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# EE5321/EE7321

Semiconductor Devices and Circuits
Frequency Response Part1

ALP_Rotondaro

EE5321/EE7321

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Impedance network transfer function
• Impedance network transfer function:

Vout (ω )
H(ω ) =
Vin (ω )
where H(ω), Vout(ω) and Vin(ω) are phasors

1

jω C
Vout (ω )
1
H(ω ) =
=
=
Vin (ω ) R +  1
 1 + jω R C
 jω C

ALP_Rotondaro

EE5321/EE7321

2

H(ω
ω) in polar coordinates
• H(ω) is represented by its amplitude and phase
• Amplitude |H(ω)|

H(ω ) = H(ω ) • H * (ω )
• Phase ∠θ

 Im[H(ω )]
θ (ω ) = arctan 

 Re[H(ω )] 

• If H(ω) = N(ω) / D(ω) then:
Re[H(ω)] = Re[N(ω)·D*(ω)]
Im[H(ω)] = Im[N(ω)·D*(ω)]
ALP_Rotondaro

EE5321/EE7321

3

H(ω
ω) for the RC circuit
• Amplitude

 

1
1

•
H(ω ) • H (ω ) = 

ω
ω

1
+
j
R
C
1
j
R
C

 

*

1

H(ω ) • H (ω ) = 
2 
 1 + (ω R C ) 
*

• Amplitude in Decibels H(ω ) = 20 • log[H(ω ) ]
dB
• For a -3dB reduction on the magnitude

[

− 3 = 20 • log H(ω3dB )
ALP_Rotondaro

]
EE5321/EE7321

H(ω3dB ) = 0.7079
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Bode Plot RC circuit – Amplitude   1  = 0.7079 H(ω3dB ) =  2  1 + (ω R C )  3dB      1 H(ω ) =    ω  1 +   ω3dB      2         For ω >> ω3dB ω3dB = ωp =    1 H(ω ) ≈   ω     ω3dB 1 RC     2         ω3dB H(ω ) ≈ ω Amp drops by 2 when f doubles Amp drops by 10 every decade ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 5 .

Bode Plot RC circuit .Phase  Im[H(ω )] θ (ω ) = arctan    Re[H(ω )]  • H(ω) phase ω ω 1−j ω3dB ω3dB 1 1 = • = H(ω ) = 2 ω ω ω  ω  1+j 1+j 1−j  ω3dB ω3dB ω3dB 1 +   ω  3dB  1−j Re{ H(ω ) } = ALP_Rotondaro 1  ω   1 +   ω  3dB  2  ω   −   ω Im { H(ω ) } =  3dB  2  ω   1 +   ω  3dB  EE5321/EE7321 6 .

Bode Plot RC circuit .Phase • And the Phase is given by:  ω   ω   Im[H(ω )] θ (ω ) = arctan   = arctan −  = -arctan    Re[H(ω )]   ω3dB   ω3dB  ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 7 .

RC circuit – sine wave • The output wave has amplitude and phase altered by the circuit Out In H(ω ) = ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 1 1 + jω R C 8 .

Bode Plots – 1 pole • RC circuit ω3dB 1 = ωp = RC  ω  θ (ω ) = -arctan    ω3dB  ω3dB H(ω ) ≈ ω ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 9 .

SPICE SIM – RC circuit • Run AC Sweep with 1V amplitude and freq: 10Hz to 100MHz • Output DB[V2(C1)/V1(V1)] and P[V2(C1)] ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 10 .

6kHz ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 11 .SPICE SIM – RC circuit • ωp = 1/RC = 10k → fp = 1.

RC circuits in series – 2 poles • The combination of two RC circuits in series is going to result in 2 poles H(ω ) = ALP_Rotondaro 1 ω 1+j ωp1 • 1 ω 1+j ωp2 EE5321/EE7321 where: ωp1 = 1/R1C1 and ωp2 = 1/R2C2 12 .

