James Majok

Class Anthropology 1020-016
I took Anthropology 1020 -016 in 2016.

I joyed it and have learned a lot from

Professor Deborah D. Graham. She explained every single subject as well as she
could to the best of her ability starting with gens and [D.N.A] to the last topic. In
that class, we were asked to read articles and reflect on them. One article was
written by Daniella Croccetti and it was about Genes and Hormones. Another article
was written by Gary D. James and it was about climate- related morphological
variation and physiological adaptations in Homo sapiens.
Article one reflection
Before reading this article, I never heard of women or people of certain races being
considered inferior to European men because of their brain size and other biological
components. It has been mentioned in the article that anatomists claimed at the
end of nineteenth century that women and certain races were inferior to European
men. I would have liked to know more about why the anatomists thought that,
however, from the materials that I read, there was no evidence to support their
theory. Without giving any reason to that strong claim, to me, it is an opinion, which
is nothing more than guessing as far as I’m concerned. Also, I was surprised when I
was reading the article that XX and XY chromosomes might not be the way I
thought they were when I was taught at school. I was taught XX chromosomes were
responsible for the formation of a female, while, XY chromosomes were responsible
for the formation of a male. According to the article, theory of XX and XY being the
determining factors in male and female is the first myth. After reading this article
materials, I ‘m satisfied if not convince about the fact that scientists do not always

have all the answers in science regardless how smart they. Throughout reading of
the article, was no one clear answer about the contradictions of XX and XY
chromosomes. I came across one sentence that was closer to the real answer
concerning XX and XY chromosomes. In the sentence, it’s stated that sex
chromosomes, XX and XY, are called just that because they are considered to be the
primary indicators of one‘s genetic, and therefore biological, sex [5, 6].
Article two reflection
Based on Gary D. James article, it is accepted that Homo sapiens evolved from
equatorial, sea- level populations in Africa who then spread across the planet over
the past 100,000 -200,000 years ago. To me, this findings run contrary to the Bible.
In the Bible, God brought Adam and Eve to give birth to all of us human beings and
put us in charge of any other living-things in the world. I’m an expert when it comes
to the Bible, however, I do not remember any teaching in the church where I ever
heard of human beings being evolved from equatorial, sea-level in Africa. Another
doubt I have about an article is that it did not explained the process in which Homo
sapiens evolved when they were discovered thousands of years ago. There are still
questions that are not answered; such as how Homo sapiens were able to travel
from Africa to Asia from to Europe and from North America to South America? Did
they do it by airplane or on feet?