You are on page 1of 31

Examples of the Complexity of Continental Army Unit Lineage

(The Virginia, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Continental
Lines)
John U. Rees
Virginia Continental Regiments.
(Not including Additional Continental regiments)
The best single source on this subject is E.M. Sanchez-Saavedra, A
Guide: To Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution,
1774-1787 (Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, 2007). While SanchezSaavedra’s work is comprehensive, the connection between the preCharleston-surrender Virginia Continental regiments with their late-war
successors is not always clear. He also misses the 1st and 2d Virginia
regiments of 1781. I have appended my reworked version below:
1st Virginia Regt. (8 companies) (Provincial establishment) July 1775February 1776
1st Va. Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment) February
1776-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the men remaining from the 9th Virginia
Regiment (captured en masse at Germantown) were absorbed by the
1st Virginia, which still was reduced to 6 companies.
Before marching to South Carolina in 1780, the 1st Virginia was
combined with the 5th, 7th, 10th, and 11th Virginia Regiments, then sent
south as part of the 1st Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s).
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
Entire regiment captured at Charleston in May 1780.
February 1781: 1st Virginia Regiment reconstituted, but only on paper.
Posey’s Virginia Battalion was formed in mid-summer 1781 from 1st
Virginia officers and enlisted men absent when Charleston surrendered.
Posey’s Battalion marched south to South Carolina in January 1781
under Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair.
May 1782: A board of Virginia field officers reformulated the Virginia
line on paper, with the exception of the 1st and 2d Regiments, filled
with levies and a small number of veterans.
January 1783: Another board of officers met to consolidate the
remaining units and troops (7th Virginia at Fort Pitt, Posey’s Battalion,
and a contingent of recruits at Winchester. The result was two
battalions, the 1st Virginia containing 7 companies, and the 2d Virginia
with 2 companies.
2d Virginia Regt. (7 companies) (Provincial establishment) July 1775December 1775

2d Va. Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment) February
1776-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the men remaining from the reduced 6th
Virginia Regiment was absorbed by the 2d.
Late in 1779 the 2d Virginia was combined with the 3d and 4th Virginia
Regiments, then sent south as part of the 2d Virginia Detachment
(Woodford’s).
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
The bulk of the regiment captured at Charleston in May 1780. Capt.
Alexander Parker with a small number of men escaped capture and in
1781 participated in the Yorktown campaign.
February 1781 and May 1782: 2d Virginia Regiment reconstituted, but
only on paper.
January 1783: A board of officers met to consolidate the remaining
units and troops (7th Virginia at Fort Pitt, Posey’s Battalion, and a
contingent of recruits at Winchester. The result was two battalions, the
1st Virginia containing 7 companies, and the 2d Virginia with 2
companies (one of veterans, the other of recruits).
3d Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
December 1775-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the men remaining from the reduced 5th
Virginia Regiment was absorbed by the 3d.
In May 1779 the 3d Virginia was temporarily subsumed the 4th
Regiment.
Late in 1779 the 3d Virginia was combined with the 2d and 4th Virginia
Regiments, and marched south as the 2d Virginia Detachment
(Woodford’s).
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
The regiment captured at Charleston in May 1780.
4th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
December 1775-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the men remaining from the reduced 8th
Virginia Regiment was absorbed by the 4th Regiment.
In May 1779 the 4th Virginia was temporarily incorporated into the 3d
Regiment.
Late in 1779 the 4th Virginia was combined with the 2d and 3d Virginia
Regiments, and sent south as the 2d Virginia Detachment
(Woodford’s).
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
The regiment captured at Charleston in May 1780.

An attempt was made in 1781 to reorganize the 4th Regiment, but it
remained largely a paper organization.
5th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
December 1775-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the reduced 5th Virginia was absorbed by the
3d Regiment and formed part of the 1st Virginia Detachment
(Woodford’s), captured at Charleston in May 1780.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
The 7th Virginia Regiment was then renumbered and became the (new)
5th Regiment.
6th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
December 1775-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the reduced 6th Virginia was absorbed by the
2d Regiment; the officers and men of the (old) 6th were captured with
the 2d Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s) at Charleston in May
1780.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
The 10th Virginia Regiment was then renumbered and became the
(new) 6th Regiment.
7th Virginia Regt. (9 companies) (Continental establishment)
December 1775-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the 7th Virginia was renumbered as the (new)
5th Regiment.
(The 11th Virginia Regiment was then renumbered and became the
(new) 7th Regiment.) The (new) 5th Virginia was consolidated with the
1st Virginia Regiment, and formed part of the 1st Virginia Detachment
(Weedon’s) for southern service in 1780.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
That unit was captured at Charleston, South Carolina that May.
In February 1781 the (new) 9th Virginia (formerly the 13th Virginia),
which had been stationed at Fort Pitt and thus did not surrender at
Charleston, was redesignated the 7th Virginia Regiment.
8th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
December 1775-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the reduced 8th Virginia was absorbed by the
4th Regiment.
The 12th Virginia Regiment was then renumbered and became the
(new) 8th Regiment.

The officers and men of the (old) 8th were sent to the Carolinas in 1780
as part of the 2d Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s), and captured at
Charleston.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
The handful of veterans who escaped capture were furloughed in 1783.
9th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
December 1775-May 1780
(Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
At the Battle of Germantown the entire regiment was surrounded and
captured, thus ending its service. An interesting result was that to
replace the loss to the Virginia line, the 1st and 2d Virginia State
regiments were sent north to serve with Washington’s army.
Note: In September 1778 the 13th Virginia, serving at Fort Pitt, was
redesignated the (new) 9th Virginia Regiment
10th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
November 1776-May 1780 (Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the 10th Virginia was renumbered as the
(new) 6th Regiment.
The (new) 6th Regiment was sent to the Carolinas in 1780 as
part of the 3d Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s), and captured
at Charleston.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
11th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
November 1776-May 1780 (Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the 11th Virginia was renumbered as the
(new) 7th Regiment.
The (new) 7th Regiment was sent to the Carolinas in 1780 as
part of the 1st Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s), and captured
at Charleston.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
12th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
November 1776-September 1778 (Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the 12th Virginia was renumbered as the
(new) 8th Regiment.
The (new) 8th Regiment was sent to the Carolinas in 1780 as
part of the 3d Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s), and captured
at Charleston.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
There was no 12th Virginia Regiment after 1778.
13th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
November 1776-September 1778 (Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)

Note: In September 1778 the 13th Virginia was renumbered as the
(new) 9th Regiment.
Stationed at Fort Pitt, the (new) 9th Virginia escaped capture at
Charleston in May 1780.
There was no 13th Virginia Regiment after 1778.
14th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
November 1776-September 1778 (Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the 14th Virginia was renumbered as the
(new) 10th Regiment.
The (new) 10th Regiment was sent to the Carolinas in 1780 as
part of the 1st Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s), and captured
at Charleston.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
There was no 14th Virginia Regiment after 1778.