RC circuits in series – 2 poles • Overall transfer function H(ω ) = [H ωp1 ( H(ω ) = Hωp1 (ω ) • Hωp2 (ω ) )] [ • exp jθωp1 • ( [ ( Hωp2 • exp jθωp2 H(ω ) = Hωp1 • Hωp2 • exp j θωp1 + θωp2 )] ]) H(ω ) = H(ω ) • exp( j θ (ω )) ∴ H(ω ) = Hωp1 • Hωp2 and θ (ω ) = θωp1 + θωp2 ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 13 .

Amplitude Bode Plot – 2 poles • Second pole “accelerates” the amplitude reduction { ( ) ( )} 20 • log{ H(ω ) } = 20 • log{ H(ω ) }+ 20 • log{ H(ω ) } 20 • log{ H(ω ) } = 20 • log H ω p 1 • H ω p 2 p1 p2 20dB/Dec 40dB/Dec ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 14 .

Phase Bode Plot – 2 poles • Second pole adds to the phase shift θ (ω ) = θωp1 + θωp2 ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 15 .

2 poles circuit – 180° phase shift • A phase shift of 180° can be a problem • If in a feedback loop. a 180° phase shift will turn a negative feedback into a positive feedback • This results in an unstable system if the loop gain is > 1 ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 16 .

Bode Plots – 3 Superimposed Poles • The phase shift is quite “fast” and “strong” • When used in a feedback loop will probably result in an unstable circuit ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 17 .

C R circuit – H(ω ω) • Circuit has: 1 Zero at ω = 0 1 Pole at ω = 1/R C Vout (ω ) H(ω ) = Vin (ω ) jω R C jω R C = = H(ω ) = ω + 1 j R C ω   1 1+j R+  1/RC  jω C R 1 H(ω ) = ω R C • 2 1 + (ω R C ) ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 18 .

C R circuit – Bode plot amplitude • At ω = 0 → |H(ω)| = 0 and since H(ω ) dB = 20 • log[H(ω ) ] H(ω ) dB ( ) H ωp dB  1  = 20 • log  ω R C • 2 ( ) ω 1 + R C   1 = 20 • log  1 • 2 ( ) + 1 1   →-∞     = .3dB   ( H ω >> ω p dB = 20 • log(1) -3dB ALP_Rotondaro ) =0 EE5321/EE7321 19 .

SPICE SIM – C R circuit • ωp = 1/RC = 10k → fp = 1.6kHz ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 20 .

Zero’s phase response • The phase response of a Zero depends on which half plane the Zero is located s H(s ) = 1 sz ALP_Rotondaro sz = .j ωz EE5321/EE7321 s H(s ) = 1 + sz 21 .

Zero’s gain response • For Zero in either half plane the amplitude response is the same ω  H(ω ) = 1 +    ωz  2 H(ω ) dB   ω 2  = 10 • log  1 +      ωz     H(ω >> ωz ) dB ω  ≈ 20 • log   ωz  20dB/dec 0 ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 22 .

Transfer function – Other circuits • 1 Pole H(ω ) = R2 1 • R1 + R2 1 + jω (R1 || R2 )C • 1 Pole. 1 Zero H(ω ) = ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 1 + jωR1C R2 • R1 + R2 1 + jω (R1 || R2 )C 23 .

1 Zero response • The response depends on the relative location of the Pole and the Zero ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 ω 1+j ωz H(ω ) = ω 1+j ωp 24 .1 Pole.

PB (φB) • Typical Values Cox = 10-4 F/m2 CGSO = 5x10-10 F/m CGDO = 5x10-10 F/m CGBO = 4x10-10 F/m CJ = 10-4 F/m2 PB = 0. CGSO.8 V ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 25 . CGBO. CJ.circuit • Specs: tox (Cox). CGDO.MOSFET capacitances .

equations Saturation CGS = Linear 2 • Cox • L • W + CGSO • W 3 CGS = Cox • L • W + CGSO • W 2 CGD = Cox • L • W + CGDO • W 2 CGD = CGDO • W with: PS = Perimeter of Source.MOSFET capacitances . MJSW = 3 (default) CSB = CJ • AS VBS   1 +  PB   MJ + CJSW • PS VBS   1 +  PB   MJSW a similar equation is used to calculate CDB CGB = CGBO · L ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 26 . AS = Area of Source MJ = ½ (default).

