Servo
(x18)

10.8

0.3

0.36

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

motor

Foot Sensor

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Beaglebone
Black

0.46

0.552

2.3

2.76

IMU

5.5

0.006

0.0072

0.03

0.036

Total

n/a

9.497

11.3964

2.785

3.342

It appears that the a battery operating at 6v is ideal to operate the motors, with stepdown voltage dividers for the controllers and sensors, as their current draw is relatively low.
With a total maximum current drawn of 11.4A and an ideal running time of at least 20
minutes, it appears that at maximum operation a battery of 6V and at least 3800 mAH is
necessary.

VIII. FINAL DESIGN


A.

PARTS

AND

FABRICATION

The final design is a bi-layer hexapod with a Beagle Board Microcontroller, a SSC-32U
Servo controller, an IMU, and a 6V 3800mAh NiMH rechargeable battery housed in the lower
chassis, while a four-wire resistive touchpad is mounted on the top layer. Both the chassis
and most legs will be laser cut out of acrylic to allow ease of fabrication and rapid re-design
potential. The inner leg will be built using aluminium square-tubing, which will be machined
to the needed shape. 18 HS-645MG servos, will move the legs and will be mounted directly
to the acrylic to lower risk of any unwanted movement. Overall dimensions of the spider
robot, blowup of the leg assembly, plus engineering drawings of the link connecting motors
2 & 3, and the foot are given in the appendix as Figures A.6, A.7, A.8, and A.9 respectively.

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Figure 8.1 Final Design of the Spider Robot

B.

CONTROL SYSTEM

Simulink was chosen to simulate the control system due to the integration
possibilities with other viable software such as V-Rep and our microprocessor. A prototype of
the control system was written in Simulink - a Stewart Platform where a ball balances on a
plate, where the position can be set by the user.
To do this a model of the system was made using the system defined in Figure A.10.
In this one dimension, a lagrangian of the system can be made, which ultimately provides
the relation:

By using this relation to solve for the plant, a block diagram in Simulink was then
formed:

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Figure 8.2: Block Diagram of one-dimensional Ball Balancer


The complete Simulink diagram is shown below. As the X and Y coordinates are
largely independent, the system was modelled using two independent one-dimensional
systems - X and Y. This can be seen in the Figure A.11.
As can be seen in Figure 8.3, the control system allows a step response with minimal
settling time. This control system then allows the user to select a position for the ball to
remain and keeps it there despite disturbances. The final control system will involve inverse
kinematics of the legs as well as 3 independent legs to control the Stewart Platform, rather
than 2, which is a much more rigorous process, but the overall approach remains the same.

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Figure 8.3: Step response of the X direction of Ball & Plate Control System

IX. PLAN/LEVELS OF SUCCESS


Our project consists of the following levels of success:
1. A spider robot that can be controlled using a playstation controller, without
balance functionality.
2. A stationary spider robot that will balance a ball on its platform under any
disturbance, and move without balance.
3. A spider robot that can move while balancing a ball on its platform
4. A spider robot that can balance a ball while moving over uneven terrain
5. A spider robot that can balance a cup of water while moving
To distinguish the Senior Design project, Team 1 will design,build, and program a
hexapod robot that will be capable of balancing algorithms, as defined in level one of our
levels of success. Therefore, the 3rd level of success is expected and should be achieved.

X.

PROBLEM ANALYSIS
When attempting to create such a complicated, versatile robot there are risk

associated with the potential success. One of the biggest risks associated with this task is
the ability to manipulate the legs to balance the ball and walk. This is a complicated controls
problem and there is a possibility of only being able to do one at a time rather than
simultaneously. Another risk associated with this project is associated with the robot's
ability to withstand loading. Excessive static loading may lead to a failure in one or more of
the spiders legs. In addition to static loading, general fatigue may lead to failure of various
components, including the potential of burning out the motors. Motor resolution is another
large risk - the control system is only as accurate as the accuracy of the motor angles. If a
very precise motor angle is required, but the motor is mechanically unable to perform this,
then it may not balance as well as desired.
More significant risk lies within our ability to code. The written code may not be able
to allow for a small enough response time for balancing, especially after transitions to a

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different object. The integrated PID control system must be able to respond to impulses on
the ball, and be able to respond quickly enough while minimizing overshoot. Lastly,
alignment is crucial for the proper execution of the project. The inverse kinematics rely
heavily on symmetry and identical dimensions, lack of precision during laser cutting, 3D
printing, etc. may cause great discrepancies between our theoretical calculations and the
actual performance of the robot. Furthemore, most of the spider robots members are
expected to be laser cut acrylic. Acrylic can be fragile, especially thin pieces under bending
moments, and be subjected to high stress concentrations at sharp corners if not designed
correctly. Therefore, the tradeoff between durability/strength and weight is very crucial to
design problem.

