You are on page 1of 12

ASSIGNMENT

Program: Diploma in Business Management.


Semester: 1
Permanent Enrolment
A1923913008(el)
No.
Roll Number (SEN)
EL2013-02-STC0015-3443
Student Name
Vishal Kiran Dhoble.
Subject Name
Principles And Practices
of Management
INSTRUCTIONS
a) Students are required to submit all three
assignment sets.
ASSIGNMEN
DETAILS
T
Assignment Five Subjective Questions.
A
Assignment Three Subjective Questions+
B
Case Study.
Assignment Objective or one line
C
questions.

MARK
S
10
10
10

b) Total weightage given to these assignments is 30%.


OR 30 Marks
c) All assignments are to be completed as typed in
word/pdf.
d) All questions are required to be attempted.
) Tick mark in front of the assignments submitted
Assignment Assignment Assignment
A
B
C

ASSIGNMENT-A
Question 1
The principles of scientific management differ from the ordinary principles.
Why? Give your comments.

ANSWER
The Scientific Management arose because of the need to increase
productivity and efficiency. The classical scientific management laid emphasis
on trying to find the best way to get the most work done by examining how
the work process was actually accomplished and by scrutinizing the skills of
the workforce. The Scientific Management Theory is also known as the
Classical Management Theory, developed during the Industrial Revolution
when new problems related to the factory system began to appear. Managers
were worried about increasing the efficiency and productivity, as the major
impetus was on manufacturing. Thus, the classical management theory
developed from efforts to find the one best way to perform and manage
tasks. Frederick Taylor is known as the father of scientific management.
Taylor himself rose as a manager from the shop-floor at Bethlehem Steel
plant. He believed that organizations should study tasks and develop precise
procedures. For example, in 1898, Taylor calculated how much iron from rail
cars Bethlehem Steel plant workers could be unloading if they were using the
correct movements, tools, and steps. The result was an amazing 47.5 tons per
day instead of the mere 12.5 tons each worker had been averaging. In
addition, by redesigning the shovels the workers used, Taylor was able to
increase the length of work time and therefore decrease the number of
people shovelling from 500 to 140. He also developed an incentive system
that paid workers more money for meeting the new standard. Productivity at
Bethlehem Steel shot up overnight. Due to such amazing results, many
theorists followed Taylor's philosophy when developing their own principles
of management. His Scientific Methods were able to -

Develop the science of work (one best way).


Emphasize an absolute adherence to work standards.
Scientifically select, place, and train workers.
Apply a financial incentive system.
Utilize specialized functional supervision.

Develop and maintain friendly labour-management relations.


Where as the Ordinary Principles were unable to increase the efficiency and
productivity of goods. It lacked scrutinizing the skills of the workforce. The
factories and industries were in loss which was a major reason for the
depletion of the Ordinary or Old Principles which were based on reactive
approach. These were also unable to apply a financial incentive system and
utilize specialized functional supervision. They were also unable to maintain
friendly labour-management relations.

Question 2
Discuss the new challenges and tasks of management. Explain the
contributions of Taylor and Henri Fayol in modern management thoughts.

ANSWER
The new challenges and tasks of Management were the need to increase
productivity and efficiency and to get the most work done by examining how
the work process was actually accomplished and by scrutinizing the skills of
the workforce. Managers were worried about increasing the efficiency and
productivity, as the major impetus was on manufacturing. These things laid a
necessity for proper techniques which could be reliable and profitable to the
firm.
Contribution of Fredrick Taylor Frederick Taylor who is known as the father of scientific management rose
himself and researched about the methods which could fight with the
challenges of Management System. Thus, according to his research he was
able to find certain outcomes which were beneficial to the firm by
Developing the science of work (one best way).
Emphasizing an absolute adherence to work standards.
Scientifically selection, placement, and training of workers.
Applying a financial incentive system.
Utilizing specialized functional supervision.
Developing and maintaining friendly labour-management relations.

Contribution of Henri Fayol


Henri Fayol, developed 12 principles of management based on his day to day
managerial experiences. These principles provide general guidelines on how a
supervisor should organize her department and manage her staff. Although
later research has created controversy over many of the following principles,
they are still widely used in management theories.
1. Division of work: Division of work and specialization produces more and
better work with the same effort.
2. Authority and responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders and the
power to exact obedience. A manager has official authority because of her
position, as well as personal authority based on individual personality,
intelligence, and experience. Authority creates responsibility.
3. Discipline: Obedience and respect within an organization are absolutely
essential. Good discipline requires managers to apply sanctions whenever
violations become apparent. Unity of command: An employee should receive
orders from only one superior.
4. Unity of direction: Organizational activities must have one central
authority and one plan of action.
5. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interests of one
employee or group of employees are subordinate to the interests and goals
of the organization.
6. Remuneration of personnel: Salaries the price of services rendered by
employees should be fair and provide satisfaction both to the employee
and employer.
7. Centralization: The objective of centralization is the best utilization of
personnel. The degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of
each organization.
8. Scalar chain: A chain of authority exists from the highest organizational
authority to the lowest ranks.

9. Order: Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential. The


right materials and the right employees are necessary for each organizational
function and activity.
10. Equity: In organizations, equity is a combination of kindliness and justice.
Both equity and equality of treatment should be considered when dealing
with employees. Stability of tenure of personnel: To attain the maximum
productivity of personnel, a stable work force is needed.
11. Initiative: Thinking out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely
strong motivator. Zeal, energy, and initiative are desired at all levels of the
organizational ladder.
12. Esprit de corps: Teamwork is fundamentally important to an organization.
Work teams and extensive face-to-face verbal communication encourages
teamwork.

