Investigating Redox Reactions

Mark Riley

Introduction

Redox reactions are oxidation-reduction reactions which are complementary chemical reactions characterised by the loss or gain, respectively, of one or more electrons by a substance.

Task

Practical Report

Aim

To determine the redox reaction that has taken place after mixing some common oxidants and reactants.

Procedure

This experiment has been split into 7 parts. A separate procedure for each test is given. Also- See page 6 of the Practical Activities handbook

Equipment

Safety glasses, test tube rack, 7 test tubes, reagents in dropping bottle

Mark Riley 3107631608

Investigating Redox Reactions

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The 𝐸 0 given for each half and overall equations have been highlighted as they are only hypothetical values o (eg. if one mole of each was used, at 25 c, oxidation and reduction separated etc in a voltaic battery)

1. Reaction of acidified hydrogen peroxide with iron sulphate

5 drops of 𝐻2 𝑂2 , 5 drops of 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 and 10 drops of 𝐹 𝑆𝑂4 were added to a test tube. 1 drop of 𝑒 KSCN was added and as a result the solution turned blood red indicating the presence of 𝐹𝑒 3+. 𝐻2 𝑂2 has a higher oxidising strength (oxidant) and 𝐹𝑒 2+ has a higher reducing strength (reductant) ∴ the 𝐹𝑒 2+ was oxidized and 𝐻2 𝑂2 was reduced according to the following equation. 𝐹𝑒

2+ β†’ 𝐹𝑒 3+ + 𝑒

Γ—2

βˆ’ 0.77V + 1.78V βˆ†V = 1.01V 𝐻

2 𝑂2 + 2𝐻 + + 2𝑒 β†’ 2𝐻2 𝑂 𝐻2 𝑂2 + 2𝐻 + + 2𝐹𝑒 2+ β†’ 2𝐻2 𝑂 + 2𝐹𝑒 3+

2. Reaction of acidified hydrogen peroxide with potassium iodide

5 drops of 𝐻2 𝑂2 , 5 drops of 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 and 10 drops of 𝐾𝐼(white crystalline solid, colourless in solution) were added to a test tube. 3 drops of starch were added turning the solution blue-black indicating the presence of iodine 𝐼2 . 𝐻2 𝑂2 has a higher oxidising strength (oxidant) and 𝐼 βˆ’ has a higher reducing strength (reductant) ∴ the πΌβˆ’ was oxidized and 𝐻2 𝑂2 was reduced according to the following equation.

2πΌβˆ’ β†’ 𝐼2 + 2𝑒

βˆ’ 0.54V + 1.78V βˆ†V = 1.24V 𝐻

2 𝑂2 + 2𝐻 + + 2𝑒 β†’ 2𝐻2 𝑂 𝐻2 𝑂2 + 2𝐻 + + 2πΌβˆ’ β†’ 2𝐻2 𝑂 + 𝐼2

Mark Riley 3107631608

Investigating Redox Reactions

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3. Reaction of acidified potassium permanganate with iron(II)sulphate

3 drops of 𝐾𝑀𝑛𝑂4 , 6 drops of 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 and 20 drops of 𝐹𝑒𝑆𝑂4 were added to a test tube. The βˆ’ solution was initially purple but then turned colourless indicating that the 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 had been reduced to 𝑀𝑛2+. 1 drop of KSCN was added and as a result the solution turned blood red indicating the presence of 𝐹𝑒 3+.
βˆ’ 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 has a higher oxidising strength (oxidant) and 𝐹𝑒 2+ has a higher reducing strength βˆ’ (reductant) ∴ the 𝐹𝑒 2+ is oxidized and 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 is reduced according to the following equation. 𝐹𝑒

2+ β†’ 𝐹𝑒 3+ + 𝑒

Γ—5

βˆ’ 0.77V + 1.51V βˆ†V = 0.74

βˆ’ 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 8𝐻 + + 5𝑒 β†’ 𝑀𝑛2+ + 4𝐻2 𝑂

βˆ’ 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 8𝐻 + + 5𝐹𝑒 2+ β†’ 𝑀𝑛2+ + 4𝐻2 𝑂 + 5𝐹𝑒 3+

4. Reaction of acidified potassium permanganate with potassium iodide

3 drops of 𝐾𝑀𝑛𝑂4 , 6 drops of 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 and 20 drops of 𝐾𝐼(white crystalline solid, colourless in solution) were added to a test tube. The solution was initially purple but then turned colourless βˆ’ indicating that the 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 had been reduced to 𝑀𝑛2+. 3 drops of starch were added turning the solution blue-black indicating the presence of iodine 𝐼2 . A precipitate was also present.
βˆ’ 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 has a higher oxidising strength (oxidant) and 2πΌβˆ’ has a higher reducing strength (reductant) βˆ’ ∴ the 2𝐼 βˆ’ is oxidized and 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 is reduced according to the following equation.