XI. CONCLUSION
The spider robot appears to be both very feasible, and possible to fabricate quickly.
The challenge lies in the accuracy of the fabrication and the strength of the programming,
which are both challenges that can be overcome.While it has never been built before, we
expect to have a fully functioning prototype by May, having achieved at the very least our
third level of success.

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XII. REFERENCES
Bingul, Zafer, and Oguzhan Karahan. "Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of
PEM Fuel Cells." Modeling and Control of Fuel Cells(2009): 19-43. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
<http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/34392.pdf>
"Force-Based Locomotion Control of Hexapod Robot." - Springer. N.p., n.d.
Web. 20 Oct. 2015
"Kinematics, Navigation, and Path Planning of Hexapod Robot." - Springer.
N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2015
"Design and Optimization of Hydraulically Actuated Hexapod Robot COMET-."
IV. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct.2015.
Tedeschi, Franco, and Giuseppe Carbone. "Design Issues for Hexapod Walking
Robots." University of Cassino and Southern Lazio,, 10 June 2014. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
<www.mdpi.com/2218-6581/3/2/181/pdf>.
Ebneter, Roman and Eicher, Lucas. Gait Pattern Optimization for a Spider
Robot. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. 10 July 2012. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
<http://students.asl.ethz.ch/upl_pdf/373-report.pdf>
D'Entremont, Rene, Brett Macdonald, Leslie Ssebazza, and Seth Stoddart.
"Hexapod Robot." Practical and Experimental Robotics(2007): 301-57. Web. 29 Oct.
2015.
<http://poisson.me.dal.ca/~dp_08_02/Site/Documentation_files/Final%20Build
%20Report.pdf>.
Olson, Wyatt. "Stubby." Stubby - Full Featured, Miniature Hexapod. N.p., n.d.
Web. 02 Nov. 2015. <http://stubby.digitalcave.ca/stubby/design.jsp>.
Creating a Stewart Platform Model Using SimMechanics. Mathworks. Web
2002. <http://www.mathworks.com/company/newsletters/articles/creating-a-stewartplatform-model-using-simmechanics.html>.
Post, Ernest, and Neil Gershenfeld. Inertial Measurement Unit. Massachusetts
Institute Of Technology, assignee. Patent US8590377 B2. 26 Nov. 2013. Web..
<http://www.google.com/patents/US8590377#backward-citations>

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Kroczynski, Patrice Alain. Robot System with Legs or Arms. International
Robotic Engineering Inc., assignee. Patent EP0074286A2. 16 Mar. 1983. Web.
<https://patents.google.com/patent/EP0074286A2/en?
q=hexapod&before=19900101>
Yang, Chih-Hsiung. Hexapod Robot Device. National Kaohsiung University Of
Applied Science, assignee. Patent US 8793016 B2. 11 Apr. 2011. Print
. Bionic Hexapod Robot. Grant CN 203094218 U. 12 Jan. 2013. Print.
, , , , , , , , , . Multi-degreeof-freedom Walking System for Hexapod Robot. Patent CN 204110201 U. 15 Oct.
2015. Print
, , , , , , , . Motion Control System
and Method for Electrically-driven Hexapod Robot. , assignee. Patent
Application CN104192221 A. 26 Sept. 2014. Print.
Buehler, Martin, Daniel E. Koditschek, and Uluc Saranli. Single Actuator per
Leg Robotic Hexapod. Mcgill University, The Regents Of The University Of Michigan,
assignee. Patent US 6481513 B2. 16 Mar. 2000. Print.
"Design Issues for Hexapod Walking Robots." MDPI. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb.
2016
Chu, S.k.-K., and G.k.-H. Pang. "Comparison between Different Model of
Hexapod Robot in Fault-tolerant Gait." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and
Cybernetics - Part A: Systems and Humans IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. A 32.6
(2002): 752-56. Web
"Types of Robot Gait." -. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2016.
<http://hexapodrobots.weebly.com/types-of-robot-gait.html>.
Esteban, Daro Delgado. "Hexapod Robot Stability Research." Thesis. VILNIUS
GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 2015. Web.
<https://uvadoc.uva.es/bitstream/10324/12969/1/TFG-P-242.pdf>.