MOSFET – classic layout • Area of Source = AS = 4λ·W • Area of Drain = AD = AS = 4λ·W • Perimeter of Source = PS = 8λ+W • Perimeter of Drain = PD = 8λ+W ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 27 .

MOSFET – SPICE attributes M1 1 2 3 4 NMOS L=2U W=2U + AS=4p AD=4p PS=6U PD=6U • Overlap capacitances are calculated using W • Capacitance to body have area and perimeter terms ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 28 .

Miller approximation • Capacitance between input and output appears multiplied by the gain at the input d (vin .A • vin EE5321/EE7321 29 .vout ) dt d (vin + A • vin ) ic = C • dt dv ic = C • (1 + A) • in dt ic = C • ALP_Rotondaro vout = .

Miller approximation – Common source gm • Rout vout = vin 1 + jω [Rin C (1 + gm • Rout ) + RoutC ] 1 ωp = Rin • C • (1 + gm • Rout ) Miller Capacitor ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 30 .

Common Source • CD can be ignored sometimes • Rout = RL || ro • CG = CGB + CGS Rout ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 31 .

vin v1 v1 .jω EE5321/EE7321 32 .Common source – small signal • Using impedances v1 .vout + + =0 Rin ZG ZGD vout = -gm • Rout vin vout vin ALP_Rotondaro Rout CGD gm • 1 + jω { [CGD (1 + gm • Rout ) + CG ] • Rin + RL CGD } − ω 2RoutRin CG CGD 1- C CGD 1 .jω GD gm gm = =        1 + j ω  •  1 + j ω  1 + jω  1 + 1  − ω 2 • 1 • 1  ωp1 ωp2   ωp1   ωp2  ωp1 ωp2    1 .

Common source – Poles and Zeros • From the transfer function: ωp1 = - 1 Rin • [CGD (1 + gm • Rout ) + CG ] + RL CGD ωp2 = - 1 1 − 1 RoutCGD Rout || Rin || gm CG ωz = ( ) gm CGD  ω  1 + j  ωz   H(ω ) =     1 + j ω  + 1 + j ω   ωp1   ωp2   ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 33 .

 sz   H(s ) =     1 .Common source – Poles and Zeros • Converting to s space: sz = -jωz sp1 = -jωp1  ω  1 + j  ωz   H(ω ) =     1 + j ω  + 1 + j ω      ω ω p1 p2     ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 sp2 = -jωp2  s   1 .s   sp1   sp2      34 .s  + 1 .

Diode connected and Pole Splitting ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 35 .

RoutCD >> RinCMiller 1 ωp1 = Rin Cπ ALP_Rotondaro ωp2 = 1 RoutCD EE5321/EE7321 Rout = RL || ro 36 .Common source – Capacitance Cases • Relative magnitude of the capacitors result in different scenarios • Case1: Miller Cap small RinCπ.

Av Av = .gm • • Output pole ALP_Rotondaro Rout jωCD Rout 1 + jωCD Rout = 1 + jωRoutCD 1 ωp = RoutCD EE5321/EE7321 37 .gm • Zout = .Common source – Small Miller capacitance • Output Impedance. Zout Zout 1 1 = RL || ro || = Rout || jωCD jωCD • Stage gain.

Common source – Small Miller capacitance • Input transfer function 1 jωCπ vin' 1 = = 1 vin R + 1 + jωRin Cπ in jωCπ • Input pole 1 ωp = Rin Cπ ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 38 .

