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READ and S,PR.B,AD Your P,afleT' The

ntis,'Wffk:ly D.eWsp:I,per rep(!tIt'Qi boW' f.:iI:~Il"& ,;He' dra,w,liilllg dMer to,getl,.er liio ,PI'IlI<Ctlct their' homes; :and! the~r JirvingsnndamJSi

AU f,!I:Ir,me'rs w,iHto stam :flD'r 'I1ruty ,Will :ilIIiCUQD $b~1.dd :IillUlhsel'tk 'ito dle

FARMER.S NAT:IONAL WEEKLY

....... - ..... iiii,iiii -US'1iI I'IHIs C!.)'UJ:i>ON'''' .... - ..............

F,!nill!nl:nN'at;lI!JlJ'ulI~ W~kly l:8:! '1 .l'louJ~h Loo.mi. St:rl!l!i:: (:lhk",gg,~~I+

P,II.'a!R S'i!'.Ild, m.c. dt., iE';a,r.m""r>ll N=ari:iiltl:!J, WuklyifOf,!!!I"

o 'ru, ye;:II~ 0 if]X 1n!lklUb.. 0 !t'_bIr>M ,I:!1ODl'luI

~ cD,;;:I!!I!le 0" 1,,5 I) 0 .;\!I'!) D .51'1

,A J;olI"JI!'JlI .. _ .... __ , , _ _ ".'"'' __ , , , .. , , _ , , , __ .... .... ' ••••••

BY

All ESCAPED pal'SOIlI,R PRlelSe

· HARVARD I UN~vERSIT'y liBRARY ,,:PIl 25 11945

,S'TRIKE A BLIQW

Against Inc:reasing Fascist T',erl',or

in Germany

G rlH:l1i ·....,o,rkGlfl!j, IU",;£mio[l ·'1. &011 mid-d.I. ",i.Ii, , .. 'I' fannin JilIn \llCli.ema· th~lr·illp.pOJjt!11;1!], ~o· the mdu 1.1:ii:li.n ra;Bmw !l!J nl2' ,I1L'-!ltl!llV ;rtl.l,m·bil:l;i'ii. Bltl!l!.r-~ .1~Q'I\1'~ Sh.l·rla hi! - Incrl' d d~~r

, II' 11'1 !Cution fOlrt.un .It'!lit!! ~.,:r-;rot.

Tit Nni cl Cllill, II! i.bli.'MnJl: ,hi!! uV(!lk,gll,rl",ht·'_. !lJ1~i-:Il~I~t ri! ~ynck tfibwiillj I-.mlm I to ;fItu r.ill!!f' '~b"'i:!I.Ddlll of liiln,I,.ii' u:i,.;tl in l.";olU)lI!nrt.ruioo ~!liIflP'1 iLl'L' P~I!Q(IU.

~1t,.iJNlti""f,aft;J.d;~ ·mud' tltUJi! i:Hi ',,0,1 ,t /1.nU 9'b;rnit";;m to th~· '!'II 'Iii wa~c 01 t"""(11 F iJli G~iI-,1

All' IJ",[U-/r¥fd~t' 'WitSl 1m,,, 5:aV~ tlJ~ JiVll'1 10,1 linn' hr-D.fh~I·' in Gi)'-rm4-RY,'

Ra:h,c )iOrni" 1I'oJ.crll':S:, mrObJt~iZ'i! mllll-.UI'" ,olf ~,~ lo,p.,/atio8 01 tht: IV.itt," 'Stcrt.f (lRJJimt I'M;~JiHg atnJdU!II, a'g~'~t th "V'olJu.gl'''''tht J~ 111)* t'h'~ lih 1"~,t'QNl fJf "d' ,~nti .. lalre-~·-,t fj'rif,O'IL'£ii'J m Hitt;:;J.~ la~fd

F.DE EltNS!l 'THELMANN

WM e :til~ is, in immcdii1l'iil:i Ida.m.lll!ld

PO L\!I I),WllC 1Rf,~N',. Cui. \'o.n Ollijj'l;~YI illoilt: 'frm:t:lh!l' !!ond. hlllttiJlI'!I!dll ·of ''l.il:ifil-I, 5.ocldbu. TlI'iUlJ .. , 'Unlo.nl ,. Intil~ ;:C·UIl .... Comm'lmllIy, 1"W'~ .:ad! [Q'h,1i '1t'1In' iiOW ~I tortl.! - bel 'rhJ ll/f til. Nui, '1i:!lIIilJti:1t>I'I

J"'~'" tbe 1.I'1I:UD:rii-,ty~iI.lI' mOVtlWLlIJ'l,t rIiI,gtd\MIf frudrm

••

W-rli-" IGiF 'b~ ."r;rJl~M _/ III.;U..u • .RiI,!!!dl f~IN:d, ~'IU

NAUQNAIL CI)MMJI. :Tfll. TO J!;J'O VIC'UM'5, 011 'GE!RMAN 1F"':SCmSM

w

AD llIJ

II4iTBIlN . TlON AL LA'IJOR Ji)11!:1l?E. BlE,

I'I.U G .... II ill 1 Til i'llI'll _liT. N, 'IiI1' l"n~", I r'

S~N~EN]IUR[G is O]1~o'" (nan), COlitc~ .. tlt~Mi!on c.ilmps in _.. N a2l Genn:,'lflry. We ha V'l! hea 'I'd OOl11et hllllg (lif Dachau. 5~chs;I2I1'berg, FuliJ.'l:s~1Jit!:tt .~. I a.l~be·l'g~ Di5!!11.1'U~ R~·k]il:lg'ha.'IIJI" sen, N eusenstrum, 08i1::ha·~'eil1l,. Neust']d:t. BUlefg' ·fttUiliCD>r a~d other fascist heUs ..

Hler'e we: ltilvlf,. 31iiL ins'ide pidure (ii,~ SOfliJumburg, a day-tu;;;; dFl}' Ir~cgrcl bom 11112 ti'liiJlle i,t was opl,}J]cd as a oonceflltrn:tio!ll. cam~l1, We. see :G. lo:m_g procession o,f CoMmunists, social ... demeerars, pacifists Jews, Catho1ic ,Olnd Prete UUI.t d'i;;: to'~ worker,,, and prof.~ssi,omd8 of variou' poUUcal belief ether than NOI:zi!3fD:l, c'oming to 50m~"l:1Llnl'rg, Some are 'ldUeci. A row iiIli"e released, But the ov·erw}leblling numb 'f ~tiU soft' r icrl"tu'U'e' ri~~liltg the 'Ill tn~"al illq1!Jisiti'on. .. J 'r.- are the facts:,. wdthm bY'lm ,eye witness.

fter reading this r- _:or« of ' o!menb~r'g, the, mcsss ."9, from Ithe Il,isclltn. WAeJifl ~rl'fi t Thaelmann is heM" from the C 11.1pS wl'lIcre the writer L'II1dwig Retlfl and the wacifi!!lt V(!!1mJ o 's:i~sky' a e im.c~TCef3,te,d. 'become ::JImamIDini1Y cl~ar i E!'tlat Thaetlnanf """:IS so bDdl:r beat n "IV lth steel whips and tor .. 'tur-"d with olh"li Nazi h~"!II mtiens i'm tte dreaded Columbia H'1Il!J.SC; thilt Jor days. ~'!.[~ cou]d I~~idl r sit noli' 'Iie: d·Qwtli., The ~U& of niii' ~'lI reie 1eil.tL~r 'I)'f 'ill, G 'rrniln work"'f:!! jiS in grave:

dallge~'" .

Freedom W8S, \'VOIl fa r DilH'itrt;J<~f'f Til ne if :lnd Popn ff. l"hJ.!

Soviet Union off 'Cd these '1ul!S';~'rhl'ns, c;,tiZt~n:d ip, flj)'~t1i!; ·t!l~ N ~:ni!! II) release them. Wodd pro 61 l:d~yoo n ba~i'!! p ·ut in fO'rdng' their acqu:ittt1i[ at the Releh it if 'Iii.re trial. Turg .. IH. a] 0 !l!.Cquitt d in the tda', ~. t-m in pri on. Th ~ tr] 1

3,

(rf Ernst Tha.e1J'lii1.aJ'IIl,n win open, any dAy 'II1ow. WoTld protest can forte the N aZ]:!i t,o, cease their diabolic torture and release r rom concentration '~ifMlpS ,. nd pri.Slor:Jis Thael m t],111l a 1!Id thnu .. Sflrl,ds of anti- b!1.Cists I

TIl 220tlli.tl'i· s, Natlona] O:mlllmitt es to Aid Vict]!ilrns of GCllrmEll:l 'rtsr;i[il1Wl 'l1aVle been organ~2ed. The World Commltree 11 dquarters are in Paris, Lord Marley·, n-ptlty speaker Q:f t'i'il,e British ,,;Io!l~!le o,fl.or<ls, is its chairman - and Professor Fra!lc-is Jourdain is its trea urer,

A d1.j]dr~n"'· lin,om@. hilS been established :~n M~i on Laffitte. .-1 Tis, and ::3.\ tr ns l'er ~tnt ion for ci1li·ld~·eflifll SM. '1"hrueken, At Matson Laffin.- ~ the committee (fires feu' the orphans of I .11:'I('r terror. Hundreds of Germans, hounded by the Na:r.is., cannot' leep I,wice under the same root, The cornrni tt e pmvi des homes lor ~$ l;n1~:ri,y of thei'!' C llii klren as bmd' P r'mit,

In th Unit d States" the N a ;t;!ol],aL ~'1I'lJ1iIht e to Aid Victims 0 [ Gefm~m ~ ascism W4ll'l Oli'gani sed IOn a br ad nni'ttl:::d 'f runt ba-sls! tQof~utlm.er this work,

Two of the affiliate I organizations, ar th{> haem atiena I Laber D ·hllse i1li1.!tl the Wll~kef,!!l' llilllerll1latiollal Relie],

The Int ·!"n3;llo]ilo.l Labor D fense, A'l:nerlCl'I:llcr;:t:,Ofl of t he 1111 ernation ul 1R,~d Aid" f~'In'11cl:J;l1:!1 as the "shield 0 iF the wort iug class '~ has be -om - a r ill force ·iTl Ill'~M'ing interns~ ional work ing c13'!tS solidEli'r~ly in the fiJght ·~cui ust f aseism and f', r th, defenSi and enlargement of the Jc:l'nocrati:c ri ~~l'l:s of the wOlJrldililig class,

L teaclersh\p in til, I ~,J nse .lflU gl. tnlliil: arms . out of III e resi illtfi'tlC'.e oI lite 111aS~e A i);r£ 'peGl:pl.e '~O starvaelerr, repres",iom and ex p[,oi'hdion I' est.flbtmshed.

Saeeo and Val'! i'J!:ttti" M OO'l1Icy. Scottsboro, Ee r.lfli::1IiJ1rm. Mac-· :,'ullE1irL-th S! arc ,il few .(, the campaigns that stand out

4

in the hi.s,to'ry of tile I.L.D., whose ntnlt~i1L an'll'livcr:mry emnfls on ] ll.1,e 28 '9(34· . I •

The I.L:n, 1:S all 'Oll"ga'fllilIitiol1 of c]ass stnlggle (,01" de ..

hn~ of the d IDocratic: 11'ight. o~ the working claas, ~n(l ag-:9.i.n1'!lt smte terror; Jim CrO'wistu; oppressioa, p rs.e:-l~tioti ani lync11'iIlg of tlu~ 'N eg rn peol),I~1 in def~llse of '~I~,el r' '11:"'tional liber~tion struggles. and those o:i 'til CC[OI'lI~ and sC[1,1,i-=e6iol1i'es of limp eriali sm.

'Th ~ \¥ orkers i Internati nal Re~id 'I. as nr . uize ~ leu

years a:g:o nrnund this three poi~d program: .. .

L olidari.ty ~n.d ai to 'rhi'" SliilU:gg~.,es of tnknt~ and un-

'mplo,y d ·wMrkers. ... .

:2. To fight agal~1t1t m~sery and s,'Utf'l{,a,tlon of working

class ch~M'ret.ll.

3. T··, LI'f11.i'te n "ih borhood fOF 1;1,"ighJ rho d weir arc.

The VJ.I. 1: J{.. has bdptil. in !l;~1i'i.ke:s from ecast to ' oest, r~1 saic, I ittsbn.ugh, G~,stOlniill, ~ _ntu~~1' m~n.ois.; Caliiomi~, by rnobilbdfig worket:il all£:1 It:hcilL". o't"!laJlI! ~at~ ons to provide f nd for strikers . nd th :if bmm s.

Th@ V!.f(D'rktlrs' Inlbcrnalim.1·@J[ Relief u.r.liit~~ n~igh'bQrtlOQd

by fighti'ug cco,non'l!i -1:1 pr,o j e· illed. by city ad tMll1li strations ill salli1atiol~1, c:1i'ullicaJ services, bm~!:i'i~.g. t lIitn;t "'9 WQirkcrs" fa. n~lies[ or t'h '1; 'I;;I far Ii) E' tali! ne1.ghborhood, ,lenlallding f,t"ee' Illii!k ,for bBihicfiH f, e lum::h~5 'for sehool children, free IIiW 'Ii. al .In ntion fOrr· 'tl1' sick. bettte:r.' ani la.;~ioll. and luou.slncg.

T'~l,C .\"/" .R., sta nds for all (or'mil 0.1 soejal in urance and '"'Jl~dBll~y for u'l1.cmp'loylt'il, ·l1It i~l1~t1'mnu"e.

To hlf[fl, 'f' the wo 'k o,E the National otTuniUe.e to Aid Vicnms of Lierman 'Fasci.slll, of whic~l tloth orga1!iliz~ti.on~ :il!'1! an active psrt, the I,L.D. and th~~ vv.r]t. iJrr JoinUy 1l1l'inting this record 01 S-onnct'l.buli"g.

Tblc rca let iii! ur d to 'p. ss an thi!:i parwpldct aft I· h' hu rC;lG It. Let tht!, fJct ~e known I Expose Hit1cr"s, 'heM-

S

holes! Jo,iftL tll@ United Front ag,ainst fascism! An aid to the vi.dims olf German bsdsm:!

Worbrst Intanatiooali, Relief 8,0 Broadway" New York aty~ Int:(lJrnationaJ bOOr' Defense 80 East I nh St., New York City,.

~ -'---""'Y'""'"

I • "'·~T_-_ II

AUTHOR'S, INTRODUCTION

THE warld has seem ·m!!i.ny s.can,dlats. gre3lt p't1b~ic, scandals"

- - sucl1 as the Dreyfus :affair, the Murder 'illf Jean Ja,ures'l 'tit!! legal murder of Sacroo and V:;ui~ettffi. the Rle~ehstag tir-e trial, all ,of which a:re the ~prnssioJili of eertain epochs afilld olf cl!'l"tainsocial and poHtkal ronditiilli'l;S~ But iill fh~ spring ,of 1933 tllil.elN~ began a ,sca'l1,da~ whose savagery surpasses anyt,hing that 'the modern era has. wit!i:t.lessed Werei,er to the p@iI"eswilition of the k'lllpless political lJ.risonets of (ie,many, who are being tuarttJred o'l![trag~ously by ther,ascist Ger.man government i~ pdsons" cOllcentra:LioftL camps., barracks andponoe stations, For mooths and. moaths men, and women have been subjected 'to mentaim and phys[cal torture that ma.;y' be compared ~o a. slaw' vivisectlo:im~

G.nmany was once ea'l]edthe. fatlterlaod of pods, adenfists and scholars, The ~OIilUltry where 'G a e'l:hfl: , Scbillu, Wagner ,and. Beethoftn ll ved and. ereated, where .sd~iIi1.tific progress was (lJdmiredi and 'imitaUd by the S'Cbo~f.s and scientists ,of '1::11:12 'rest a;f the ·world.. has become 'the OOUili1.hy 'of whips and gaUows~ wheJle an in·fcrnaJ physical .and psyehological terror reigns, where raelal ehauvlnism is rampant, where J@W's are perseeuted and ex~[ed.. where every enemy of Hitler is menaced hY' death ;at. the iIlands '0'[ the Nazis.

