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INTRODUCTION

Translational screws are used to convert rotary motion into translatory motion. For example, in the case of the lead screw of lathe, the rotary motion is available but the tool has to be advanced in the direction of the cut against the cutting resistance of the material. In case of screw jack, a small force applied in the horizontal plane is used to raise or lower a large load. Power screws are also used in vices, testing machines, presses In most of the power screws, the nut has axial motion against the resisting axial force while the screw rotates in its bearings. In some screws, the screw rotates and moves axially against the resisting force while the nut is stationary

**TYPES OF SCREW THREADS USED FOR TRANSLATIONAL SCREWS
**

Three types of screw threads are mostly used for translational screws: 1. Square thread. A square thread, as shown, is adapted for the transmission of power in either direction

This thread results in maximum efficiency and minimum radial or bursting pressure on the nut. It is difficult to cut with taps and dies. It is usually cut on a lathe with a single point tool and it can not be easily compensated for wear. The square threads are employed in screw jacks, presses and clamping devices.

**TYPES OF SCREW THREADS
**

2. Acme or trapezoidal thread. An acme or trapezoidal thread, as shown, is a modification of square thread.

The slight slope given to its sides lowers the efficiency slightly than square thread and it also introduces some bursting pressure on the nut, but increases its area in shear. It is used where a split nut is required and where provision is made to take up wear as in the lead screw of a lathe. Wear may be taken up by means of an adjustable split nut. An acme thread may be cut by means of dies and hence it is more easily manufactured than square thread.

**TYPES OF SCREW THREADS
**

3. Buttress thread. A buttress thread, as shown is used when large forces act along the screw axis in one direction only.

This thread combines the higher efficiency of square thread and the ease of cutting and the adaptability to a split nut of acme thread. It is stronger than other threads because of greater thickness at the base of the thread. The buttress thread has limited use for power transmission. It is employed as the thread for light jack screws and vices

MULTIPLE THREADS

The power screws with multiple threads such as double, triple etc. are employed when it is desired to secure a large lead with fine threads or high efficiency. Such type of threads are usually found in high speed actuators.

**TORQUE REQUIRED TO RAISE LOAD BY SQUARE THREADED SCREWS
**

The torque required to raise a load by means of square threaded screw may be determined by considering a screw jack as shown The load to be raised or lowered is placed on the head of the square threaded rod which is rotated by the application of an effort at the end of lever for lifting or lowering the load If one complete turn of a screw thread be imagined to be unwound, from the body of the screw and developed, it will form an inclined plane as shown in next slide

Let p = Pitch of the screw; d = Mean diameter of the screw; = Helix angle; P = Effort applied at the circumference of the screw to lift the load; W = Load to be lifted, and = Coefficient of friction, between the screw and nut = tan , where is the friction angle From the geometry of the Figure1: tan = p/ d Since the principle, on which a screw jack works is similar to that of an inclined plane, therefore, the force applied on the circumference of a screw jack may be considered to be horizontal as shown in figure 2 Since the load is being lifted, therefore the force of friction (F = .RN ) will act downwards

Resolving the forces along the plane: Pcos = Wsin + F = Wsin + .RN ...(i) and resolving the forces perpendicular to the plane: RN = Psin + Wcos ...(ii) Substituting this value of RN in equation (i), we have: Pcos = Wsin + (Psi + Wcos ) = Wsin + Psin + Wcos or Pcos ± Psin = Wsin + Wcos or P(cos ± sin ) = W(sin + cos )

Substituting the value of we get:

= tan

in the above equation,

Multiplying the numerator and denominator by cos , we have:

Torque required to overcome friction between the screw and nut:

When the axial load is taken up by a thrust collar as shown in top right figure, so that the load does not rotate with the screw, then the torque required to overcome friction at the collar:

where R1 and R2 = Outside and inside radii of collar, R = Mean radius of collar; 1 = Coefficient of friction for the collar

Total torque required to overcome friction (i.e. to rotate the screw): T = T1 + T2 If an effort P1 is applied at the end of a lever of arm length l, then the total torque required to overcome friction must be equal to the torque applied at the end of lever, i.e.