15th Virginia Regt. (10 companies) (Continental establishment)
November 1776-September 1778 (Soldiers enlisted for 3 years)
Note: In September 1778 the 15th Virginia was renumbered as the
(new) 11th Regiment.
The (new) 11th Regiment was sent to the Carolinas in 1780 as
part of the 1st Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s), and captured
at Charleston.
(See Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780)
There was no 15th Virginia Regiment after 1778.
Scott’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1779-1780,
and a Timeline of Unit Consolidations

(Copied from Saavedra, pp. 177-181.)
“Virginia Troops at Charleston, South Carolina, 1779-1780 …
By 1777 most of the Virginia regiments could scarcely muster
enough men fit for duty to fill two companies. The problem of high
attrition was overcome by several means, principally by consolidating
two or more units into a detachment. Some of these reshufflings were
made permanent by the White Plains arrangement of September 14,
1778, but the dwindling continued, and new detachments had to be
created for the southern campaigns of 1779-1781.
In July 1778 the 3d and 7th Virginia Continental regiments were
temporarily consolidated under Colonel William Heth and Major Charles
West of the 3d and Lieutenant Colonel Holt Richardson of the 7th. The
White Plains arrangement merged the 5th Virginia … with the 3d and
renumbered the combined unit the 3d Virginia Regiment. By the spring
of 1779, however, the 3d Virginia Regiment had shrunk again and had

to be combined with the 4th Virginia Regiment. At the same time, the
depleted 5th and 11th Virginia regiments were also combined, as were
the 1st, 6th, and 10th Virginia regiments. This last consolidation was
placed under Colonel Nathaniel Gist and incorporated with his
additional Continental regiment.
In May 1779 Virginia’s Continental units were rearranged again, this
time by a board of field officers meeting at Middlebrook, New Jersey.
Three Virginia detachments were created out of the remnants
of the numbered Continental regiments [actually formed from
new levies and reenlisted veterans, see letters, George
Washington to Charles Scott, 6 March 1779, 5 May 1779, 25
May 1779, 28 June 1779, 8 July 1779, 27 July 1779, 17 August
1779, 19 October 1779; Charles Scott to George Washington,
22 March 1779, 24 April 1779, 28 April 1779, 12 May 1779, 18
May 1779, 10 June 1779, 20 July 1779] and formed into a brigade
under General Charles Scott. [The “brigade” did not come into
being until late in 1779. Recruited and formed by Scott in
Virginia, the first detachments marched to South Carolina only
when they were fully manned and equipped. The 1st
Detachment (Scott’s) marched for Charleston at the end of
June 1779, while the 2d Detachment (Scott’s) did not march to
join them until December 1779. The 3d Detachment was not
completed until spring, and finally marched south in May. Too
late join the Charleston garrison, Col. Abraham Buford’s 3d
Virginia Detachment (Scott’s) was destroyed at the Waxhaws
on 29 May 1780.]
The three official detachments that made up Scott’s Virginia brigade
were organized by the summer of 1779 [partially correct, see notes
above], with the officers chosen by ballot. As Lieutenant Colonel
Gustavus Brown Wallace reported to Colonel John Cropper, the officers
for these units were:
1st Detachment (Scott’s)
Colonel Richard Parker, 1st Virginia Regiment
Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Hopkins, 10th Virginia Regiment
Major James Clough Anderson, 1st Virginia Regiment
2d Detachment (Scott’s)
Colonel William Heth, 3d Virginia Regiment
Lieutenant Colonel Gustavus Brown Wallace, 11th Virginia Regiment
Major James Lucas, 3d Virginia Regiment
3d Detachment (Scott’s)
Colonel Abraham Buford, 11th Virginia Regiment
Lieutenant Colonel Robert Ballard, 4th Virginia Regiment
Major Thomas Ridley, 6th Virginia Regiment

Woodford’s Brigade, 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Detachments, 1780

(Copied from Saavedra, p. 179. Thanks also to Todd Post)
Another three Virginia detachments, brigaded under Brig. Gen. William Woodford,
reached Charleston, South Carolina in early April. The 1st Detachment (Woodford’s)
contained companies of the 1st, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 11th Virginia Regiments); the 2d
(Woodford’s) had companies from the 2d, 3d, and 4th Regiments, and the 3d (Woodford’s)
was comprised of companies from 6th, 8th, and Gist’s Additional Regiments).
1st Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s)
Colonel William Russell
Lieutenant Colonel Burgess Ball (?)
Major (unknown)
Captain Callohill Minnis, 1st Virginia Regiment
Captain Tarleton Payne, 1st Virginia Regiment
Captain Custis Kendall, 1st Virginia Regiment
Captain Thomas Holt, 1st Virginia Regiment
Captain Holman Minnis, 1st Virginia Regiment
Captain Thomas Buckner, 5th Virginia Regiment
Captain Mayo Carrington, 5th Virginia Regiment
Captain William Moseley, 5th Virginia Regiment
Captain William Bentley, 5th Virginia Regiment
Captain William Johnston, 7th Virginia Regiment
Captain James Wright, 7th Virginia Regiment
Captain Thomas Hunt, 10th Virginia Regiment
Captain Lawrence Butler, 11th Virginia Regiment
Captain Philip Mallory, 11th Virginia Regiment
2d Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s)
Colonel John Neville
Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas Cabell(?)
Major David Stephenson
Captain Benjamin Taliaferro, 2d Virginia Regiment
Captain Alexander Parker, 2d Virginia Regiment
Captain John Blackwell, 3d Virginia Regiment
Captain LeRoy Edwards, 3dVirginia Regiment
Captain Robert Beale, 3d Virginia Regiment
Captain James Curry, 4th Virginia Regiment
Captain John Stith, 4th Virginia Regiment
3d Virginia Detachment (Woodford’s)
Colonel Nathaniel Gist
Captain Joseph Blackwell, 6th Virginia Regiment
Captain John Gillison, 6th Virginia Regiment
Captain Clough Shelton, 6th Virginia Regiment
Captain Abraham Hite, 8th Virginia Regiment
Captain Alexander Breckinridge, Gist’s Regiment
Captain Francis Muir, Gist’s Regiment
Colonel John Green’s 1st Virginia Regiment of 1781

(Lawrence E. Babits and Joshua B. Howard, Long, Obstinate, and Bloody: The Battle of Guilford
Courthouse (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009), 72-76.)
Field Officers
Col. John Green (in poor health after Guilford Courthouse, never
returned to command)
Lt. Col. Richard Campbell (killed at Eutaw Springs)
Maj. Smith Snead
Company Officers
Capt. John Anderson
Capt. Thomas Armistead
Capt. Thomas Barbee
Capt. William Bentley (captured at Ninety Six)
Capt. Valentine Harrison, Benjamin Lawson (died and was replaced by
Sigismund Stribling), Capt. Samuel Selden
Capt. Tarpley White.

This regiment was filled with 18 months levies, as well as survivors of
the Charleston surrender and the Waxhaws defeat. The unit served at
the Guilford Courthouse, Hobkirk’s Hill, the siege of Ninety-Six, and
Eutaw Springs actions.

Colonel Richard Campbell’s 2d Virginia Regiment of 1781
(Lawrence E. Babits and Joshua B. Howard, Long, Obstinate, and Bloody: The Battle of Guilford
Courthouse (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009), 72-76.)
Field Officers
Lt. Col. Samuel Hawes

Company Officers

Capt.
Capt.
Capt.
Capt.
Capt.
Jouett)
Capt.

Archibald Denholm
Philip Kirkpatrick
John Marks
Simon Morgan
Conway Oldham (killed at Eutaw Springs and replaced by Robert
Philip Sansum.

This regiment was filled with 18 months levies, as well as survivors of
the Charleston surrender and the Waxhaws defeat. The unit served at
the Guilford Courthouse, Hobkirk’s Hill, the siege of Ninety-Six, and
Eutaw Springs actions.
Colonel Thomas Gaskins’s (3d) Virginia Regiment of 1781

(Copied from Saavedra, pp. 91, 183-184.)
Field Officers
Colonel Thomas Gaskin, formerly 3d Virginia Regiment
Major John Poulson, formerly 8th Virginia Regiment

Although contemporary accounts refer to this unit as a regiment, it
was actually am four-hundred-man detachment made up of eighteenmonth recruits [actually drafted levies] and a handful of [reenlisted]
veterans [and others] who had escaped capture at Charleston. The unit
served [in the summer and autumn 1781 Virginia campaign and] at
Yorktown … After Yorktown most of its personnel were incorporated
into Posey’s Virginia Battalion for service in Georgia.
Companies
Captain Alexander Parker
Captain Thomas Warman
Captain William Lewis Lovely
Captain Andrew Lewis
Captain John Harris

In addition to the companies listed above, the detachment included
four company-sized units commanded by lieutenants and sergeants.
At Yorktown Gaskins’ detachment was in Brigadier General Anthony
Wayne’s brigade, serving in two battalions, one commanded by Gaskin,
the other by Major Poulson.