The greatest illilve~to,:rs .Elnd SClentislbs, 'Some t6dpients {If the Nobd pr1:l)e, ar,e driven out. T~e statue ali Heinrich H ci_ne, the a1lilt.hor of the most beautiful German iolk-SG~s, is demclisbed because Hclfiri.ch Heine was a Jew.

The tONlOO of Ferdinand Lassal!]e and Ku;11 Eh;mer are l"u-ed! b,y commando! Hider and Goob'b@ls" who· have even glorified the memory of the murderers {) £ Walte.r R~the~~u.

Mr. Ge<ebbrils. who once invi~d the wo:rldl 'tOI BI'n ~iO].yRl-

'I

piad 0:[ the IM[nndU I burns in huge bonfir'es the greatest masterpleees of Germ:J!;A ~~ terary :aJ'l!lLd scie1]t ifie WOfi<'.!l. N azi Sihtder.trt.s Co]L~bo'r,a!te with him in .tile destruction of- everyfhiflilg 'not eontained or. c'()Pit.3i1.l!3.hl wirthin 'the harbil-r'ic p:ro= gram 'crf "the "Brown Cossacks"',

Brig.uuls, adventurers, depe-f nds, I) fl.', rts of all k'nc:ls ,-dnese are the rulers of Germany of today, Men o:F: rhe calibre ,of the Li!euten~~t.s .sc~m~tz and Hcinif9. traitors of their own class and murderers 0'£ their 0''''''1'1, comrades, :IiI,OW have' impolLta:f1t go vern:nflt.l.e nital pe sl ti.on a:s Chiefs o'f Police and as lIil"igh State funetlcnaries, It ls ao wonder dHti a, IGermany ruied by ~dv'el1h.trel'a.incen~iarles awl c.ha.IU"~iI:1istic Ill! I itarists, has 'thrown :ifltJO pll"'i.so:iW!lI' ~!I;lj.d. c~l'IItration cam.ps more than 1 SOo,ooo. mCI:1 and women who are ag-ainst the

Iasel .

asci st !"e,g' me.

Our fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters, 'flesh ,of: our fI.~ 'h, lloQlj of em.1I" blood, ha'\l' been driven like wild beasts inlG eaptivity .. Tn '1 have been 11crded in~ couneless pnsous 'because they struggloo aga'iTlis·t Win: all{1 f asclsm, because ideo]ogl, aUy or r.tt!icia.lly lb."'Y did nut conform to the mold of the N,0]z,i:s. Workers, doctors, la WYCI"SI w ri tel'S, Jews, padfists, Comm uaists, Soda 1~S1Sj even 'Protest alit m;ilfiister:; I3iltld Catholi.c priests, 8.nlti-fa&cns1s of any tendeJilcy-a11 t;hosewho refuse to, 1he .srt-.a!l1lda rdised by the swastika-;ue the victim s of the azi.s,

Vern Fign er wrote a book, III moirs ,at .a. R,t!1)'OII~,'i()"ri.st~ lim'll ,\ih~ ell she dese rllbcs fh~ di a bo]id; toetu res practiced in prisons o,i the o](i Tsarist rcgim@'. Bnr these tortures we're nothing compared . to the ~:mlventio!1 ,0 £ the Thi rd Reich of Adol f H itler. 1 i in mJly aooQ'L~IJII!t o ~ t~e tortures '0'( the Sonnenburg prison, I mentioa but i'eW of the name of my eomrades, it i'!'I b~ci."lu:!>~ dread die crUf!ll'tles 11:11511 the inmates would undergo as. a consequence olf my lIT\~v,chttllon5,

8

THE .sONNENBUiRS, TORTURE CAMlr

The ;P~laiglu~ iilltt So,nnnhur'g

I ,".' AS one 0"( the b.'II,~iI1d:reds of t~'O"US:aillilds. ~)'f pdso[].ers iln

, c.-1~. ti"'ity under the rule o,f Hitter. Foil' seven rnontus I ''t,''iI 1!'.~ a prisoner's ll:1mifoltn"l. in t1lLe oonce:ImJtl'ation camp o,i $crm]elJllullI'g (N eumark) , Here, ID 111ml'd t~'iek diol.'l ble waUs" about one tho"t~sand pol'itiiC<'"II] prisoners are inrnrC!Cllr~tGd." It was b}f ,3 b:u::ky chanee that I succeeded in e.gca~lltlg horn this pl ace, whlc~ in G~r!llany has earned the gru:e.som.e title a i th "torture-bell a £ Soanenburg",

I swear '~lpOJ:l, my conscience that my deseriptioes are true tn the last detail, tlullt JIlIothi'[J!C is exaggerated. Tim.€: memories I have carli ·cl away £roan there eculd not be enhanced even by the w:i1de.st H ights, Q:I' the im~j:vu.ado:n, m t is it rorture for me now to 'th:i~!k. what my brnthers and cornrade are enduring. But when left them. I solemnly promised that the wlrn.ole: world weuld h"3r t1:Jl if (':iLY of OIg,ony,

Sonnenburg was one :a p~nilentiiliry exclusively reserved for !!lI1ut"·de'f,e-f!l seeteneed to ,deaih 'Oil" 1,01" llfeterms, In n::h@ I~' t dectld, .' durit1g which the pen itJenliary was, ~Il active service; the total ,of deaths '@i'11.1 suicides there numbered 560. Their gra "e~" 'nearby, a re sil:'I!lt wi!t:nesses 'be) 'thi s gr~t human tragedy, In 1930, ehe perritentiary was closed because of the f:li'n,~hdu] s nitary CQl1iditioi'ls.. The offidal re'pCt!:r1 at 111 ti me !'ltMed that 'tIH! poi 60(mI.(JIUJl3 d i'inki ng water and the dnmp W:I1]5 WeT a latel1.'~ cause of epidemics of dy:el1t,.~ry and inOI!.1~nza,

The govern m J:11 10 f Hit Ie'!" c.11,1i)~ 'this bll'ililill1g as a prison

9

II! 'I' .e __ ,1" C '. S' .~. "

rer pO ltl~ '. Pr:1lSrOtlt!'I'S : ,. om mllllrnsts" ". ,000:i1lllsts,. pacrfllst!l.

JelYes., The wat,cfa", $oDlle,Wlbu,rg is, still 1J.!!ildrimJjkabl~its !(Wse is. even !o"biddcm. 1:m,i\lg:if.L.~ thrus alone. in a Ct'III,llP w:Filere a tl1011sandll'l,en are 'kBptt leeked j[or weeks, f@;v monJ!:hi!lt £or ye:s:n.

,A]'Jl'it,,~1 (If 'Somnanb1ifrgl

I]il, 'the 1TI(!I:JlI:t~t .of A [Jllri[!, [9Jl,tbt first group of pri'~C:nli.ers, ] among them" was tf.llf1sportoo ~o the ,t:~n1lm:p of 5r!)nfte!fllbur~ under the vigilance ,of poLic~ ,and Nazi, shock tro!!PS" For hours, and bC'~fS we' mMl8iimcd s'tandi:ng in open c~:r.s" From the very be.ginning' we wue, :subjected to a whole se'f~e;s of ~lI'utal ,anmiIrJI,sa.

AJ,~er !lSi' were ,to. a~ri¥" one b1 [one from the pr-isons of Berlin, Spa['ld~1!iL" Leh rter Stl"asse, AI,[exanderplatz;, PIDQetzensee, ,ilt:td Irom ,:;i~~ '1l)\"11iJ' GerMany 'U'u.&$ and trains fined wid!, prn,s,o"llefs, The ilitl!Jer3,'Ii'Y iii Sddesiscll,er. Bahnh~[f and the» SOJiliI1e.'Ilburg,

UIJOlI ,tea,\!ifllg the ~i'G'!"uenc' Min~.~." ('popul<.i,'l' term (or )loluee wagon) each one ~.~ 'P~,t h:il~ chi.l:i:ns and '~ept under guafid. Apd:so we ern '9; the ,station, to 't~(e calfS', ]M;vfnr bellii nd wives, 'Who, wat,ch us mu:tely" ~ blinded w;tiru tear'. Two 'by two, ill o.lIlr sm:I1.]~ o!tlrnputmen:ts, we: cross t'&u: out .. skirts ,of Bedin [on [our way to, SQiWtnemburl'~ w.'here 'men ,grow qruickly gr:e.y, where l'i'mbs ere cru!!Ju~dl serves shatl;)e:t'Jed} ~md o[f't:en. IH'[e snuff dI out.

OU!:!far rivu1~t due cOf.'u:.tmtrati[on call1JUrp is gtoot.ed first 'by the warden, a Na~i oS thee mon s;avag'c y~rilt1:y. Rifle. and 'pistolsJ trigg,en coclc~~ a~e pO~5:l.'ted at us, And iN m 'diale')y we lU!:tr:

·Y~u Commu!ll~st pig.s[ I Keep[ yourl11lt'hy heads up," ji}I'ey, there, stand ata'toonttol1, you bklek[1ie~d."

Then comes "the order tol sing the Na:.tiolliiJ Anthem+

Th.ere ,;'1:1'(: .a~y wl1c, ,do not know lit. The Nazi,s 111m the prisoners w5th the Ibluuof their gll.'llRS a:nd stri"~:e th~m ,ac:rC:!l~ the: f3.C'e wl't:h Ifi.sls. Those who do not march in. step are kic'ked in the: ,shins wid')l heavy ho1i>-Jai~i~M boots. The ifthabitants 'Watch frGm behind. thei'r windo,w'8 as we :gt) through the viUage, and ~hak:e the~r beads ~n. silent f£lp. E,ve!f'ywhere we ft'l.eei g.loomy facell . seJdom do we see B, smBe.

So, assai'Ie.~ on every 5id@ by 03:1:'1190, kicks, and blows. we arri.YC: at the priSO,JltCOUftyaro. Otu' ,Pockets an: seB:'£I!1!hed. W,e, :,i'1'e told to 'Wf~U: ,}lome t.ha:t 'We are very \veU tnat,c:d;, i,f we dO'n~tr w@ are wn,lined, ~he ClO'l1seqiAem:es· wU'l be on, out!' heads,

'The po~tice lieueenant, wa,r.den of SOfiMnlbliJ.li~gl' and his :arid.e" BrL1i!.:ln~ngi stabe th.'flI~ UU~ prison,~rs bave: abs,oillrJite]y no fe31SOIl te eomplai:na.![ 8M thllit u[!Il ,,'Ita dight,oJ," i:nf"[~ ,~£O" .of .€tlm,#, ,distili'li,~e I aU ,btl, bl(xuJ" O('CQ,uuts #1'4t are brntg :f:/'J.rcm Iilbrfilllad ,.onr:rN.~nlog t/~e t[,..ea:hne1~t o,f ~l1:i1 inHtaf,qf:' 'Will .b~' ,OOfricd .(ml t6 #IC lenN'/,' Hfmid that 'if 3f.1y,one "nlUfm"l:!J'm ~~, cs.eai'e~ /'if, IvUl be ,shot ,~o'W" '2vifhoul 'l.,t,ai':ni'HIg.'~

Those of: us who arrive!'] :llit lb.@: beeinn~ng c,r ,April were fO:fiOOd to ,s:lee:lP on the bar,!! ground. W:h,en s,t~,w was given to, us later M. we r.a1'll [3, verilttllbte gaulitUct down the stairs end throughtbe courty:aTd to ca,rry' i~ 'to the sh~.e.pinC" qaarten. N,a'~is!iitood a "3,'~d. 8'~];'U'f and :struck the p,rrusoners with [chai. .9, ;irOll ban an..(] dUimSi Many of '~he prleoners 'were S~ seriously wotutdGdi that th,<f!Y were immed'it'lltciy t.Eilkifi'n to the lmspita1 wa"il. "fhi!S torttlre is. O:JJl!Ol of the most :inddibl,[@: memori,es, of Silnn nbUtr-g. The N"itlz:is eall this" ~f.'fhe Firs.t Stralw' Waltz""

nUf~ng the peri:ad e,f ~11C1 ceb!bmt:ion of Hitler's blrthday, ltrliiber 'ill Apri~ ,. 'W<! we re d.dv. n 'Du[1 Oif. ,01:1'r b~~s, Orr rathe' lil ;}.ps of straw, nt flv o'clock 1'111 tb,e lTlornilmg mild, at elevcl1li o.'clock at 'D~ght, were r. 'ql:,hr~d to s'taml i},t a:ttefitioll in front

"

a,f' ,tl1l!t! beds, dressed nly i,l our' shiets, A Nazi, bhnseH scarcely able ~,oread. climbed up on a cha~r to. te.acb the prison ars ee sing the Na1:tonal "An1thenl., Shi"'~'rtlg with cold, we Sill11 and sang unti'l ~ could no' 'IOflg'tt' smnd up" AU t~,is because we ex pee ted ttll{l Vh11t o,r 81' inSI)CC'~O:1i" lUlI,c] 'i~ was desired d18t he 11 nd ~sin a j ell.y.. singl[ag mood, ~1cbr,a,ti ng t'~,e hidhday of ~U'I' at.lli~lC;ll':llor, A do~ ~ [;.;]it1CT',

"Du'r'ing this i'oe~ehrat~al![" pollee and gUiliXl,S cafieftll1y watehed t11J; pris.oh:@rs to see wh:"t11Icr a:fII)' !ilnil 'd Of groo;aced at the :fD1cntio31. of Chancellor Hi'~~m.", or ~:t the cri,e!l, of !l'iHI'~I,tf

·1" " ,1" ,.:I b ,..ii""

W1 ~ g;L VI! us W,O!l:",K, ann ,rcaJ\iI. .

As, a Httle' ,cha;nge o,i, routine, 'it w,a.s anneuneed at ~light di:at. "Tornorrew mO'l'n,i'l1,g at i01.11" o"'clac'l;:: the wh,ole 'camp w:iU 'tt~lke rcdm,;:iI1g' x rcises,

Ai er a sle,e:ples5 niig-:l1flt we: we're for:eOOI to reave: 'Ill cells at t'lJu~ break of d,<lIwn to begin the n'L09t hQ,rrilbJe of the tortuee at th -oncentfatiom'l! tamp of Sonnel1'btll'g': the combina ti on. of lT1i]~t.u'y and p,l'l,ysicn[ cuHure exerclses : Dar't' U Ii, D(Xflj~ .'U".' F{J'rtl#{1/Jil MardI . " . this for hours and. hou rs,

I)rJ'U lJnfil Yen!! falifi~

. Thls type af exerillisc is, 5P- tiaUy prepared. ~md orJ~ nized to ~IOOlO:r~]i,ze t~:ue lJ>'r~sQners and draln revery bit of t'hel:r energy, The In.!;'s't transpo rt W~lS, dil'iUed 11'11d~[ many (I ~ tlte men faint' 'd, But, ~ Ot~ Y'tm:r' Mt'lr'k, ,{lorWrJ.ta' Mardi:' we1!il't 'Ol1L ·aml 001'1,

~nDli , ,always la,st,~d 11]'!Iti1 most of the prisoners were on th,ij groll,nd, their hand'S and arms ble,edtllg', their bodies ra.c~e() with pain. At lirst the: pr:ii oners exercised in cilviliittl 4.-ess; I,ater' th!,Y weee ,pven lightweight. ,~n,iet!liuits.

Every pdS-Clner ~s iook d ltpon as a sol,]iJcr of t~l(!IO\";'1Clolt ra~tk :UII{] ffis obli,g-cd to salute every Nazi he: meets, regardI,cs,s or hir posltiou, Th, Up, D.fJWII. exer eise 11['1 praetiee 1

12,

in ac1ld:itio:n, ati'!J1t .mta'lfY :[um:tirons. When it is, Oyer, the prisonCf s'l:~!gg€Jrs ball~k to' h~s ceU rOir. is carriad ti~ the b.oop~:~,~l ... Th" 'I1rst transports pr.acticed the eerr 'ct manner o:f [·aving, t'helf ceUs for days at a lime. For l~.,ou'l'S :and hours. th~ pr:lson~rs S'~t beside 'llulir c]oors waiting fail' the wl.1i de:!' ord ]' 00 illeave lbl!lr 1 ells and. stand ra.t attention.

Until g,~pt.embeF the pri"iQTIr'S' w,tl:sh. d naked at the pump l'iiil tit ~ courtyard. Serioln!> iUne!!$· IIcsulloo ho~ exposure,

PrlfiTr!l(iIl"en Pre,piil"iU Ilhair OWI!I'I &R!vers.

