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Entanglement and decoherence experiments in Cavity QED S.Haroche Pan-american advanced study institute and workshop, Ushuaia, October 2000 Atoms crossing one by one a high-Q cavity storing a quantum field (with 0,1...a few photons) constitute an ideal system to explore fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics... superpositions and particle interference, entanglement, Quantum measurement (QND) complementarity, decoherence and quantum-classical “boundary” ..and to demonstrate basic features of quantum information processing: quantum gates, quantum logic entanglement engineering Course Outline Lecture 1. Introduction to CQED The model: 2-level atom coupled to harmonic oscillator Experimental tools: Circular Rydberg atoms, superconducting cavities, Basic Quantum Rabi oscillation experiment Lecture 2. Resonant entanglement in CQED EPR atom-atom pairs Atom-field entanglement and Quantum non demolition measurement of a single photon Quantum phase gates and quantum logic operations Entanglement engineering-Three particle entanglement Lecture 3. Dispersive entanglement and decoherence Principle of dispersive entanglement experiments Schrédinger cat states of radiation field Complementarity experiments with cat states Decoherence of cat states Towards multi-mode, multi-cavity experiments Concluding remarks Lecture 1 Introduction to CQED Cavity QED (CQED) studies the properties of atoms radiating near metallic boundaries or in cavities. Three main periods: 1. Modifications of radiative properties of simple systems near boundaries (1970-1980's): Enhancement and inhibition of spontaneous emission rates, vacuum frequency shifts in cavities Observed in microwave cavities with Rydberg atoms, in optical cavities, in photonic badgaps, in semi- conductors... 2. Strong atom-cavity coupling regime (1980-1990's): “micromaser” and "microlasers”, qualitative changes in the atom-cavity spectrum: (vacuum Rabi Splitting, Quantum Rabi oscillation) Microwave superconducting cavities and superhigh finesse optical resonators (J. Kimble lectures...) 3. CQED as a tool to study fundamental aspects of quantum theory, with possible applications (2000): Engineered entanglement in simple systems involving single atoms and single photons, decoherence studies (nicrowave CQED), quantum motion of atoms in single photon fields (optical CQFD).... COED realizes in the lab the Jaynes-Cummings model _] Field distribution frye A single two-level atom coupled to a single field mode _ fog described as a harmonic oscillator. nw Do -Wg = 5 Hamiltonian: H=Hg + He. + Vy-¢ SAN Ha~ Poe eeeel sige) He= ae (Aa + Aa)=Holda+12 () — E(r) E, EC meee =iE, Gtr) a-f) a) ae Vacuum field “V28, V, (1,5 mV/m) cav Venn = BONA fein Vo-c/e,n>= ened | g,ntl> Vase logy lee 23 | e,0> Vie ie, O55 pel g,1> ground state is uncoupled Va-c |, 9>=0 Diagonalization of Vz_- reduces to two-level problems in disconnected subspaces {/ g,n+1>,/e,n>} G2 012...) fgmt> — ferm> : -1QV; [g,n+d> H= (n+1 iw, + 4/2 a ave iQ¥ nt+1 -§ fepn> The atom-field coupling Vq-c=-Dg- EG) =e ales el- @ |g > 2 hee l-,n> 1 HQ Vacuiin Rabi splitting Eigenvalues Ex, n= hoyntt = z ; Figenstates | +,n>= ea fle.n>zi lg, n+1 >} When atom crosses cavity, Q(r) varies and atomic eigenstates and eigenvalues follow adiabatically Atom-cavity forces which can affect atomic motion, even in vacuum (coupling between beg0> and >] ¢31>) Quantum Rabi Oscillation (2 a oe |e,0><+|g,1> : Reversible photon emission and absorption More generally : le,n >> |g,nt1> Temporal evolution, starting from|e, > att=0: | W(t)> =e QGETo |e, 1 >- snQGETle ,n+7> Atom and cavity field generally entangled! Probability to find at time t the atom in level e, with n photons: Po (t= oo QVeeT = 4a + cos (Q2Vi=18)) Oscillation directly related to energy level splittings (quantum beats of time dressed sustem) IP 0,4 Experimental set-up UT gt -UWTeav << 2 Strong coupling condition Realized in the microwave domain by coupling circular Rydberg atoms to superconducting niobium cavities [1/Tat = 0,08 kHz, 1/Teav = kHz, 2/27 = 50 kIlz (nvecent stage of exveriment) Circular Rydberg atoms n=51 Large circular orbit Strong coupling to microwaves Long radiative life time (30 ms) level tunability by Stark effect 1250 A Easy state selective detection n=52 in 2.5 Viem 52 Circular Static magnetic field (18 Gatess} lifts the at/o degeneracy BI They are prepared in static electric and magnetic fields by a pulsed sequence of optical and radiofrequency photon absorption, in an adiabatic process By controlling the first laser beam intensity, 0.3 circular atom on average per pulse is prepared Poissonian atom number distribution: P(0) = 0.74; P(1) = 0.22; P(2) = 0.045 ..... eful events The superconducting Fabry-Perot Cavity Atomic beam A | | | PZT stack Gaussian field mode with 6mm waist Large field per photon (1.5 mV/m) Long photon life-time (1ms) improved by ring around mirrors Easy tunability Very small thermal photon background Control of the atom-cavity interaction time: atom’s velocity selection by optical pumping Atomic beam Lasers resonant on the 5s- j transition. 