# ﻿GATE - 2007

_ Ee : Electronics And Communication Engineering

Time Allowed: 3 HOllrs

Q. 1 to Q. 20 carry one mark each

1. If E denotes expectation, the variance of a random variable X is given by

(a) EIX') - E2[X) (b) E[X2) + E2[XJ

(el E(X2J (d) E2[X)

2. The following plot shows a function ywhich varies linearly with x. The value of the integral I =

2

J ydx is

(a) 1.0 (e) 4.0

(b) 2.5 (d) 5.0

3. For I x 1« 1, coth (x) can be approximated as

(a) x (b) x'

1 (el

x

(d) '7

lim sin(S /2)

4. 6 ... 0 9 is

(a) 0.5 (e) 2

<bl

(d) not defined

5. Which one of the following function is strictly bounded?

(b) .r

6. For the function e-X, the linear approximation around x = 2 is

(a) (3 -x}e2

(II) 1- x

(el (3 +2fi - (1 + ,fi )x].r2 (d) e2

Maximum Marks; 150

7. An independent voltage source in series with an impedance Z, = R, + jX, delivers a maximum average power to a load impedance 21 wnen

(a) 2L = Rs + jXs (b) ZL = Rs

(c) 2L = iXs (d) Zl = R,; - iXs

8. The RC circuit shown in the figure is

(II) a low-pass filter (b) a high-pass filter (e) a band-pass filter (dl a band -reject filter

9. The electron and hole concentration in an intrinsic semiconductor are n; per em3 at 300 K. Now, if acceptor impurities are introduced with a concentration of NAper em) ( where N A>:> njl, the electron concentration per emJ at 300 K will be

(alII, (b)l1i+N,\

(e) NA - 'Ii

10. In a p' n junction diode under reverse bias, the magnitude of electric field is maximum at

(al the edge of the depletion region on the p-side (b) the edge of the depletion region on the n-side

(e) the p~ 11 junction

(d) the centre of the depletion region on the 11-

side

11. The correct full wave rectifier circuit is

(a)

(b)

(d)

12. In a transconductance, amplifier, it is desirable to have

(II) a large input resistance and a large output resistance

(v) a large input resistance and a small output resistance

(e) a small input resistance and a large output resistance

(d) a small input resistance and a small output resistance

13. X = 01110 and Y = 11001 are two 5-bit binary numbers represented in two's complement format. The sum of X and Y represented in two's complement format using 6 bits is

(a) 100111 (b) 001000

(e) 000111

(d) 101001

14. The Boolean function Y = AB + CD is to be realized using only 2- in put NAND gates.

The minimum number of gates required is

(a) 2 (b) 3

(e) 4 (d) 5

15. If the closed-loop transfer function of a control system is given as

5-5

T (5) = (5+2)(5+3)' then it is (a) an unstable system

(b) an uncontrollable system (e) a minimum phase system

(d) a non-minimum phase system

16. If the Laplace transform of a signal yet) is Yes) =

1

s(s-I)' then its final value is

(a) -1 (e) 1

(/» 0

(d) Unbounded

17. If .R(,) is the autocorrelation function of a real w)~e-sense stationary random process, the~ which of the following is NOT true?

(a) R(-t) '= R( -t) .

(b) I R(,) I s R(O)

(c) R(t) = - R(--'t)

(d) The mean sq I

uare va ue of the process is R(O)

18. If S(j) is the power spectral density of a real, widesense slulion<HY random process, then which 01 the following is ALWA YS true?

(a) 5(0).2. S(j) (b) S(j).2. 0

(el S( -!J== - S({)

"-

(d) J S(f)df = 0

19. A plane wave of wavelength A is travelling in a direction making an angle 30° with positiVe

.r-axis and 90° with positive y-axis. The E field. of the plane wave can be represented as (Eo is a constant)

20.

.( /3, "}

(e) E ==!! Eo e' '·"·Tt+i:'

(d) E = Y Eo /(w'-ix+ ~"'l

If C is a closed curve enclosing a surface 5, then the mag~etic field intensity H, the current density j and the electric flux density fj are related by

(II) ff H .ds == f. (7 + a6 ).di

5 ,at

(/'l J H.ill == #(f + a~ )-dS

c s

(e) #A.ds = J(J + afJ~)·d7

s c

(d) fA-dl = fJ(T + fJ6).dS

c s at

21.