It wm~ld be ,impossiide 'til r'I,M~" all the atrocities endured hom Aprril 010." by promi.neill't Communists, 1,3wyers of liberal t ndencies, and po:u: ifi,sts. Sehn n~'r, Kasper, o Il'IIlCh , :iIi'I'D.d Erich Mu hs.all~. Iormer 'mnm1t~nisl memo 'r"!; or Pal."'lian'l I,'It,. and the ]awyer I..i~tten. were loc...atc!l for hou ['3 in their cens t~nti'l theh' bodies. were covered 'wil:!;a, '~110()d. SchneUe r\\l'itl! f01X:~c:'~ to counr each b.low·hc rceeiv d. Obueh was Sri) badly weunded, that 'h~ is n.o\'\I' tlnil'M~ to 'l11l'i'I.lk. But it W.tI.S WiUi K;a, p~r 'who reeelved I" 'far the worst trcarrneut, since ·t~1 ~ N;lLKis seemed determined to 'lo'ihIVI! him to death.

A jewish shop-keeper, Rudi 13, rnstein had to be :,pnt to the ~1i'~at,e ho'pi'tal, 'in Berlin ,a:s m r>rJi'lt!t o.'f the 'blnws 'he re ceived, l ~ra, von 1 as;' -tzid, the ~mtbof and ditor or Ill!' Itbtt.lme, though already in a very bed physieal CQ,\lditio.lf'j, wnen he .",rriv,ed <lit g,ntlc'llburg, was HtS lbainy trjMt.oo as t1n,." others, The writ 'f. Eric:h1u,ehs:.m. 'had on the hairs oJ 11ifl head ~'nd beard pluck :-cl nut, \~l hell he was bronght back '~o ~1 is

ell~" none of l1S rcctlg'li1 i ~. d tlit r, VI/ arde~ Paesler was ill ch::t'l"ge ,e1t th1.~ 1~1ilP.

ll1l April, Lilh~Tl. \' 'uMi Kasper, ErrliSit Schnener ,~1iK1 Erich M'~u~hl"!lm w 'rr!! :l>t!t to d~gg ill: thei r Orwn g raves near the wall ,of 1:'In: prlson 1Q:"00Wr.. TIl(' other prism,1..ers were ta.k~rl out

13.

ilDto; the yard to wa,'bch .thdr comrades bt":li,ng' beat!!;"lI and lelleraJly mistr:ea,ted. Only the ,tas,t :mi~'liu'te h1lH:nrenLio!1l oii an offiOClr who. ardvOO from Ur.:'I'Un~ w,he~e So tT'''I12,y D,i rundignati,'Q)n had been llIro'!l.!!s,W b~p wha't was ~o,il!lg O'I'II~ sa'JIIClld, the prisom:,fS from drlC 6'r-i'ng-5qua,d1. OnG of ~be polimnen t:ook a snap-shot Oi~ th~m while t1:a@j" Wi r:e di~gfing their graves" Unf:oir~l:IilI!laiJe~y .... thi~ V{!S c-O'nfisa.:a:t-ed so as 'fnot to gi'Ve foreiroers a, new pretext 'forr pr'O'iesti~g·'. '

One eEl!!! lind an classes of men of the ttl!,} t div,er,g,eIlIt 'poli,ticaJ opinions. at Sonfii,el1bru:rg"W~ have a'iready given the 'names 'of' Ka;rl von Ossietdri" Ithe!. 'former p'!IA.bl.i:sirn,Q]" e,i lbifi: ,W dMuolmc; ,and of po]i,tical'ly prnmlnent COmmUtl1st.::. And slde by si,de wid:! t:he CQ:t1.1'munists We find forme :1m:lnita:nts, 'ltl'f the Soclal·,Dt'ftlot:rlltic. Pa'rty. To these we ;",dd 'U'l~ mamGS of tl:!J,.:" Doctors Benjamin and Erwin Ml1l!ihUr, and h:llh,'" eo~r.se ,of' my oo;port; we wi11 speak 0" 'many others,

A cl~a'r,a.i::t!eri:sti.c example 0 f 'Ille. c:vueJliry (If the ,N,az'i :LcS the: eustorn of taking a 1)!ri.!!Q'I1G:l'f into a 5CH::II'lcd uinfo:rMa-

.• 'b ,~t. I . 'k··

uon nureaa I W111~f\e 'if! IS 3sed" ~'Af'e you still ,I'I! CO'mmru.~

nist?" If he aaswers "Yes", lnJ~ is beaten bl91ek 3itd blue.

I f the: prisoner answc'U's !~No'., his ,1l1tuatloil~ is by :no :n eiUlS, 'bettered. uW.h~t. you ceward, l1~v,en't 100 thecoul"" ~gc 'til i'ld:m,i,t you an>: "" Communist?P.,'

TNledia,1)

'1"he [l:l'iStliflCrS at Sonnenburg, like ail. tlra.r.:: othcn in eeno~n'ttrntiO'I'!i 'elm-ps dlfO,n,ghout GCnI!iliiJny:, are p1J41it under arrest ,and kept i mp!rioo!1led without tria!, [recul [11Vesti~a'tlio:n, or &ell~eli'l02:. V C'ry' oUell h:t'flel",ll, o,:!: 'f'OUf, live or eigM e:i1ildl'eIl aee brutally t~rn .away :[I&I11 tllleir fammes, ,tl'l.tir-ofilly crime be~ng 'that they dared toO ,e:;X[ ,re.t:is di appfova.l 'of thefasdst ~im~'"

One Ot the pr;]soneifS,. a eoek, the. ,fal'"!1Ii::'ii' ,G'f :'ve [h]]dnm,

I~

had been ,de~(:m.nted and imme,d'iatlely aerested, S~ a:fWr .. warccl!shl:!ii wHe r oei,veil Ih.e ~me t:u:etment The five eh~]drem roomed the stT,eet;s~O[ d:l!.ys and d~ys unti! som~ nli:ighbors took 'tln::m jn" Now tlulY have been 'lu'It into, an. (i'l';phana;ge't the address, of which. tlle f.Mher has neft~ been a:~~e to' ]~r!I!D..

AII1,otia:er' MaJ1", a. mi:n~r from the Rmhr dittrict" Hans H~I received word from t'hE: hosp~tal :s~st@n afid born 'his wife that bis b_ ,by was dying., He ask,ed. for 8, leave of :absen~c in orcl~, to see t~!! c'h~!,d be (,o.re its death" It was, reht!!.ed.

A yOOlrng workier. fail!:hM 0'£ fi'v'e, chUilr.en, got news, that ~is wif,e~ wl:to waS suReriing born a" nCI."'V,@tliS, brea:kdown, was about to gi"'e hirth to another bahy., The. womlen wg, 80 tormeHitoo 'by tl~e i'm'p:riscn:ment o'f h;cm- ~'Usband that she ilad decided to go, ,M, Son~ellhurg to see 'hiM. The hU500l'lJd. afraid that ~lte go~rney 'm"gbt ~l:u~ faml to. his wif~ 1i1 lIer wnd'iti,oo; as:1I;:~d fOil :a ,Iea,v'e. Thi's was refused 'Mm.

FrH~; one of the p:riscn;rs foon" the di,stricl of. La,uh;.roo,eh. ,rt(e1VOO atel~grnm frmD hilS 'mO'.~her D.rrDo'lilltci,ng the death 'O'f' ~is, 'fathcf'. W'ilh th(! teteg;r,am in hws hand he WC1ilit to BU1cni,ng to ask him £01' a le.',l,v'f:. B!l]~ B:rl1'~lf.1ing CUlly s.miled and! answered: ,I' What ? A leave 'of I'!ibse~ 'lor a m~e noth .. log ~ike that? Of cou.rse mUlt, ' ••• ,.,

But th'L'! 'mQs't a w fld sights .of SMn, "nburg arc 00' be sec,'Wi in Ith!! hospitalwards, Hel'Q we :SR W !iTletfl who were dea,! ml'lt,es othe'r~ ,haH b.Hftld. One 0'£ them was 'd~:ab'le ~o wa.'lk: and ~,3.d1 to be carried to the t.oi~e1!:s. Another,,:a war \"eberaft. \ftT;as,

tre«hed o,ut on his back wi~'h ft, eunrahlTC 0'( tilt¥: spine.

Aflllot'her" a ba,be", was se-nt to, Bed~ri. iml! .A1!IgriIlst because of his d'iseased, eyes. uSouvwirs,"frO'm the N:a'z-is.

lillD. the no-rl!l, wing. ruu. the second 'FIJQ!!in, there is a prisnn 'j'l", a eertain Scb'l11itz who lost one arm CJJtiJd one I~g in the' World War. Wounds on 'Ih'e crow» of liis he d in'f.ii,ctGd by 'I S

'tIle Naz:us, ComJl)d him Ibo wear thick band;a~s on 'is skull all the time. He was prut ml t'~il2 S<OCOIDi,d nnor, t-o lil;llk~it I1~C{lSSaiy (olr li'I.! m 00 el h:tt:llb up and clIllWt~ the ssai rs,

A 'f.II1i:Iin ,from W~]s'bmd~al who was tr~a'~oo hu' mauyrnouths :fO'f ,[I ca:tarrh· 0 f the 'vocal chords, had in reality an aetive reaS!i! (II f co,ti,S,~t~lpHon" ] fi spite iiJ [this, hi! shared a S'll~:a1!l ~OOI1t1 \\Vhh:6 ve: O'UI~f meltlt w~n;o we'l"e! thus ccH,smntlly e:xpcsOO w, 'ii;o,F;I,tagiron, ! 1'1 il::hj} rtill"litl h~ was ,t'li'::Ji'D],s,por~!ild to 'th,~ 8il';lLti~ hoop~~~]i'i1! Ber]~ln, 'bllt 'i'ili S OO'l'ididon is, 800 bail that lie ts I:DO'~ e'V,~ted to liv:~ another year,

A ee ftfii~~, Zoh!J:I, al Iorruer :TI.t~h~,~'lic: d.11~lOII'. hil'!'i an iQ1,)en rw:ount] i 11 hilS ,Stoma>eh dU!I;; to <lit :lll)StU,:cc!\:'s:!i,fiL1J!, !,j(Y,lPI.!:i'rI,ti'ol'i ".

N Ol1Le of these: m·lin can I eave .s~;1I1'u1:lI:riburg, They are tak:~'w~out only tn die.

Soom;.:fi.lm rg has 3 w~1 hl<f-g.'11l i~~, syswm 0 f tQrUm~ fur ,tj:U.~ neWi=OmefS. Th:~ tmd;(!rgmutld flOOi.' .or l],,~ I,."iist and ,~(;ls:t wi n~s Q:[ ~h.fi: 'p:r-! !iOIW, 'I, Ol ve 'I!:J,~ell di:vtd~]; i Ino cells cal'llid '1l'~Qrt'i!,'liilfe:·clumillmrs"', E:tcJ] 'iwi$OI1rt;lr m_l:l~t spe't],dfrom two to f~~roo ,:y~ru{S 'i'V:IJ rhffis he]] l~foil'e 'he hss :3. right 'ttoo ,~:n oifi(linary cell or ~liJifmlt!l)fy bed. EI,l,er:y da_y ,~V\C, ten, twenty Of 'Mli'rty 'pri:!!l!DH!~rs a;'lIe talc!;fI il.uo these cf:iJamb ers,

[~l2rsoltudly I:m~ ~Ifl(lrei'gone orlily ,iI :par~ c,:i:th,~ herr 0 rs ,described, here, ::B\-~t i~ st,iU m:]l~s mny blooo 'run cold ,to think O'~ fl,l~ seeres tha t 1 have W:I( nessed, month a fh!'r mentlt,

Hl:l:a.lthy j"Ol.'.l'flllI ~;a"Ulin are bro\1.g~u ll1, I~Jl:w;t-r:di;};~e~y they are ch',<lgged i'l'l't:e, the: 'OOl1'D'tYlird wll~:t'ii.: t'h:I.:Y are L.;,itl~~(! and '&eate:n mt:t! ~ they f'al I. from exhatlst iOIDli, Th~l:lto ~h!l eertnrec:h!t1l'n'li)e:rs, where 'the"r 'f'~Gl;!S allld btl~l:ucs <l;[''C:b, ... 't!m wi'~h clubs, Wil"ll thrL! bUI~S lOr gtlilill.~ ~d:n.d w:iJtli~~t8, U'U1ti:! til!!)' stream l,;'I!ith blood" U~1J..~,a'lly they afoe locked Ull alone ti.I:nd ,~mnp~ned ':0

1;(;

He on the h~!! gili'oD,.1lllld isomC:'~tll1es the <jciu!.ritablre'! N !llzi:s

thfowthem a bi~ of straw, .

\lV:h~n fh~ pr]itol1e:t' hasreeovered born ~gis wOluids SUI fa. :ic:i-entlyto be iii Dlt'! to walk he: is, ll:'ivoQl:l1 a u;i1i, fOl'm. The saD10 young men, wh@ ~~t a s'hart rim~ bd·ore had come to SC:!'IIIle:nburg\ b:right and h!.!a~,t'hJy. D:r~ 'luu"ecogn]:l:alil~, Hudr faces bruised ,[Inc] bii!il~diug, eyes blood,~sl1iDt:j their htl!ir partially

. p '"tI'~oo out, 0:1' heoos lMcedi'rlig or' OOltlll]J£,tlll:ty sh:m. 'I"~d.

Thil n.eX'tev~i'f'lg the mi,li'ul.FY rd'rill lb~g:i'ln" 'Tht prisone.rs arc r~q!.1'u'Clcd ~o saluill~ ,~:nd. cX,~CU'~!Il rnan:h.i'r1!g fOl'n1ati.o<fils UftlJ~ ll lh!.!y a:r!2: comlPle'tt!!ly weru Q'llJIt, 'Tn'~y sre then oo;mprelloo. 110 ,. u,~1t '~llll~rm~itl!i.'ibJ,12 loot-f;'<~oes, T~~ warde!:i1 t3.1]S o"uti, HUp ,~~d dOW!;l, , ,.:;0 'nlG priseaers fil]] Uk:r.: flies, The COill:y'rtya,rrl :is oov~rod wU'~ [)iim)d, ~ agony fhey plead foil:" h..::lp,i'11,V,oldl:lg it! th!l! '~lligh~ their. fa:~h~r.$r' mofhel's fI:'il.d wives,

1'1!u:: iit'st one to fall to t~,..e (round ~5 imm,~d~ate'ly «10m .. uianded by dIe warden to, "Get up., :ron dii't)' swinl!:!,· yott':re olnly ~?rott~I:Hlil1g., • ~ .' Th~)' kir!:k him with tl'leil'hQb-ni1ih:d boots. ] f tll'is brings no, r~:)lliU,sot!..le (I f "~he Qth~r pri .. sO!l"Ull'~ are oblig,e[i .. 00 d'r,~g the limp; b.ody ee 'the!: wat~-:punlp. Tll.ey held his l1O!>~ ,c1Qs..oo under the pump and dotl se him .. IIJ:nti I I'll! l'(.'g;Ol11:'11.5 eeneeieusness alnd be.gll.t$ 00 oO(Jgn,

.'\,:i:!I.di the erder is repell.h~.d ,:ljForward fI,l,n, " " . up-dawu, •.. \J\~,~\""!i, • " ," But dlll.\!i laSES tor on'ly at Jew 'mil1llJ1te~, Th~ WlomJ.~cd 111<1.11, bili.Wdillg CIilLliOIlJ..sly [OOl'lil, his, legs ~~~d l:~~~d, 9glli~f:D, s]uks to tllL~' rroiU'l'Iid. And .agai n-and sH~l again", l\'~ Pf'rn::CSS is repeated uutll ,tb(: :S3,dis~ic: lust ,of ~ht;': i nqu i !:l'1t iQlDH~:t"S is :S3:~i.s1i!l!d. When :fU: 1~llgi hi" ]aoo i~l th~ ll'ig'Wlil, '~hc ~)rdS(l'i:'l,e1~~' am ordered bm:k toO th~r cells, thlilY are in !!ueh 3. S~3.t!! or t':!(lhl~S,drOil il.'il:ld terrer ti~3,t many oOn'1Jlllit suicide,

Thlli: most HDtori.oil.rlls c,f~h,~ inq,111sitiol1:e1',s of Somt;:mhurg d!tL'ring the months of AUg'U9't., S~l)~~l"I1ber ;);od OcOO:OOl."' was ! l'

,the Nazi A,dlria.tlJ,. 'w;ho bad :i:onnc:D'ly 'beel1ll ~eade;r 'of ~ shO(::k

t wop i~ t'h~ C(ilfic~'t,r;a,timl ,ca'mp 001 liammerskiu from,wh!!!.':l~ he, hild been f'e~oved b~c,a,'!JS<l: of the :tlH!iiS3.ssl11a'tiofl of s~'Ijf;eral Ji!!!Jt~t.ical prisonen. Be had been depfi \lied (If his special u~ii" '~O'rm, but he reM,rJi]lIlell1 the same s~dj;i!t, 31m:! with l:ilis Ow]ru hands indicud t'he: ernelest PUIl1shliililents u]'tD,n the prisom~r!!i' 'who were 'IJIRfle~ h1S sllIIpl.'l'rvision, H~ oUelll :saw tl1a;t 'he WtliS unabl!ll:oo sleep b1! peaetl:j i' Uw1es'S 'he: 'k:~ked down at ]~st II. ' 1m ::Ii'l f clOICflI CG~.mtll~~$t!;, '~v~rl" diiI,J"'.

r wm doo 'hen only n few D f dIe n,el~o(ls 'file N aai Cos&aclol''s tI.l!lcclta, 'to:rt'iJiR U'he!rv~(;tims. The P'iI'i,SOHCH''S D'[''C Olf" dered to, C'fOll;lch on theiir kneas untiil their h~gs: ars :l'lJUilitlU> 3'ild IlicneJess. The:aru they are commanded to ho,p' iHJtQ' I.OOsLf!o~r wrut~ timiJe rGsult '~11:at they inv3:1i'ia.'iily Plash their ril'i~~s against the: cob:lli~~stoM:S of' the cGUllft.yar,d. a fU!fi wh~~~ the me'l1! were ilrli. t]IDi 9, pOiS~tiGn Adri 3.1:11 !,I1'Id h'is£'e~~owiiiinq;IIn.~S1jtioners [pr.'iclcied their ~i!lllittoc1!c:s aad sexual ,orl}illli!i: w'ith pi,IIS.