3.04 GH energy diagram indicating the optical pumping depopulation and repopulation scheme for the| F=3 level In green, velocity distribution before pumping, in red velocity distribution of atoms pumped in F=3 level, before being excited in Rydberg state Quantum Rabi aur re, . & oscillation in ==> ~ eee Doo Atoms detected in D by time resolved state selective ionization PF pd Ionization signal 2 AS Electric field F(t) used to Stark-tune atoms ~~ in and out of resonance with C , allowing to == change the atom-cavity interaction time (active v velocity selection not necessary in this a experiment) WILD Pe(t) obtained by averaging over many realizations| ‘ A of experiment. ! a4 ae a oe Bt ? ea] Decay of oscillatio | \ i i a due to various Peek V relaxation a mechanisms (not included in the above J-C model). Behaviour at long times not very wel: ‘Tame (js) understood ¥ Atomic energy : Small coherent field Quantum Rabi | aileched tei oscillation — atom ° me a id in a small = s coherent field Rabi oscillation with small average photon number (less than 1) Fourier transform of f signal exhibiting discrete peaks at frequencies | proportional rommnaan EO) 2 V3 oe The Quantum Rabi oscillation as a way to count photons in a box p(n) The photon number distribution in a coherent field is Poissonian P.(t)=D,, pin Pe n(t) a. pm Ja + cos (QyrTp) FFT Amplitude per ee ae) 0680100180 012345 Time (us) Frequency (kHz) n Signal P,(t) Fourier transform p(n) distribution Concluston of first lecture Circular Rydberg atoms coupled to microwave superconducting cavity constitute a good system to study quantum manifestations of atom-radiation interactions: atoms and photons can be manipulated "one by one” The Quantum Rabi oscillation is an ideal test of the system's ability to “see” quantum effects: Usually, the Rabi oscillation measures only the average field amplitude (average photon number) and does not resolve the photon number distribution: - for large” fields, the photon number fluctutation around average is negligibly small - ina "bad" cavity (or without cavity), the field is renewed by the source in a time much shorter than the Rabi period, washing out all quantum effects In our experiment, the conditions: Filo , nel are realized, ( large atom-field coupling, long cavity relaxation time, small photon numbers). We will see in next lectures how these unusual conditions allow us to investigate other important quantum effects Lecture 2: Resonant Entanglement in CQED Resonant atom-cavity energy exchange can be used to produce and study entanglement in CQED Atom-cavity “collision” yielding a non-separable final state: a detection of atom’s state projects field at a distance in correlated state: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation (EPR) Quantum Non-Demolition measurement of single photons By iteration with many atoms, engineering of multiparticle entanglement according to well controlled algorithm These entanglement experiments can be described in quantum information language: Field (0/1 photon) and atom (in level e/g) seen as quantum bits (qubits) coding binary information Preparing and analyzing qubit state superpositions An essential ingredient in quantum logic is the ability to manipulate superpositions of qubit states How to prepare a qubit superposition state in a CQED experiment? ee (jv2y(le > + 18 >) A classical microwave pulse i; transforms, before C, state e into a linear combination of eand g Detection of qubit superpositions (1/v2) (| & > A classical pulse R» transforms back, after C and before detection, the linear combination with + or - sign into e or g: subsequent field ionization amounts to detecting linear suvervositions of states Analyzing state superpositions by Ramsey interferometry =x 2 25 Leos eve o 5 The microwave pulses “split” the atomic states (R;) and recombine them (/:) at two separate times: The atom follows two “pathes” and the probability to detect it in e or g exhibits fringes when the phase difference » between the two pathes is tuned ( sweeping the frequency v of X, and R»): Cavity