Name: Meredith McDaniel

Class: ELED 3221 003
Date: Tuesday March 22, 2016
edTPA Indirect Instruction Lesson Plan Template
Saltwater vs. Freshwater
Elementary Science
_____________________________________________________________________________
Central Focus/Big Idea: Freshwater vs. Saltwater Features.
Subject of this lesson: Students will use observations and comparisons to understand the
different features and habitats of Freshwater vs. Saltwater.
Grade Level: 3rd
NC Essential Standard(s): 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earth’s surface using models or
three-dimensional diagrams.
Next Generation Science Standard(s):
3-LS4-3. Construct an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can
survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
21st Century Skills:
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: Students will use their knowledge and observations to
identify Saltwater vs. Freshwater ecosystems.
Communication: Students will view videos that describe the saltwater and freshwater features
and then they will share their thoughts on the information.
Academic Language Demand
 Language Function:
Analyze
Argue
Categorize
Compare/contrast Describe
Explain
Interpret
Predict
Question
Retell
Summarize
Compare/contrast: This language function is important to this lesson because the students will be
using their observations to compare/contrast Freshwater vs. Saltwater features and habitats. The
students will use their comparisons to identify the correct Ecosystem using illustrations and facts.
- Scientific Vocabulary: compare, contrast
Instructional Objective: Students will be able to identify the different features of saltwater and
freshwater. They will be able to identify and successfully place words from a word box in their
correct location on a labeled Venn diagram. The labels on the Venn diagram will be: Saltwater,

Freshwater, and Both. They will match the correct animals and features to the correct water
types. For example: A word in the word box will be frog and frog should be placed in the
freshwater location. Frog will not be correct if placed in the column labeled both because this
animal is not found in the sea. Students should be able to correctly place 13 out of 16 words in
the correct body of water on the Venn diagram to meet the objective.
Prior Knowledge (student): The students should already know and understand the differences
between an Ocean, Sea, river, lake, pond, stream, and glacier. They should know that these
bodies of water can be salty, fresh, brackish, and frozen. Students know that these bodies of
water are on the earth’s surface and they are named based on their characteristics and location
and different organisms live within each.
Content Knowledge (teacher): The teacher should have already prepared the vocabulary that is
used during the lesson and have an understanding of each word to be able to give a description
for the students. The teacher should know and be able to give a detailed description comparing
saltwater and freshwater and the features and organisms that appear in each.
Accommodations for special needs: I will make sure these students are placed where they can
see me and any material I am presenting to the class. I will keep track of how well they are
understanding the material and applying their knowledge throughout the lesson.
For ELL students I will make sure that any given texts and instructions are written in their native
language and able to be understood.
Materials and Technology requirements:
- Smartboard
- Crayons (a box for each student), Pencil, Paper (1 sheet for each student)
- Worksheet with a Venn diagram labeled Saltwater, Freshwater, and the inner circle as
both. There should also be a given word bank with each word that will be used already
listed.
- Whiteboard for each student with marker
- IPad for each student
http://study.com/academy/lesson/freshwater-biomes-climate-locations-plantsanimals.html
- Vocabulary list used during teacher explanation
Total Estimated Time: 1 hour
Source of lesson: Standards
Safety considerations: I will remind the students to be careful when using crayons and writing
utensils.

Content and Strategies (Procedure)