Often '1M ~I iilNwO!,rrd m~r'Ch • ., " I!LQ'P-dOWll~j eNci~e was pr,~(ti,oed 'U1Ii'a:ti] a hmH' dozell b'lcedba,g" sW'e~d~llg b@dli!lls LiilljI' (DID 'thegtc)l:!.'tlid, 5:i~ tIle prisoners 'wc:re: :t.lc:cus.'ed o£ "pretend'~ng'~' they W{l:ll~' 1dt tl'U~J\c bJDr t.we~:~y or thru:rty nlillillltlll!S, Then thl!: (Dthers whQ' W\C1i['e EltiU '!Jollsci,!!],U,3 got on their l'a~'Un,ds a~d kl11.(l;€'S ~Ota:i' 1'1 the: l1Im:::onscious .en, o:n it:h!!~r ba'i:l<:5,. This, W,D:!; o.rgal1.i~~d ituat:o il!" :slod of :r3!~~~ ,and ,the one: who RiCh:ed tk<l: £(]J1' W!l!U wi'th thepdsoIlier on h~~ haCk fir8't Wu,s ,eJrel1 sed from:hllirtlu:r' ,ra.ctice :Fol" tht d!l)',

il'lnN'I JoW's [iri¥e'n 1'0 S'!lIi,(!di.

In $!.1ptemb"f' the N;ai!l'is '~rit!mJ)hai:l'~iy dr,aggJC!d illil a Jew .. ish m~rchan~, iEIJ~ld bis t'WO sons, The f~il~her WrJiS ~bou't fifty and tn!; ,!lO~S t\¥futy :orUildtll~:rly yca:rs old. Like wild-fiR the news SPfi~ad 31Ilong the Naz:~s. Everw 'we I",eal'd ~ '!Thr!;e dir~y Jcw~, ::Ii]i\e heirtl.': liow. 'W,e'U take C3Je ofth~m. " • /"

J,I

The: pretf!xt for the an'\es~ of tbe i::.hr,~& Men was tinJat til"!1 pBidtheir wo:r:kmeu b~lo\v the: ,si;a'l1dard 'W,ages. an>Ci1l th:(lt they had !'lot paid thei I," socm] ]niii;nlIr,~.n!;;:~f.@Ir 'fo'!lail' weeks.

In :re~'r ancl tremMh'l( they w~!:'e ta~f:1 ~otk~ ~frec;'Ilpdolli 1ilIriB.'~~" where i!C'v~ro~ pdsone:r5 heard ~'h~ Nasls 'len tll~1l1Ii dli&t ··tll~re W'<ffC 60im,~ preltylhings in :stoit'ie £!Di' tIU:ltl." T~e~ same :Pf~SI!i)[Ier'S can bear Wlttl~S to the: i'a.ct dl~t the three Jews lIi,ppeaI1~d, to be ingnod health a~d that tbey had no bO\l'~es ~~C!J1 W}lCM they 'etl'te:f~(J.

N iOt~ong nfterward:s we heard pitUilJil.,. l)]oodl'"(; lu'dlin,g ~1;;~itTh'U;S frem the. ee]]ar, wih,ern Adri~n a~d ,othe'l' N.rllzis 'werP.: 'be~!ti.llg Ml'(! Jews wi~hch:lbs ata.d irens. T'l'u:: doors wc['e eare[uTly clcsed j ta.il:'Vel'~he1ess, the .sC11Cill1'a.S fi'J]~ the whoie: cast Wiili~, t~e e.':ist (loort, the hcsp~t.:a] aflLd '~':'ven apart o'~ the midh wi'DIIg oft.h~ prison, Wh~i1 't~ll]" were fe:ld)y to ietikeaw O'llt ,and ,@Jfessed in thei I: 'l'll:lif'iI1fm.!i!. the ~athe'r W<tilii 50 badly woulld~d tliiL(JJ'1 hi6, elothes nald 00 be 'brought ~'O I,,,im_. A'S, :I10l lh:e 8t!i~1;S~ nu~ir bcads Were so swollen and bi!:es so' disl1gu1,Icd thut the athers cO'!LlI~c;] no:!: ne,ogfll:1:e them.

OnlG rO'~ '~h,e sons aS~i:d, peril:~li:SSojQn tQ sit d!OWmII. 'Th~ allSW~1" 'w.~:S; !'~WIi\I,<l!t, YOU, wa~~t to sit down" ~Oll d~rtY' :plUg' oj fl J ew ~';' At H1e S'_~'rr~,~ ti[lU~ llJI:/: W,<lS slfltli:k a hlolw ott the head with a duib,. I e :s~nrgcl,tl:d, and ~I!U ~o the poun(i. an'" in the 'encl was drii.lgOO t'O h'is ti!!!l~. Hils 'bro:ther reeelved the same 'l~3'tnn!'m!it.

The same evcl:[ir.llg we 3ss;iste(] at ,iL pa:rtiell[a!:f gt'U.e'somt sPl!ct':!ii;::l'~. At c·igbt orclodc: 't~~ Jews. w~fe t!1!k~n 'out j'pm '~hil.':

I,;as'~ to'~~t't w~th the othc'r ~·w priso!l1liers ,arnd WClfill ,~Jriv£:~ a. rcuud nnd ar0111nld: to the tu:ne (I'f ;:1.Forward n'lar:ch, • • ,. l:iJ~~OWlt'" • ' " :.nul "You Jliwi~h S@115 c,! bitches," 'Of course" the m~t~ 'f~hlltedl were dragged to tln~ water-pump~ r~gai IU:cl 'cQi1sd Olli9ne!lij to the' tr~um~~I~:urut ClliIDL 'O:£: Annan:

~,

"YO~i S"C!j' tw,_5e ~~sta]ly Jews :B.J1e q'l'ilte all ri,~)f alJa:i~]." An.d !iio lhe: lo·rtlm~ COl'l'Hn~1Cd, f\e:P'-'{fLt~ec] CO\1tt:Uess. '~im~s.··

hi thO' H:l(:,]!1]1 m~' a ncw - £111'00 ·d~lil."(l:· had been llmit roducC4cl: by lhe' N~i:s. The fe~'iI' crilinim.r~h; mild d,l;,':gl'adG~1 1)'U'iSOin~tS were 'Db]igeti, to be~~t th~ Jews. If i~ht;!y rei'uS!ct" tI'IIi.:y reC61 1Ji~d the saml~ t reatment as was 11'1JI IdeduI)!I)n tbe J ews, Ailid 'WI''' :Elf!: piIi"ol.ul to stfiite here t'~[d it W3.Ei only the llc:m .. f'oMiic·(1J clem\}"i'ilts wl10 WQuid eonsent ro do ['hi 5" T];a,e Coml'1IlIl1:!!Y,i!!lil:S, were .(1 f'tcn ordered ~o strilk~nilei r own eomrad as, Th!l}1 :r~rl1s~d. and wer~ tl~ rowu il'll'tto the: cdl;lr of ~lu~. east ca net we:st wings..

Afl,1~li' t1m~ todtl're (iI,f tfu!i;l ]I!WS, tlm~t sanl~ might, ,it scene

~nrliC.!d ~ the bfl1'rfil]lty ,Olnd Qb9~l:Iity !i)f whilc'hi:s ~lmost ualmli I,lv3.bl,~. Wh~w ~][ th ~ ]i,gltts Of the east 'wing had b~~11 :p~lt OU'~i st:ve.nd Ntuds \Y(int to the eell .of the yOI~~lg~St of' the J ewish pl'.iSO'1~~:g. [ltu,:s'it!ttc: 00' dJl,;![:icvi:l}0 'rhe: at'~odt'i~s ptilrl]~'~rat- d by these ~!c'r"!.!lirls ltp@n this cl,e:,~ensl2:~'I2s.:s man. Th~)'C'Qve'~'. t] 1~'lg W'Otl~l,d~-.d h~iild ""tth a doth and it;be~~ th~sll: heroes 0 f" the {"~1:"~1 an :f.I '.I)ti,!1il, these pioneers e f ,the Thi I'd Rltlcll onh'aged tilts j'C,tUlg Jew!

1'lu:l:· s~nLe: nugl':i't, the! tI'irI~e J~Wi6J:n, .1)lrisol,nel,·s" the f3'lhcr and t.WO 50m3 ~uemp'~~d toc!1)m.nh~ suicide, i(DII'l'e 1b'J/ op~l~ing 'his veins 'Emd the (JIth~r two by h~ml!hlg. Th~y '!III' ·'I'e ~vcd" b O''IIII'!2V!Lfr, ~t the last m~ nmi;.e.

Th 12 ne:x,t day till\! story Wfts cmm'l~O:f11 g'O~s'ip ,;nnong the

pl']SOllt:rs and e:~n mU1'JIfll,; t1t1.': j,1.'illllabitril;~l:5 01' tht'l vl11,3g ". C rtafn· ~Ol'li).S of N ~ z:i s who tried to stO']) the a~J!lJs~S of I h ;.>j r vici.ob~ i~]hlw-Na::l!:is at S{llfll!H:nbi~twg did th~k best to l'In'l,N!' l:liI'i.., news pll~Hsilg: 'i;~t

f,i;:C:1l'I.!>(l <0 r fhe l'I~;1Id\::s~f.l "'11:1 1)II;I~Jlk'~~Y, 'th~ warden w;;t.S oh'(]:ge;ca t,o~V(! some ltI~d~ t"~1 :mtcl.p til lhl~ t'hr~ ~I)dll,g J ~,~ ... s, Thi£ .y'0t1tkgest of tlm.l~ (nl:ri~ w,~s" ~velrl a ,~tifii'ie"pe!it, and w'h~'1f.II t'h\: 1 Ui~ttor' 'liile~tl 11l!' the 'gHl"sS m J~rJ,SIOI1Q r Jh~ml htll1 f!.: fll[M r'k

210

'ry~lfi.c,~!lly; .~ At least 30 per cent b]Md in the urill~~," 1"110 Nazis ilCCOmpli s]u,oo fl'1,eirpurpo-sc': the m3'fII~'S k:idne.y~ were rul I'J.-\ld aad he beeame aJli1'j!'va~ id f·or th~ T!I!Sl o,f ~i 8 Ii f'C·.

"·R~Wl(!f. ~Q'i')!'iIll9" ~\Qeb'b!B'h, ,I Iild the M~liIi~i'fY of t~ ill Ill'I1hricr K !'lew 1TIholts 'T~I'i"g'~

Tl'l.t: dtiLy ;),ht:'r t~l~ bUlt5JJ1 iuddcflt: wyth the }ews, tllic di"'t'~oor (I f tbeCiH:ll'Jill eoek "Ib~ train f o'r He!']]~:q.. I I e: is: a certaia r~ ~ -sehke or Reu sdl"kl~. The purpesecf hIDS t:d'i> was ID , v is~t the horne Qffi~!.l hn, or.l(]lC!f to :stttl~ eertein teehalcal {]III(.ls,ti:ons .... f j'~lrisdietiOic'ii in f:h~ C'l1i1lUp. The same' ~y It was I,ea:mcd! 't1h ~~t not Iiollg be (aire fi 'fa,d~o :;;:!:3;t](lll :fit. Moscolw had IJlioao,e.ast a . de,t" iled aCCCi'~llnt G f th!,! torU'1 res or the 30m'! ~111 !'lQ rg p:rl,sorners, This had Ilah1!:r,OlUy m il!Cl~ a m,CJ8;~ ,d~~gleeab~e il'npi!N!SI"' sien and th~ clir~!:~ol' was inviib~d to COirlirirOnt th~ "calumtli,i~s" of Mos.<:ow wid~ "the lru~facts". T'ill2w bets W~ li;m,I'n!:cl hom Ni'I.'.:ds whe became sym.pot'd'J.etk tewards 'U,'!IS.

In the meanthne, Ill{: mistr~<!i.trnlml oe the J~ws had b'Wllght :rthotn:t i:mcl:a a W3 ve Cj f [~~'I,bl ie IT.~ di"~latiol'l ;~ltIm':g t:h~ iilb h~lJi I ants or the vi lin!;'\! i,i,1.ld '~V~~l ~'IfD]Oi1g S;Qllilli;; I;;!,f tilt: N a~i s dud i'~ Wtili,:,:; now h'b:nPtHjsibl~ to r-e:pl~s!.:nt t'~1.!; frlcr~ D.~ mere ~1'PJ'''IlUons o'f Moscow. rrl~la:~r>ort: wh!.!;nt.he dUr~C1!m· got news Q f the to'ii'l nrr~ of 'the' two J cwS ~ nd the (}tH rage cot"lnl"rili m,d upi"lll the yGtul!::re~t, he imm ~~HiU'L!ly w~tU whh '~~ I':;; ~ Wh.l'f(te d,~tt;ct i V~S tn th(J: ~3St ,\Vi Ilr .~ nd ~b~ ee Uil! r, so that they eould hi'~~r "hm;:h HI) 'ahilo! '1'UIHOI'.,'il cl)l'IQ~rnill:g the ;dfrl,'iil', v\!lWD'li h~ tr ic·d bJ t:!ltl.;'l· the cdl:-,j, of ehe J t"wi,sh 1:)I'i:son!:;)F:;; I h~ g~ lII.:i"dI'Cf\~I:'1(.-'!J 'i~o l~t !~im in~,!:llfwil1g thathe 'h:;ltl rhe strictest (l"l'dlJ'l'~ bOlt1 the wMtie;11 :llfli~ r-rcOI'Yi1 ~:!.rl1~1'1ing 'th9,( no one, not ("'!I1:11 the dh;;ec't;Oif", 'I!.,f~[i.1, to vis;H lll,~$.1: ('I;!Us. AliI! thls WaS. a)!~I;!IIl, mJi!f in the c:1,Inp.