field affects in different ways the two a interfering pathes:fringes phase x ie 4| and contrast A are a modified: this s provides useful In latest set-up version, a Ha a BOM : ee: 2 cavity interaction are inside the cavity ring Useful Quantum Rabi Pulses Jut>= «2» e, A> - sinQ \g,1 2 il > Hagley et al, que = Phys. Rev.lett v2 | Gy 0> Is, 1 79:1 (1997) Atom - Photon entanglement Non-local correlations between atom and cavity field (Einstein-Podolski-Rosen) Maitre et al, fe Phys.Rev. lett. | e > a \¢,1> Peek Excitation swapping between atom and field and "quantum" mapping _. | A.Rauschenbeutel et al, Phys.Rev.lett. 83, 5166, 1999 G.Nogues et al, Nature, 400, 239, 1999 g > —-|e D\3, D—-|¢,D Full cycle Rabi oscillation bringing back system to initial state, with a x pliase shift of its wave function Classical and Quantum Rabi pulses to prepare and analyze superpositions of photon number states (field qubit ) Maitre et al, Phys.Rev.lett. 79, 769 (1997) The x quantum e Rabi pulse is used to "map" an atomtic coherence ie (prepared by a 1m a > i ee Onuniun ee Ry pulse) classical Rabi into a field coherence between 0 and 1 photon states le D> > > SLD The field coherence is read out by a second probe atom, initially in ¢, undergoing time-reversed evolution (x quantum Rabi pulse followed by classical Ro pulse) pulse pulse Cavity acts as a quantum memory storing the qubit coherence carried by one I n/2 atom and mapping it later Quantum classical onto the second atom Rabi pulse pulse Bt lA >> Hb b>> bk > Generation of an entangled E.P.R. atom pair ns ad Electric field F(t) used to tune atoms #1 and #2 in resonance with C fora a> E(t) determined time t realizing t w/2 or a Rabi pulse &2 ey conditions. le,,0>..¢.> —— co = g1>}.|g2> Atom #1 - Photon entanglement [eres 1 ae they ga - 1g1,€2> }-1 O> Atom - Atom entanglement (a massive E.P.R.pair) Atoms entangled in deterministic way without directly interacting Cavity acts as a catalyst for entanglement The EPR atom pair is a “singlet spin state” If atom #1 is along +x, atom #2 is along -y: The joint probability to find the first atom in +, and the second in the direction + exhibits a modulation when the phase @ is swept eule 3 6 Detector ansverse spin” detection by applying with phase difference @ on the two atoms after they have crossed C time Modulations analogous to Ramsey fringes, but pulses are applied to different atoms: EPR pair behaves as a single quantum system Full Rabi oscillation: The subtle 2x Rabi pulse Qt=2m — cos (Ot/2)=-1 A single photon changes the sign of the state probability amplitude, without being destroyed To perform this phase shift e measurement, an interferometric method comparing with the g phase of a third leveli uncoupled ¥ i Ro to photon is required... + The principle of single photon detection by Ramsey interferometry Atom follows two interfering pathes between R, and 2. If 1 photon in C, the amplitude of the & path is x phase shifted and so are the Ramsey fringes Seiting v to a fringe extremum correlates in principle perfectly atom state (meter) to photon number. Emitting and reading out a single photon ee without destroying it (Source) JET SR, S_> a/2 Rabi pulse on a atom #1 (1/v2){1ez,0> + | gy,1>} Second "meter” atom reads out the photon number by Ramsey interferometry SaaS sie > Atom #2 (QND meter) = jurce in e : 0 photon = = Source in g : 1 photon oo Or oe & os g E04 Frequency v (kHz) Atom-photon quantum gate and QND measurement of a single photon “* Qo = A photon-atom phase gate...... : li>+ Ig> ain realizes, with a proper choice of pa QND measurement of a single photon Aloim is a “meter” which measures photon number without demolishing it A brief history of Quantum Non-Demolition(QND ) Measurement of light The QND solution (Braginsky, Caves- 1978 }: couple signal light to probe beam by a non-absorptive process in noit-linear mediums be is phase - shifted and shift measured by comparing toa reference beam in interferometer ..but non-linear index effects require large intensities, so the method applies only to macroscopic photon number. Our single photon QND measurement uses a quantum phase gate (QPG) sandwiched between two single atom rotations i For the first time, a single photon is measured without being destroyed and can be measured again and again (G.Nogues et al, Nature, 400, 239 (1999)). The present scheme can be extended to measure larger photon numbers (dispersive instead of resonant coupling- see next lecture). Experiment is in progress. The QPG can be used to perform various atom-field entanglement experiments (A.Rauschenbeutel et al, Phys.Rev.Lett. 83, 5166 (1999)). Combining the QPG with other atom- photon operations, one can generate complex multiparticle entangled states Quantum Knitting : Three particle entanglement (from EPR to GHZ) Rauschenbeutel et al, Science, 288, 2024 (2000) /e1,0 > a tl Pigs > - [81 es> }0> aa ore {[e10 > - /gpI>} Transient field in cavity ge the, i2,0> — | 87 82, 1>} Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger triplet for realization with twin- photon beams, see J.W.Pan et al, Nature 403, 515 (2000) a tle ere — | 81 Zo €3 >} /0> Complex qubit algorithms.... 