Colonel Thomas Posey’s Virginia Battalion, 1782-1783

(Copied from Saavedra, pp. 92-93.)
Field Officers
Colonel Thomas Posey, February(?) 1782-June 1783
[Major Samuel Finley, as per Pension File of William Wedgbare
(Wigebare/Widgebarre/Wedgroof) aka Underwood (W2292) (“a Free
Mulatto”)]

Following the capture of the Virginia Continental line at Charleston in
May 1780, desperate efforts were made to raise a new army through
militia conscription. Although Virginia failed to enroll the required 5,000
men, two small battalions were created for service with Nathanael
Greene’s forces in the South. Meanwhile, recruiting stations were
established at Richmond, Chesterfield Court House, Winchester
Barracks, and Cumberland Old Court House.

Colonel Christian Febiger, 2d Virginia Continental Regiment, was
nominally in charge of recruiting reinforcements for Greene, but he
became so embroiled with supply problems in Philadelphia that he
could not take the field. Major Thomas Posey, who had served with
Febiger at Stony Point, became his proxy in Virginia. Working under
[Maj. Gen. Wilhelm Friedrich de Steuben], the senior Continental officer
in the state, Posey began collecting recruits at Cumberland Old Court
House in late 1780.
Recruiting came to a virtual halt during the two British invasions
under Benedict Arnold in January and April 1781. [By late autumn
1781, Posey had raised a unit for service under Major General
Nathanael Greene.]
Companies
1st Company: Captain Nathan Reid
2d Company: Captain Thomas Thweatt
3d Company: Captain John Overton
4th Company: Captain Thomas Holt
5th Company: Captain Archibald Denholm
6th Company: Captain Nathaniel Terry
7th Company: Captain Francis Minnis
8th Company: Captain Joseph Scott, Jr.
9th Company: Captain John Boswell Johnston
With Cornwallis’s army out of action, the American forces under Nathanael
Greene stood a good chance of recapturing Charleston and Savannah, but
they would succeed only if reinforcements were sent. Congress organized an
expedition under General Arthur St. Clair to go to Greene’s assistance:
Wayne’s Pennsylvanians, Posey’s battalion, the remnants of Gaskins’s
regiment, and a detachment of the 2d Virginia from Philadelphia. By late
October 1782 Posey’s battalion was on the march home. The battalion seems
to have been disbanded early in 1783.

Four Whig soldiers drawn in 1781 by French Sublieutenant
Jean-Baptiste-Antoine de Verger, Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment.
The soldier on the left has long been thought to be from the
Rhode Island Regiment of 1781, to his right from Hazen’s
Canadian Regiment. (Another version, found in French officer
Baron Ludwig von Closen’s journal, is headed “Costumer de
l’Armé Américaine en 1782.” Closen’s copy notes that the lefthand soldier belongs to a Massachusetts Continental regiment,
the brown-coated on from a New Jersey regiment.) The figure
wearing the hunting shirt and plumed hat is a Virginia militia
rifleman, and on the far right a Continental artilleryman.
Howard C. Rice and Anne S.K. Brown, eds. and trans., The
American Campaigns of Rochambeau's Army 1780, 1781, 1782,
1783, vol. I (Princeton, N.J. and Providence, R.I.,: Princeton
University Press, 1972), between pages 142-143 (description on
page xxi). Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University.
Sidney Kaplan, The Black Presence in the Era of the American
Revolution, 1770-1800 (Greenwich, Ct.: New York Graphic
Society, Ltd. in Association with the Smithsonian Institution
Press, 1973), 42.
______________________________________

Detail of part of a group of Continental soldiers from Pierre Charles L'Enfant
(1754-1825) painting of West Point and dependencies. View is from the east side of
the Hudson River, at the top is the lower part of Constitution Island. This was done
after August 1782, as service chevrons, worn on the saluting soldier’s left sleeve,
were first authorized on the 7th of that month. Several soldiers in group are wearing
knapsacks, and what appears to be a rolled blanket can be seen on top of three of
the packs. (Second half of the soldier group is included in Appendix A of this
monograph. Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004678934/ 2

Pennsylvania Continental Regiments

John B.B. Trussell, Jr., The Pennsylvania Line: Regimental Organization and
Operations, 1776–1783 (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Museum and Historical
Commission, 1977), Chart, “Organizational Evolution Pennsylvania
Continental Line,” 188. Trussell mentions the Pennsylvania troops 1781
reorganization and field service, but did not adequately understand how
the 1781-82 provisional battalions were formed and officered, or the way in
which the battalions were reduced and incorporated when manpower
shortages necessitated doing so.

Provisional Battalions, 1781-1782. The number of Pennsylvania
provisional battalions fluctuated, as did their field commanders and
strength, as shown in the following table:
Establishment of Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions
and their Commanders in the Field, Virginia and South Carolina, 1781–1783
May to 14 July 1781
Brigade Commander: Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne/Col. Richard Humpton
(Each battalion, 320 rank and file in eight companies)
1st Battalion (1st and 2nd Regiments)
Col. Walter Stewart, Lt. Col. Thomas Robinson, Maj. James Hamilton
2nd Battalion (3rd and 5th Regiments)
Col. Richard Butler, Lt. Col. Josiah Harmar, Maj. William Alexander
3rd Battalion (4th and 6th Regiments)
Col. Richard Humpton, Maj. Evan Edwards
14 July to 19 October 1781
Brigade Commander: Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne
(Each battalion, circa 350 rank and file in eight companies)
1st Battalion
Col. Richard Butler, Lt. Col. Josiah Harmar, Maj. Evan Edwards*
2nd Battalion
Col. Walter Stewart, Maj. James Hamilton*
November 1781 to 12 March 1782
Brigade Commander: Col Thomas Craig
(Each battalion, circa 360 rank and file in eight companies)
1st Battalion
Lt. Col. Josiah Harmar, Maj. Evan Edwards**
2nd Battalion
Maj. James Moore**
3rd Battalion (18 month levies)
Col. Thomas Craig, Lt. Col. Francis Mentges, Maj. William Alexander**
(3rd Battalion joined the army at Yorktown on 19 October)
12 March 1782 to 30 December 1782
Brigade Commander: Lt. Col. Francis Mentges
(Each battalion, circa 420 rank and file in eight companies)
1st Battalion
Lt. Col. Josiah Harmar, Maj. James Moore***
2nd Battalion
Lt. Col. Francis Mentges, Major Evan Edwards***
December 1782 to June 1783
1st Pa. Regiment (nine companies) ++
(30 December 1782: “incorporated into one regiment of six hundred men.”)
Lt. Col. Josiah Harmar, Major James Moore

* These officers remained after the 14 July reduction to two battalions. The senior
battalion commanders are known, but it is uncertain which of the battalions the
other field officers were assigned to. This arrangement is based on precedent and
commission dates.

** Battalion command changed with the return to Pennsylvania of Colonels Stewart and Butler following the
end of the Yorktown siege. This arrangement is based on a 30 November 1781 return of the three battalions. It is
possible battalion command was altered prior to the 12 March 1782 reduction to two battalions.

*** Majors Moore and Edwards had actual command of the battalions. Lt. Col.
Harmar served as Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene’s deputy adjutant general from 1
February 1782 to December 1782. In Harmar’s absence, Lt. Col. Mentges became
Pennsylvania brigade commander. In April 1782 Colonel Thomas Craig went north on
furlough, while Colonel Walter Stewart nominally retained command of the 1 st
Battalion. Stewart at first was on furlough, then was kept in the north for service
with the Main Army Inspector General’s officer. Neither officer returned to the
south.
++ As of 1 January 1783 the Pennsylvania line was reduced to three regiments. The
1st Regiment, formed from the two remaining provisional battalions, served in South
Carolina, while the 2nd and 3rd Regiments remained in Pennsylvania at their
regimental depots or in Philadelphia.
* * * * * * * * *

Organization of the first 1781 detachment, comprising three
provisional battalions, was as follows:
Orders of Genl St. Clair, 1781.
Head Quarters, Phila, April 5, 1781.
A detachment of the Pennsylvania line to hold themselves in readiness to march to and
assemble at York Town [Pa.] immediately.
Col.

