SS Notes 2: Deterrence and Diplomacy Deterrence Factors: Citizen armed force, Multi-agency coordination on security, Military cooperation

with other countries, 3rd gen. SAF, Defense industry, and Total Defense. Format: xxx factor is an important factor of deterrence. xxxxxxxx. Thus, xxx factor is an important factor of deterrence. CAF: The citizen armed force was created with the introduction of National Service in 1967. This enlisted able-bodied men into the army. This has increased Singapore s defense capabilities, which is a form of deterrence. For example in 1965 there were about 1000 soldiers in the military but in 2005 there were 355,000. Thus, a citizen armed force is an important factor of deterrence. Multi-agency coordination: Multi-agency coordination on security increases the efficiency of Singapore s security agencies as information and resources are shared among these agencies. Singapore s national security is therefore enhanced and strengthened. For example, the NSCS was set up to coordinate the work of the various government agencies such as the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Home Affairs. Thus, multi-agency coordination on security is an important factor of deterrence. Military cooperation: Singapore conducts training exercises in various countries and has defense arrangements with multiple countries. These alliance agreements serve to deter would-be aggressors. For example, Singapore is involved in the Five Power Defense Arrangements. Thus, military cooperation with other countries is an important factor of deterrence. 3rd gen. SAF: The 3rd Gen. SAF is enhanced by state-of-the-art info-communications technologies. This maximizes its defensive capabilities and equips soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibly in peacetime. For example, the new SAR 21 gun has been introduced as replacement for the M16. The SAR 21 is much more effective than its predecessor. Thus, the 3rd gen. SAF is an important factor of deterrence. Defence industry: The defense industry was started in 1967 when CIS was established to produce small arms ammunition. The DSTA was also formed in 2000 to develop new weapon systems for the SAF s use. The defense industry improves the capability and effectiveness of the SAF. For example, the Bionix tank was manufactured in Singapore. Thus, the defense industry is an important factor of deterrence. Total defense: Total defense was introduced in 1984 to involve everyone in the defense of the country. It has 5 aspects: Military, Civil, Economic, Social and Psychological Defense. Potential aggressors will think twice about attacking Singapore if they know they face the entire nation and not just the armed forces. For example, civil defense efforts saved 17 lives when Hotel New World collapsed suddenly on 15 March 1986. Thus, total defense is an important factor of deterrence. Basis of Comparison:

Total defense>all other factors: Total defense addresses a wider range of problems than name other factor . While name other factor only addresses the militaristic aspect of deterrence, total defense adopts a more holistic approach and thus produces a more effective way of dealing with various threats. Thus, total defense is more important than name other factor . While name other factor defends against militaristic threats, total defense counteracts all threats including attacks from transnational terrorists. Also, total defense is more flexible in combating threats. While name other factor defends against militaristic threats, total defense counteracts all threats including attacks from transnational terrorists. Also, total defense is more flexible in combating threats. Factors can be grouped into 3 sub-groups: Technology (3rd gen and defense industry), People (CAF) and Intelligence (Co-op and Co-ord). Technology>People: Factor is more important than a citizen armed force when we look at efficiency. With the proper technology, fewer soldiers are required for combat which reduces the strain on Singapore s manpower. Even with a citizen armed force, they are, by their nature, less trained than an invading professional army. In addition, during wartime, a citizen armed force can never be fully utilized due to manpower constraints. Therefore, factor is required to level the playing field. Thus, factor is more important than a citizen armed force. Defense industry>3rd gen SAF: Defense industry is more important than 3rd gen SAF as advances made on home soil will make other countries fear Singapore even more than simply acquiring weapons from foreign sources as other countries will not know the extent of Singapore s development. Also, the defense industry is able to develop technology that suits Singapore s specific needs. Acquiring weapons overseas might not be able to suit our conditions particularly well. Thus the defense industry is more important than the 3rd gen SAF. Technology>Intelligence: Factor is the primary reason for Singapore s national security. Other factor , while beneficial to national security, still hinges on the army s ability to deal with threats. Also, no amount of training/intelligence will help if the armed forces are poorly equipped to fight, especially with warfare becoming more dependent on technology. Singapore cannot solely depend on other countries to defend it. Thus, the 3rd gen SAF is more important than military cooperation with other countries. People>Intelligence: Even if multiple agencies were to combine to form an efficient intelligence network, the system still hinges on the armed forces ability to deal with the threat. Without a properly equipped army, Singapore would still not have the ability to defend itself and deter threats. Thus the citizen armed force is more important than multi-agency coordination on security. Cooperation>Coordination: Military cooperation is more important than multi-agency coordination as in the event of a threat, other countries can help. Potential aggressors will reconsider if they are up against 5 countries instead of just 1. Even if the country is able to pick up intelligence on potential aggressors, it might still not be able to defend against the threat or be able to deter these aggressors. Military cooperation also reduces the risk of invasion from the participating countries. This effectively serves as a preemptive to deter threats from these countries by fostering good relations