1, Three particle system preparation * (Aq, A2 and zero/one photon mode) position time 2, Longitudinal orteneiaa etector time 3. Transverse entanglement ean tomic states rotated befor Oy 1 Transverse three particle entanglement no atom2 © atom2 ini ®@ atom2 in g “4 -2 phase @ A1-A3 EPR signal @unOuln —@- — A7-A3 EPR signal with Ap detected it —e- A7-A3 EPR signal with A detected in g Conclusion of second lecture: CQED provides the tools to realize “engineered entanglement” of atoms and photons. We have studied so far resonant processes. We see in next lecture that non-resonant dispersive processes are also useful... Lecture 3: Dispersive entanglement and decoherence in CQED 6a SC Atom and cavity f off resonant by = amount © No photon absorption or emission... wey but atomic transition and cavity mode exhibit frequeiicy shifts Huge single atom index: A 15 order of magnitude difference with “ordinary” i Sign of effect depends upon atomic energy state ; = = Aw = Atoms >| = position : =n : ous a Atom's & = position & 9 v - Aw when atom is sent in state superposition, is the frequency shift + Aw or -Aw? ed Ambiguous quantum answer leads to “dispersive” atom-cavity entanglement Frequency shifts in non-resonant condition of validity: 6>>Q (if not fulfilled, exact energy levels obtained by diagonalizing 2x2 —— Vq-c Switched on Shifts calculated by standard perturbation theory: dressed atom-cavity levels are repelled by their coupling, so that e and ¢ dressed states are shifted in opposite directions. Level shifts in n/t manifold are proportional to 11+1: this is a light shift effect Level /e,0> is shifted (in vacuum): this is a "Lamb shift” effect. When atom in level g moves across cavity containing n photons, Q . nt appears as a potential energy 4 for the atomic motion Cavity shifts measured by Ramsey interferometry Pr(gh= Aq + cos) + AG(n)) cavity light shift cavity Lamb-shift Ag(it) = oS einen ) phase shift per photon Cavity containing n photons Zo00 2000 Bo00 3000 Toooe ¥,- @, Gla) M.Brune etal, P.R.L.72, 3339, 1994. Dispersive cavity shifts used for unrestricted QND detection of photons The resonant method described in Lecture 2 is restricted to 0/1 photon fields (atom absorbs field for n> 1 since Qvii t is then not equal to 2m) Dispersive cavity shifts can be used to "pin down” the photon number in a non-destructive way, in principle for arbitrary 1 values (in practice for n not too large...) (Brune et al, P.R.L.65, 976 (1990)) Assume that C contains an unknown photon distribution with probabilities p(ii): Ramsey fringe signal: P(g) = 2 p(n) P;,(g) P(g) 1,3,5... photous P Choose phase shift per photon © = x and set interferometer at fringe center (ideally P(g)=1 if no field in C) Send one atom, initially in e through interferometer: field must contain an If atom is detected in g: even photon number : : field must contain an If atom is detected ine: odd photon number One atom "qubit” provides information to "pin down” photon number parity, How to get efficiently more information on photon number? (a proposal ) S.Haroche, M.Brune and J.M.Raimond, ].Phys.H France, 2, 659 (1992) Adjust next € to the value x/2 (e.g. by doubling the detuning 8) Pi ide atom has determined photon number is even Prlg 2, 6, 10...photons , 8, 12...photons Set interferometer again at fringe extremum and send a second atom through set-up: its detection ine or g will "pin down” photon number modulo 4: decide among the set of values {2, ©, 10...} or {0, 4, 8, 12...} If first atom has determined photon number is odd, a similar procedure will determine, with a second atom, whether photon number belongs to sets {15,9,...