Lt. Col. Major Surg. Capts. S. Mate

Subs.
First Regt to furnish

1

5

1

10
Second D[itt]o to furnish

1

Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth

1

1

1

3

6
Do,
Do,
Do,
Do,

1
1

1
1
Total

3

2

4

1

4

1

1
4

2

4

3

8
6
1

24

1

12
8

3

48

[S. Mate – surgeon’s mate; Subs. – subalterns (lieutenants and ensigns)]
First Regt to furnish
Second D[itt]o to furnish
Third
Do,
Fourth Do,
Fifth
Do,
Sixth
Do,
Total

S[ergt].Major]. Q.M.
1
1
1
1
4

Serjeants D[rum]. & F[ife]. R. & File.
12
8
200
1
6
4
4
2
80
6
4
1
15
10
1
9
6
3

52

34

120
160
240
160
960

[Q.M. – quartermaster]
First and Second Regiments are to form One Battalion –
8 Comp. of 40 R[ank]. & File each,
Third & Fifth Do. – One Battalion,
Fourth & Sixth Do. – One Battalion,

320 men.
320
320
960

The senior Captains & Subalterns in the several Regiments are to be warned for this
Detachment. The Cloathing to equip it will be forwarded immediately to the different
Cantonments.
Lt. Hughes late Qu[arte]r Mas[ter]. to the first Brigade is transfer’d to the Second,
and Lt North to the first.
By Order Mar Gen, St Clair.
Jos. Harmer, Lt Col.

On April 6th the War Office forwarded a return of the “First
Detatchment of the Pennsylvania Line” that also listed the presence of
one brigadier general, one aide–de–camp, and one brigade major, and
numbers for the attached artillery:
Guns Officers Serjts Bomrs.

G

M[atrosses]
Artillery four Peices
four Captains four Captains Lieutt.
four Serjeants four Corporals
Eight Bombadiers eight Gunners
forty Matrosses

4
8
8
8
______________________________
4 Total 8
8
8

8

8
40
40

These arrangements were later modified, General Wayne informing
Washington on 26 May that his artillery, “consists of One Major three
Captains & six subalterns & Ninety NonCommissioned Officers &
matrosses with six field pieces i.e four six & two three pounders.”

“Return of the Pennsylvania Brigade of Foot, Commanded by Colo
Richd Humpton
July 12th. 1781”

The above information is from:
“`Their presence Here … Has Saved this State …’: Continental Provisional Battalions
with Lafayette in Virginia, 1781”
Parts 2-4. “`Almost all old soldiers, and well disciplined …’: Brigadier General Anthony
Wayne’s 1781 Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions”
A. “I fear it is now too late …”: The Pennsylvania Line Mutiny, January 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-A.pdf
B. “Our Regiments are yet but very small …”: Settling with the Troops and Rebuilding the Line
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-B.pdf
C. “The whole Line … behaved in a most orderly manner.”: Reorganizing
the Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions and Service in the 1781 Campaign
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-C.pdf

The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVII, no. 2 (Summer 2007), 2-19; vol. XXXVII, no. 4
(Winter 2007), 2-15; vol. XXXVIII, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 2-21.
Appendices for Above
1. “`A Smart firing commenc’d from from both parties …’: Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne’s
Pennsylvania Battalions in Virginia, June to November 1781”
Contents:
A. “We will be much inferior to the enemy …”: May 31 to July 5 1781
B. “A charge … under a heavy fire of Grape shot …”: Battle of Green Springs, 6 July 1781
C. “Cornwallis … threatens every Devastation that fire & sword can produce …”:
Marching and Countermarching, 9 July to 25 August
D. “The batteries were opened and fired with great success …”: September to November 1781
E. “The Cloathing was drawn near twelve month ago …”:
1780-1781 Pennsylvania Clothing, Letters and Returns

http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Virginia.pdf
2. “`The British army marched out and grounded their arms …’: Pennsylvania Lt.
William Feltman’s Diary, 26 May to 5 November 1781”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Feltman.pdf
3. “`Pennsylvania Battalion Troop Returns, 1781-1783’:
(In Camp and on Campaign in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina)”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Returns.pdf

Massachusetts Continental Regiments
Source:
http://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Category:Massachusetts_regimen
ts_of_the_Continental_Army (See also,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts_Line )
Massachusetts regiments of the Continental Army
The Massachusetts Line was a formation within the Continental Army. The term
"Massachusetts Line" referred to the quota of numbered infantry regiments
assigned to Massachusetts at various times by the Continental Congress. These,
together with similar contingents from the other twelve states, formed the
Continental Line. The concept was particularly important in relation to the
promotion of commissioned officers. Officers of the Continental Army below the
rank of brigadier general were ordinarily ineligible for promotion except in the
line of their own state.
In the course of the war, 59 infantry regiments were assigned to the
Massachusetts Line. This included the 27 provincial regiments of 1775, the 16
numbered Continental regiments of 1776, the 15 Massachusetts regiments of
1777, and Jackson's Additional Continental Regiment, which later became the
16th Massachusetts Regiment. (1)

Other Massachusetts infantry units
Additional regiments
Not all Continental infantry regiments raised in a state were part of a state
quota, however. On December 27, 1776, the Continental Congress gave
Washington temporary control over certain military decisions that the Congress
ordinarily regarded as its own prerogative. These "dictatorial powers" included
the authority to raise sixteen additional Continental infantry regiments at large.
Early in 1777, Washington offered command of one of these additional
regiments to David Henley of Massachusetts, who accepted. Henley had formerly
performed the duties of an adjutant general on the staffs of Generals William
Heath and Joseph Spencer, and was briefly lieutenant colonel of the 5th
Massachusetts Regiment.
Washington also offered command of an additional regiment to William Raymond
Lee of Massachusetts, who accepted. In 1776, Lee had been the major of John
Glover's famous Marblehead regiment, the 14th Continental Regiment.
Finally, Washington offered command of an additional regiment to Henry
Jackson of Massachusetts, who accepted. These three regiments were raised in
Massachusetts in the spring of 1777. Much of the recruiting for them was done in

the Boston area, which until then had been unable to raise troops because of the
British occupation.
Henley's and Lee's Regiments were consolidated with Henry Jackson's
Regiment on April 9, 1779. Jackson's Regiment was allotted to the Massachusetts
Line on July 24, 1780, and officially designated the 16th Massachusetts
Regiment. The 16th Massachusetts Regiment was disbanded on January 1, 1781.
Colonel Jackson remained in service until 1784, however, and commanded the
last remaining regiment in the Continental Army.
Extra regiments
Still other Continental infantry regiments and smaller units, also unrelated to a
state quota, were raised as needed for special or temporary service. Porter's
Regiment from western Massachusetts, raised in 1776 for the defense of Canada,
was an example of such an "extra" regiment.

Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiments, 1775
On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress voted to raise a
volunteer force of 13,600 men, and it called upon the other New England colonies
for assistance in raising an army of 30,000 men. The Massachusetts provincials
were raised in the spring of 1775 and were eventually formed into twenty-six
infantry regiments. Massachusetts also took responsibility for a twenty-seventh
regiment, originally raised in New Hampshire. Massachusetts regiments had an
official establishment of 599 officers and men in ten companies (but five
regiments had an eleventh company). The troops were enlisted to serve until
December 31, 1775.
The commissions of all Massachusetts officers were dated May 19, 1775.
Subsequently the regiments were numbered, although in Massachusetts the
regiment was commonly identified by the name of its colonel.
1st Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 1st Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was initially commanded by
General Artemas Ward, of Shrewsbury, who was the commanding general of the
Massachusetts Bay provincial forces. His general authority over the troops from
the other New England colonies was acknowledged, and he commanded the
patriot army at Boston until the arrival of George Washington at Cambridge on
July 3, 1775. On June 17, 1775, Ward was made a major general in the
Continental Army - the first appointment in that grade. Command of the regiment
passed to its next senior officer, Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Ward, of
Southborough, who was promoted to the rank of colonel on that date. In August
1775, Ward's Regiment was designated "The 32d Regiment of Foot." It served in
the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
2d Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 2d Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was initially commanded by
General John Thomas, of Kingston, who was the lieutenant general (second in
command) of the Massachusetts Bay provincial forces. Thomas was made a
Continental brigadier general on June 22, 1775. The regiment's lieutenant
colonel, John Bailey, of Hanover, then assumed command. Bailey was promoted
to the rank of colonel on July 1, 1775, and the regiment became Bailey's
Regiment. In August 1775, Bailey's Regiment was designated "The 35th
Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
3d Massachusetts Regiment (1775)

The 3d Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Timothy Walker, of Rehoboth, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In
August 1775, Walker's Regiment was designated "The 22d Regiment of Foot." It
served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
4th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 4th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Theophilus Cotton, of Plymouth, who served as colonel until the end of the year.
In August 1775, Cotton's Regiment was designated "The 16th Regiment of Foot."
It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
5th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 5th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment contained eleven companies and
had an official establishment of 658 officers and men. It was commanded by
Colonel Asa Whitcomb, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In August
1775, Whitcomb's Regiment was designated "The 23d Regiment of Foot." It
served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
6th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 6th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Joseph Read, of Uxbridge, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In
August 1775, Read's Regiment was designated "The 20th Regiment of Foot." It
served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
7th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 7th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel John
Mansfield, of Lynn, who left the service on September 15, 1775. From then until
the end of the year the regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Israel
Hutchinson, of Danvers. In August 1775, Mansfield's Regiment was designated
"The 19th Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its
disbandment.
8th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 8th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment contained eleven companies and
had an official establishment of 658 officers and men. It was commanded by
Colonel Timothy Danielson, of Brimfield, who served as colonel until the end of
the year. In August 1775, Danielson's Regiment was designated "The 18th
Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
9th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 9th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment contained eleven companies and
had an official establishment of 658 officers and men. It was commanded by
Colonel William Prescott, of Pepperell, who served as colonel until the end of the
year. In August 1775, Prescott's Regiment was designated "The 10th Regiment of
Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
10th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 10th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
James Frye, of Andover, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In August
1775, Frye's Regiment was designated "The 1st Regiment of Foot." It served in
the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
11th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 11th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment contained eleven companies
and had an official establishment of 658 officers and men. It was commanded by
Colonel Ebenezer Bridge, of Billerica, who served as colonel until the end of the
year. In August 1775, Bridge's Regiment was designated "The 27th Regiment of
Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
12th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)

The 12th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment contained eleven
companies[48] and had an official establishment of 658 officers and men. It was
commanded by Colonel John Paterson, of Lenox, who served as colonel until the
end of the year. In August 1775, Paterson's Regiment was designated "The 26th
Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
13th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 13th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
James Scammon. His regiment was raised in what were then known as the
"eastern counties," the present state of Maine. Scammon served as colonel of his
regiment until the end of the year. In August 1775, Scammon's Regiment was
designated "The 30th Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its
disbandment.
14th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 14th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Ebenezer Learned, of Oxford, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In
August 1775, Learned's Regiment was designated "The 4th Regiment of Foot." It
served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
15th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 15th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Thomas Gardner. He was mortally wounded at the Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17,
1775, and died July 3, 1775. On that date the regiment's commander, Lieutenant
Colonel William Bond, was promoted to the rank of colonel and the regiment
became Bond's Regiment. In August 1775, Bond's Regiment was designated "The
37th Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
16th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 16th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
John Nixon, of Framingham and Sudbury, who served as colonel until the end of
the year. In August 1775, Nixon's Regiment was designated "The 5th Regiment of
Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
17th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 17th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
John Fellows, of Sheffield, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In
August 1775, Fellows' Regiment was designated "The 8th Regiment of Foot." It
served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
18th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 18th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Ephraim Doolittle, who left the service in October 1775. Command of the
regiment passed to its next senior officer, Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Holden, of
Princeton. In August 1775, Doolittle's Regiment was designated "The 24th
Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
19th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 19th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Jonathan Brewer, of Waltham, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In
August 1775, Jonathan Brewer's Regiment was designated "The 6th Regiment of
Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
20th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 20th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
David Brewer, of Palmer, who was dismissed from the service on October 24,
1775. The next senior officer, Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Putnam, of Brookfield,
assumed command of the regiment and served until the end of the year. In
August 1775, David Brewer's Regiment was designated "The 9th Regiment of
Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.

21st Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 21st Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
William Heath, of Roxbury. Heath was made a Continental brigadier general on
June 22, 1775, and command of the regiment passed to Lieutenant Colonel John
Greaton. Greaton was promoted to the rank of colonel on July 1, 1775, and the
regiment became Greaton's Regiment. In August 1775, Greaton's Regiment was
designated "The 36th Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its
disbandment.
22d Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 22d Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge, of South Hadley, who served as colonel until the
end of the year. In August 1775, Woodbridge's Regiment was designated "The
25th Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
23d Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 23d Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
John Glover, of Marblehead, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In
August 1775, Glover's Regiment was designated "The 21st Regiment of Foot." It
served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment. In December 1775, Glover's
Regiment was stationed at Beverly to defend the naval base located there.
24th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 24th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Moses Little, of Newbury, who served as colonel until the end of the year. In
August 1775, Little's Regiment was designated "The 17th Regiment of Foot." It
served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.
25th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 25th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Samuel Gerrish, of Newbury, who was dismissed from the service on August 19,
1775. Command of the regiment passed to its next senior officer, Lieutenant
Colonel Loammi Baldwin, of Woburn. In August 1775, Gerrish's Regiment was
designated "The 38th Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its
disbandment.
26th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 26th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Edmund Phinney, whose regiment was raised in the present state of Maine.
Phinney served as colonel until the end of the year. In August 1775, Phinney's
Regiment was designated "The 31st Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of
Boston until its disbandment.
27th Massachusetts Regiment (1775)
The 27th Massachusetts Bay Provincial Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Paul Dudley Sargent, of Amherst, New Hampshire. Sargent served as colonel until
the end of the year. In August 1775, Sargent's Regiment was designated "The
28th Regiment of Foot." It served in the Siege of Boston until its disbandment.