2πΌβˆ’ β†’ 𝐼2 + 2𝑒

Γ—5

βˆ’ 0.54V Γ—2 + 1.51V

βˆ’ 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 8𝐻 + + 5𝑒 β†’ 𝑀𝑛2+ + 4𝐻2 𝑂

βˆ’ 2𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 2 Γ— 8𝐻 + + 5 Γ— 2πΌβˆ’ β†’ 2𝑀𝑛2+ + 2 Γ— 4𝐻2 𝑂 + 5𝐼2 βˆ’ 2𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 16𝐻 + + 10πΌβˆ’ β†’ 2𝑀𝑛2+ + 8𝐻2 𝑂 + 5𝐼2

βˆ†V = 0.97

Mark Riley 3107631608

Investigating Redox Reactions

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5. Reaction of acidified potassium dichromate with potassium iodide 2 drops of 𝐾2 πΆπ‘Ÿ2 𝑂7 , 6 drops of 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 and 15 drops of 𝐾𝐼 (white crystalline solid, colourless in solution) were added to a test tube. The orange solution turned blue/green indicating that the 2βˆ’ πΆπ‘Ÿ2 𝑂7 had been reduced to πΆπ‘Ÿ 3+. 3 drops of starch were added turning the solution blue-black indicating the presence of iodine 𝐼2 .
2βˆ’ πΆπ‘Ÿ2 𝑂7 has a higher oxidising strength (oxidant) and 2πΌβˆ’ has a higher reducing strength 2βˆ’ (reductant) ∴ the 2πΌβˆ’ is oxidized and πΆπ‘Ÿ2 𝑂7 is reduced according to the following equation.

2πΌβˆ’ β†’ 𝐼2 + 2𝑒

Γ—3

βˆ’ 0.54V + 1.23V βˆ†V = 0.69V

2βˆ’ πΆπ‘Ÿ2 𝑂7 + 14𝐻 + + 6𝑒 β†’ 2πΆπ‘Ÿ 3+ + 7𝐻2 𝑂 2βˆ’ πΆπ‘Ÿ2 𝑂7 + 14𝐻 + + 6πΌβˆ’ β†’ 2πΆπ‘Ÿ 3+ + 7𝐻2 𝑂 + 3𝐼2

6. Reaction of iron(III)chloride with acidified hydrogen peroxide

5 drops of 𝐹𝑒𝐢𝑙3 , 5 drops of 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 and 5 drops of 𝐻2 𝑂2 were added to a test tube. 1 drop of KSCN was added, the colour of the solution was unchanged indicating that no 𝐹𝑒 3+ was present. The solution fizzled indicating a the release of oxygen gas 𝑂2 . 𝐹𝑒 3+ has a higher oxidising strength (oxidant) and 𝐻2 𝑂2 has a higher reducing strength (reductant) ∴ the 𝐻2 𝑂2 is oxidized and 𝐹𝑒 3+ is reduced according to the following equation. 𝐹𝑒

3+ + 𝑒 β†’ 𝐹𝑒 2+

Γ—2

+ 0.77V βˆ’ 0.70V βˆ†V = 0.07V 𝐻

2 𝑂2 β†’ 𝑂2 + 2𝐻 + + 2𝑒 𝐻2 𝑂2 + 2𝐹𝑒 3+ β†’ 𝑂2 + 2𝐻 + + 2𝐹𝑒 2+

Mark Riley 3107631608

Investigating Redox Reactions

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7. Reaction of acidified potassium permanganate with hydrogen peroxide

3 drops of 𝐾𝑀𝑛𝑂4 , 6 drops of H2 𝑆𝑂4 and 10 drops of 𝐻2 𝑂2 were added to a test tube. The solution fizzled indicating the release of oxygen gas 𝑂2 .
βˆ’ 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 has a higher oxidising strength (oxidant) and 𝐻2 𝑂2 has a higher reducing strength βˆ’ (reductant) ∴ the 𝐻2 𝑂2 is oxidized and 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 is reduced according to the following equation. 𝐻

2 𝑂2 β†’ 𝑂2 + 2𝐻 + + 2𝑒

Γ—5

βˆ’ 0.70V Γ—2 + 1.51V

βˆ’ 𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 8𝐻 + + 5𝑒 β†’ 𝑀𝑛2+ + 4𝐻2 𝑂

βˆ’ 2𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 2 Γ— 8𝐻 + + 5𝐻2 𝑂2 β†’ 2𝑀𝑛2+ + 2 Γ— 4𝐻2 𝑂 + 5𝑂2 + 5 Γ— 2𝐻 + βˆ’ 2𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 16𝐻 + + 5𝐻2 𝑂2 β†’ 2𝑀𝑛2+ + 8𝐻2 𝑂 + 5𝑂2 + 10𝐻 + βˆ’ 2𝑀𝑛𝑂4 + 6𝐻 + + 5𝐻2 𝑂2 β†’ 2𝑀𝑛2+ + 8𝐻2 𝑂 + 5𝑂2

βˆ†V = 0.81

Conclusion Redox reactions were balanced in the form of chemical equations by arranging the quantities of the substances involved so that the number of electrons lost by one substance is equaled by the number gained by another substance. In redox reactions, the substance losing electrons (undergoing oxidation) is a good electron donor, or reductant because lost electrons are given to and reduce the other substance. The other substance that gained electrons (undergoing reduction) is an electron acceptor, or oxidant. Hydrogen peroxide was capable of acting as a reductant as well as an oxidant.

Mark Riley 3107631608

Investigating Redox Reactions

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