}: 00 (3,711 Caution: no cavity relaxation during whole procedure! Dual frequency shift effects on atom and cavity field The dressed atom-cavity system energy shifts correspond to “dual” effects: an n-photon field shifts atom in level e or g shifts energy of atom in level<—» the frequency of cavity eorg mode How does an atom in level g affect the time evolution of a coherent field in C? [a>[g>=-2y Cc |g, n> ——> Ly exp (-i 2n w40yC,, /&, > = | a exp(-i 2? t/46)> | > G ee oe Va (interaction picture) The field is frequency shifted by Aw = {22 /45 and after an interaction time t, its phase receives a kick Ao = 222 t/46 phase space 3 representation a = 22 t/46 —@—- « Entanglement involving mesoscopic field states with different phases (up to 10 photons in cavity) field phase-space re me — Microwave source (s) field amplitude A complementarity experiment The mere fact that the field contains information about the atom’s “path” destroys the fe interference fringes! t R tim Ramsey fringes recorded for decreasing mismatches 5 between atomic transition and cavity mode: aa As 6 decreases, the i ar é aa, field components a eo ae S 4 & re j __ separate, i Br eho j yielding more and ate da more information i = | about the path os & oi 4 followed by atom: the fringe contrast diminishes accordingly. A “dual” experiment: field's phase measures atom’s energy and atom's coherence phase measures field energy! 2 i f é z 220 oe Z " : ; 00 «(02 «404 06 O8 qo 02 (radians) @ (radians) As the phase difference between the two cat components increases, the | | atomic energy is better and better determined and the fringe contrast A drops: A=<« exp(ip)/a exp(-id)> Decoherence, entanglement with environment and Complementarity B-+B- Scattered light In Young experiment, the scattered photon gets entangled with the particle. Its possible detection “pins down” the “path” and destroys quantum coherence elt ay The "thermal bath” gets entangled to cat. Information about its fate very quickly leaks into environment destroying all quantum interferences. W.Zurek, Physics Today (Oct 1991) _ How long does the mesoscopic superposition of states survive? Again a complementarity issue! Superpositio ESS oe pe Statistical mixture of states As soon as one photon escapes in environment it becomes in principle possible, by detecting it, to distinguish the two parts of the superposition: the system looses ability to produce interferences g'impse at the ‘ Quantum- Classical" boundary (S.Haroche, Physics Today, July 1998) Probing the quantum coherence after a delay: 4 two-atom correlation experiment Sr ei 3 Atom# 1 a ee Oe cat probes “cat” Brune et al, Phys.Rev.lett. 77, 4887, 1996 ‘Two-Atom Correlation Signal Other decoherence studies with trapped ion (Boulder) Noun local mesoscopic entanglement (a proposal) A challenging goal: entangling tw mesoscopic cavity fields separated by a macroscopic distance Marrying the non-locality's and Schrodinger cat's weirdnesses How to do it with dispersive entanglement? FR pe Sy at /2 pulse x pulse 1/2 pulse prepares atomic coherence exchatiges atamic analyses coherence| levels [ee SS Se Procedure should allow us to prepare and analyse non-local "cat states” L.Davidovich et al, P.R.L. 71, 2360, 1993 oa ad A simpler procedure um , > with resonant eee el processes: single m2 Quantum x Quantum t Rabi Pulse Rabi Pulse atom prepares Atom has equal delocalized photon probabilities to emit ve photon in each cavity |z D+Hx => Competing qubits in Quantum Optics 1. Atoms in Cavity 1-particle QND detection Pee anata ete aa aR (Paris) . . eee ‘omplementarity experimen ats andDecohe: ea ee rer ae ih ching ec] Quantum gates Two and four ton entanglement Boulder, Innsbruck = ; f Innsbruck, Vienna, Rome, Geneva Other experiments, so far without clear-cut entanglement, in NMR, mesoscopic and semi-conductor physics Manipulating atoms and photons in a cavity amounts to realizing in the lab some of the” gedankenexperiment” of the early days of Quantum Mechanics. Bour AND EINSTEIN (1932) Bour’s GEDANKEN PHOTON Box Technologically, we have come a long way... We can now test directly “in vivo” the deepest concepts of the theory (complementarity, non-separability, decoherence and quantum classical boundary”) How far will we go in Rydberg atom CQED? 10 atom entanglement? 100 photon-cat states? Improvements should be made by working on pulses imperfections, cavity decay, residual thermal fields Poisson statistics of atomic beam (atom multiplets prepared with a very small probability when number of atoms increases) should be replaced by production of single atoms on demand (atom-pistol), Entanglement studies by marrying CQED with cold atoms? Experimental set-up Ulot , < oo {/€1g3 > - [Sr es> }0> ons aS {/e10 > - [gp1>} Transient fiela in cavity ae tex, ig, O> — {81 8x 1>} Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger triplet for realization with twin- photon beams, see J.W.Pan et al, Nature 403, 515 (2000) tle, 1p, 83 > — | 81 RB €3 >F/0> iD, iP, 99,9, 9,9,8, %1,9, F,8, 9,0, ©9.°,