You are on page 1of 1


An amplifier is the basic building block of most electronic systems. Just as one brick
does not make a house, a single-stage amplifier is not sufficient to build a practical
electronic system. The gain of the single stage is not sufficient for practical applications. The
voltage level of a signal can be raised to the desired level if we use more than one stage.
When a number of amplifier stages are used in succession (one after the other) it is called
a multistage amplifier or a cascade amplifier. Much higher gains can be obtained from the
multi-stage amplifiers.
In a multi-stage amplifier, the output of one stage makes the input of the next stage.
We must use a suitable coupling network between two stages so that a minimum loss of
voltage occurs when the signal passes through this network to the next stage. Also, the dc
voltage at the output of one stage should not be permitted to go to the input of the next. If
it does, the biasing conditions of the next stage are disturbed.
Figure shows how to couple two stages of amplifiers using RC coupling scheme. This is
the most widely used method. In this scheme, the signal developed across the collector
resistor RC (R2)of the first stage is coupled to the base of the second stage through the
capacitor CC.(C2) The coupling capacitor blocks the dc voltage of the first stage from
reaching the base of the second stage. In this way, the dc biasing of the next stage is not
interfered with. For this reason, the capacitor CC (C2)is also called a blocking capacitor.
As the number of stages increases, the gain increases and the bandwidth decreases.
RC coupling scheme finds applications in almost all audio small-signal amplifiers used in
record players, tape recorders, public-address systems, radio receivers, television receivers,