How Does the Temperature of Water

Affect How fast a Tablet Dissolves?

Isaiah Himmelspach #43
Blandford School
February 14, 2015

Acknowledgments
I appreciate the help from my mom for helping me with my experiment. While doing my
experiment Mom would occasionally shoot me a smile and I would smile back. I’d also like to
thank my mom for buying the supplies for my experiment. I am very appreciative for all the
work and commitment from Mr. Riz toward his first Science Fair. I am also very thankful for all
the help Mr. Riz gave us. I thank Mrs. Bonnie for her help with our large and small visuals.

Review of Literature
Heat: Heat is an energy generated by the movement of atoms in an object. Heat is also
called thermal energy. The faster movement of the atoms in an object makes the object hotter.
Cold actually doesn’t exist it’s just the absence of heat, meaning the movement of the atoms in
that object is at a slow rate. It’s possible to be so cold that physics start breaking down and
changing, and new states of matter are born.
If you put an in ice cube in a cup of hot water the water will cool down, this happens
because the heat of the water travels into the cold ice cube and melts. Water starts to boil at
100oC, and freezes at 0oC. The amount of thermal energy in an object is measured by its
temperature. Therefore the rate of movement of the atoms in an object is its temperature.
Hydrogen: A hydrogen atom consists of 1 electron and 1 proton, hydrogen has the
simplest atom because it is the simplest, most abundant chemical element. Hydrogen and
oxygen, when combined form H2O (water). Water is made up of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen
atom. Since hydrogen is lighter than air the Zeppelins were filled with hydrogen so the y floated
higher to be unseen.
Hydrogen is a gas; its atomic number is 1 because its atom is the smallest. A hydrogen
ion is H3O also known as heavy water containing more hydrogen than normal. Hydrogen is a
colorless, odorless and tasteless gas, with a mass of 0.08988 grams. By comparison oxygen has a
mass of 1.29 grams 14 times as much as hydrogen. Nearly 9 out of 10 atoms in space are
hydrogen atoms. In the universe hydrogen occurs in two forms in stars and in empty space.
Atoms: Atoms are made up of three basic parts. The atomic nucleus is made up of
protons and neutrons, electrons circle the nucleus. The only exception to this statement is a
hydrogen atom consisting of one electron and 1 proton but no neutrons. The word atom comes
from Greek word “atomos” meaning invisible. The atomic theory was first introduced by English
physicist John Dalton in 1803.
When two or more atoms of different kinds combine they form a molecule. When that
molecule breaks apart into its two or more component atoms, it releases energy, usually in form
of heat. Atoms can be an ion if they have positive or negative charge. An atom is about 1/25,400,000
of an inch.

Molecules: Molecules are a thing such as atoms and ions. There are 92 different types of
atoms, the smallest being a hydrogen atom. These atoms can join together in millions of different
ways making molecules. A molecule is formed by two or more different types of atoms joining
together, forming compound elements like, H2O, CO2 and more. But the identity of the element
stays the same because the number of protons is the same. The physical and chemical properties
of the compound are different from the properties of the elements from which they formed
because the arrangement of the outermost electrons is different.
Ions: An ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge, meaning the number of
electrons is different than the number of protons. Protons have positive charge and electrons have
negative charge. There are two different types of ions, cations and anions. A cation is an ion that
has more protons than electrons and an anion has the opposite where there are more electrons
than protons. Neutrons are neutral so the neutrons have no effect on an atom being an ion.
Neutrons and protons are stored in the central part of the atom called the nucleus.
Matter: Matter has four different states, solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Matter is anything
that takes up space and has mass. It is distinguished from energy, which causes objects to move
or change, but has no mass or volume of its own. Plasma is fire and lightning. Fire is commonly
mistaken as a gas but it isn’t because you can see it and it generated heat.
Plasma can be created by heating a gas or subjecting it to a strong electromagnetic field
applied with a laser or microwave generator. This decreases or increases the number of electrons,
creating positive of negative charge particles called ions, and is accompanied by the dissociation
of molecular bonds, if present.
Oxygen: Oxygen consists of 8 protons, 8 electrons and 8 neutrons. Oxygen is the air we
breathe every day and that plants get rid of. Oxygen is involved in two major compound
elements CO2 and H2O. H2O is water consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
CO2 is carbon dioxide consisting of 1 carbon atom and 2 oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide is what
humans breathe out and what plants breathe in. At night no oxygen is made because the sun is
down and no plants are producing oxygen, but there is enough to last us the night. Oxygen was
discovered in 1774 by a Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele and English chemist Joseph
Priestly.
Energy: Energy is a state of function best defined as the capacity to do work or to
produce heat. There are many types of energy such as kinetic, electric, magnetic, radiant, nuclear,

gravitational, thermal and heat energies. All types of energy can convert into other kinds. Energy
transformation is also called energy conversion. A unit of energy is called a joule, named after
James Joule. Who demonstrated that work can be generated into heat. Kinetic energy is the
energy of an object in motion. Chemical energy is energy contained in molecules. Electric energy
is electricity. Magnetic energy is energy from magnetic fields. Nuclear energy is the energy that
binds nucleons to form the atomic nucleus. Gravitational energy is when objects in the
atmosphere are pulled down to earth.
H2O: H2O is water, water is found in our lakes, oceans and seas and water is also drunk
daily by almost all the organisms on the planet. The human body is about 60% water. Water
freezes at 0oC and boils at 100oC, water is made up of 1 oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms. The
earth is about 70% covered in water, most of the planets water is salt water in the oceans and
seas, but streams, lakes, ponds and lakes are filled with fresh water.
Temperature: Temperature is the measurement of average kinetic energy of the particle
of which a material is made. Temperature is commonly measured in four temperature states
Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin and Rankine. The higher average of kinetic energy level of particles
in a material, the warmer the material the higher the temperature will be, the lower the kinetic
energy of those particles the lower the temperature will be. Temperature can have a big impact
on human behavior; if a human is warm you will start breaking down and getting tired. If you
raise the temperature of an ice cube the ice cube will melt into water again.

Works Cited

World Wide Web Site
World of Chemistry. Gale, 2000. Science in Context, web. 1 Feb. 2015.

Television program
“Making Things Cooler” Nova. Public Broadcasting. Web. 1 Feb. 2015.

Book by an author
Aloian, Molly. Atoms and Molecules, New York: Crabtree Publishing, 1. Feb, 2015. 6, 7

Encyclopedia article
“Hydrogen” World Book Encyclopedia. 2015 ed.