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𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

= +
𝒇 𝒅𝒐 𝒅𝒊

𝒅𝒊 =
(𝒅𝒐 − 𝒇)

𝒅𝒐 =
(𝒅𝒊 − 𝒇)

𝒅𝒊 × 𝒅𝒐
A: Real, Inverted, Smaller, Between C and F 𝒇=
B: Real, Inverted, Same size as object, At C (𝒅𝒐 + 𝒅𝒊 )
DENSER MEDIUM=increased speed
C: No image, Reflected rays are parallel
D: Virtual, Erect, Larger than object, Behind mirror 𝒅𝒊 𝒉𝒊
Depth Shallow Deep 𝑴= =
Wavelength Short Long 𝒅𝒐 𝒉𝒐
Speed Slow Fast
𝐷𝑡 ‫ג‬1 𝑣1 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃1 𝐶
= = = = = 𝑛𝐴
𝐷𝑎 ‫ג‬ 𝑣2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃2 𝑣 𝟏
2 Optical power/ Lens Power
REFLECTION 𝑛𝐴1 × sin 𝜽𝟏 = 𝑛𝐴2 × sin 𝜽𝟐 𝒅𝒊 = 𝒅𝒗 = 𝒗 = 𝒅𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆
Angle of incidence =Angle of Refration
𝜽𝟏 = 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒
𝒅𝒐 = 𝒅𝒖 = 𝒖 = 𝒅𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒐𝒃𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕
REFRACTION (transmission)
𝜽𝟐 = 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒
𝒉𝒊 = 𝒉𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃2 𝑣2 𝑪 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑚(𝑎𝑖𝑟)
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃1 𝑣1 𝒉𝒐 = 𝒉𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒐𝒃𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕
𝒗 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 (1𝑠𝑡) Critical Angle-Denser medium to lighter medium
𝒏𝑨 = 𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝒎

Direction of propagation 𝟏
𝒗𝟏 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 Medium to air 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝒄 = 𝒏
the direction in which the energy is travelling
𝒗𝟐 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚
Wavelength 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝒉 𝒏𝑨𝑳
distance between to poimts in phase 𝑫𝒕 = 𝑇𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡𝑕 = 𝒏𝒓 = 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝒄 =
distance between 2 successive crests 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝑳 𝒏𝑨𝒉
𝑫𝒂 = 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡
𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝒉 = 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚
DENSER MEDIUM=bends toward the normal and
slower speed for electromagnetic waves 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝑳 = 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚

𝒏𝒓 = 𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒

𝒏𝑨𝑳 = 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚

𝒏𝑨𝒉 = 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚

Typical tranverse wave CONVEX-bi convex-CONVERGING
c. Magnified, inverted, real, Di is pos, f is pos Wavelengths decrease
d. Magnified, upright, virtual, Di is neg, f is pos Refracts more
As an object moves toward F the image increases in size critical angle decreases
frequency increases

Wavelength of light in a denser medium

𝝀𝒉 =

For string with mass(m) and length(L) under

tension(F), the speed of the wave is given by
a. Diminished, upright, virtual, Di is neg, f is neg 𝒎
ALWAYS-Virtual, Erect, Smaller than object
Behind mirror between F and V b. Diminished, upright, virtual, Di is neg, f is neg
Mark Riley
All measurements are made from the optical centre of
Di or f is negative
the lens