In your procedure, be sure to include all of the following 5 E’s. Your procedure should be
detailed enough for a colleague to follow. If you will be relying on technology (e.g., a YouTube
video), describe your back up plan thoroughly. Imagine your most novice colleague needing to
teach from your plan. Don’t just answer the questions. Additionally, I expect you to include
possible questions you could ask for each section. This needs to include higher-order questions.
Engage: I will begin the lesson with having a couple of students come up to the board to
complete a Venn diagram activity I already have prepared. I will have a Venn diagram drawn on
the board with the labels: Freshwater, Saltwater, and both. I will give a student a word and they
will come up to the board and place it in the location they think that it belongs. I will have the
following 8 words: frog, brackish, river otter, lake, fish, shark, ocean, and crab. I will call on one
student at a time to come up to the board and place the word I give them in the location they
choose. I will do this with all 8 words using 8 different students. I will ask questions to see why
the students believe they are located in the body of water they choose. Next, the students will do
research to see if there locations are correct. We will come back to the Venn diagram after the
teacher explanation to see if the students were correct.
Why do you believe that frogs belong in (saltwater/freshwater)?
Could we find fish in both bodies of water, saltwater, or freshwater?
Do you believe the ocean is freshwater or saltwater? Why?
Explore: The students will each have an iPad with the water ecosystem video already pulled up
and a whiteboard. The students will use this time to gather facts on the freshwater and saltwater
ecosystems. The students can watch videos about each water ecosystem or read information on
the water ecosystems. The students will use this information to write at least 5 facts on their
whiteboards about what they have learned on freshwater and saltwater ecosystems. We will use
their facts when we give a more detail explanation on each water ecosystem and the features and
organisms of each.
http://study.com/academy/lesson/freshwater-biomes-climate-locations-plants-animals.html
What organisms are most common in Freshwater?
What body of water has a lot of salt?
Could we find an organism that lives in both bodies of water?
Explanation: “We know that there are bodies of water on the surface of the earth and they are
often named based on their characteristics and location. Some bodies of water are salty, some are
fresh, some are brackish, and some are frozen in ice sheets and glaciers. Different types of
organisms have developed to live in these different bodies and types of water. Freshwater fish
have large, well developed kidneys that are able to process vast quantities of water. Saltwater
lose large quantities of internal body fluids through their gills because of osmosis (movement of
water through membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration until the
concentration on both sides is equal). Students need to have their vocabulary words that I
prepared for this lesson and I will review the definitions for Saltwater, Freshwater, Water

Feature, Brackish, Ocean, Sea, River, Lake, Pond, Stream, and Glacier. Students will be called
on to read each word and definition.”
Vocabulary:
Saltwater- Saltwater is water from a sea or ocean. This water has a high amount of salt in the
bodies of water.
Freshwater- Freshwater is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps,
glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in
aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low
concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids.
Water feature- one or more items from a range of fountains, pools, ponds, cascades, waterfalls,
and streams.
Brackish- slightly salty, as is the mixture of river water and seawater in estuaries.
Ocean- a very large expanse of sea, in particular, each of the main areas into which the sea is
divided geographically.
Sea- the expanse of salt water that covers most of the earth's surface and surrounds its
landmasses.
River- A River is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean,
sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end
of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names
such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill.
Lake- A Lake is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin that is surrounded
by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Pond- A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or artificial, that is usually smaller than
a lake.
Stream- body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks.
Glacier- A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own
weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation)
over many years.
Habitat: “Freshwater fish are adapted to live in a diverse range of habitats. Some species can
survive in mild temperatures (24 degrees Celsius), while others thrive in temperatures between 5
to 15 degrees Celsius. Freshwater fish are found in shallow wetlands, lakes and rivers, where the
salinity of water is less than 0.05 percent. Saltwater fish are found in various habitats, ranging
from the cold Antarctic and Arctic oceans to warmer tropical seas. Habitats that best suit
saltwater fish include coral reefs, salt ponds, mangroves, seagrass beds and the deep sea, and a
range of fish have developed to thrive in each of these conditions. Freshwater fish include
catfish, charr, cisco, mooneye, gar, shiner, trout (apache, blueback, brook, brown and cutthroat),
sunfish, pike, salmon (pink, coho, chum, Chinook and Atlantic) and whitefish. Saltwater fish
includes albacore, certain types of bass, bluefish, common dolphin, butterfish, eels, flounder,
cod, marlin, mackerel, herring, shark, snapper, tuna and yellowtail.”
“Remember that freshwater has no salt and saltwater has a high salt level. Brackish, rocks,
plants, and fish can be found in both saltwater and freshwater because they can live in each
environments.”
What animal can be found in saltwater?
What is one organism that can be found in both saltwater and freshwater?