T h~ ~ n1at u I'ii.~ I)' Im:U'I:t11l1 3 bt.mt a sl r ~~gl~ l~l:w~1'II thl: ,two, 'IH~n lOID' fl ut 11m' it "I i fII SfJUntn burg" R 'I! S'C hkoe ~:a! n w"",nt to

~'I

BC!rlin and made: a. detai led l"e:pOil't to the H!Q'm~ Olice (tI,] what W,3'S gO\lilflg O'fIi in! the 'east wi,HC', in,c:lu.d:ing tbJe t:l",e:aUi:'1~t of the y:oong Jew. '\1V':itb ,thC! thcmghr. tbat !:lis po'W',er at Son:rJIc:tr:i,bl'1 rg would bC! the:rcby illlJgme:tdoo"he ma.de the same report to Min:isle.f Dih]s, it personal :rr'iend Q1 GOl:ring .. lle stressed th (,,'er that a ~neral :peti,tion had arrived from the 'citi~n:s of Sonnenb,t1fg~ prote~tin,g against t'lle screams ei11lilp" a:lj,ilg from the c~m,p anorl1Je trea,tmcml of fl/.!s,~t:a,b]e young girls by the N~ zis, wIllo WC!N seeuatomed to, b~.t them on the street wirh dog st~rnps. Tbis hafoli"maticm was the tlice 11:1. the ~la'ilid of Re!.Schlloewith whleh he hoped to, secure a'L'lthority :i'Vl Sonnen burg.

'\iVekno.\v fro'JrF.II, certain Mad seerces, t'ha:t due to '~he ahtrming reports spread abro[ttll, Hit~r, Goel'ing ~1I1,d 'Goe'b= k'l:s,. were fli~~)' lnformed Clfi flilf~ oc.c'~:Ii':If."fu::es· ifll '£~,~,e c~mp,

'·ond.h1ons at ~'h~ cmra:l,p did iDU;or, 110 \'Ii"e 'IIc1" • improve fOir the p{!"ison~r!i. On t'he wptrar)"J' ,thch:,' treatn'l.'cnil:: boo~fnifl: more :tuld more severe. HnUltli'i'ilg 'rC'ttai'l1ed all h;~ authodty" ,(l:f.l.d the :p·rri90tJ1n.c~It"S w'er.e to~d, 'tha:t H 111,~W divulged dille sli,glnest in :forn'il:Q.Uoilli. c01l'l.cenmi Ilg the. c.unp tim)' would b c'ver-e1y pl.lni£hcd. Tll:l:"re was til ~ strkt,~st poss~hh.~ ~u!pc:r'Visil(]in! es'pe,ciaU;y {'O:r the prisoners who did work eutside, Sl1ch as dea!1'ing~ farm~tng, shopping, in order to avoid the pc sibil'uty of: uncensor -<I letters pnssing thr.-ougb. t['u: mail.

FoHowialg the J wis,h in idet1t, the 9t.~pcrvisOil' of the he pim:l P'r0p,oNe'l to the warden that every 'pris(U1er who in the hlJtl:l're au "'mpt dta, commit suicide 'be pUll~shed wi'~h Iourteen cb3Y,s ,jhaJr.d arrest," B'ruw.!l'il:lg accepted this pro .. :posit ion.

B:ruening himsel f WCJrnft bo Her.'lin this 'time to oo!llfcr Wi:ttl Dall1e:gre, a "",C!n~knCiiWfi N:a:z.iaf:l:d now cbid of ,olke, Pot]ow:i~g' t1~i!l v isit, ~e 'j n~en,s~'(ld l1n:~ t.orture. il ~ thC! priso,ners, I1!Jt SOn'llc:aburg'. bJ ,a, ct):i1If ereOOi! wit'tin. h~8 sta" B'l·ueni.ng

'22

'explained! 00 HD:mme~., Ho.ltlicf and his ,aide Knca,el tJHI,t they were eo a~t mor~ pntdetldy in the fUJture a;nd t'hat nothing t!mat took p~ace at Sonnenburg was to ,be made public. After this~ H9D11me~. a 'repulsive ind.i'llidill,ull1,wit'tin. a f.ace ,of 3, d.~ generaJte 01' 8n eXe.(utioMf, lnereased ill!! length and the violence o'! the wrtur:c;s..He 'kiio.k ,a pluti,eu'lar plCil1sur~ in being present ,at the tertures, orten, beating 'the prisoners of tl'l,e W(lst wiing hii'fWSc] j undl they foQ,i.nted.

The '''hew I ina orf ,adi,on,'! s,t Sonmmburg was, p!'llnJt lnto ptlctiee by the ~mn;s'£'Cl:r (];.'f ,the eOt1tr,o~ o,f. prisoners ee the su.pef~rl1endent 'ilf d:le 'bcspltaJ. MOire tl,flJ'U!II '~ve-r oofore the se IPrisor.u:~rs, who a;sJ1ood! tc 11& a,Gl.'iu~clI h1'lo thee hDspi:ta~ WCfe gi,veD the "j'far:wa.rd maliCh" .. , 'l1p-<io,wn " " ,." treatment. ,Ma;oy Qf 1h'es_(! men had 1 tl,bG:iI"CUJosi s, kidney troub!.c~ 0It" had! been wouiD],ded in the wa'r.,

One younl prisoner 'W,IS :6T5il OOailll!n un~iI .hi s headand shoulders w@:re cO:JlI!D'plete1y s,w61Icc1il. Thenth y pu'~[@d flut tbe hair on bot:hi sidles 'of his head,,1eaviml;g O':iID!y a smaU tuft in. the Middl'e.. A:r,ol1iad th" they t~ed a red lair-ribbon. Thl1!s ,aU-i're4 he wasf.oroed t'O, hop abo,\u until Mfainibed froM tx,]Hlus"Um:l, white the Nazis raamtll! wit~ de]igbt.

Tlue "new line of ,actio n. '" was further' carried cu't by 3. dose: bm,!l'pecticul'i, of tJ:'l.e ill and aced p~sonel"5 who. had bC9 mUlimpted f rem -ml~rr1 service, DCilZ-"eI1S ,of these wc:r.Cll obUged to pa l'ti,ci,pi!l.~e in miUta:ry dr.i1l wi,th Ibe ot.liD.eir5. A we~li-knowl:l physicia.n, Dr, Erwin MuUe", had helped some of the .sick pwn.!Ulib1.'!:ll"S :mo C!SCiLPI!: i rOnl the driUs. This [ce<IJched the C,eJTS 0'£ Brll4en'in_.g. No.t ~0118 :iilifterw.al'ds, this youl1g m~ was :fr]ghtf uny persecneed heeause he had darccd to show signs of 'ID"fiCy.

t\ frew' days bef.o~· we had seen this mer,c:i'tul doc~r'l ita~m'J ,cheerful, in go d hca,ltll1, :ld.i,ni.sttt~'rinC' ,ID the a1 eeds of the ,other prisO!n:l:r!i; t hen WIG! sa w him bei:DlL_g' take-n fl"mrifIIl the

Z]

!l!c]liar to t'!:liC oeu rt '~{j do his '~(t:r~i~u.i ng",. Hls f~ce ,vas pale :O!1! Wax; O!lm,e !fit' :b~s ch~;:)lk,shlU.ng from llile bone: I I ~e a I,'l~mp of blC'GC]ing m:t}.:at; ]] is ~hront was col,,-erod wlth :red and blue welts, A ftel" dle usual rlloe a rOI.1I1(I. the C01iu'lya,rd ill the crcy,ch]:tlg pCllSiti!o!1, the Nazi,Siol"fl~l",cd h'im ~o Ji)llin.t ]~is (humb~ under h]s a rmp:iu; and to s~ng. ., Peer II tr.h:: U ... nsmu9t go illillth~ wid~,'"',ridoe world alene", Hundred!! oj the !l]lt]~el[" pl"if;OnC'l"s wa:U:hed., nl.C~[r [.aces erhnsen wit~~ i,rl1i[loten:~ fury-

CIQl'gymel'li iIIln,d Te~~~i91i'5

A!1l(J;glC the pri IIlO!fH~fS was it cletg]i":mM bomthe lleolg,'l1= balihoad o:f Smlllei'll'bu:rg', Thls man h <lid. an .f!XC'CU,c'i'llt repllJ:ta,~ tlClil i:n the .Prottes~:a:nt· Chu [~:~ and was a ~cm,loI:!S or~niz:c[" [lif!ll~Ssi(!l~ns hll South, ,AftilCEl." But he had, reh1:!;;i?ld~o adheee torhe "Gerl~1a:liil. a:lJl'isti~n8~j, 'th~ 1f1!f::W relig,i01JS, tlll;O"'~rnl!flt creseed by the Na~ds. The Oppesionists, that is, 'Ih~ folh)\Vers of '~h'u~ dCf'gyD1;]a~l, were ,greatly perse£:'Lded. du'rll'lg !the electiens It! spite o'I this. they .i~ecWd fOIIlI:1~en r.ep:r'1e.!lenta~ rives (00,000 votes), while t~c N Mis eiooted Oil]}' dght. A'S a d~rClct ]ili',l:'~ult the ,cl,erg}'Ill~1l was, i'mp.ns.'Oned at Son= '~~el~ bn 'lr. The; ij a::ds \Vf:!,"e' dcUgh'~:edtc, get thelr han:nds Oi~] h ilJill. ., \i\r'!!l~I'1 ~.lke C(!l,'I'@ (11 f him," llt!\::y sl'liid. Th~y h~.d hi'~ll 'ta~rry their '[I,ight"potslo the- g:fL 1i'1)age-wa:gcns and sl,lIook widl laughter at 11m,'> speetaele,

I_:Je 0 rtel:U, witnessed ~he' toreu res Q:~ the 'ot'~ler prisoners, On one ,~jIiOC~~.lli~ii:m. he said l~:Uit :i~ would 'be te:rrihle i ft'he seeds p:laaued by the: N,3i!:i.s "would blessom and ris@ born t·itG C:'iII rth 'EO punish 'those: who .ncg'l-J iUy of all these atroeities," The Naz:ut; eensidered ~im d~ngelfol.'Js and Jselated him by pruM:i'lJig hiM ill another: w:Urtil.g.

A '~e3icherf:rom the neoighhorhcod of SO:l:ll,ne'ilblu:-g, whe h .. .d ~l 0 i,n'baj"\m'1t at ;a_~ lin pol ittt::!>, 'IIII'WS a1wkcl't in ea.pti'\i'i~y for' Fil'lauy months, Ue wa::; lll, S'l]tY:C!li'\r;f1 fT.'OlDl1 gout or what

24

erlrue '!WaS he guilty? He wrote a IGlOOr t~) the I01':.\till gctlfe'li'ilment dem tI.nd"'~lIg aetion agai I1St a N ui CICll"lO'lTItln who, he eharg·~d, hadraped several young gids 'behind tl1~ pulpit of the vi.11 agie church ln t:1~al11l1:r.i1 ici pal'itr whc::re th@tcadl~r lived. He was t a kento Sonnen bll'li'g,. T he Mad dJergymtl.'I1. On the other hand, retained an h]s hO'M['S and duties ll'~tul October and was able !CD pnvcnt the relC'llLs!::: £l,r: the teaehcr,

One eV1~~~'i'!lg, the proprietor ,of rhe d tlntl;e. hal] ""~ SOfIJ!] "'11- bu:r~, i!1'!iI'i~ed, tile ""l'ar~len and all th~. Nazis of rhe Cal1'lP to OO~IM;::~@ 11 is estahll snmc:lntt a ]1;(1 (lrd nlk: :tt his e.~pC1iil.i!le:, J.Ie rk,el'fmk a Htd~ too much hiueelfand sitti ng ~behi nd '~he hal" callflflly <'Innounced '~hat after all, Ado~f HIUer "was, 3£1 idiot", He \'\'<1,5 hl.\limetl'ia:tely arreseed and 'tiiilkeil to fi'lle COllceUlh'atio'lilL calnfl'·

The same eveD11ing ill, waitc'f f rnm the resta:unnt of 1~\V ~ ld bi,~den >I (s'Eltnatcdt1;M:f' dl.!l.l w~'tIH· at SOflllU;['1bm''g), and a:nothClr, a n~,tiomd sO£:ialust ¥'IIer~ also a r t:c:s1.le(l" TIU:l !''\!'~itler w£liS llrtcsted because of an inc iidc]'lit 'IV uth some of the N azis who had lreflt:sed ltoO p:1iL}" fcn' dl!;lir diFink s, He I,ost his ~cmpeli" and It'llid, "We o~,ght to w:ip;e: out 'EhiEr 'blfow!1 p1.n:gue~'. AI L th ree 0'>[ these n~en we:rC: ~eill'!e:D'!! '~1Irbm,~]'\ei fully" U por] t heir feledsi!: lli.~}' were 'told that !tht:"J{ '!.!:nevrr wh~t '\\Iou'lli MJlpcm. i.f they d~v111lgcd w:hll.l,t tllQy 'Imd see]], OIf what they had experio(!l'ict!('~ tlh,emsel'l,l',(!,s, One ean I rn IDIg'i'l'Iie that t'hcy said noth:iug; but ~t,r{.Lng'i'¢ a"., it m'iY ~ee'niI~,! t'~le'Hr ~:x:pl2'de:oo~~ were 500n c.o:nmJl1ol!~talk ill thewhole vi najfe',

:Sv!I;:k MOI!!!J B8'~lIte n ftlnd I-'Ialfilg,ed

In .sept~mber, ,:zoo [lo'Htk.a.l prlseuers were tr,~nS~~rn'cd E rC1 n the 6.'H1.C~ntrllt ion. ,e~mp r(}~ Oranienbu rg tot1~a t of 3!t.1l1m:ruJ,!.lurg, ;l tI·agic cargo eomposed mostly of old, broken men, mnny of ~h'l.!lil,~, V!:!l-Y sick,

Tllose wlt(l tI~ x:I cr ilLtch!.l~ 'Wi2:rc obliged eo run t'h~lroogh a

l.'i'

'v~r~t~ 'Me: g\au~tl,et of N a:ds Wh6 l'liurrie:d the. 'With s~aps and blows. As th~ fen 00 ~he grolJllil'ld., :Eainti'l'lllJ, they 'he'm,,,d~ j'tIe;y, tl:i:er'e, ,~t gaj,og, Ji'orw,jl'rd. marm ...• '"

Tb!!il' pr.i:sone,l's from OranienbU:fg WC-f.; ]odg~d lll,th~ ~t wiWlg. It 'wora. al rt'iady Septelllber I' uT.lJd'flliery oo]d, Bt!'t there 'WC!!re not :riIOOidy cfJI!ilugh l'lJaul:-ci~t:s ['Or' thoiS0 already the'l"e. N,EI'~urlL~ly tho!Si~ who arr-h .. oed h~.d ~Oll~ at all.

T~e IIiI,CrWCCU'I1,e:rs" j~ spj~e 0] t'htdr 'V,3:rliOUS pi~ys,lcal, Jtanln'r.m,ii'" 't~lIil:S :such as cr ip[ll,ed legs 0'l!1J(] 'lI'ariC:O'IlC' veins" wer~ ~'n:Ot a:l all ,ex~pt: bom d1:e: regttla:r rntltil'lc'. Thllly too h~d to prnc!ic~ the MfifoChi;ttg fOl.'tu~at:ioos, dJ;~ '~Mlil!K:L:S!il:!l, 'Ih,e N':fIzi s>ong.s. Tk~)' w·ere ~ot give'WI ~n~ [o:rnls immediately but dr1'11!'i!d In, t:h~jiili' ,own dotllD,esin the din and fi]th of the cGijlrtya'fd.

Thep:r!,sonen were, moreo'flliil!r~ dirty; btfec;mcli ~nd diseased b~Q8i.1III!!le ,0:£ tll(! C'Olfl.d~tion5 UI:'U!~:r wh'ic]n. th;el had ~ived a:t 0 r,3uiJI2I1'wrg. l'hi,s, CU'rtlp' is in f~ted Wi:tWl, Vlii:001ilnl,, ~s -liltq)" ,lic.g:w~t"1ru Ih'iitt. ~ewtoUet5 for the hundreds o~ men inlp!rl501111lld t'11~rn. TtlI,e plr~sone.rs h3!Cll to :sl,e~p ,on d:UII1.P, I'OII,tn'n ,str.n'\'I'. It w~s t~£ ba:rrac'ks 'of men 'WIU)iS~ wrddl'ed 00 11 di .. , t ion w.3:siJil(! ~x;cuse: 'far the Ul(DSt o!L~l:rag!!!:~ilJs and t~u!: ~oot iSilulmd!J_~~ di s,pla)" o'f Naz\i S8id.i 6111.