Since the mechanical advantage is the ratio of the load lifted (W) to the effort applied (P1) at the end of the lever, therefore mechanical advantage:

**TORQUE REQUIRED TO LOWER LOAD BY SQUARE THREADED SCREWS
**

When the load is being lowered, the force of friction (F = .RN) will act upwards. All the forces acting on the body are shown

Resolving the forces along the plane: Pcos = F ± Wsin = RN ± Wsin ..(i) and resolving the forces perpendicular to the plane: RN = Wcos ± Psin ..(ii) Substituting this value of RN in equation (i), we have,

Pcos = (Wcos ± Psin ) ± Wsin = Wcos ± Psin ± Wsin or Pcos + Psin = Wcos ± Wsin P(cos + sin ) = W( cos ± sin )

Substituting the value of have:

= tan in the above equation, we

Multiplying the numerator and denominator by cos :

Torque required to overcome friction between the screw and nut: Note: When > , then P = Wtan( ± ).

**EFFICIENCY OF SQUARE THREADED SCREWS
**

The efficiency of square threaded screws may be defined as the ratio between the ideal effort (i.e. the effort required to move the load, neglecting friction) to the actual effort (i.e. the effort required to move the load taking friction into account). The effort applied at the circumference of the screw to lift the load is: P = W tan( + ) ...(i) where W = Load to be lifted, = Helix angle, = Angle of friction, and = Coefficient of friction between the screw and nut = tan . If there would have been no friction between the screw and the nut, then will be equal to zero.

**EFFICIENCY OF SQUARE THREADED SCREWS
**

The value of effort P0 necessary to raise the load, will then be given by the equation P0 = Wtan [Substituting = 0 in equation (i)]

This shows that the efficiency of a screw jack, is independent of the load raised. In the above expression for efficiency, only the screw friction is considered. However, if the screw friction and collar friction is taken into account, then

EFFICIENCY OF SQUARE THREADED SCREWS

The efficiency may also be defined as the ratio of mechanical advantage to the velocity ratio. The mechanical advantage:

**MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY OF A SQUARE THREADED SCREW
**

The efficiency of a square threaded screw:

Multiplying the numerator and denominator by 2, we have:

The efficiency given by equation (ii) will be maximum when sin (2 + ) is maximum, i.e. when sin(2 + ) = 1 or when 2 + = 90°

**MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY OF A SQUARE THREADED SCREW
**

2 = 90° ± or = 45° ± /2 Substituting the value of 2 in equation (ii), we have maximum efficiency:

Home Work -> Examples 17.1 to 17.5

EXAMPLE 17.4

A vertical two start square threaded screw of a 100mm mean diameter and 20mm pitch supports a vertical load of 18kN. The axial thrust on the screw is taken by a collar bearing of 250mm outside diameter and 100mm inside diameter. Find the force required at the end of a lever which is 400mm long in order to lift and lower the load. The coefficient of friction for the vertical screw and nut is 0.15 and that for collar bearing is 0.20. Given: d = 100mm; p = 20mm; W = 18kN = 18 × 103N ; D2 = 250mm or R2 = 125mm; D1 = 100mm or R1 = 50mm; l = 400mm; = tan = 0.15; 1 = 0.20 Solution: Force required at the end of lever Let P = Force required at the end of lever

EXAMPLE 17.4

Since the screw is a two start square threaded screw, therefore lead of the screw = 2p = 2 × 20 = 40mm

1. For raising the load We know that tangential force required at the circumference of the screw:

And mean radius of collar:

EXAMPLE 17.4

Total torque required at the end of lever:

The torque required at the end of lever (T): 569150 = P1 × l = P1 × 400 or P1 = 569150/400 = 1423N 2. For lowering the load The tangential force required at the circumference of the screw:

EXAMPLE 17.4

Torque required at the end of the lever:

The torque required at the end of lever (T): 335315 = P1 × l = P1 × 400 or P1 = 335315/400 = 838.3N

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