Numbered Continental Regiments, 1776
On November 4, 1775, the Continental Congress resolved that on January 1,
1776, the Continental Army, exclusive of artillery and extra regiments, was to
consist of 27 infantry regiments. The troops were to be enlisted to serve until
December 31, 1776. The quota of regiments assigned to the states was 1 from
Pennsylvania, 3 from New Hampshire, 16 from Massachusetts, 2 from Rhode
Island, and 5 from Connecticut.
Each regiment was to have an official establishment of 728 officers and men in
eight companies. The regiments were to receive numbers instead of names. For

the campaign of 1776 Massachusetts was to provide the 3d, 4th, 6th, 7th, 12th,
13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 18th, 21st, 23d, 24th, 25th, 26th, and 27th Continental
Regiments.
The reduction of the Massachusetts Line from an establishment of 16,468
officers and men in 275 companies to an establishment of 11,648 officers and
men in 128 companies required a difficult reorganization.
The numbered Continental regiments raised in Massachusetts were widely
scattered in the campaign of 1776. In April, following the British evacuation of
Boston, five regiments (the 6th, 14th, 16th, 18th, and 27th) were ordered to
remain in Massachusetts, four of them occupying Boston. Three of these
regiments (the 14th, 16th, and 27th) joined the Main Army in July. The 6th and
18th regiments joined the Northern Army in August, and never rejoined the Main
Army. Of the eleven regiments that moved to New York City in April, three
regiments (the 15th, 24th, and 25th) were ordered to Canada as reinforcements.
One of these regiments (the 15th) rejoined the Main Army in November, and
served at Trenton and Princeton. The 24th and 25th regiments, that had served in
the Northern theater, also rejoined the Main Army in November, but marched
directly to the army's winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. Finally, the 7th
Continental Regiment, which served in Parsons' Brigade, was assigned to the
Highlands Department in November.
3d Continental Regiment
The 3d Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnant of
Danielson's Regiment, and the remnant of Wood's Company, Cotton's Regiment,
with the remnant of Learned's Regiment. Colonel Ebenezer Learned commanded
this regiment throughout 1776. As a regiment on the right wing of the army at
Boston, it was ordered to furnish details for the Fortification of Dorchester
Heights. Learned's regiment remained with the Main Army, moving to New York
City in April. It served at Trenton and Princeton.
4th Continental Regiment
The 4th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnant of
Thompson's Company, Danielson's Regiment, with the remnant of Nixon's
Regiment. Colonel John Nixon commanded this regiment until August 9, 1776, the
date on which he was made a Continental brigadier general. On that date the
regiment's next senior officer, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Nixon, assumed
command with the rank of colonel. Nixon's regiment remained with the Main
Army, moving to New York City in April. It served at Trenton and Princeton.
6th Continental Regiment
The 6th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnants of
Soul's Company, Fellows' Regiment, and Danforth's Company, David Brewer's
Regiment, with the remnant of Jonathan Brewer's Regiment. However, Jonathan
Brewer left the service, and command of this regiment was given to Colonel Asa
Whitcomb, whose old regiment, the 5th Massachusetts Regiment, was disbanded.
As a regiment on the right wing of the army at Boston, it was ordered to furnish
details for the Fortification of Dorchester Heights. Whitcomb's regiment occupied
Boston in April 1776. In August it was ordered to northern New York to oppose
Carleton's counteroffensive, and never rejoined the Main Army.
7th Continental Regiment
The 7th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnants of
Darby's and Nowell's Companies, Scammon's Regiment, and the remnant of
Morse's Company, Paterson's Regiment, with the remnant of Prescott's Regiment.
Colonel William Prescott commanded this regiment throughout 1776. Prescott's

regiment remained with the Main Army, moving to New York City in April. In
November it was stationed in the Hudson Highlands.
12th Continental Regiment
The 12th Continental Regiment was formed from the remnant of Little's
Regiment. The old regiment had to be reduced from ten companies to eight.
Colonel Moses Little commanded this regiment throughout 1776. Little's regiment
remained with the Main Army, moving to New York City in April. It served at
Trenton and Princeton.
13th Continental Regiment
The 13th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnants of
Walker's Regiment and David Brewer's Regiment with the remnant of Read's
Regiment. Colonel Joseph Read commanded this regiment throughout 1776. As a
regiment on the right wing of the army at Boston, it was ordered to furnish
details for the Fortification of Dorchester Heights. Read's regiment remained with
the Main Army, moving to New York City in April. It served at Trenton and
Princeton.
14th Continental Regiment
The 14th Continental Regiment was formed from the remnant of Glover's
Regiment. The old regiment had to be reduced from ten companies to eight.
Colonel John Glover commanded this regiment throughout 1776. Glover's
regiment continued to be stationed at Beverly until July, when it was ordered to
join the Main Army at New York City. The regiment served at Trenton.[101]
15th Continental Regiment
The 15th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnants of
Sayer's and Sullivan's Companies, Scammon's Regiment, with the remnant of
Paterson's Regiment (less the remnants of Morse's and Watkins' Companies).
Colonel John Paterson commanded this regiment throughout 1776. Paterson's
regiment remained with the Main Army, moving to New York City in April. In the
same month it was ordered to reinforce the American army in Canada. In
November the regiment rejoined the Main Army and served at Trenton and
Princeton.
16th Continental Regiment
The 16th Continental Regiment was formed from the remnant of Sargent's
Regiment. The old regiment had to be reduced from ten companies to eight.
Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent commanded this regiment throughout 1776.
Sargent's regiment occupied Boston in April 1776. It was ordered to join the Main
Army at New York City in July. The regiment served at Trenton and Princeton.
18th Continental Regiment
The 18th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnants of
Scammon's Regiment and Watkins' Company, Paterson's Regiment, with the
remnant of Phinney's Regiment. Colonel Edmund Phinney commanded this
regiment throughout 1776. Phinney's regiment occupied Boston in April 1776. In
August it was ordered to northern New York to oppose Carleton's
counteroffensive, and never rejoined the Main Army.
21st Continental Regiment
The 21st Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnant of
Fellows' Regiment, and the remnants of Benson's and Bradford's Companies,
Cotton's Regiment, with the remnant of Ward's Regiment. Colonel Jonathan Ward
commanded this regiment throughout 1776. As a regiment on the right wing of
the army at Boston, it was ordered to furnish details for the Fortification of
Dorchester Heights. Ward's regiment remained with the Main Army, moving to
New York City in April. It served at Trenton and Princeton.

23d Continental Regiment
The 23d Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnant of
Cotton's Regiment (less the remnants of Benson's, Bradford's, Mayhew's, and
Wood's Companies) with the remnant of Bailey's Regiment. Colonel John Bailey
commanded this regiment throughout 1776. As a regiment on the right wing of
the army at Boston, it was ordered to furnish details for the Fortification of
Dorchester Heights. Bailey's regiment remained with the Main Army, moving to
New York City in April. It served at Trenton and Princeton.
24th Continental Regiment
The 24th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnant of
Crafts' Company, Bond's Regiment, with the remnant of Greaton's Regiment.
Colonel John Greaton commanded this regiment throughout 1776. Greaton's
regiment remained with the Main Army, moving to New York City in April. In the
same month it was ordered to reinforce the American army in Canada. The
regiment rejoined the Main Army in November, marching directly to Morristown.
25th Continental Regiment
The 25th Continental Regiment was formed by consolidating the remnants of
Mayhew's Company, Cotton's Regiment, and Egery's Company, Danielson's
Regiment, with the remnant of Bond's Regiment (less the remnant of Crafts'
Company). Colonel William Bond commanded this regiment until his death on
August 31, 1776. The regiment's next senior officer, Lieutenant Colonel Ichabod
Alden, held command until the end of the year. Bond's regiment remained with
the Main Army, moving to New York City in April. In the same month it was
ordered to reinforce the American army in Canada. The regiment rejoined the
Main Army in November, marching directly to Morristown.
26th Continental Regiment
The 26th Continental Regiment was formed from the remnant of Gerrish's
Regiment. The old regiment had to be reduced from ten companies to eight. This
regiment was commanded by Colonel Loammi Baldwin, who was promoted to
that rank on January 1, 1776. Baldwin's regiment remained with the Main Army,
moving to New York City in April. It served at Trenton and Princeton.
27th Continental Regiment
The 27th Continental Regiment was formed from the remnant of Mansfield's
Regiment. The old regiment had to be reduced from ten companies to eight. This
regiment was commanded by Colonel Israel Hutchinson, who was promoted to
that rank on January 1, 1776. Hutchinson's regiment remained with the Main
Army, moving to New York City in April. It served at Trenton and Princeton.
Disbanded units
The remnants of the regiments of Asa Whitcomb, James Frye, Ebenezer Bridge,
Ephraim Doolittle, and Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge were disbanded at
Cambridge, Massachusetts, on December 31, 1775.