Q.21 to Q. 75 carry two marks each.

It is given that Xl' X2'-----XM are M non-zero, orthogonal vectors. The dimension of the vector space spanned by the 2M vector XI' X2, .... XM' - Xl' -X2' ---- -XM is

(a) 2 M

(b) M + 1

(e) M

(d) dependent on the choice of X X ·--X

I' 2" M

Consider the function (x) == x2 - .r -2. The maximum value of (x) ·in the closed interval

[-4,4] is .

(a) 18 (I>l 10

22.

(e) -2.25

(d) indeterminate

23. An examination consists 01 two papers, Paper I and Paper 2. The probability of f,'iling in Paper 1 is 0.3 and that in Paper 2 is 0_2. Given that a student has failed in Paper 2, the probabihty of failing in Paper 1 is 0_6_ The probability of a

student failing in both the papers is .

(n) 0.5 (11) 0.18

{e} 0.12 (d) 0.06

>

24. The solution of the differential equation k1 d-l; '"

dx

Y - Y2 under the boundary conditions (I) Y = Yl at x = 0 and

(il) Y = Y2 at x '" 00,

where k, Yt and !12 are constants, is (n) Y = (YI - y) exp(-x/k') +v,

(b) Y = (Y2 - Yt) exp(-x/k) + y,

(e) Y'" (YI - !h) sin /J(x/k) + YI

(d) Y'" (Yl - Y2) exp(-x/k) + y,

25. The equation x3 - x2 + 4x - 4 = 0 is to be solved using the Newton-Raphson method. If J: = 2 is taken as the initial approximation of the solu tion, then the next approximation using this method will be

2 (a) - 3

(e) 1

4 (b) 3

3 (d) 2

26. Three functions ft(t),jP) andf,(I), which are zero outside the interval [0, TJ are shown in the figure. Which of the following statements is correct?

,,(I)

T

(II) Nt) andMt) are orthogonal (b) Nt) andf,(t) are orthogonal (t) Nt) andfPl are orthogonal (d) flU) andf,(t) are orthonormal

27. If the semi-circular contour 0 of radius 2 is as shown in the figure, then the value of the integral

f 1

---dsis (s2 -I)

r r

i'"

(a) IN (e) -N

(b) - iN (<J) it

28. Two series resonant filters are as shown in the figure. Let the 3-dB bandwidth of Filter 1 be BI

and that or Filter 2 be 1)2- The value of ~ i'

B, .

Filter I

Fitter 2

(II) 4 1 (e) 2"

(b)

1 (d) 4

29. For the circuit shown in the figure, the Thevenin voltage and resistance looking into X-Yare

In

,,[~,~~ '# ,r~

(II) 4/3 V, 20 (el 4/3 V, 2/3 n

(b) 4 V, 2/3 f.! (d) 4 Y. 2 n

30.

In the circuit shown, Vc is ° volts at t '" 0, sec. For t > 0, the capacitor current i.-(t), where t is in seconds, is given by

20kn ic

l\lV

(11) 0.50 exp(-25t)mA (b) 0.25 exp(-25t)mA (e) 0.50exp(-12.51)mA (d) 0.25 exp(-6.25t)mA

31. ln Ihe AC network shown in the figure, the phasor voltage V AU (in Volts) is

A

(Il) 0

(e) 12.5 L30°

(v) 5 L30° (d) 17 L30°

32. A p' /I junction has built-in potential of 0.8 V. The depletion layer width "I a reverse 1l;~5 of 1.2 V is 2 urn. For a reverse bias of 7.2 V. the depletion layer width will be

(a) 4 urn (v) 4.9 urn

(c) 8 ~Im (d) ]2 um

33. Group I lists four types of p-n junction diodes, Match each device in Group 1 with one of the options in Group II to indica te the bias condition of that device in its normal mode of operation.

Group J Group II

J. Forward bias 2. Reverse bias

P. Zener Diode

Q. Solar cell

R. LASER diode

S. Avalanche Photodiode

(n) P-l. Q-2, R-J, 5-2 (b) P-2, Q-1, a-i. 5-2 (e) P-2. Q-2, R-1, 5-J (d) P-2, Q-1, R-2, 5-2

34. The DC current gain (J3) of a BJY is 50. Assuming that the emitter injection efficiency is 0.995, the

base t r ansp or t facto r is .