XIII. APPENDIX
Hexapod Stabilization Comparison

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Figure A.1: Q/P Ratio Diagram

Figure A.2: Q/P Ratio Plots - Rectangular vs. Hexagonal Body Architecture

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Figure A.3: Static Analysis of Subassembly of spider robot at maximum Torque

Table A.1: Masses of Robot parts


Part
Microcontroller
Servocontroller
IMU
Battery
Resistive
Touchpad
Chassis Top
Chassis Bottom
Payload
Motor
Leg1
Leg2
Leg3
Total
Total (kg)

Mass (g)
34
6
5
150
40
300
300
236
55
10.2
7.9
17
2271.6
2.2716

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Figure A.4: Finite Element Analysis of Hexapod Foot Design

Figure A.5: V-Rep TIPSY and Hexapod2

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Figure A.6: Leg Assembly CAD

Figure A.7: Overall Hexapod Drawing

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Figure A.8: Motor 2&3 Connector Drawing

Figure A.9: Hexapod Foot Drawing

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Figure A.10:. Ball Beam Schematic and Variables


From
http://ctms.engin.umich.edu/CTMS/index.php?
example=BallBeam&section=SimulinkModeling
The moment of inertia of the ball was chosen to be 9.996*10 -6 kg m2, the mass of the ball as
0.11kg, while the radius of the ball was 0.015m.

Figure A.11: Complete Block Diagram of the Complete 2-dimensional Ball Balancer

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Literature Search Results:


Books/Journals:
Bingul, Zafer, and Oguzhan Karahan. "Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of PEM
Fuel Cells." Modeling and Control of Fuel Cells(2009): 19-43. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
<http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/34392.pdf>.
Despite the journal article title name, this source goes into the
analysis of the dynamics/kinematics of a stewart platform (SP) with detailed
mathematical computations in Ch. 2. We can use this source as a basis for how
to design the movement of our supposed robot spider, and the control laws used
to govern it.
"Force-Based Locomotion Control of Hexapod Robot." - Springer. N.p., n.d. Web.
20 Oct. 2015. <http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-54349-7_6>.
This book chapter addresses the issues with hexapod robot
stabilization over terrain as well as control law methods to approach these
issues.
"Kinematics, Navigation, and Path Planning of Hexapod Robot." - Springer. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2015. <http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-543497_4>.
This book chapter outlines the kinematics and dynamics for a
hexapod robot. This article also addresses stability for force control purposes.
"Design and Optimization of Hydraulically Actuated Hexapod Robot COMET-." IV.
N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct.2015.
<http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/846/chp%253A10.1007%252F978-4-43154349-7_3.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Fchapter
%2F10.1007%2F978-4-431-54349-7_3&token2=exp=1446087577~acl=%2Fstatic
%2Fpdf%2F846%2Fchp%25253A10.1007%25252F978-4-431-54349-7_3.pdf
%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Fchapter
%252F10.1007%252F978-4-431-543497_3*~hmac=3dde564040a6c95504af4307c14928cb29fef59c4bc034bd97c1af24697df9d
3>.
This chapter describes the basic specifications of a robot, such as
the mechanism, gait, drive system, and control system, and an approach to the
optimization-based design of a hexapod to overcome terrain using actuated legs.
Tedeschi, Franco, and Giuseppe Carbone. "Design Issues for Hexapod Walking
Robots."
University of Cassino and Southern Lazio,, 10 June 2014. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
<www.mdpi.com/2218-6581/3/2/181/pdf>.
This Article talks about the issues for designing a Hexapod robot,
some of the history of the robot, and the considerations of design. It also
introduces some basic ideas of controlling.

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Ebneter, Roman and Eicher, Lucas. Gait Pattern Optimization for a Spider Robot.
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. 10 July 2012. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
<http://students.asl.ethz.ch/upl_pdf/373-report.pdf>
This article provides information on how to optimise the gait, which is
an area we have very little experience in and is critical towards the success of the
movement of the robot. It details the different gait patterns and contains the theory
for the torque required in each joint to achieve these gaits. The theory concerns 8legged robots rather than hexapods, but the information is still useful and may come
in useful if we add more legs.
D'Entremont, Rene, Brett Macdonald, Leslie Ssebazza, and Seth Stoddart.
"Hexapod Robot." Practical and Experimental Robotics(2007): 301-57. Web. 29 Oct.
2015.
<http://poisson.me.dal.ca/~dp_08_02/Site/Documentation_files/Final%20Build%20Report.pdf>.
Goes into detail of the design process in making a hexapod spider
robot. Analysis done includes cost of equipment, FEA, control software
troubleshooting.