Massachusetts Line, 1777
During 1776, the Continental Congress gradually overcame its ideological
objections to a standing army, and, on September 16, 1776, it resolved that, on
January 1, 1777, the Continental Line was to consist of 88 infantry regiments, to
be maintained for the duration of the war. The quota of regiments assigned to the
states was 3 from New Hampshire, 15 from Massachusetts, 2 from Rhode Island,
8 from Connecticut, 4 from New York, 4 from New Jersey, 12 from Pennsylvania, 1
from Delaware, 8 from Maryland, 15 from Virginia, 9 from North Carolina, 6 from
South Carolina, and 1 from Georgia. The quotas for states outside New England
included regiments that had been on the Continental establishment earlier, but

the term Continental Line was now broadened to include the lines of all the
states.
1st Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 1st Massachusetts Regiment (Vose's Regiment) was formed by consolidating
two companies formed from the 6th Continental Regiment, and two companies
formed from the 18th Continental Regiment, with the remnant of the 15th
Continental Regiment.[126] The commanding officer, Colonel Joseph Vose, had
been the major of Greaton's Regiment in 1775 and the lieutenant colonel of the
24th Continental Regiment in 1776. As the 15th Continental Regiment,
reorganizing as the 1st Massachusetts Regiment, it served in St. Clair's Brigade
at Princeton. Reorganization was completed in the spring of 1777, and the
regiment was ordered to Peekskill in the Highlands. On July 10, 1777 it was
assigned to the 2d Massachusetts Brigade under Brigadier General Glover. The
regiment served in the Saratoga campaign, then marched south to join
Washington in the Middle Department. It served in the Philadelphia campaign and
wintered at Valley Forge. In 1778 it served in the Monmouth campaign, then at
Rhode Island. Following Rhode Island the regiment was stationed in the
Highlands, but in 1781 its light company was assigned to Lieutenant Colonel
Elijah Vose's Battalion, Corps of Light Infantry, which served in the Yorktown
campaign. The regiment was disbanded at West Point, New York, on November 3,
1783.
2d Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 2nd Massachusetts Regiment (Bailey's Regiment) was formed by
consolidating the remnants of the 7th Continental Regiment; Peters' Company,
13th Continental Regiment; and Clap's Company, 21st Continental Regiment;
with the remnant of the 23d Continental Regiment. (Peters' and Clap's
Companies were reorganized, respectively, as Warren's and Dunham's
Companies, Bailey's Regiment). The commanding officer, Colonel John Bailey,
had been the lieutenant colonel, later the colonel, of Thomas's Regiment in 1775
and colonel of the 23d Continental Regiment in 1776. As the 23d Continental
Regiment, reorganizing as the 2d Massachusetts Regiment, it served in Glover's
Brigade at Princeton. Reorganization was completed in the spring of 1777, and
the regiment was ordered to the Northern Department. In the summer of 1777 it
was assigned to the 4th Massachusetts Brigade under Brigadier General Learned.
The regiment retreated toward Saratoga after the American evacuation of Fort
Ticonderoga in July, and marched under Arnold to the relief of Fort Stanwix in
August. Following the Saratoga campaign the regiment marched south to join
Washington in the Middle Department. It served in the Philadelphia campaign and
wintered at Valley Forge. In 1778 it served in the Monmouth campaign. After
November 1778 the regiment was stationed in the Highlands, but in 1781 its light
company was assigned to Lieutenant Colonel Elijah Vose's Battalion, Corps of
Light Infantry, which served in the Yorktown campaign. The regiment was
disbanded at West Point, New York, on November 3, 1783.
3d Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 3rd Massachusetts Regiment (Greaton's Regiment) was formed by
consolidating the remnant of the 25th Continental Regiment with the remnant of
the 24th Continental Regiment (less the remnants of Bent's and Whiting's
Companies; the latter were reorganized as Fairfield's and Pillsbury's Companies,
Wigglesworth's Regiment). The commanding officer, John Greaton, had been the
lieutenant colonel of Heath's Regiment, and its commander, in 1775. In 1776 he
commanded the 24th Continental Regiment.

4th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 4th Massachusetts Regiment (Shepard's Regiment) was formed by
consolidating the remnant of King's Company, 21st Continental Regiment, with
the remnant of the 3d Continental Regiment. (King's Company was redesignated
Alvord's Company). The commanding officer, William Shepard, had been the
lieutenant colonel of Danielson's Regiment in 1775 and the lieutenant colonel of
the 3d Continental Regiment in 1776. He was wounded at the Battle of Pell's
Point on October 18, 1776.
5th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 5th Massachusetts Regiment (Putnam's Regiment) was formed by
consolidating the remnant of Walbridge's Company, 13th Continental Regiment,
with the remnant of the 27th Continental Regiment. (Walbridge's Company was
reorganized as Goodale's Company). The commanding officer, Rufus Putnam, had
been the lieutenant colonel of David Brewer's Regiment in 1775.
6th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 6th Massachusetts Regiment (Nixon's Regiment) was formed by
reconstituting the remnant of the 4th Continental Regiment as a regiment to
serve for the duration. The commanding officer, Thomas Nixon, had been the
lieutenant colonel of John Nixon's Regiment in 1775 and lieutenant colonel of the
4th Continental Regiment in 1776. He was promoted to colonel on August 9,
1776. Colonel Benjamin Tupper was commanding officer of the 6th
Massachusetts Regiment from January 1, 1783 until June 12, 1783.
7th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 7th Massachusetts Regiment (Alden's Regiment) was a new organization,
raised under the Eighty-Eight Battalion Resolve of September 16, 1776. The
commanding officer, Ichabod Alden, had been the lieutenant colonel of Cotton's
Regiment in 1775 and lieutenant colonel of the 25th Continental Regiment in
1776. He was killed at Cherry Valley, New York, on November 10, 1778, and his
lieutenant colonel, William Stacy was taken prisoner.
8th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 8th Massachusetts Regiment (Michael Jackson's Regiment) was formed by
reconstituting the remnant of the 16th Continental Regiment as a regiment to
serve for the duration. The commanding officer had been the major of Gardner's
Regiment in 1775, and had been wounded on June 17, 1775, at the Battle of
Bunker Hill. In 1776 he had been lieutenant colonel of the 16th Continental
Regiment and had been wounded at Montressor's Island on September 24, 1776.
9th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 9th Massachusetts Regiment (Wesson's Regiment) was formed by
consolidating the remnant of the 21st Continental Regiment (less the remnants of
Clap's and King's Companies) with the remnant of the 26th Continental
Regiment. The commanding officer, James Wesson, had been the major of
Gerrish's Regiment in 1775 and the lieutenant colonel of the 26th Continental
Regiment in 1776. He was wounded on June 28, 1778, at the Battle of Monmouth,
New Jersey.
10th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 10th Massachusetts Regiment (Marshall's Regiment) was a new organization,
raised under the Eighty-Eight Battalion Resolve of September 16, 1776. The
commanding officer, Thomas Marshall, had been an officer in the Massachusetts
militia. Colonel Benjamin Tupper was commanding officer of the 10th
Massachusetts Regiment from January 1, 1781 until January 1, 1783.
11th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)