A1W thooo ",,1;10. had ]ice 'l,'III'I!I't1! olll'iged to s~ol'l1d ,eomple:tcly naked near ,tk~ w'aJU uf t~~e filst W~iU1g. OW't o~ them was :fO'fccd te pull ('lill.ii~ iliUthe bait ,00fOiLltld. his, 8!1! X !Il;EJJ1 organs. AU of them stood for more than '~iIIL 'hol,1l." ~!1 ~b,ec!Old~ :shiv'el'~ in.!!:' flJli1,Q ehi1h:d. ~o tlle ~Hei

There was one sYiPhfuLitic whe had Iilice.lru ta:_ke~l out ,of a heme :£'01." the a,~~ because he: k'ElJd said d1_a~ firue c011.ditioir.li o[ th~ [poor' hild ~,ot, ~L1:l[)fOli,!e-d IiAInt1er th,e fieign ,of Iii:lh::r" l~le '\\V.as, destined to ~ecome the iJuU of mueh ·0" ~he· SEiV,~~ 'Wit of :~h:~ N:~:z;is. They 'P~shed :t.i 1m ltAJl1dii:r the w,~'I~r-'l~~p, On!! o'f t11:e lowe~t, most C:i':imiriL~J, t:Y~P'e5' (II[ the: Qt'il~f pris:o:l1_l's 'had to scrub his c:rgans with, ~ ~03p b:rush Uill1,t1~ ,t]h~ ll:lQod rn.r:a,

2i1\l

N otsati~6!~d wL,t~ dtis~ dl~Y drl!-ss~d hilfml ~n 01 'thin sb:i 1'1 that on]y fU.'CI-md 'tD his na vt]. He S'~ood, this way for 'ltlDiroe hQllIrB ~in dn.e b~ti'fIIr ,eifl]d, while th~ N3.~d:!l shook w'ith !.3:IJght-et. Dl.uing ~'he w~~oIl(!: ~tilTle', grotl~ o:fthl.:l:stl: bar1oo.:r'i.8iw,s. w.tIJUwdl bT ~o look ':l~ tl1~S b~ghtful s~~tac~c. e:tIChangin,g ehseeue sror,~~ and ·lP']~a:satttfi.,O;lS.

E~n Utis was no,l 'eilo'l!1gh.'llt'ii! S:illt1l1.~ e.'\I'~llIlfll Slevefal N::lit.is well!tto ~is.,cell :aa:ad pi!:r~o"'M}ed 'the: most 1!Jill1sp{IDki:ii.1J)le acts. '0 f jm.!:eoem:y O~ ~linD. Then the, be~l.'t ltb!m. ltnt il 'he gOlsp(!d l~is last brrea.tlm., T@ make it ~oo'k nkl:1i: a suicide, they ~.!l1~g' hbDl ~P'i' nndpilt h~s JmEl;Jld ~ga~~st _hi.s o~~n:s. i ~~liaJ~ n~:d day ti;u~y !told t'he prl"looners :and tbwe ,oth(.!r' NaZ:l,s, g~ghng s,n(l. la'!t~ghin.g .:il1 t'fui.~ir hurnee, tthM t'h~ I·s't~h:idc." 'had mastur.J]atOO untjl ~:h~ 'last mement,

_ SGlItiD,e' of ,thtl primlt!.~l·swho 'IN,eoo carLlew;tQ:rs, ~mtd.G a. lli:la,ek: ooJln~ and si x of them we're, ob:li~to, car ry it t'h'l"ough du¥.i 'lliUagl.'! to t~ Ie e.!!M~tel·1 in '~h(lirpri:son '1IlI111 forms.· A ft-er ·~hl';.':ln~ waJbd ttlC. 'Mfde~ of 'till! C3Jfilp dressed in al:~ ,e'll'i!.':l1~11i~ :\ii1~if. :find a '~0.l) hat-a :11~rllte d!l:~n'Cmsij'~;tfuo~l oftlru Third n.'Qld~ '~i'LJ~ dru!;.gtl5tcd !!lVCfI lite ;,11 'I1,a:bita:nts, I) f So mlmmbl1 rc,

Stlic~:i!II~ .. I)Qm Qcr,iii~ieWOfkQrr' Drivon ,~'C, D'.at~r

Augllst IOJ m 93 3, 3 groll])) of :iJo~iat-dc;l~ocr~tic\~o~'kcf~ Wel''e b:r(J!!]gh~ to the can'lp" T.h~ s~1iii:iie 'e'l'i.'i'llUiI'I'1Ig we hea~'t1I tllil,~ SC'I"OO'm.-s 01 0l1t nUilrt'yiL'i~d eemrades Ti'n.1;l cl~ic'l' b~lly at thris !tim!: was III Oi.':ii"~ahli Max Mldll2'U, frol'l1 li'rfil'ildi!.lJrt, Ocll2:r, LLlckn wu'h;h:r~tjj';",$~. On~ of the 'm.ost 1mraSlzlcd 0 ~ the 'pri sO'iJ,en, w~s a scclal .. dem@il:'I"9:t~!!!!!:i vil-iBi:.!l'vail'tt" abotJtforty ,;'10:3.1."9. old, EV'1l the Nazis ~evQ]~)~d :f.lJt 'ttl\"!! t~EI:hllC'nt tho:thtll recei V~(1 :'it l~l~ ~lIii.lnds '!:;I'E MuH.er; ,a~ld t'11,ey :n!:l:koo'~he la.uer 10' '1J.e mD:!i"'~ n mdr;:::uut'C ,Cff.l.d to stri'k\l him le~s bfuta'l]y"

H i.s :st!o.F1 wS S110d. The day al:f:t:cr llis :a.rri val he w~.s fO:lllIudi hangi'ftlg in his celt

:r1m,t :sa:me di!li.y-, whmi 'Muller 'W1e[H: :intO' the N~z,i diningm room, some '0 ~ hi,s compalrn:ionri- caned out t(l him, 'II y 00 tl'l(llwwnat .You have on your conScleflte, ... " They ~li1i,g in ael~(J!nll s, " Jli,{j!a,:1d.,t:l, you know l10wttQ bent 'em up, be .. d: I em lIIP, beat 'elilil up .. ,,'I But MuUe:r was doing hi-s "duty", Hjs grOIJP. had b~t!!n aeeased of l.u::];;; 01 s,Qvi2ri·ty W iU~ the p'.rlS{)'JJ,e:ws. Rnd ~~I.'l: 'ttoak 110 chanee of ~QSiJng ]lls, pOlSa.ti'OIl •.

't'!ll~eJ]thl!!: .B1ack Guards illi"ri'll'OO at SOl.ltliel.~,b'l1rg. 'l:h.e 'ohoce[litie.s and hG.l'l'lQ$e>a:m.lprali::tk:e.s became more and more eemmon, TI](1: yOU:nligc:r and 11andso:ruH:r pdsm.~.er:s\¥efie o hen t@'r~d tOni, iilstu:r~llte il] the preS-enpe II) f. th~ N,u::i s and to sho,'II' them their s-eX:U:I.1 c!fgRtl:S. The maj oll"ity ef t'l':Le N asis i15d.fl~ .shamefuI1y; theii:r luol.llt~hill reekedwith fi'ithy D ekes,

The wont t.YP~ of cr'iminail:s 'I/,~r'IUle <i!,P'POitlt1e(~ gil;il3.'rd S ill! th~ oOl1ce!lJtration .ca1'1l:1JJ).

WoQ :know frofml !F~li~Me 8g1.U"O~S fhatt m .. my e f u~~ prison .g(Jar.cll~ ii.:ad fOrtl1l,;r]y been p:r.i!jlO!'u~t'S~lte.ntrJ.:leh,..<;::s <I!'~ SOhIU~;n~ blilrg-. They 'Were burglars, hOUSL"""bn;."'akers, and so 0'11, AiI'h1 these m~n wel"e sped,a,]ly de1t~iJed b,y G O!!!ri11'9' to gtl,:!lrd 1'hlt ,qJ~lItj~ fasdst piti:l!l(m.ers.,

The gU3.:Bd3 who came to the camp ~i.l Apti'l, 1933, w(!re hated by ftiJ.e ii'i'h~bit"llits and the pe[IJsants a round So.!llrae-I'II~ burg, The polioll! or the vma:g~and other leeal o:ffilCia[s were cOililist3nt.ly hil c@.riAiict wit~\ 't.hos.e: who were sent ftnm 'Berlin by Chlef o·~ potj)lke W,ii,1'C k~. Tile YIO'UI.!lg peasaU:l'tWlO'men and g]:ris were ti'l,e s,p0ti~lp:re.y Ii) rt1~~ gtJard:s,

One ulgl;d Ol]e of the gl13Ji'~l!i! fi red h.is gu 11 '~\dlil,e d'r1l:I'I1k. 'J'~,e bl!Jlln~~ made :'I, ~],Qle ht '~iii.e celii.itiG' .ulcl g:ra~ediOl:le: 01 tin: pdiHoC'.alpltis!I)l1ers On the s!;:oC@nd loor. Ano,tliJer tlme he ~ook t.WO iIJi f the prisoners h:iibo theeeurtyard Ito exercise rhein :tI.1ftd t'h:r~:'l'~~ll:ed 00 kUI '~h~ml. The men \:o,:ere SOl ""edon'ly h~~ the i~:d~rvffi:llti61l] G,t one of 'l:h"1J;! 'Ii}l'he:!i Nazis who happen(1:d' 10 pass by. They !If\oll!ht him 'to thegtl<J!1d-,hol1:S~ where he:

:2::1

exp.b iitn.~ that h..e: wssimmull!!:: under a]i ,clrem1:1:sb:L'L1c:es, 1:!:~lder.

article 51 (a la,w for insanity}.. ,

"VVhentb& Nazis reeeived their l'll!'~eS they ran oomp]ele]y 'Wild.. They W~i1.it iuato the d@:r'UI;tOrie.s ... nddirt~ed the fIIoon, the heds, and the tables, N at~r,~l[y t the l,)l[isone:fsc had! to. ,Ciun all this up. One day Siegnrllnd.,apo]ice l:ieL'It,~nilLll.iJ.t who a.c:ted as warden until J lily 31" hill'ise~:r said, "'Th.e~e N azi~ afe a bundof ad.vel:lttn:~[S and bf:igatld~. The ~om~ lllillJni :!lts,.a:~ loost, are enn vitn:ed in theilir beliefs",

This expressioa, "brigands and a.dvellha.rer,s", could be best applied to the guards of the spfiug of 1933· They' :stole :an 'the; prisoners' :l11wney. M~'I1Jy 0'£ t~le latter wQa:lcl~r,~d why the letters that they wl"Ote dll:rin:g that spdll:g "u'ld summ~r never ru~d'nle(l their' ir iends and i'ann'itiesVlld~1 theY" :rounda heap of' th£s~ ]cttersifll a bucket i,~ the Idtc::lien, w:ith 'Itlte:

Shub1ips remevcd, , , '.. ..

There was :til. :st'rld oensorsh:1p !O fOl]~I,ettJel:'S ,. 0 rle: CD 'f the

lJrisonc'rS! had wr'iUen home t.hat"th.i!! We2itberis bad", 'J'l'le ]@Ucr was not allowed to be ttllail.,eCi i)Ii:l1ider thcpreteuee that this WRS a c~~itid3:rn of the gavernl'llf!.l'llt of I,,;Iitler, Addan beat the: .aJ'!J.IIl;hor o'~ the '~~fi,~id5>'bi'l'fL" until he ( aJU1i ted "

,..,. 't S'l··t· j1"-"_~.-.-i11 ill .... 1:,_~r!lOIIiI

' ..... Qml"!'illll 11111 s , ~o n n .r"'D 1''''I]ifI,P'D ',,,,, ~. of '

Late one S'!.llmm~f nigJillt, a :gf'ol.:lp of Nmis entered the cei'~ of a youtrilg p:risQnelL". hOI.'ll Itb~ ne1gw,bOr}10od o~ SOriitlenl::I'L.trg. \~,e beard bin'!, screalJ!Ua:nif.IJg~ ~'N 0., l10, I won't go' w~th yO/ill.. • ," • You wan~ tn ~lu'!JJo1! me ... , :"

T~leJ dragged 'him out 1)[. the cell and disappe:;u'ecl with lihn intothe llig'I'lILl,¥1!:, WCI"e all at 011:.1" wi ndo\'1I's listening, JA t fi'fst we 'heard dt!:; vojCeJl of the guards, Then nothing .. Ha.[ r an hO!l.lJf 'IOlter d1DiS& o;f us who, had our '!'II'imle,ws open l'n;QQl.ro.tbe sound o,i dull s:hots COillil ng f:n;m'll the di reetion of the forest, AH~j" this, oomp]l!t( silence.

;Ill)

For two (jl~,y:s we had no 'Hews ,of tl1~ you:un,g pdS(iili'iileli.

Th,en the foUow! ng a''Ppell~~tl lin Dct A'ifiri:I and. in thll! Voel~ kiiSdw 11 c()'btlddcr : •• $:h~k troops di:SOO!ii\I'il:it" crime oomm~tlbe:d, by Com:Q;unists. '. • • O:w:~ ComnuJ nffist s.hot whi'le :at~iI.':mpt~nr: to ei5(a~, . • .',

Th~ pr! SQ!MIJCf f'rcm SonJiLe!ml.burg,~ we: learned. a f c!w da_ys ]a;l~r, hadl b~efll ~e it for dead. i~ the rushes (I r !II. n,e:wrf"lb~~.i It ,ca~:a], Bu:l some time ,3f'tetW,~1d:s he ~,itd :sita,gg:<l:rOOi h1J1bo ith~ mll~idpa!.hospi'tal of S@XDni!lTIIbUfg, b;le'Edi'f~.~ i ro~l, two 'InmUet woUIrDJ~;l!li. Whem t~1e Nazis, learned ().'fth,'i:s" th~y promi sed that dUlY' 'w(I'II.I1di ~1~3'ke care (If h~m.'~

'T~ :aJrtide ~]so sta~ thp,t at t:be Silln~ tiMe ,a:llctll~[" pri SOmler born :M,C!~dt!!i (N'e~maf-ck) was aeeused Il,f ha:vin~ mum:erned a :YO!lqlng Nmlt He w,as ~ilid it@ have CQ:nt:FeS!loo. :u1e'f rut wna repered tl1Sit he :!:i3tti been sbol d.owf;I ]1'11 ,the. :~Qf'cst of Liml1i!ll:rltz llw:hi~e ,:l'tl!em~.tiing ttl !!~,~,"

A f'ew w.cl:d,s ~!d'om t~,e!l~ :i'ndde'I1[-S, CCtu['I'e:-di 't'he prfi!:!i:S (l'f FrankFurt ()II] ,t~.e Ode'f and 'F:Mer.st:i2f.D'Wahle JmhH:sil.!2lcl the fUlW'S 0:£ the ,~t'fest ·0'£ t:hJlce act i .... i! Comn~mn]sts. T[~e Wil.iN]elil ,a:t SiOlt1,n~tTh'bl1'i'g wbbed ~is hands ~t;1, gloo and :smM I ,'f,\N eU,. we~l, i'f od)' 'lile;y wou~d eeme here .. "n N'M ~o:ng afterwards the news a~p~fed, in th~ wh@~e 'German ,r~s tl1~Jt "three Commullwsls h:ad been shot down whwl~ aUCl11$1'ttng to e~t3]U.': fr{lm ~'he' ~I'tlnsport laking 't'ilC!m '00 SOlm!ll1:Lburg!"