Question 3
Define leadership. Explain the features and importance of Mc
Gregors theory X and Y?

ANSWER
LEADERSHIP

It is defined as a characteristic of an individual which motivates and


persuades the group to have identity of interests and outlook in group
efforts.
Theory X and Theory Y- Douglas McGregor
FEATURES
Douglas McGregor was heavily influenced by both the Hawthorne studies
and Maslow. He believed that two basic kinds of managers exist.
One type, the Theory X manager, has a negative view of employees and
assumes that they are lazy, untrustworthy, and incapable of assuming
responsibility.

On the other hand, the Theory Y manager assumes that employees are not
only trustworthy and capable of assuming responsibility, but also have high
levels of motivation.
IMPORTANCE
An important aspect of McGregor's idea was his belief that managers who
hold either set of assumptions can create self-fulfilling prophecies that
through their behaviour, these managers create situations where
subordinates act in ways that confirm the manager's original expectations. As
a group, these theorists discovered that people worked for inner satisfaction
and not materialistic rewards, shifting the focus to the role of individuals in
an organization's performance.

Question 4
Are strategies and policies as important in a non-business enterprise (such
as a labour union, State Department, a hospital or a city fire department) as
they are in a business? Why and how?

ASSIGNMENT-B
Question 1
What are the major limitations of Planning? What action can be taken to
make planning effective?

Answer

LIMITATIONS OF PLANNING
The Limitations are discussed in detail:
Planning may create rigidity:

New opportunities are often ignored or rejected because of the


commitment to the existing plans. Once established, policies and
procedures become a part of organizations activity and hence, no
manager would like to discard the old plans in favour of new even
when circumstances demand.

Plans cannot be developed for dynamic environment:

It is difficult to predict and forecast economic conditions, competitive


situations and change in government policies with any degree of
accuracy. Reliability of planning efforts is open to doubt since they are
projected farther into the future where managers has no control over
environmental forces.
Formal plans are costly and time consuming:

It is expensive in terms of time spent to formulate plans, the man


power required to do the planning and the resources needed to
execute the plan.
Planning forces managers attention to a short term goal:

Planning is intellectually demanding function since managers assist on


the basis of results, the human tendency begins to discount long range
plans and promote to adopt short range plans, which put the executors
on a comfortable position. But this may hamper the organizations
vision to sustain on a long run.
Planning can let organizations to get in competency traps :

Managers in the success of implementation of the course of action, fail


to analyze and evaluate the feedback or the gap in the process for
improvement. This can lead organizational plans to fail.
STEPS TAKEN TO MAKE PLANNING EFFECTIVE
Climate of planning:

Planning is not left to chance and top level managers must ensure a
conductive environment must be crated to the smooth and systematic
take of the plans in the organization.
Participation by people:

This helps to gain commitment from all the level of management.


Communication to people:

All the employees must be communicated with the goal, direction and
premise. It helps people to know what to do, when and how in the
time limit.

Monitoring of the process:

With the option of flexibility and regular review process in planning


there is always a possibility to exploit the opportunities in the external
environment.
Management support:

Planning always moves from the values held at top level of


management.

Question 2
The contingency approach to management is more a commonsense
approach - elaborate.

Answer

Intelligent and successful management depends upon a constant pursuit of


adaptation, flexibility, and mastery of changing conditions. Strong
management requires a keeping all options open approach at all times
that's where contingency planning comes in. Contingency planning involves
identifying alternative courses of action that can be implemented if and when
the original plan proves inadequate because of changing circumstances. Keep
in mind that events beyond a manager's control may cause even the most
carefully prepared alternative future scenarios to go awry. Unexpected
problems and events frequently occur. When they do, managers may need to
change their plans. Anticipating change during the planning process is best in
case things don't go as expected. Management can then develop alternatives
to the existing plan and ready them for use when and if circumstances make
these alternatives appropriate.

Question 3
Accurate appraisal of performance is difficult. In the light of this discuss the
problems involved in appraising an employee.

Answer

Appraisal of performance or comparing of actual performance with predetermined standards is an important step in control process.
Comparison is easy where standards have been set in quantitative terms as in
production and marketing. In other cases, where results are intangible and

cannot be measured quantitatively direct personal observations, inspection


and reports are few methods which can be used for evaluation. The
evaluation will reveal some deviations from the set standards. The evaluator
should point out defect or deficiencies in performance and investigate the
causes responsible for these.

CASE STUDY
Questions
1. Discuss the reasons for the problems that arose in the company.
Answer
The reasons for the problem that arose in the Company were as follows: The Management didnt had a transparency with the workers and
foreman as a result they themselves made several predictions about
laying off and the shut down of the Company and one day protest
strike.
The Production Manager who later called the meeting of Union Office
Bearers along with some workers would have done it earlier for which
the company suffered a lot.
2. Advise the production manager how he should proceed in the matter.
Answer
The Production Manager in future should take care to be transparent with
the workers because the workers are the main basement of any firm. Also,
any amendments in the company and its production should be notified to all
of the workers through circulars or letters which would avoid these types of
misunderstandings resulting in Protest Strikes.

ASSIGNMENT-C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

C
A
C
D
C
A
C
D
B
D
A
C
A
C
D
D
A
C

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

C
D
A
D
D
B
A
A
A
B
B
C
D
B
B
D
D
A

19
20

A
A

39
40

A
C