(a) 0.980 (b) 0.985

(e) 0.990 (d) 0.995

35. Group I lists four different semiconductor device.

Match each device in Croup I with its characteristic property in Group II.

Group I Group II

P. BJT 1. Population inversion

Q MOS capacitor 2. Pinch-off voltage

R. LASER diode 3. Early effect

S. JFET 4. Flat-band voltage

(aj 1'-3, oi. R-4, 5-2 (b) 1'-2, Q-4, R-3, 5-2 (e) 1'-3,0.4, R-I, 5-2 (d) P-3, Q-2, R-I, 5-4

36. :or the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure, Y" IS

an

tV

(/1) -2 Y (e) - 0.5 V

(b) -1 Y (d) 05V

37. For the BJT circuit shown, assume that the II 01 the transistor is very large and V BE = 0.7 V. The mode of operation of the BJT is

IOkn

2V

10 V

(n) cut-off

(e) normal active

(v) saturation

(d) reverse active

38. In the Op-Amp circuit shown, assume that the diode current follows the equation

I = J, exp (V /VT). For V, = 2 V, V 0 = Y(I)' and for Vi" 4 V, Vo = VIl2. The relationship between Yo

d \' . t

an 02 IS

v

"

(II) V"J= .fjVOI ("'J V 02 = V o: In 2

(v) V 02 = ,;2V 01

(d) VOI=V02=VTln2

39.

In the CMOS inverter circuit shown, if the transconductance parameters of the NMOS and

PMOS transistor are k = k = ~I C W" = !-I C

W~, .r1 P n O.\' Lrr ~ a.l

L = 40 fIA/V2 and their threshold voltages are p

VTJln = VTI-l,. = J V, the current I is

(n) 0 A (e) 45 flA

(b) 25 ItA (d) 90llA

40, ~~~:;~;~~e~ diod~ ~I~wn in the figure. the Zener

negligible an~~~el~e V. the knee c~Hrenl is 10 it If tl . ner dynnmrc reslSlnnce is 16 V' tIle mput voltage (V,) range is from 10 to

, te Olltput voltage (Vo) range from

200 n

G

v'

, ~o

(n) 7.00 to 7,29 V (/I) 7.14 10729 V

(el 7,14 to 7.43 V (d) 7.29 to 7.43 V

The ~O:.lean expression Y = ABC 0 + ABC is + ABC 0 + ABC is can be minimized to

(a) Y == ABC 0 + ABC + A C D

(/I) Y = ABC D + B C is + ABC 0

(e) Y = A lJ C is + BCD + A ij CD

(d) Y = A BCD + BCD + AB C D

42. The circlI.it diagram of a standard TTL NOT gate IS shown In the figu reo When V, = 2.5 V, the modes of operation of the transistor will be

41.

(a) Ql: reverse active; Q2: normal active; Q3: saturation; Q4: cut-off

(b) QJ: reverse active; Q2: sa ru r a tion; Q3: saturation; Q4: cut-off

(e) QJ: normal active; Q2: cut-off: Q,: cut-off; Q4: saturation

(d) Q, : saturation; Q2: saturation; Q~: satura-

tion; Q4: normal active

43. In the following circuit, X is given by

(a) X = ABC + Ii: R C- - -

_ +ABC+ABC

(b) X = Aile + ABC + ABC - - - (e) X = AB + BC + AC ' + ABC

(d) X '" Ii: B + B C + Ii: C

44. The following bi I

X ' l~nry VJ ues were applied 10 the

artd Y inputs at the N "NO I t h sh '

[i, , . a C S Own In the

gure In the sequence indic~ted below:

X = 0, Y = I; X = 0; Y = 0; X = I. Y = I The corresponding stable P. 0 outputs will be

x~. ~r

)'-----=Jl0

(n) P = 1. Q = 0; P = 1. Q = 0

P = I. Q" 0 or P" 0, Q = 1

(IJ) P '" 1. Q = 0; P = 0. Q =1 Or P = 0. Q = 1.

F = 0, Q = 1

(e) p= J.Q=O;P=l,Q= 1; P = 1, Q == 0 or I' == 0, Q = 1 (eI) P=I,Q=O;P=I,Q=I; l'= I,Q= 1

45. For the circuit shown, the counter state (Q1 Qo)

follows the sequence .

