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## MBA Program, Dhanmondi Campus

Cost and Management Accounting
Relevant Cost for Decision Making
Exercise-13-8: Bed and Bath, a retailing company has two departments,
Hardware and Linens. A recent monthly contribution format income
statement for the month follows:
Department
Total
Hardware
Linens
Sales
\$ 40,00,000
\$ 30,00,000
\$ 10,00,000
Variable expenses
13,00,000
9,00,000
4,00,000
Contribution margin
27,00,000
21,00,000
6,00,000
Fixed expense
22,00,000
14,00,000
8,00,000
Net operating income ( loss) 5,00,000
7,00,000
( 2,00,000)
A study indicates that \$ 3,40,000 of fixed expenses being charged to
Linens are sunk cost or allocated costs that will continue even if the
Linens Department is dropped. In addition, the elimination of the
Linens Department will result in a 10% decrease in the sales of the
Hardware department.
Required: Should the production and sale of the Linens Department
be
Linens Department is dropped, what will be the effect of the net
operating income of the company as a whole?
Solution:
Contribution margin lost if the Linen Department is dropped:
Lost from the Linen Department ............................................
Lost from the Hardware Department (10% \$2,100,000) .......
Total lost contribution margin ...................................................
Less fixed costs that can be avoided (\$800,000 \$340,000).......
Decrease in profits for the company as a whole .........................

\$600,000
210,000
810,000
460,000
\$350,000

The production and sale of the liens Department not be discontinued. If the
liens Department is discontinued then overall profit of the company will
decrease.
Exercise 13-15: Han products manufactures 30,000 units of part S-6 each
year for use on its production line. At this level of activity, the cost per unit
for part S-6 is as follows:
Direct materials .. \$ 3.60
Direct labor... 10.00
2.40
9.00
Total cost per part
\$ 25.00
An outside supplier has offered to sell 30,000 units of part S-6 each year to
Han Products for \$ 21 per part.If Han Products accept this offer, the facilities
now being used to manufacture part S-6 could be rented to another company
at an annual rental of \$ 80,000. However, Han Products has determined that
two-thirds of the fixed manufacturing overhead being applied to part S-6
would continue even if part S-6 were purchased from the outside supplier.
Required: Prepare computation showing how much profit will increase or
decrease if the outside suppliers offer is accepted.
Solution:
The costs that are relevant in a make-or-buy decision are those costs that
can be avoided as a result of purchasing from the outside. The analysis for
this exercise is:
Per unit differential
cost

30,000

Units
Make
\$ 630,000
Cost of making:
Direct materials
Direct labor
00
Total cost
570,000
\$ 630,000

Make
\$ 21.00

\$ 3.60
10.00
2.40
3.00
\$19.00

\$ 108,000
300,000
72,000
90,0000
\$ 21.00

The \$80,000 rental value of the space being used to produce part S-6
represents an opportunity cost of continuing to produce the part internally.
Thus, the completed analysis would be:
Make
Total cost, as above.........................................
. \$570,000
\$630,000
Rental value of the space (opportunity cost) .......
80,000
...
Total cost, including opportunity cost .................
\$650,000
\$630,000
Net
in
favor
of
..........................
\$20,000
Problem 13-21:
Birth Company normally produces and sells 30,000 units of RG-6 each
month. RG-6 is a small electrical relay used as a component part in the
automotive industry. The selling price is \$ 22 per unit, variable costs are \$ 14
per unit. Fixed manufacturing overhead costs total \$ 1, 50,000 per month,
and fixed selling costs total \$ 30,000 per month.
Employment contract strikes in the companies that purchase the bulk of the
RG-6 units have caused Birch Companys sales to temporarily drop to only
8,000 units per month. Birch Company estimates that the strikes will last for
the two months, after which time sales of RG-6 should return to normal. Due
to the current low level of sales, Birch Company is thinking about closing
down its own plant during the strikes, which would reduce its fixed
manufacturing overhead costs by \$45,000 per month and its fixed selling
costs by 10%. Start-up costs at the end of shutdown period would total
\$8,000. Since Birch Company uses just-in-time (JIT) production methods, no
inventories are on hand.
Required:
1. Assuming that the strikes continue for the two months, would you
recommend that Birch Company close its own plant? Explain, show
2. At what level of sales (in units) for the two-month period should Birch
Company be indifferent between closing the plant or keeping it open?
Show computations.
Solution:
1. Product RG-6 yields a contribution margin of \$8 per unit (\$22 \$14 = \$8). If the plant closes,
this contribution margin will be lost on the 16,000 units (8,000 units per month 2 months) that
could have been sold during the two-month period. However, the company will be able to avoid
certain fixed costs as a result of closing down. The analysis is:

## Contribution margin lost by closing the plant for

two months (\$8 per unit 16,000 units)............ \$(128,000)
Costs avoided by closing the plant for two months:
Fixed manufacturing overhead cost \$45,000 per
month 2 months = \$90,000) ............................. \$90,000
Fixed selling costs (\$30,000 per month 10%
2 months) ............................................................... 6,000
Net disadvantage of closing, before start-up costs .
Disadvantage of closing the plant .........................

96,000
(32,000)
8,000
\$ (40,000)

No, the company should not close the plant; it should continue to operate at the reduced level of
8,000 units produced and sold each month. Closing will result in a \$40,000 greater loss over the
two-month period than if the company continues to operate. An additional factor is the potential
loss of goodwill among the customers who need the 8,000 units of RG-6 each month. By closing
down, the needs of these customers will not be met (no inventories are on hand), and their
business may be permanently lost to another supplier.
2. Birch Company will be indifferent at a level of 11,000 total units sold over the two-month
period. The computations are:
Cost avoided by closing the plant for two months
(see above) .................................................................. \$96,000
Less start-up costs ...................................................
8,000
Net avoidable costs ..................................................
\$88,000
Net avoidable cost
= \$88,000 =
Per unit contribution margin
\$8 per unit

The End

11,000 units