IliiiJ ,I, !Ci!!ill'it 'Cornl Broad ,iii nd 'W'rlinr'

I ~UII Vi! meli1,'tiof:looonll:y S.(Jlilli'it;fil or the t!i'i~Gs t.ha:t ou r COln'!l,.. rades 'lln:derwcnt ~iUill the c;On~entTaHol:l eam[!) '0;' SOi:1fie'l1ib~["g, But in spi,tG 0,1 fhi.s" 't'h~:IIe were of ew, very f cw ~ who w,ea'k .. 'CH.Gd. be i,o~ U:liC 1\~ !l2:] te1'foOii ,:lI~d b!tT<l:1i'~d tlu:ir oom:rades. .A.molfilf ~hose wlllo d;ld btrtt,ill]l" assoda~ was :El [o.flnc'r sotialdemQef,a~i.e [!lo~iC(l ,offic'ial, 'SocHchr.il:II". Ah~;a,OIDl,gh:ll 'pri!1lo\U:l:ei' h]msel i I he' iii EOlrm!.:d on dO:Z(l'l'l iii, ef rCmn:wmnists aiflod: soc1:d-d,emo-

30

'Cif,!J!ts in the camp. One: 0·£' tb@priso.oers said tDn:~i.'t Goe:b'el'~. ms 3, peer c:ra'lOw j ~:iJU.mlJn.er, ~ha:t Hitler wou:1d nat !oemnin ffin !Dower ~~y ]ong; aneeher, ~'h9:t ,th~ f@od in '~~~e: c~nlp' was poi senous, 'TI11SJsPY, Boc.'l:tr:.'b,t;lr exposed ,~]~ 'l1':ii:"!OO:. As ([1" feS!.ll]~

they wefe moved Wi th~ 'cells i:u!ii the: oflll'lar, . .

Ab:soRt!1e C]rl r1ii ness, reigns in '~hese cells. The w.indo-w,e, are eevered w~th iiia!l:kin.g. "f]n.e foed lI:oJ:II·sists .so.te~1 ,of bread~ wider ~i'lI,d C{)liTee, w]th w~rn"bo~li~~Qn ev~ry lh["lec clays. Ti1:efe 3~r.; 'no, cb.aifS, no ti1!ib1e8~ [l;nd tibt~ bed staJnd S ~pfig:11't ~gaiMt tlh& wall aj~ day.

1M 'p:rison,'er is 'r O:r'biidd.efll to s'i't O(D1 til>!!: tloor rl}.xrept whc:ra he reoei'!,'iIilS, hffis "meals" T~'II.e· wa~ls are mClds't. ,da:nk :a'liilc1 eevered Wi'tll slimy I:l:rowt'hs, The p-dsoncl's suff'!.'l:r conBt.:i1ilit-

lyt:rom to]ds, :rllc:!JiIimatism;lflld other illnesses, .

, ~(l: o:f the· fa vor]oo pasti:m~s of the: Nazis is roteU O~H~

0'( the: pri SOJil:(':I"S 'tha,t he is, tOi:'l.cl~nuiC!rl 100 de~,th and that be 'is, ll!ll lli:fl e:i!li2cnted i~, an ]wont. Tl1.C!y affoct, all ~~iIi' of khu:1ness and -hnm!~~ii'ty ,~~d, t~l'I 'him ro write hi5 will and far'~wtlJ, ~e.tmf'8. .c~ertain thal he is ,!;'!i,bout to .c1Iil~'. the $If isoner' wri~~s 120 h'is wi:i:e" chihl'ren <ll!n~ p2l'rclllil:sa'fildg~,vcs t'h~ ~ett~rs m the N asls, 1'i1Iel'l t'he !CGF'emo:tty t;~li ns; He is ptd '(In h'is 'ki100S in. '[:r,ont o~ b'ilS b~,. and! he watches the~ bu~ld5 being pllWt in'~o '~lrn.e gu~, ~US t"i2:S are co,'!!ef~.d wit'l'lI a ,e:;lo,th. Thein tim: N azis wr~~lk out (I f the 'ciidl, on 1!i~l .. tO~!l, and ~a"g 1h'i.'l dODr, Thn: [Xl(!!lr m 11'111 genc'r;d 11 fai'l'lIb,!III'Ol;mdhilg' his. ~'nc"ad. The Nt!,:zi~ are r!:(!!l'llvuls~cl '\1VithlaughJb~[· and te~~, '~h(l:!r CO~;a:lrnde5, I!Hel'~ Is o,ftI.C! thM we: shot 'with tlle d.oo,r of his I';:l.dL •. ,It

nirty-l"I;hlliG Priloftli':sJ ~ml1I* 'Ifilli'm Ellliii!i,ilii,t'i0 9 in Orno Day

In ] uly, ,,,,,llicl,~ the PoUoo L~(,lu~!l:n:il1!lt Sie,gmil[.1!m,clI and ~l i ill, mel1l~.m.lI:"ncd t \1 "if; 1'hC!y had to lea 'I,!\~ 'sQ:iluilCill:bl1rg 'becr!!1!.lIsc Oi~ 't1~"'if impulloo lil(l .. or' eflki'ency, tlu~ ,ollly means lG:ft to thcm ,to show t hat the]' b3d 3 wf,i':ll-Ol'gani:z.~d syS~C1:nl was, to Qrgan ..

:i:ze ~a general provocation" SiGgmund particularly desired a mutiny and the guards weH~ giveQ orders thae in the >e101e.nt this rn.utiny took place, they were tc shoat 'l,'IlI-l'thont hesita talon.

It is ~ot strange, flli!-rdo.re •. that the!l"e W',<liS fOIl'flld on the door of one of the cells the follm;,..-jng "wFitrea~ by the Commnnists": "In Leuna the Nazis are Ill]!, mutiny. " .. In October we wm have C'omm.1i,1Jnis111+ . ;..'~ Immediately all the prisoners in the dormitory were ~uestioned. They were: driven into the courtyard or ]lI:lto the torture chambers and were t~ld that the tortures would not cease. undl 'the ~"guilty'" weTe discovered,

TITis '~s the third of Jui),." and the N,:lI2:is planned to end th<te da_y wi:th preveeation ·~:r.J;d wholesale execution of prison~'I'S" F 01" l1i_Rn::r hours prisoners were carried to the hospnai] m a steady' stream. Towards evenhlg lilie sltuatlen reached its climax, Those who lived in the east wing and rnost o,f those who lived. intlfle west wing were lined up, near the hnsp:i~L The prisoners of the west \7Ving' were lined up in th~ north end of the COUtt. They were .P"I,~t fh:rol:lg'h 'the "up .. down . . " fO:liward rna reh , , ,:1 drills ,Elbout a lrltlndFed times lll'llt I], bn_"'.artb~'es~~ they [d1 00 the. gr.i)il:l.n~.

. b. nile meantime ~he prisonees of the east W:Ullg had to smg' S? I1igs , accompanied by a, small band of music, Every fe.w NiI~ll'ut·es .~~ Nazis passed before them with the: body of :ill honl;])ly mutilated prisoner. Theminutes passed, and wi'th them the prisoners, The band. played" d!w\vning out the SC!l"e'lJITlS of the eortured vicHms .. Hundreds of men toad agai nat the prjson.-wa]l li ke stones, Hundreds of men clenched their lists in ]j'I;;!'lpless fury.

Thl!' guards ~h!l;)llt~d~ ··~.s~l1g, 'wH1 you, you swine " . . ". Bt1it they could !:Bolt sing; The tears rolled down their cheeks, Everything was TBildy Ior the provocation, A Nazi stood ii'll. the dormitoF), wiH.h his . gun cocked. The prison rs,

12

strained to the br1eOliking poilU, imagined that th i.r last moment had come. Sixteen wounded prisoners were carried. before them te incite r-eb ell ion. ....Stlddef.lliy~. hundre.ds of voruces broke into song,. "Once I had a Comrade" r3:ng th rollJ~:iI. the f;OU rtyard, The prisoners G f the west eoert joined in this song of solidarity and CO'l.1[!I radesI.lip 01 t'11~ a'lllti- fascists..

One of the guards , Bauer, I:.Ul into the eastcou rt and yelled;, "Yo·1!l. £onSQ{ bitches ; . . have yG\.I. gone crazy? . . ., stop it . . • stop ill: ,~t Oi1C!.! • , ." T!re song· continued for lour minutes more, and then CMSOO. AI the prisoaers, widl the exception o,f those who were t-oo in to stand up, were urdered into pos,iitiO:I1 £0]' drill,

Willi Kasper, a fo:r.[ne;r member o.f :p.aJr[ia.uleI1lt, who had a bad heart and a di sease o,f the nerves, w~s compe'll.ed to "take C'U!,fgle'~ of the ptiS{JI!:1I.(!:('Sl I[)!~ the east w'ing. For forty minutesthey raced around the yard, while the Nazis watc_hed ,eagcli.ly for the slighitest sign of revolt and handled their guns ner-v.ou:sly.

Bur luek ·was agaillst them. The p'Ti~o:tu~rs showed an l1-a,ccrmp.u'-,aM'e discip'line. Tl:u,ey welt,!: possessed by but a sil1gh~ thought; .. N ot: one of us :ID'll$t fall into the trap 0 [ these pt.O'voca:tell.r"s" i,

Tha.t evelting the hospital walS fi,iled to, overrlowit1g. One of the .gu..atds there; who s61.1 :retain@d. 0.. hi t 0 f human r ee!.ing made no secret of his indipatiQn. :inc CVCUlJ sent it letter to the' lome 'Offioe in which he accused the warden of hecamp, saying, :'lfli'lilOlilg' other thillg'£ . that "there we~'e more lnjoctions used in that one day than would ordinarily be used in a year:'

1 t w.:;lS· not long a [ter that some o:f the Nazis told. the prisoners confidentially that flm,e Jnseriptien IlJP'O\'ml the door of th if: dorm itovy was t he work of one of the Nazis,

\~(lm.en tlru; Black ',ua1i'd:s came to Sonnenburg, there was,

B

;r'di~cOCVlered~' lilpOiril ill,e same deer a:llothe:I" ll'\eVO~!iJJt;iOlMli'ry in~ scrj,t~en" This tillllie. however ~ ~t was wrhter,t en d'lle loutswe of the deer', nil: s~ri~ of'oolftt!l'reS, .ma1'cJ~i,ngafid :r'~!:Iir!_g b~g,3~ again, And ag:ai:!TIi t'ke N a:z:is ~ol,<l1! the p:ri seners oo;nfidGnt[~U'y that t~i 5 al~so was lCiiJl: wo!rk of 3. N Ol:!;t who, had been stupid. ~f1oiL~gb to w,rite it O~ the ol'4JsUte Olf. the dooil'.

In $eptiW'ibli.lrthe t'hi.r-d [)IfOvoc3,tion '~@o'l( ]).la~e. This timei't was eharged dntt poa:i1i~] d:iSl:lJssffions, Wl.1:~ ~_.eld iW:ear the water-pump. Oi!a~ 0:£ ['he :political pr~SQ:neil'S Wil~ ~ai,dtc' nave: told his oolfllrades,: nn w!.uu't 1W!! v'(!'ry 'lo:tilJJ' before 'W6' wiU f:11:ake ehe N ads march 3fOI,:l'f;i:d,t~iri:s St!l.~ ootliD'tyarrd,"

O-lll,e 0 r ~:h!! :!l[l:t[on:al-soo:i~Ust [')f~9iOlle:tSj ,ill )"OIlHg' doctorr c:nJI,ed JU'DiI.@' Man:~~amaJd. who wanted to w1n ,the flli:!,I"Of:' @( the Nazis 1'l1J!" t1e'DlOl'I:fiidng 'U~!;l o~he:!:'S, said that be ~lh1:1seU ltadl o\,cl'h '~I'd [:lollltic(ii] discussions n(~r the pL'llmp. .A ~:([!U rrlo?Je!!l prisoaers Wc:ll'\~ dtr(Dwn into tllin.12 klrtiIiDlre c:hambcts to be ut11 n~sl;'ioH;~d". But no,t ene kttl"3;yOO ffi1is coMrades.

Eur:iIIgOO at, ,tilui:s ~h~:I'd fa:]ruU'r~, B'l"l1ening' '1u'ocoo~Qd with iii. r'iJi['iO'IL~,s "£@rwaro ill'DUl.fC'b'" 't:reat'lm!Ul:l1t Wi'l'li K~s,per ~d a bC'<1rt attack Bifid h~d to \1i2 takren 00 ,tlu!: hospltalen a s,trddu~t. M.u'lj' of the pri SOifll,e:fS d~ve]o~d s.~rious he!:!!rt, nerve, and loq diStensi2S, as a fi2SLdt 0 i tltis d:fly~s ., t'r3i'n~r,g"'. Von Ossiel;il;~i ,i]'D1d DIf'. Aill!1l~and:e'r, !iDo,th ve:ry in, welle foro~d ~o

flll was ,a spoc:ii!li! 'bun ot (he N aais, Thll;!'J OOMp~'I]iild h~an 1.0 't.airnoc over eemmand 'o'f the oth~r priSOMrs and t'O ~ead, the!M 'in their 'e~~T,diS;es, tkey jeered a,t h~m wh:~ne¥ef the:y' y,W him, lie was 'RId R'$[)o,nsibl!.l 'for e'V~[y political dis!!;iIlSS~OI'l· tbat wasj,,{lis~O'."ve'f~dli, H,e was iUD;O~ left in pG30iil: I'ot" :a sing]!!: day~ £O'f' a, ,~:iHg1rCil hour., T:W:ey made hiM r,3.e:c: thrQ'I!<~g:!l the 'yard, and ~he bloiil~li'ig,s eO:llt.i,tl'UJ:a'Uy, '!;I:lfiJt'l~ he ~ad an, 3.t'~cl(; 3,'r~til' whiICh he spent weel.:::s h'i tl~,e ~osp'itat.

'T]m;erl, N.::uds, ta;M~ to tllC hosfltal ::lind sa~d I IfKas'pe:r" why' d(l!~'~ you :fill'mli!dl 'it a~~ )"Olll'sel.f? Why do F~n1 wai:t 00 lO!n.g'? Wltydo y"MI. fml1~1 U~ t@ ~iSp3;tdl '~h~ m~U~r rOutsel ves ?l<1 ~ an inv'i'tatlon m ,commit slIiIIiciiCille and a 'Warning.

Tbis hard ]as~~d f,@rthroo-quaroors 0.:1: a reu.r wn:ill:n I: es ..

C3~OO", K.Ql~p~·!l' £ao~ twlt.ched m.e['vl@lIsly; ~t WaB 1:imlrlld widUi d~c;p 'IN r1i111des" fIe: WUlS at l-C'3st.~n y~~'liS older' than whef1l he arrived. WI(t, aU agrood that, iii:Ms 1,3StOO ft1~ch lo~gl(ill"j 'Willw Kaspef' 'would nat 1~''IjIl£ SOl'iilUienbu1'g a1'i¥e.

Chj~fi'llt,ionl:ol: Fore;lglft1 J,~u "mlIViilil, De liiio'iVr,>dI

~vu,U11 t:iMJt8 ,~ MO!IWt\'ru dl!l~G,=lt WIlS 'itl'f fOlr~l~ journalists :tll'dvoo, M:a~y eif 1'hese, are ,(lclega!ued by govcrlm~nts w'h!.ch a:re :[ dencUy towards, th!l rill~'C: of [~I~lt1e~ a'Cld are su.ppHeti w idl gov,ern'Wl1ltel'ltli:ullds" ]3:llillt IUD:I1:est '(~rni:gn d.e]eJii;t~Oit:s a! 00 cnm~. Tll!r~.li' were acoo:mpa'l1~~d,. how!£wr j by IU'iW(i)WO')"G~s of the MlID'Q,istry oif th,e II:'I'I!eri,orand t'hccamp warden, l'h&:sc de'lel~'!:i,@n:s w'C:[l:flagl'antly 110cid Wh~i!':~.