(II) 00,01, '10, 11, 00 .. (v) 00,01. 10,00.01 ..

(t) 00,01.11,00, OJ ..

(d) 00,10 .. 11.00, 10 ..

46. An 8255 chip is interfaced to an 8085 microprocessor system as an I/O mapped I/O as shown in the figure, The address lines Ao and A I of the 8085 are used by the 8255 chip to decode internally its three ports and tile Control register.

The address lines A:; 10 A7 as well as the IOrM signal are used for address decoding. The range of addresses for which the 8255 chip would )!,et selected is

0 10 0 '0 A7 82,S
" 4-1l'l-1 1 " 4-10-1 A6
MUX r I;!UX r \' As CS
I] I '2 A4 - AI
o IJ 51 So 0 '.I s, So ~ Ao
101M

.A n C (II) FBH - FBH (e) !OBI-! -FFH

(/1) FBH - FeI-1 (d) FOH - F7H

47. The 3-<.18 bandwidth of the low-pass signal e-' 1/(11, where 1/(1) is the unit step function, is given

by

1

(n) 271 Hz

(cleo

I

(/1) 211 J,fi -lH,

(d) 1 Hz

4S. A Hilbert transformer is a (n) non-Iinear system

(0) non-causal system

(L) lime-varying system (d) low-pass system

49. The frequency response of a linear, time-in variant system is given by

5

H (f) '= . 0 f . The step response of the system

1 + 11 11 •

is

(II) 5 (1 - e -; }(I) (d) ~ (1 - e -~ )u(1)

1

(c) 5" (1 - ~-") 1/(1)

SO. A 5-point sequence xlllJ is given as

x( -3J '= 1, x[-2] '= 1, xl-J J = 0, x[OJ = 5, xlI) = 1. Let X(e'''') denote the discrete-time Fourier

transform of x[n]. The value of ] X(eilO) dw is

(aJ 5 (e) 161l

(b) 101l

(d) 5 + j10"

51.

The z-transforrn X]z] of a sequence X[11J is given by X[z] '= 1 0.5 _I • It is given that the region of

-2z

convergence of X[;:] includes the unit circle. The value of x[O] is

~)-0.5 ~) 0

(e) 0.25

(d) 0.5

52. A control system with a PD controller is shown in the figure. If the velocity error constant K" = 1000 and the damping ratio I; = 0.5, then the values of KI' and Kl) are

r

(al K,> = 100. Kn = 0.09(11) Kl' = 100, K[) = 0.9 (c) K" = 10, Kl) = 0.09 (d) K,. = 10, KI) = 09

53. The tr ansf e r function of a plant is T(s) 5

( 2 1 ' The second-order approxirna-

(5 + 5) 5 + S + 1

tion of T(s) using dominant pole concept is

1 5
(n) (s + 5)(>+ I) (b) (s +5)(5 +1)
5
(el / ... s + 'I (d) 52 + s + 1 54. The open-loop transfer function of a plant is given

1

as G(s) = 52 _ 1 . lf the plant is operated in a unity

feed back c onf ig ur a lion, then the lead compensator that can stabilize this control system IS

(a) 10 (s -I) (b) 10(s+4)
---
s+2 5+2
(c) 10 (>+ 2) (d) l(s + 2)
s + 10 s + 10 55. A unity feedback control system has an open-loop transfer function

G(s) = ( K ) . The gain K for which s =-

S 52 + 75 + 12

I + jl will lie on the root locus of this system is

(n) 4 (c) 6.5

(b) 5.5 (d) 10

56. The asymptotic Bode plot of a transfer function is as shown in the figure. The transfer function G(s) corresponding to this Bode plot is

60

iG(j(J)i(dB)

40

20
0
r1 w
100
-60 dllldi.'Cnde
I
(n) 1 1
(5 + 1) (s + 20) (!J) 5(s+1)(s+20)
(c) 100 100
s(s + 1\ t, .... ?n\ (d) s (~+ 1) (1 + O.OSs) .'ii. 1'1,,: ,,1.1(,' ~I"\<"<' "'·I'fCS<'rl!.lIHm "~I ~ ~q'ilr~!ely ,'xc'lled D\. s.-rvo 11101,ll' d ).'11.1mi(''' is given as

[::;: 1 '" [. -1, I ,]' r ,,' J + [ 0] Ii

---"- -I -10 l'" 10

dt

\I' here (0 is Ihe speed of I he motor i is the armature current and II is the ~rl11at\lI'(~ ~·olt<tge.