The 11th Massachusetts Regiment (Francis's Regiment, later Tupper's Regiment)
was a new organization, raised under the Eighty-Eight Battalion Resolve of
September 16, 1776. The regiment's first commander, Colonel Ebenezer Francis,
had been a captain of Mansfield's Regiment in 1775. Colonel Francis was killed at
the Battle of Hubbardton, Vermont, on July 7, 1777, and was succeeded by
Benjamin Tupper. In 1775 Colonel Tupper had been the major of Fellows'
Regiment and later its lieutenant colonel. In 1776 he had been lieutenant colonel
of the 21st Continental Regiment. Tupper was colonel of the 11th Massachusetts
Regiment from July 7, 1777 until January 1, 1781.
12th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 12th Massachusetts Regiment (Samuel Brewer's Regiment) was formed by
reconstituting the remnant of the 18th Continental Regiment as a regiment to
serve for the duration (less two companies consolidated with the 15th
Continental Regiment, which became the 1st Massachusetts Regiment). The
commanding officer was dismissed from the service on September 17, 1778. For
the remainder of its existence the regiment was commanded by Lieutenant
Colonel Ebenezer Sproat (aka Sprout), who had been the major of Cotton's
Regiment in 1775 and the major of the 3d Continental Regiment in 1776.
13th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 13th Massachusetts Regiment (Wigglesworth's Regiment) was formed by
consolidating the remnants of Bent's and Whiting's Companies, 24th Continental
Regiment, with the remnant of the 6th Continental Regiment (less two companies
consolidated with the 15th Continental Regiment, which became the 1st
Massachusetts Regiment. The commanding officer, Colonel Edward
Wigglesworth, had been a militia officer in 1776.
14th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 14th Massachusetts Regiment (Bradford's Regiment) was a new organization,
raised under the Eighty-Eight Battalion Resolve of September 16, 1776. The
commanding officer, Gamaliel Bradford, had been a militia officer in 1776.
15th Massachusetts Regiment (1777)
The 15th Massachusetts Regiment (Bigelow's Regiment) was a new organization,
raised under the Eighty-Eight Battalion Resolve of September 16, 1776. The
commanding officer, Timothy Bigelow, was a captain of Ward's Regiment and the
major after June 17, 1775. He was captured at Quebec on December 31, 1775. In
1776 he was appointed major of the 21st Continental Regiment but was a
prisoner at the time, was not exchanged until May 1776, and did not join the
regiment that year.
Disbanded units
The remnant of the 12th Continental Regiment, under Colonel Moses Little, was
disbanded at Morristown, New Jersey in February 1777.[146]
The remnant of the 13th Continental Regiment, under Colonel Joseph Read, was
disbanded at Morristown, New Jersey, in January, 1777. However, the remnant of
Peters' Company was consolidated with Bailey's Regiment and reorganized as
Warren's Company; and the remnant of Walbridge's Company was consolidated
with Putnam's Regiment and reorganized as Goodale's Company.[147]
The remnant of the 14th Continental Regiment, under Colonel John Glover, was
disbanded in eastern Pennsylvania on the last day of December, 1776. Glover
later returned to the Continental service as a general officer and commanded one
of the Continental Army's Massachusetts brigades. His third in command, Major
William Raymond Lee, became the colonel of Lee's Additional Continental
Regiment.

1778-1779 reorganization
While the Main Army, that portion of Washington's army under his
immediate command, was in winter quarters at Valley Forge, the Congress
acted to reduce the size and increase the tactical efficiency of the Continental
Army. On May 27, 1778, it resolved that the number of infantry regiments be
reduced from 88 to 80. The quota of regiments assigned to the states was 3
from New Hampshire, 15 from Massachusetts, 2 from Rhode Island, 8 from
Connecticut, 5 from New York, 3 from New Jersey, 11 from Pennsylvania, 1
from Delaware, 8 from Maryland, 11 from Virginia, 6 from North Carolina, 6
from South Carolina, and 1 from Georgia. Under this reorganization, the
Massachusetts quota was unchanged.
The official establishment of a regiment was reduced to 582 officers and
men. Each regiment was to consist of nine rather than eight companies. The
ninth company was to be a company of light infantry, and was to be kept up
to strength by drafting men from the regiment's eight other companies if
necessary. During the campaigning season, the light infantry companies of
the regiments in a field army were to be combined into a special corps of
light infantry.
Because the Continental Congress passed this resolve at the beginning of
the campaigning season, it was nearly a year before this reorganization was
completed. The reorganization of the Continental Line was finalized on March
9, 1779.
On July 24, 1780, Henry Jackson's Additional Continental Regiment
was officially redesignated the 16th Massachusetts Regiment.

1781 reorganization
In October 1780, the Continental Congress, in consultation with General
Washington, passed resolutions providing for what would be the last
reorganization of the Continental Army before its final disbandment. The
Congress determined that on January 1, 1781, the Continental Line was to be
reduced from 80 regiments to 50. The quota of regiments assigned to the
states was 2 from New Hampshire, 10 from Massachusetts, 1 from Rhode
Island, 5 from Connecticut, 2 from New York, 2 from New Jersey, 6 from
Pennsylvania, 1 from Delaware, 5 from Maryland, 8 from Virginia, 4 from
North Carolina, 2 from South Carolina, and 1 from Georgia. In addition, 1
regiment (Colonel Moses Hazen's Canadian Regiment) was to be raised at
large.
Under this reorganization, the Massachusetts quota was reduced from
fifteen regiments to ten. Accordingly, the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and
16th Massachusetts Regiments were disbanded on January 1, 1781.
The official establishment of an infantry regiment was increased to 717
officers and men. Each regiment continued to have nine companies, including
a light infantry company, but the companies were made larger. For the first
time, each regiment was to have a permanent recruiting party of 1
lieutenant, 1 drummer, and 1 fifer. Thus, there were to be ten recruiting
parties in Massachusetts to systematically find and forward recruits to the
Massachusetts regiments in the field.

Peace negotiations
The prolonged period of peace negotiations following the surrender of Lord
Cornwallis at Yorktown, on October 19, 1781, presented the Continental
Congress with the dilemma of keeping up a military force until the definitive
peace treaty was signed, even though the national finances were exhausted.
On August 7, 1782, the Continental Congress resolved that the states should
reduce their lines on January 1, 1783. Each regiment retained in service was
then to contain not less than 500 rank and file.
The preliminary peace treaty was signed on November 30, 1782.
1783 reorganization
On January 1, 1783, the 9th Massachusetts Regiment was disbanded at
West Point and the 10th Massachusetts Regiment was disbanded at
Verplanck's Point, New York, reducing the Massachusetts Line to eight
regiments.
Great Britain signed preliminary articles of peace with France and Spain on
January 20, 1783, and, on February 4, 1783, Britain announced the cessation
of hostilities. The Continental Congress received the text of the preliminary
peace treaty on March 13, 1783, and proclaimed the cessation of hostilities
on April 11, 1783. It ratified the preliminary peace treaty on April 15, 1783.
In General Orders issued at Newburgh, New York, April 18, 1783,
Washington announced that the armistice would go into effect at noon, April
19, 1783 - the eighth anniversary of the battles of Lexington and Concord.

Demobilization
The 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th Massachusetts Regiments were placed on
furlough on June 12, 1783, and were never recalled to active duty.
The final treaty of peace was signed in Paris on September 3, 1783. On
October 18, 1783, the Continental Congress proclaimed that Continental
troops on furlough were to be discharged on November 3, 1783. The Main
Army, with the exception of a small observation force in the Hudson
Highlands under the command of General Henry Knox, was disbanded on
November 3, 1783. The disbanded units included the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
Massachusetts Regiments. After this date no part of the Massachusetts Line
remained in the field, although the four furloughed regiments were still not
formally disbanded.
The Northern Army was disbanded on November 5, 1783, and the Southern
Army was disbanded on November 15, 1783. On the latter date the
furloughed 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th Massachusetts Regiments were formally
disbanded, and the Massachusetts Line ceased to exist.
New York City was evacuated by British troops on November 25, 1783. The
British fleet left New York City on December 4, 1783, and on the same day
Washington bid farewell to his officers at Fraunces Tavern.
First American Regiment of 1784

After November 3, 1783, the Continental Line was reduced to a handful of
units. These disbanded in November and December. The single regiment
remaining in service after the new year began was under the command of
Massachusetts Colonel Henry Jackson, and was known as the 1 st American
Regiment.
The Continental Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784,
and the United States and Great Britain exchanged ratifications of the Treaty
of Paris on May 12, 1784. The 1st American was disbanded at West Point,
New York, on June 2, 1784.