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Write a note on the characteristics of Management.
“Management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and coordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of different resources. According to George R. Terry, “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” Management is a distinct activity having the following characteristics: 1. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It co-ordinates the efforts of employees to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. 2. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labour and capital. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources, namely, labour, capital and materials. These factors do not by themselves ensure production; they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus, management is an essential ingredient of an organization. 3. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. In essence, the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 4. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 5. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus, feeling of management is result-oriented. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. People often remark of
the effectiveness of management on the basis of the end results, although they can’t observe it during operation. 6. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. 7. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts, principles and techniques which have wide applications. So it is treated as a science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art. 8. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Generally, as we move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. 9. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering, Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. For instance, productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. Similarly, Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. 10. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business, education, military, government and hospital. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be coordinated.
Discuss intellectual abilities in detail.
Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities. IQ tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. IQ tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. The seven most popular dimensions making up intellectual abilities are categorized in the following table:
Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. A review of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial, and perceptual abilities are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs. The theory of multiple intelligences by Gardner suggests eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. It has been claimed that our intelligence or ability to understand the world around us is complex. Some people are better at understanding some things than others. For some, it is relatively easy to understand how an automobile works, but it is immensely difficult for some to understand and use a musical instrument. For others music might be easy but playing football is difficult. The eight different intelligences are: 1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): 2. Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") 3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5. Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") The advantages of IQ tests are: • They are highly reliable and their validity rises with increasing complexity of the job. • Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs. • Combinations of aptitude tests have higher validities than individual tests alone and they are of lower cost than personality tests. • May be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at the same time. • Scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment.
Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon.
William Sheldon classified personality according to body type. He called this a person’s somatotype. He identified three main somatotypes that are associated with certain personality characteristics. They are as follows: 1. Endomorphy – It is focused on the digestive system, particularly the stomach (endoderm); has the tendency toward plumpness, corresponds to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant, love of comfort and luxury, extravert. 2. Mesophorphy – It is focused on musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm), has the tendency towards muscularity, and corresponds to the Somatotonia temperament courageous, energetic, active, dynamic, assertive, aggressive, risk taker. 3. Ectomorphy: It is focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) – the tendency towards slightness, corresponds to Cerebrotonia temperament artistic, sensitive, apprehensive, introvert. On this basis, Sheldon created “Atlas of Men” , in which all possible body types are graded in a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high), based on the degree to which they matched these types; with 4 as average). Each type is represented by a series of photos, and is given a comical or descriptive name, like "saber tooth tiger" for extreme mesomorph, "Baluchitherium" for mesomorph and endomorph, "Male Mosquito" for the extreme ectomorph, and so on. On this scale, the extreme or pure mesomorph has a score of 1-7-1, the pure endomorph 7-1-1, and the pure ectomorph 1-1-7. Most people of course are a combination of types. Body Type a. Endomorphic Body Type: soft body underdeveloped muscles round shaped over-developed digestive system Associated personality traits love of food tolerant evenness of emotions love of comfort sociable good humoured relaxed need for affection adventurous desire for power and dominance courageous indifference to what others think or want assertive, bold zest for physical activity competitive love of risk and chance
b. Mesomorphic Body Type: hard, muscular body overly mature appearance rectangular shaped thick skin upright posture
c. Ectomorphic Body Type: thin flat chest delicate build young appearance tall lightly muscled stoop-shouldered large brain
self-conscious preference for privacy introverted inhibited socially anxious artistic mentally intense emotionally restrained
But body types have been criticized for very weak empirical methodology and are not generally used in psychology. The use of somatotyping is used more often in alternative therapies and Eastern psychology and spirituality.
What are the different barriers to perception?
Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions. These barriers to perception are as follows: 1. Selective Perception: Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen .Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speed-read” others, but, not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation. 2. Halo Effect: The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. For example, while appraising the lecturer, students may give prominence to a single trait, such as, enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms, when the traits have moral overtones, and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience. 3. Contrast Effects: Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. Their reaction to one person is influenced by other persons they have encountered recently. For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule.
4. Projection: This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people, which is called projection, can distort perceptions made about others. When managers engage in projection, they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are. 5. Stereotyping: Stereotyping–judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. Generalization is not without advantages. It is a means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency. The problem, of course, is when we inaccurately stereotype. In organizations, we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, and even weight. From a perceptual standpoint, if people expect to see these stereotypes, that is what they will perceive, whether or not they are accurate. 6. First-impression error: Individuals place a good deal of importance on first impressions. First impressions are lasting impressions. We tend to remember what we perceive first about a person, and sometimes we are quite reluctant to change our initial impressions. First-impression error means the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions. Primacy effects can be particularly dangerous in interviews, given that we form first impressions quickly and that these impressions may be the basis for long-term employment relationships. Thus, barriers to perception create distortion in judging someone.
Q.5 Mr. Batra is the General Manager, HR of a leading Automobile company. He is having a meeting with Mr. Chandan, a leading HR consultant. Mr. Batra is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing job satisfaction among employees. Assume that you are Mr. Chandan, the HR consultant. What suggestions will you give to Mr. Batra, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction? As Mr. Chandan, the HR consultant, I suggest Mr. Batra, that the following measures should be implemented for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction: 1. Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Under conditions of moderate challenge, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. 2. Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs; and because of this success, they have a greater probability of
achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is important, therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. 3. Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and industry pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. Similarly, employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and increased social status. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. 4. Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. Temperature, light, noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. Further, employees prefer working relatively close to home, in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. 5. Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. Therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor’s leads to increased job satisfaction. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly, those who offer praise for good performance, listen to employees’ opinions and show a personal interest in them. 6. Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behaviour in an intense desire to succeed. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. Clearly delineating wrongful behaviour and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions. 7. Social Responsibility: Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Current concerns include protecting the environment, promoting worker safety, supporting social issues, investing in the community, etc. Managers must encourage both individual ethical behaviour and organizational social responsibility.
Q.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of “iMagine”, an advertising company: 1. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know, maybe their friends, ex. colleagues, batch mates and relatives.
3. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. What all aspects does it take care of, according to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy? According to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory, human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour; only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs cannot. The needs are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further they progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show. The five needs given by Maslow are as follows: 1. Physiological: Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. 2. Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. 3. Social: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 4. Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors, such as, self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors, such as, status, recognition, and attention. 5. Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment. The HR policy of “iMagine” company takes care of the following needs: 1. The first point takes care of the esteem needs. Offering cash rewards to employees satisfies their self respect. They get external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention from others. The get to enjoy general esteem from others. 2. The second point takes care of the social and self-actualization needs. When the employee refers to others, his need of affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship are satisfied. In this way, his social needs are satisfied. When the employee is referring to others, his self-actualization needs are also satisfied. 3. The third point takes care of the safety and social needs. The employee’s emotional needs are taken care of when they are praised for their good performance. Their self-respect is also satisfied. They get status, recognition, and attention. Their esteem needs are also satisfied. This policy creates an employer-employee friendly relationship and makes the bond stronger between them. And the work performance of the employees also increases.
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