C)(s)

The transfer function -,-, of the motor is U(::J

(il) / + Ils+ll

lOs + J 0

(d) ,2 + 5.,."1

58.

In delta modulation, the slope overload distortion can be reduced by

(il) decreasing the step size

(/1) decreasing the granular noise (e) decreasing the sampling rail' (d) increasing the step size

The raised cosine pulse p(l) is used for zero lSI in digital communications. The expression for 1'(1) with unity roll-off factor is given by

sin 411 WI

59.

pet) '" 41tWt(1 _ 16W2t2) . 1

The value of 1,(t) at I,. 4 W is

(a) - 0.5 (e) 0.5

(b) 0 (d) 'Y)

60. In the following scheme, if the spectrum M(j) of m(t) is as shown, then the spectrum Y(j) of !I(t) will be

(a)

r~ r

--Wo --I -:L'\,!-·--;Ait'

-h til· ...

(c)

(d)

61.

Dllri~g transmission over a certain binary comrnurucatton channel, bit errors Occur ~ndependently with probability p. The prcbabiluy of AT MOST one bit in error in a block of II bits is given by

(al p"

(b) 1 - p"

(e) up (1 - p)" - \ + (1 - pJ" (d) 1- (J -p)"

62. In a GSM system, 8 channels can co-exist in 200 kHz bandwidth lIsing TDMA. A GSM based cellular operator is allocated 5 MHz bandwidth,

A . 1

ssummg a frequency reuse lactor of '5' i.e, a

five-cell repeat pattern. the maximum number of simultaneous channels that can exist in one cell

is

(a) 200 (e) 25

(b) 40 (d) 5

63. In a Direct Sequence CDMA system the chip rate is 1.2288 x 10" chips per second. If the processing gain is desired to be AT LEAST 100, the data rate

(n) must be less than or equal to 12.288 x 103 bits

per sec

(/1) m us! be grea tel' than 12,288 x 10J bi Is per sec (e) must be exactly equal to 12.288 x 103 hits per sec

(d) can take any value less than 122.88 x 103 bits per sec

64. An air-filled rectangular waveguide has inner dimensions of 3 cm x 2 ern. The wave impedance of the TE20 mode 01 propagation in the waveguide at a frequency of 30 GHz is (free space impedance flo '" 377 OJ

(~) 308 0 (b) 355 n

(c) 400 n (d) 461 n

65. The H field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in free space is given by

tJ = x s.J3 cos (wI - P2) + .it 110

5

sin

The time average power flow density in Watts is

_2!!__ 100
(,,) (/1)
10() 'h,
(,.) 50 'Io~ (d) 50
'10 66. The E field in a rectangular waveguide of inner dimensions" x /1 is given by

E =' lU~' (.::.) H(J sin (2rrx) sin (rol- j3z) ,9

h ~ 1/ "

where H" is a cO)1s!anl, and nand bare the dimensions along the .r-axis and the y-a x is respectively, The mode of propagation in the w a veguide is (n) rs.,

(e) TM10

(b) TM" (d) TEw

67. A load of 50 (} is connected in shunt in a 2-wire transmission line of 2., =' SO 0 as shown in the figure. The 2-por! scattering parameter matrix (S - matrix) of the shunt element is

(,) [i -\J (b) [~ ~]
(el [-t -\J (d) [-\ -ll 68. The parallel branches of a 2-wir e transmission line are terminated in 100 0. and 200 0 resistors as shown in the figure. The characteristic impedance of the line is 20 = 500 and each section has a

A

length of 2°' The voltage reflection coefficient

r at the input is

7 (Il) - 1'5

-5 (b) 7"

.5 (el i ; 7

5 (d) 7

tOO n

A

6!J. A 2 dipole is kepi hortzonrally at a height ol

I; above a perfectly conducting infinite ground plane. The radiation pattern in the plilne of the dipole (E plane) looks approximately as

(Ilj (I»

!\~

W,

(e)_. rhl' _ ~. (d)

~. r=t=)

70. A right circularly polarized (Rep) plane wave is inciden t at an angle of 60° to the normal. on an air-dielectric interface. If the reflected wave is linearly polarized, the relative dielectric constant 6" is

Rep

linearly pol ari lcd

(Il) .fi (e) 2

(b) ,f3 (d) 3

COMMON DATA QUESTIONS

Common Data for Questions 71, 72, 73 :.