RinCπ 1 ωp1 = Rin (1 + gmRout )Cµ CMiller ALP_Rotondaro ωp2 gm = = 1 (Cπ + CD ) (Cπ + CD ) gm EE5321/EE7321 1 39 . RinCπ 1 ωp1 = RoutCD ωp2 = 1 Rin (Cπ + Cµ ) • Case 3: Large Cµ RinCMiller >> RoutCD.Common source – Other cases • Case 2: Large CD RoutCD >> RinCMiller.

• The pole splitting is used to compensate the circuit.Poles and Zeros • Usually the multiplying factor on the Miller capacitor results in poles far apart from each other than in other cases. ωp1 ≈ ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 1 Rin CMILLER 40 .

vout ) + vout   vOUT ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 41 .Common drain (source follower) • Small circuit analysis  1  vg =   1 + jωRin Cπ   • (vin .

Common drain – Small signal analysis vout vg .vout = + gm • Vg .(1 + χ ) • gm • vout 1 Rs jωCπ vout  1  •  + (1 + χ ) • gm + jωCπ  = (jωCπ + gm ) • vg  Rs   C   1 + jω π  gm  gmRs vout  = • Rs 1 + (1 + χ ) • gmRs 1 + jωR C • 1 + χ • gmRs in π 1 + (1 + χ ) • gmRs g ωz = m Cπ ALP_Rotondaro 1 ωp1 = Rin Cπ (1 − A) EE5321/EE7321 A= gmRs 1 + (1 + χ )gmRs 42 .

Common drain (source follower) • Effect of CSB • The Body is Grounded ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 43 .

vg Rin (v g ALP_Rotondaro ( ) = vg • jωCG + vg .vout • jωCGS ) ( .vout ) vout = + vout • jωCSB Rs EE5321/EE7321 44 .gm • vg .Common drain – small signal vin .vout • jωCGS .

Common drain – Small signal analysis vout vin  C  gmRs •  1 + jω GS  1 + gmRs  gm  =   CGSCG + CSB (CG + CGS ) R C R (C + CSB ) 2 ω 1 + jω Rin CG + in GS + s GS R R − s in    1 + gmRs 1 + gmRs  1 + gmRs    • Having the denominator to be in the format: 2      1  ω ω ω 1 1 + j  • 1 + j  = 1 + jω  − +      ωp1 ωp2  ωp1ωp2 ω ω p1 p2       • The poles are: ωp1 = ωp2 ALP_Rotondaro Rin CG + 1 Rin CGS R (C + CSB ) + s GS 1 + gmRs 1 + gmRs = 1 Rin CG + Rin CGS + RO (CGS + CSB ) 1 + gmRs = RORin [CGSCG + CSBCG + CSBCGS ] Rin CG + EE5321/EE7321 Rin CGS + RO (CGS + CSB ) 1 + gmRs RO = 1 || Rs gm 45 .

Common drain .Cases • Case 1: ωp1 = 1  CGS   Rin  CG + 1 + gmRs   • Case 2: ωp1 = ALP_Rotondaro  CGS   >> RO (CGS + CSB ) Rin  CG + 1 + gmRs   A= gmRs 1 + gmRs CMiller = CGS • (1 .A)  CGS   RO (CGS + CSB ) >> Rin  CG + 1 + gmRs   1 RO (CGS + CSB ) EE5321/EE7321 46 .

Common Gate • Assuming ro → ∞ ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 47 .

Common gate – small signal • Using KCL @ vs and @ vout vin .vs = vs • jωCs + gmvs Rs gmvs = vout • jωCD + vout vin vout RL gmRL 1 + gmRs = (1 + jωRLCD ) • 1 + jω RsCs  1 + gmRs   • No Zeros ωp1 = ALP_Rotondaro 1 RL CD ωp2 = 1 Rs Cs 1 + gmRs EE5321/EE7321 = 1  1   Rs || Cs gm   48 .