Annotated Bibliography Module 12

Lowe, R. K. & Schnotx, W. (2014). Animation principles in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer
(Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 513-546). New York: Cambridge.
Lowe and Schnotz have developed and shared their five principles for educational success when
using animations in multimedia learning. There has been significant advancement in the use of
animations rather than static imaging as a supportive tool for learning. Animation within today’s
learning environments is more educationally beneficial that static imaging.
Animations has the ability to represent learning material in a more dynamic way than static
graphics. The content becomes more alluring and easily receptive. With the use of static graphics
or images, the learner may be required to make too many inferences or assumptions; however,
animations provides less or no need for such behavior. The current use of animations is allowing
the learner to become more of an active participant and not just a receptive participant.
The animation principles identified by Lowe and Schnotz are discussed thoroughly. They believe
that because of all the nuances involved with the receptive learning involved, there cannot by
only one principle for use of animation. They define each of their five principles and their
benefits to the learner. They include the success of using animation when the learner expectations
are clear, emphasis is on spatial information, clear connection between perceptual and cognitive
requirements and they are strongly supported and learner engagement tasks are aligned with
goals and learner proficiency.
Furthermore, they delved into what we already know about animations and multimedia learning,
the implications for cognitive learning and instructional design. There are clearly some
misconceptions regarding the success of animations due to the lack of deeper and authentic
research and investigations, especially in regards to the relationship between perceptual and
cognitive learning.

Plass, J. L. & Schwartz, R. N. (2014). Multimedia learning with simulations and microworlds. In
R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 729-761). New York:
Simulations and microworlds are clearly defined by Plass and Schwartz as “digital environments
that enable users to interact with models of situations and phenomena (p.729). These learning
resources allow learners to actively engage in a learning process. Detailed definitions and
examples are provided for each.

The authors spend a great deal of time sharing the learning effectiveness for simulations and
microworlds. The complexities and efficacies of simulations are discussed as well as gamelike
scenarios, virtual worlds and success with conceptual understanding.
Some implications regarding the use of these resources when considering cognitive theory are
the successful outcomes from using simulations as opposed to traditional learning, however, the
use of microworlds has yet to be represented as well due to the need for further research and
investigation. It is important to remember that when planning for the use of these environments,
considering the purpose or objective for the learning task is important. Inquiry-based learning
opportunities represent an ideal situation for simulation and microworlds. Attending to more
procedural learning tasks are not ideal. When utilizing these resources it is imperative that the
expectations for their use and end result of learning is explicitly stated and using these
environments as a supplemental tool. Integrating these digital tools has shown to be more
effective than as a stand alone method.

Tobias, S., Fletcher, J. D., Bediou, B., Wind, A. P., & Chen, F. (2014). Multimedia learning with
computer games. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp.
762-784). New York: Cambridge.
Utilizing computer games has been a successful addition to the learning environment and
cognitive processes. The authors support this with research that identifies the transference from
gaming to related curricular tasks. The success of games as a learning tool is partially due to the
popularity of gaming in general. They are motivating and frequently used. This chapter covers
the research behind their success and opportunities for cognitive development.
One important finding from past research is the importance of having significant overlap
between the external task and the cognitive process. The more connection the greater the chance
of transfer. Although learning occurs through gaming it may not be exactly what the learning is
expected to learn. Use of gaming coincides with Mayer’s theory and multimedia principle.
More currently, the research falls within several categories. These are discussed in depth along
with the supporting research. Significantly the connection with Mayer’s research supports the use
of gaming as a multimedia learning tool. The correlational research identified cognitive
improvements with attention, capacity of working memory, spatial images, speed and accuracy
when making decisions and switching from one stimuli to another and cognitive load. There is
clear evidence both empirical, correlational and experiential that the use of gaming shows great
success when learning conceptual knowledge, instructional strategies and cognitive

Höffler, T., & Leutner, D. (2007). Instructional animation versus static pictures: A meta-analysis.
Learning and Instruction, 17, 722 -738.
The authors share their detailed analysis of the effective use of static versus animated graphics as
learning tools. They discussed the theoretical research used to explain recent research. The
theories are based on these assumptions; active processing, dual coding and limited capacity.
Additionally they report on the effects on learning outcomes, cognitive load theory and dynamic
versus static representations. A meta-analysis reviewed various studies with a focus on learning
outcomes related to animated or static graphics. Several variables were chosen as a focus. Those
related to animation features, additional features, learning task characteristics and time engaged
in the task. The calculations and analysis was discussed.
Overall the results showed advantages with non-animated over static which contradicts more
recent research, representational animations have a greater impact and represents the content,
beneficial with procedural-motor knowledge and instructional animation is beneficially superior
than static graphics. However, there wasn’t significant results regarding computer-based vs.
video-based animations. Animations are more beneficial than static images and are best served
with thoughtful instructional design based in instructional and learning research theory.