The figure shows the high-frequency capacitancevoltage (C~V) characteristics of a Metal/SiOl/ silicon (MOS) capacitor having an area. of 1 x 10-4 cm2• Assume that the permittivities (ED~r) of silicon and SiO, are 1 x 10-12 .F/cm and 3.5 x 10-D .F / em respectively,

C

~ 7 pF

---ho,-------- v

71. The snte oxide thickness in the MOS capacitor is

(n) SO nrn (b) 14:"1 nm

(c).~50 nrn (d) 1 I~ III

72. The maximum depletion layer width in silicon is

(n) 0.143 pm (i) O.857'lt1l

(e) 1 IIIll (d) J.j43,lnl

73. Consider the following statements about lhe C-V characteristics plot:

51 : The M05 capacitor has ;111 n-type substrate. 52: If positive charges are introduced in the oxide. the C - V plot w it I shift to the left. .

Then which of the fullowing is true?

(n) Both 51 and 52 Me true

(b) Sl is true and 52 is false

(e) 51 is fa lse and 52 is true

(d) Both 51 and 52 are false

Common Data for Questions 74, 75 :

Two 4-ary signal constellations are shown. It is given that 01>1 and 01>2 constitute an orthonormal basis for the two constellations. Assume that the four symbols in both the constellations <Ire

Nu 77.

equipr obable. Let T denote the power

spectral density of whit" Caussian noise.

, I

'",: - /'fa t

CPTOlL.':L.:till:"1 i

74. The ratio 01 the <\vt'r~lge Pllergy oj Constellation 1 to the average energy III Constellation 2 is

(n) 4112 (I,) 4

(e) 2 (d) 11

75. If these consrellanons are used tor dif;ital comrnunications over an AWCN channel, then which of the following statements is true?

(Il) Probability of symbol error tor Constellation I is lower

(b) Probability of symbol error lor Constellation 1 is higher

(c) Probability of symbol error is equal for both the constellations

(d) The value of N" will determine which of the two constellations has a lower probability of symbol error

Consider the Op-Arnp circuit shown ,n the figure.

76. The transfer function V,,(s) V, (,;) IS

(n) l-,RC I+"RC
(II)
1 + sl{C l-'iRe
(e) l-,-;RC (If) I +sRC If V, = V, sin (wt) and V" = V 0 sin (wt + cp), then the minimum and maximum values of 41 (ill radians) MI' respectively

(01) -11/2 and 11/2

(0 -rr and 0

(0) 0 and rr./2 (d) - rr./2 and 0

An 8085 assembly language program is given below

Line I : MVIA. B5H 2: MVI B. OEH "1: XRI69H

5: ANI9BH

6: CPI9FH

7: STA 3010H 8: HLT

78. The contents of the accumulator just ~ fter execution of the ADD instruction in line 4 will be

VI) C3H (e) DC}!

(II) EAH (d) 69H

79. After execution of line 7 of the prognllll. the status of the CY and Z Hags will be

(II) CY '" O. Z = 0 (b) .CY = 0, Z;; I

(c) CY = 'I, Z = 0 (Ii) CY = l, Z = I

Sin temcnt for Linked A nswe!' Questions 80 and 81

Consider a linear system whose state space representation is i (I) '" Ax (I). If the initial

state vector 01 the system is .Y (0) = [ ~2 J ' then

the system response is x(t) = [_~~'~2']

[f the initial slate vector of the system changes to

x (O) = [ ~1 J ' then the system response becomes

80.

The eigenvalue and eigenvector pairs P'"j' v,,) for the system are

(n) (-1, [ ~1]) and (-2, [_12])

(b) (-2'[~1]) and (-1'[_~]) (e) (-1, [ ~1]) and (2, [ ~2 D (d) (-2, [ ~1]) and (1, r ~2 ])

81. The system matrix A is

(b) [~1 ~2] (d) [~2 ~3]

(e) [2 1 ]

-1 -1

An input to a 6-level quantizer has the probability density function I(x) as shown in the figure. Decision boundaries of the quantizer are chosen so as to maximize the entropy of the quantizer output. It is given that 3 consecutive decision boundaries are '-1', '0' and '1'.