rather than picking up intelligence only when they are about to attack. Thus, military cooperation is more important than multi-agency coordination

Diplomacy: Factors: Bilateral relations, Regional relations and International relations. Format: xxx factor is an important factor of diplomacy. Bilateral relations: Singapore has been actively involved in expanding bilateral relationships with many countries since its independence. This has benefitted Singapore in many ways. For example, countries like Japan and Germany have established trading relationships with Singapore. These partnerships allowed Singapore to acquire advanced technological skills from these developed countries. Thus, bilateral relations are an important factor of diplomacy. Regional relations: Countries also establish regional relations by forming an association of countries in a region. Singapore is a part of ASEAN, which consists of ten member nations. This has allowed Singapore to achieve better relations with its neighbors such as Malaysia and Indonesia. This has also allowed Singapore to achieve better economic growth. For example, the AFTA was launched in 1992 to remove all import taxes among SEA countries. Thus, regional relations are an important factor of diplomacy. International relations: International relations involve ties among many countries and groupings throughout the world. Singapore is a part of the UN, an international organization. This has benefitted Singapore in many ways. For example when Singapore became a member an economic expert from the UN, Dr. Albert Winsemius was sent to help Singapore in its industrial planning from its independence to the late 1970s. Singapore has also been involved in the UN s peacekeeping efforts since 1989. Thus, international relations are an important factor of diplomacy. Basis of comparison: Factors can be grouped into 2 sub-groups: Organizations (Regional and international relations) and Bilateral. Organizations>Bilateral: Factor is more important as Singapore has more countries to benefit from rather than bilateral ties, where you only benefit from one country. This allows Singapore to benefit from the expertise of different countries. In addition, factor is more secure than bilateral ties as if one country renegades from its agreement, the other countries can step in to perform the necessary course of action. Regional>International : Regional relations are more important than international relations as the countries involved are a lot closer to Singapore. Thus, any threat against Singapore can be seen as a threat to the entire region and these countries will thus be more willing to help Singapore than some country half-way around the world. In addition, countries in ASEAN can help Singapore and the time taken to send that aid is much shorter than for other countries. Thus, regional relations are more important than international relations.

Diplomacy vs. Deterrence: Diplomacy: Diplomacy is an important factor in maintaining peace and security. Through diplomacy, countries provided opportunities to pursue mutual interests while promoting political, economic and cultural ties among the countries. For example, Singapore is involved in bilateral ties with countries like Japan and Germany, both of which have been very useful to Singapore. Also, Singapore is involved in sending aid in the form of humanitarian aid to Aceh as well as participation in UN peacekeeping missions. This fosters good relations between Singaporeand these other countries, maintaining peace through the fostering of good will. Thus, diplomacy is an important factor in maintaining peace and security. Deterrence: Deterrence is an important factor in maintaining peace and security. Deterrence is an important measure taken by Singapore to prevent and protect itself from threats. Singapore s main way of doing this is through total defense. With everyone involved in defending the country, Singapore s security is that much more effective and factors such as joint military exercises and innovations in technology augment Singapore s ability to defend itself. Thus, deterrence is an important factor in maintaining peace and security. BOC: Diplomacy>Deterrence: Diplomacy is more important than deterrence as overly flaunting your military strength can cause a country to be perceived as a threat. This is obviously not desirable for a country as others might band together to bring it down. Also, over-reliance on deterrence can spark off an arms race, leading to heightened tensions and suspicion. This can cause a region to become even more unstable and increases the chances of being attacked. Thus, diplomacy is more important than deterrence.

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