What is the name of the water that has no salt?
Elaborate: Students will create their own Freshwater or Saltwater animal and environment.
Students will be able to choose either a saltwater or freshwater environment and then they will
choose the animal they would like to live in that environment. Students will be given a piece of
copy paper and will use their crayons to draw an illustration of their animal and the environment
they live in. Students will also be required to write at least 4 sentences describing their animal
and the environment that they live in. Ex: What there animal is doing in that environment. The
students can write anything they would like about their chosen animal and environment as long
as it is saltwater or freshwater related.
What did you draw for freshwater?
What does your saltwater environment look like?
Did you draw rocks or plants in your environment?
Evaluate: Freshwater and Saltwater Practice
Formative Evaluation:
This will be done through questions I ask during the lesson and observations I make while
walking around the classroom during the activities.
Summative Evaluation:
The students will be given a worksheet with a Venn diagram labeled Saltwater and Freshwater
and a word bank that has the words they will fill in the diagram with. I will collect this
assignment for a grade. The students will place words from a word box in their correct location
on a labeled Venn diagram. The labels on the Venn diagram will be: Saltwater, Freshwater, and
Both. They will match the correct animals and features to the correct water types. For example: A
word in the word box will be frog and frog should be placed in the freshwater location. Frog will
not be correct if placed in the column labeled both because this animal is not found in the sea.
Students will meet the objective if they correctly place 13 out of 16 words in the correct body of
water on the Venn diagram.
To be completed after the lesson is taught as appropriate
Assessment Results of all objectives/skills:
16 students out of 18 met the objective. These students scored 80% or higher and have achieved
an understanding of Freshwater and Saltwater ecosystems. These students understand the
features of each environment and how to identify each.
2 students out of 18 did not meet the objective. These students scored lower than 70% and did
not achieve an understanding of Freshwater and Saltwater ecosystems. These students did not
place at least 13 out of 16 words in their correct location. They had a hard time understanding
that plants, rocks, brackish, and fish can be found in both environments. They also mixed up the
animals that belong in freshwater and saltwater. These students need further instruction on
Freshwater and Saltwater ecosystems.

Reflection on lesson:
Overall my lesson went really well and the students gained an understanding of Freshwater and
Saltwater ecosystems. 16 out of 18 students met the objective which shows me they did
understand my instruction. The students did great with being respectful and completing their
assignments that I gave them. I had no problem with keeping their attention during the lesson.
For the future I will make sure my definitions are kid friendly so they can have a better
understanding of the vocabulary. I will make sure I give them more time to discuss their
environment with their peers during the activity. I will also provide visuals so the students can
see what I am talking about during the lesson. Overall this lesson was a success and I had a
wonderful experience teaching Science.
CT signature/confirmation: _________________________________ Date: ________________
Materials used during Science Lesson:
Science Lesson: 3.E.2.1 Ecosystem: Freshwater vs. Saltwater
Features: (Oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, and glaciers).
Students know that there are bodies of water on the surface of the earth and that
they are often named based on their characteristics and location. Some bodies of
water are salty, some are ‘fresh’, some are ‘brackish’, and some are frozen in ice
sheets and glaciers. Different types of organisms have developed to live in these
different bodies and types of water.
Freshwater fish have large, well-developed kidneys that are able to process vast
quantities of water. Saltwater fish lose large quantities of internal body fluids
through their gills because of osmosis.

Habitat

Freshwater fish are adapted to live in a diverse range of habitats. Some species
can survive in mild temperatures (24 degrees Celsuis), while others thrive in
temperatures between 5 to 15 degrees Celsius. Freshwater fish are found in shallow
wetlands, lakes and rivers, where the salinity of water is less than 0.05 percent.

Saltwater fish are found in various habitats, ranging from the cold Antarctic and
Arctic oceans to warmer tropical seas. Habitats that best suit saltwater fish include
coral reefs, salt ponds, mangroves, seagrass beds and the deep sea, and a range of
fish have developed to thrive in each of these conditions.

Freshwater fish include catfish, charr, cisco, mooneye, gar, shiner, trout (apache,
blueback, brook, brown and cutthroat), sunfish, pike, salmon (pink, coho, chum,
Chinook and altantic) and whitefish.

Saltwater fish includes albacore, certain types of bass, bluefish, common dolphin,
butterfish, eels, flounder, cod, marlin, mackerel, herring, shark, snapper, tuna and
yellowtail.

Vocabulary:
Saltwater- Saltwater is water from a sea or ocean. This water has a high amount of
salt in the bodies of water.
Freshwater- Freshwater is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice
sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and
underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is
generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other
total dissolved solids.
Water feature- one or more items from a range of fountains, pools, ponds,
cascades, waterfalls, and streams.
Brackish- slightly salty, as is the mixture of river water and seawater in estuaries.
Ocean- a very large expanse of sea, in particular, each of the main areas into which
the sea is divided geographically.
Sea- the expanse of salt water that covers most of the earth's surface and
surrounds its landmasses.
River- A River is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards
an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and
becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small
rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill.
Lake- A Lake is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin, that is
surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain
the lake.
Pond- A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or artificial, that is usually
smaller than a lake.
Stream- body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks.
Glacier- A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under
its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation
(melting and sublimation) over many years.