--b I I X 5

82. The vJILIes of a and b Me (II) ~=J/6andb",'1112 (b) n = 115 and b '" 3/40 k) II" 1/4 and 0= 1116 (d) ~ = 1;:' and b '" 1/24

83. Assuming that the reconstruction levels of the quantizer are the mid-points of the decision boundaries, the ratio of signal power to quantization noise power is

152

(~)

9 64 {bl 3

76 «:) 3

(iI) 28

In the Digital-to-Analog converter circuit shown in the figure below, Vj( = 10 V and R = 10 kn.

R

R

R

v.

84. The current i is (a) 31.25 ~IA

(b) 62.5 ~IA

(c) 125 >IA

(d) 250 j.lA

85. The vol tage V 0 is (a) - 0.781 V

(b) - 1.562 V

(c) - 3.125 V

(d) - 6.250 V

1. (11) 2. (a) 3. (e) 4. (11) 5. (d) 6. (11) 7. (d) 8. (c) 9. (d) 10. (e)
11. (e) 12. (11) 13. (e) 14. (/1) 15. (d) 16. (11) 17. (e) 18. (/I) 19. (11) 20. (tt)
21. (e) 22. (a) 23. (e) 24. (d) 25. (/J) 26. (/1) 27. (a) 28. (d) 29. (d) 30. (a)
31. (d) 32. (a) 33. (I)) 34. (a) 35. (r) 36. (e) 37. (/I) 38. (d) 39. (d) 40. (c)
41. (d) 42. (b) 43. (n) 44. (e) 45. (a) 46. (e) 47. (11) 48. (n) 49. (b) 50. (b)
51. (d) 52. (b) 53. (e) 54. (a) 55. (d) 56. (d) 57. (11) 58. (d) 59. (e) 60. (a)
61. (e) 62. (/I) 63. (a) 64. (c) 65. (a) 66. (a) 67. (1)) 68. (d) 69. (e) 70. (d)
71. (a) 72. (/1) 73. (e) 74. (b) 75. (/I) 76. (11) 77. (e) 78. (/I) 79. (e) 80. (a)
81. (d) 82. (a) 83·0 84. (b) 85. (e) EXPLANATIONS

1.

where,

var [r] '" cr} = E !(x - f1.Y] fl.r = E [x]

flx = expected or mean value of X

defining

'"

E!X] = J x I, (x)dx

Ix[ ~P(Xi )8(x -Xj)]dX

= Ix, p(x,)

Variance cr} is a measure of the spread of the values of X from its mean ~lx'

2.

E (X] + E (Y] CE[X]

0/ = E ({X - p,)2) E(Xf- p/

E [X2) - E2[XJ

Two points on line are (-1, 0) and (0, 1)

Using relation, and

E (X+ YI

E [eX] '" var [X) '"

on

cr 2 = _,

Hence line equation is,

y=(~:=~:)x+c

y '" x +c y '" x + 1

.".(i)

2 2

! = Jyd.t = J(X+l)dx = % =2.5

I J

(since at x '" 1,!I = 2)

3.

cos If X col' + e-x

coth (x) '" sin IIx = e' _ ~- ...

.r X x)

(:,,_1+-+-+-+ ~ _

- II ~ IJ

x2 X4

1+-+-+----

~ ~

----- - --~--.------

eX _e-x x:;'! xS

1+-+-+----

~ ~

4.

1

or coth (r) = ;:-

(neglecting x2 and higher order)

sin8!2 I' I[Sin8/2J

lim 1m - -----

0 ... 0 ---8- = 0-+0 2 8/2

. .!.[lim sin 8/2] _ .!. = 2 0-+0 e 12 - 2

Y ; fix) X f-- (0, "')

For strictly bounded. 0 s I~~ yl < <n

0"'1 lim yl<<n

O ...... too

5.

or

So,

y = ,._x·2 is strictly bounded

6.

(x-xo)f'(Xo) (X-XO)2 f"(xo)

AI;) '" j{xu) 4- _- 11 + @ + ---

(x_2)2

= ,.--2 +(x-2) (--e-2) + ~ (+e+2) _