Of'te1il t!:l~ j.QlIJrH8Ilists were toM the troth about tl1~ mrilit~l'l dfl]~. But the')" knew nQ~h~n:g of the ~ort~l'es 'tlm1 take plaee in ,the Cllll~b.lr 0·[ fh,e ,east and Wi(!:st wi:i'i~. One: c:b::le,ga~ion arn'llt:n wi:t]u.(H,ii~ b ~:MLg !fi~n(!luru!ed. Event11:~y did, :fi:Q~ ,!'l00 't~e troth; sl:w.ce th~ ~3m(l'·card S (Ji!TIi the (:e:]~s had been tUn'!IJ'ld Wa:flt ,i!!iid)(!el.1t~ ,i vine: t:w:e impr!L'lS!!l101fl tliaat the Oi:US 'We1'C \'IiII'IIlO!XUpioo, Some of the ,r'ison~rs ]HI thlil: eellar ~e3Jd

lS

SI!I!;\QI Willi ~:ii'iU'

We can :clCilve:r .forget kow strong a.ruill hl.lsl:tky W:U1.i Kru; .. per w~s when !:'a,(l: arr;i'l,l''e<ill at Sonnenburg. T~~ v~ry :6:rs,t daJ' l1,e was b~te:!1 in ~i!J, ·~e]~ and ~n 'tlte o::l'l:Dl'ty.a'rd 'Llfa!tffirn he ~1ed. Wl'U!en his wife, 'feni, ClliMi'i: ,to ~~Q hijm, she W,OlS, strll1tck d;,uUimb wiith hOft'Of ~t 'tbJe 'i!.1l1al:lg~d~ frlutil'[I!ted face ;of In:cil' 'h:usbam.4. H i'~ lac!.: p<!J~e as wax. ~Uli~:r 'tarn O:li!it, h.eilid, OO'Ii"eted Wltl1 w!i)iLmds. he ,!!i~ood by tha: wa]~ 'of Ul:e pri SC:i1i and t'G:tiJki1I oot s;m.y a wOfd"

Bruening say to tbe 'Vi!!j'~t,o[,:!!i. "In tl:1e~e cells, there are 110 pri90n,ers~ as you ,can see 'by the name-plates,"

Each time a ,[Iidega'tion of journaliSt'S·, is a'oniQI,lLt n ted, aU the' men in the torttlre4ChaJli.1bers are trnusferreo ,to~he ttppoer l.'toorS. Th~s practice i's, best ShQW~l by :i1.D acOO1.ult of the" visit of the' French jciur'naUst, Jules Sa.t1elrwdlF.L, of -P~1·is·SQv,:

Before his ~:rr1va.~. n,tlImeiiOtlS itu.I'ru.cthu1S were. g1v~'!l.

All the !Doori:1s '\\'ifen rhotO'l,ig1tly ,dea:ned: The escort from d.u;: Ministry iufriOd1l.lced. Sa,uerwcin 'to Bruening; a'niI. then ~coitlp[1i.1!l'i~ 11im from the small eJ!J!ttan~etothe· camp to the sm.lil gate oohveen the west wing and the prisoners' CjjM6irrtc'rs il.dQ the weSt OOu.rt: He saW' sev.erat of ,fhe men ,vho were wQ,rking in the court and til1:aI11), 'born the. ~st" ~ing. One 'of the N,azis:i~ civil clothing,' 'phot'ogl':a.phed Sauerwein 'I,;\iith J3ntcnmg and the repr:eseflt}1t~ve.:S 0-£ t'b.'~ Mil1isl,ry, 1 remember il,1. partk.t~'lar tha't S:iuenv~i'h 'has. very grey flat:u-.

nuring the ins:pedtGiil Br"ue:uting said tlo -his -aide Knochel, (~I only 'hope 'this f.e11owdoesn.'t look at ses:;tlon. two o'r 'the west \l,rhlg ... , the prisoners ,'from the cel!a't :a,re tb.,er,e .. , •.. "'-

A f'ew days oofcil!e, a la:rge flu.bet of p,riso,rters bad 't'lee:fl rerri.b1y be-aten 'im thlf' rortur~cba,mbers of -~the, west wing. I M]1 sure that Sauuw-e1'W. did not see: the west ·wi!:tg,atnd w'hel1 be ins,pL"'Ch:d fh'e cenfur~ fhere. WCiS no one there,

\NhUe It'lle _ men from 'the )_I'Ht1.i:stf'Y were talking ex ... ,eitedlry with Sauerwein nearthe west wing', '!ll~nging 'Was suddenly heardf rom the ~s't 'court, Tlre Nazi in 'command ,there had p.robably not been ID formed of the visit of the jm.!lmaHst an.d W;i;!JS feing through the ordi1Jil:iliry routine of marching and si.n'giug. T.h,e SCi<l'ilg ·was "IOb. Strass!aurgn• a. can of' re'l'ctn.ge composed by th ·Nal;is.

B'l"i.ien'i~g turn.eOpale, motioned to one 'o~ h:u$ assistants who ran to the ;eat~t court, . Then' th~ song' ·~W :J'Ilderitlg ]5 a Mille'r's Ddigbf"'1lra.s, sltbstl,tlJted, aftLcli jfM.~es .Sa:uerwei~T\ p~"Obal;d'y diil:l RO'tt notice what bad! happened ,a,rouf[d h['['1] ,

::hi

Si,<e;gmrtmd and Br'Pt:tring bad prepared seveml o,f the more complaisant pdsone'Ts fo,r qu,estioull1g by the journalists, These individuals ,~eire care"lully trained to go imo ecstasies over the good trea tmeut they received in the camp.

The ddegatiol.1s never learned a:boiL',t the "merlical treaemeat" in the h(!l~iPiitai t Tiley were [leVe'l' told that the goverument of Hider spends (li.uy £rmu 35 to 36 pfenning:s (,~bout '1 cents) per priscner p~r day for all purposes in the camp.

Duril]Jg" iDt:ervImws ,!{itll the pmminent pr-isolilet=s 0:£ the camp sneh as von Ossietzki, '\iVim Kasper, Walter Stoec'ker:; ere .• the Nazi! kept a most careful 1ookoiJ,lJt. Had the), nmde the slig'ht,es't eriticism of the camp, f!:!1'ei,r bones would M Vi!: been b1roketl the. t1Il:KiI: day,; N~turally an ill:ter"l~ews took place in the presence of the N aids,

I am prepared for all opcndiscussiocn with an the jour= :nalisl::s, writers attLd jurists who vi/sUed SOlll1ellliJu:rg t,o reconstruct acny pavt of their inspeetiens ;:i1J.nd. to' ten then']. exactly wb.en and w·}'1e·re. their VIs.ils took pJace and. ~g,act1y how they """ere deceived :and lied to b-y tbe Nazis, under the guidance of' the Horne O:KK.e. Sli.lch inllerviews can. be arrar~ged '~b:rol1g'h the In'te'mat1ol1lal R,~cl Aid (I.l.,JJ .. ) in Paris,

the Legal Po:siifi'on of th, PrisQners

There exists in 'GennarLy 1.1,0 law or legal ,1110[,111 OOllcern~ il1g the internment~ the lengtb of imprisonmep,t OIf the genernJ treatment for' poli'tical(lri,so:ners, 'By :a special order of Bruening. polltieal prisoners nll3.Y not even complain., The political pri~(lIners are hostagea in the hands of tile Nazis.

The cuitllul situation of ,h.,!;! prisoners is o.f the worst killld., 'J.hey are continually obl'iged to sing ,chauvinistic war aongs. They have no Ile'l.vspep· rs m~ .libra des, 'litO 'books, 1101: ,evell sci.'en.tifu:. ones, ThIe wat,er 1S llul.drinkabk They nave

31

A short dmeago the Na;fuc~31 SOCi::lUsl nrini:s~er,. Dr.

Dietil"ic'h~ Vi.5i'~ed, the: m~ost t-eni:blt of' th~ etm!!::£Rt:ratlOIl eamps of Gc]'many, Dac1U.l.L1. Haas Bei,lnliln·. whD '1!&Ca[led from. t1~i.s heU I calls it dl{l j~31:1it~""'rQom of dei8i~h~l. A ftllii' his vi:sit Mr, nm~tfic1~ cla'i~f:l:ed 'll1;~t ,ii!J!t leas·t :B.() per cent of t]u:e two t'haM9~!lcl pdson~rs 3:1."'12 bMmrn'ids: from a irncia~ po:i:Hit of view and h.e proposoo to st~ri~.i~e 1,000 {If t''h.'~m.. T1l ~1 m.e~ns,rhe5ame 'f!lll:te fOlr t:luiusands of po1!:t:lcal pri:sol~,er!l aU Qv'er G~r:many. DidlL"ieh is repoft~ 10; haVie :made tl,"is cynical oomm~'Il1It. ilWe dOJi!'~ want mosto:f these political ])rilSOi:'l!Gl"S, 't,j) rl~£. hut we want !thei, raee m d:i~ eut,"

., Wh,en one tMoks 0] the ~ho1ils.a:llDds 0[' nssassiliHl,t~OIi5 per .. petrnootl lE!y the N a~i:s against :hclpl~ss prisoners., ene can ea,sil.y i:fn~g'i1'liC: dlat they wil]eaif ry out tl~i!S s'Mgge:s:tio!fll. It is U~.\l du~)' 0:£ >Cilv·~ry ei 'I'm ~ed,l1m1um be.~~' ·W, protest 21gainst thi.~ (]!.sp]~y 01 bg;roori:sm'h

Sav.e:l1ty P,l'\i~QI!!I;t!,,$- -lit, SCiiiiii,e!ililb!!l!'gl 'hr!l;j'I~lIiinIH:I Wit hi D\r;I~th Wr;;. know definiil;ely tllst t1112 livc$ 0:1: ge'lf~"'ty prisoners in Sonnenbl.:l'r'g .aJr:t,i'f'iI dElDgi!!r. One (!i,f t'he wa,'rd.e-ns 'W"ilTt'ie~

U

th!l: ~o:Ut!cai pdson~rs ~ r<Take: care of YOU1'~If. There ls to be anath(llr big p,ro,vOC'ation soon . • .n

H~mtTI!:l:1 and Gunke S:!1!~d th:!llt thrus tlme some~Mng f"big" would ~a:¥~ to 00 OIrplI!ii,izei1. "~And. what. 1 f. fi.f~y 01:' ~wnty Commu:alIlsts ,al'~ shot doWtl f'"

T]u,is ill formation :SWltOIJ,]d, b~ a, Cha:n&flJ~?.il ~Q ,ill] ehese who have . a spark of ~tUmflifiltyilUi 1ihC'ir hearts, W~en we thiJfl'k: what werkers, paciAsts" ~:IIlI:t!illn£'G::tuals" have suffe~:'im]. wlwnwle "til'! ink. oftl'l,ei i" oor1u'f' es, wh.~n W~ t:h,lnk that all 1i'b~!l 'men are ,at the; ml!'rc), olf 'the bomose.xUlal 'br:u.tml and of the d fUg-fielmid. Goednli we caniWiot but, rlse in pIfOt(l:St.

Nor m,t1st W~ thi.nk di1.Bit the spi ri,t Q:l 01.:1'1' comrades is bro:k~n ~ tha'f they ~[l.v'e gi"!,f~n u, the strugg,'le. Iu August, 1933. when the band play£<! N.Dizi S'Ongi!! i~ ~~:l~ c@\I.~rty:il,frl, only twenty Of dliirty of th~ pris'Oi1Ius iIl".Ms,ed ~~llei,l" 3.1',I"ftIS, ira the f;t!JS'Cis~ s.fuiub~. The othe:r8 :St'Oocli ]~kiQ a w,;}.]] ·of scene, aT~.'O'~h~r 'proof (I"Eth~faill1'j'e: of tll.e N UiS'~~O wi~ eve:!' ,the p{usonus by ~he heart ,:lnd, mil.1'd'~.

IEveryc,nQ M list Do His. P,lln' B>sFore Zt b Tao. I!.ate

Sonn~rlbu ~ is los,tin :a !Sort of wUdernes5 f,o!"ty ti~ ilas froftiL t'he f'Cllis'h:Fronthrr, faT" fi'om the mi]~i,oll.s or ~1fes and ears .of dte g:r,e:at ci'~feSi o'f the wlCIrld. But thll ca n 01' those: tQfhtfed wlth~n ~t9, w,EI]ls reaehes tb1.tl! ea rs 6f ,fIJ]1 ll1.enl.-=t!:l,I! cry o:~ D:l1l1a. who g,a1,ve ~h'llir Hberty to n\ght iiIJscisDl~, so tli!.;Jilt YillY may :h~ve Ub~rlYi' who gave thei'i' llves llil:mt yO'I!,~m8iy tive,

Wo:rkers, far.me:rs;professiona1s, scholars, in ctly and in "mage, inofl1:oe ::I:~d in iact:Oiry; yOU! cannot lI."'·maill deaf to. 111Lis a.ppeal, There ~5 a dar'l!r:. night I1:3f1ging ever G "rmmli)'! He!:p b:rillg tlhe light there, Hdp' us '~~al the wounda 'iD1{1i(:tl!~1 on mlj by the sava,gcry Qf 1h.~r'!lgililne of Hitler,

Giv"€: the po'litlil:al pri!!t'lf.tii!ta in Gel"lTh~tty moral and 'fi naneial encot,tr:lgtl:ll:'le:l'Jlt.

HELP US BEFORE ~T IS TOO LATE.

less :!>r,ivileges tD:i;;}.m ,a C'OIt"DIDllWon QiC"~lTIifl,al. w~~.o is a1l..owed to SI2!2' his ~ClJn:il"i]:y';, Wll0 is allm7lil12d to reeeive iood arM:]1 elethes from the.m.

At 5cmnenbui"-g the poUtic.tl] prisoMfs ::ll1f1e aUewed t@ w rite a mw·pgjg,(,: h:tter- '~o their 'fat['1l'ii'ues 'on]y iDn.C'G: M1(lry fo:rt'Uilighit. At Brandenbu,G' t11ley 'Cfli1i"D. write only oneea :tt!Il1lo!l'ld':ii. E¥l!ry'on,e ill Ge:rm:a,lmy ia weU at:q'!ll)9:in~ed w~th the' hOrfo:rs !J f the iCOI1C(i(fJ!tratioTI ea~p5~ ;elld, W,I! can ~ma_gi ne the ag(n1 les of' the-se he'lpl'ess w'iVfi, and parf.!:ul!ts who, do not 'know f l"OID month eo niiIC)nth U their hu sbands and scss a~ still :ill i ve,

'Tl'lflil 1'h(ll!JIslifild PQliti'~1I11 ''ris-o:lile~s Th'Q!I!~!1i "cd w;:1~ :S1i'Ofin~ljliOri

Ammunition in the F'ig'ht CO

FRE,E, THAELMANN

and other vi.; t1ms 0:£ the f:aSlCi_s,t mui"'rder ... heunds in. G"'I."MJiD Y

DO YOU kNO:'W THAEl.MANN~~y ll~r;

Ba:rhu;!:.j:~ '_, . . •.• , .• , _ , _ > , • , • • • • • • • 311;

DIMITROFP ACCUSI:S'!---Illw,lJ\tf\ol's Spe.cch in

th~ JittiC'hda:g Tr.ii!d , . , , . , . . . , _ _ . . _ . " ., ,311(')

WHO BURNED THE Ul:CHST A.G? ..... ,., J'iI:

THE' [IGHT FOR COMMUNISM IN GERMANY le THE OOMMUNlS:r PAltTY OF GERMANY

l.IVES, ANI!) FIG HlT's.-...T'iit lJ'lJinUM WcrahIM"'jJ' D.btribtl,t',tJd rind~r tlJ~ F'n~cht 11'/:,"'(1'"

TC1"l'Ifjir ... -., '" .. , ,_.,.. .. . Sc

fOVR WlaI~ES IN THE HANDS OF HIT.LERrS

IiEll-HOUND-£-=by ll'dtlS B~r,.mE!il'''· " , 1 'll'l:

M,URnER ]N CAMP l'IOHENSTI:IN-

by J o.btlm.l1':~ ,Sjl'~h'!l'r ,~",d ot6e'f's. '_"'..,. ~"'!'i)

1"H IE SONNEN. URG ''TIOB.TUR.R CAJdP=...by

i!',n Ei!'i'.t.!I peii "I',i,,'Oifl'l1't' • . . . _. •. ,....,.,. S't:

WOMEN UNDER HJ1TLER FASCI8M-P'f''!!'" J)a'1'cd ,by tJ,c' C'l!IlIlm~dl'rM, ,hli'l1e.ttig.d tl:ft8 F,11$;;;

e,i~t! Acl'I.'tI'~i!'J~s , . , ... , .... , . , 'I::

as ,.

Ol'tlI'lIll" lrofit,

W'orkersLfb.1'3,ry PubUs.~i'S