Internet:
Olson, Wyatt. "Stubby." Stubby - Full Featured, Miniature Hexapod. N.p., n.d.
Web. 02 Nov. 2015. <http://stubby.digitalcave.ca/stubby/design.jsp>.
Provides a basis for how to build a spider robot relatively
inexpensively, including parts, programming. Author/Designer uses Playstation
controller for movement, which is also what we are looking for.
Creating a Stewart Platform Model Using SimMechanics. Mathworks. Web
2002. <http://www.mathworks.com/company/newsletters/articles/creating-a-stewartplatform-model-using-simmechanics.html>.
Contains the control dynamics for a stewart platform and the code
for one in MATLAB. Very specific application if we use MATLAB, but is still useful
to have a guide on how to create one even if not our platform.

Patents:
Post, Ernest, and Neil Gershenfeld. Inertial Measurement Unit. Massachusetts
Institute Of Technology, assignee. Patent US8590377 B2. 26 Nov. 2013. Web..
<http://www.google.com/patents/US8590377#backward-citations>
An inertial measurement unit can be used to determine the
orientation and angular velocity and acceleration of a platform, which will be
extremely useful in the control system to keep the robot body stable.
Kroczynski, Patrice Alain. Robot System with Legs or Arms. International Robotic
Engineering Inc., assignee. Patent EP0074286A2. 16 Mar. 1983. Web.
<https://patents.google.com/patent/EP0074286A2/en?q=hexapod&before=19900101>
This patent is one of the first relating to hexapod robots. It contains
the basic ideas for how microprocessor-driven hexapods and other legged robots
should work.
Yang, Chih-Hsiung. Hexapod Robot Device. National Kaohsiung University Of
Applied Science, assignee. Patent US 8793016 B2. 11 Apr. 2011. Print

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the present invention relates to the hexapod robot device having six legs
each of which is controlled to generate a combined horizontal and vertical movement.
. Bionic Hexapod Robot. Grant CN 203094218 U. 12 Jan. 2013. Print.
Hexapod robot 'total of 18 servos, each foot has a first servo (I), second
steering (2), third steering (3), first steering (I) attached to the circuit board (7), second
steering gear (2) even has a base plate (8) and on foot arm (5), and move with the first
steering gear (I), third steering (3) down enough arms linked, characterized in that: each
foot robot has three degrees of freedom around up and down, left and right rotation,
upper and lower arms are bent foot shape, when the second steering (2), third Servo (3)
allows the angle of the hour foot arm curled, robot smallest space, on the other hand,
when the robot arm enough to reverse the connection can be seen as another foot (18),
in the case of an inverted robot Under still be ahead.
, , , , , , , , , .
Multi-degree-of-freedom Walking System for Hexapod Robot. Patent CN 204110201 U.
15 Oct. 2015. Print
The walking system comprises a first joint, a second joint, a third joint, a
fourth joint, a fifth joint, an electronic cabin, a tibia and a foot, wherein the adaptability of
the robot to complex terrains such as slopes, narrow paths, ditches and ridges can be
improved by switching the matching modes of four degrees of freedom, so that the
movement is flexible and the energy consumption is reduced;NOTE: THIS IS FOR BIG
ROBOT
, , , , , , , . Motion Control
System and Method for Electrically-driven Hexapod Robot. , assignee.
Patent Application CN104192221 A. 26 Sept. 2014. Print.
1, building a hexapod robot modeling module; 2, building a coordinate
system calculating module; 3, controlling a servo motor through a motion controller for
accurate position movement, and determining variation of the mass center of a robot
platform through a posture motion module by applying a robot coordinate transforming
matrix; 4, realizing moving forwards, retreat, left turn, right turn and the like of a wheeltype system. The control system and the control method are applied to the field of motion
control of the hexapod robot.
Buehler, Martin, Daniel E. Koditschek, and Uluc Saranli. Single Actuator per Leg
Robotic Hexapod. Mcgill University, The Regents Of The University Of Michigan, assignee.
Patent US 6481513 B2. 16 Mar. 2000. Print.
A mobile robot comprising a body and at least six compliant legs each
having only one actuator. The compliant legs are mounted to the body for movement
relative thereto in a single degree of freedom. A controller is operably coupled to the
actuator of each compliant leg, the controller selectively actuates the actuators to drive
the compliant legs in an alternating tripod gait.C-SHAPED LEGS one rotating motor