Society for Music Theory

Beat-Class Modulation in Steve Reich's Music
Author(s): John Roeder
Source: Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Autumn, 2003), pp. 275-304
Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Society for Music Theory
Stable URL:
Accessed: 30/07/2010 02:27
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless
you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you
may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at
Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed
page of such transmission.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact

University of California Press and Society for Music Theory are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve
and extend access to Music Theory Spectrum.

Modulationin SteveReichsMusic

A beat-classmodel of rhythm,employedby Cohn and othersto analyzetexturalform in Steve
Reich'searlyphase-shiftingcompositions,is here enlargedto embracethe conceptsof beat-class
"tonic"and "mode,"defined formallyby analogyto pitch-classtonality.Using these concepts,
and TheFourSectionsanalysesof Reich'smorerecentmusic-Six Pianos,New YorkCounterpoint,
demonstratehow form-creatingprocessof pitch and rhythmresultfrom the specificmannerin
which repeatedpatternsarebuiltup,varied,andcombinedpolyphonically.





pattern.Noting the "formalresemblancesbetween the structures of metric cycles and the twelve-pitch-class universe,"
Cohn pursued the consequences of the idea that "muchof
the technology developed for atonal pitch-class analysis is
transferableto the rhythmicdomain."Adopting terminology
suggestedby Dan Warburton,4he representedeach repeated
patternas a beat-classset-a rhythmicanalogof a pitch-class
set-that denotes which beats are attacked in the pattern.
This model facilitatedanalysisof the varyingattackdensities
that result from the systematic phasing of beat-class sets;
specifically,Cohn analyzed how density in these pieces develops toward and away from saturation,or the "beat-class
aggregate,"in which every beat is attacked.Formally,generating the beat-class aggregateby phasing a particularbeatclass set against itself is analogous to generating the pitchclass aggregate by taking the union of transpositions of a
particularpitch-class set. Cohn's paper demonstrated how
the large-scale texturaldesign of these pieces could be understood,by consideringprocessesanalogousto the transpositional combination of pitch-class sets, to manifest properties of the small-scalebeat-classsets themselves.


Steve Reich's"minimal"music of the 1960s and
early 1970s proved surprisinglysusceptible to a
model of rhythm developed for very different music. It
was in the context of twelve-tone composition that Milton
Babbitt' first proposed conceiving rhythm analogously to
pitch by using the integer residues modulo 12 to represent
the metric location of event attacks (ratherthan the events'
durations,as did the Darmstadt composers).Later scholars
applied the concept of set to the rhythms of non-serial
music;Pressingand Anku, for instance,treatedworld musics
that were inspirations for Reich's compositions.2 But the
most detailed analyticalapplicationof this rhythmic model
was Richard Cohn's study of content and large-scale form
in Reich's Phase Patternsand Violin Phase.3 Each of these
"phase-shifting"pieces, like a canon, combines a repeated
patternwith a delayed statement of the same pattern in another voice. As the piece progresses,the temporal interval
of imitation between original and imitated voices varies
systematically,from one beat up to the whole length of the


Babbitt 1962.
Pressing 1983, Anku 1988.
Cohn 1992.



Warburton 1988.

11.9.and individualparts fade in and out. developments of timbre and register.6. more generally. :111: .while still maintaining the repeatedpatternsof his earliermusic.Texture is also freer.7His abandonment of phasingfor other formativeprocesses.----] "^-A-'7 L-: '-t _) : 11 (2-4x) n 1 mf pc content:still { 1.. (6-lOx) (6-lOx) ##1l - tl(Q2) (6-lOx) 111. appear simultaneously with phased patterns. Reich himself describesform in terms of changes of mode and key. and some pieces superimpose patterns of differing content and periodicities. often partitioned into overlappingand shifting components. and metric fluctuation.1 277 BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC 63 /A o__\ ||:*/.7. 16 .. Pulsing large chords.What function do these patterns play in the more variegatedtextural and harmonicdesigns?What motivates the particularchoices of pitch-transposition and beat-class transposition.4. beat class sets that are not transpositionallyrelated. tempo [continued] modulation.2. :111: R E tonic.S\} (6-lOx) - (6-lOx) i11 } 111 :I 1 :I1 :I :~ I "-:LF. or. |111:. The form of these more recent compositionsis not simply a matter of beat-class-aggregateformation. or alternating with aretonal and metricprocessescoordinated? This paperproposes some ways of answeringthese questions by developing a model that shows how both tonality 7 Reich 1977.B} Iincipits on beat-class41 EXAMPLE I.~ .:111: 11 .Patterns change content during some pieces."dorian"mode 11: ::11: 111 "build-up" (6-10Ox) . chord progression. and 1991. . 1 (..Ensembles are largerand more diverse.. 11:. -111: 6 S ##n -11 111 - (24x) 111 - 111- 111 :lll:-1 Q2 (2-4x) 1 : 1:1: . 1691 1741 111: . :111 1681 1661 1671 111. raises some interesting questions about his currenttechnique.1986. :11 k 11=: :l stil (4-8x) 2 9: 11 (4-8x) 3 : 1 mf 4 l 5 l -:111:1 .

at least. Starting at R60 the same diatonic collection is maintained.but substitutesD3 and A3 for Ql's F#4 and B4. As it begins. and other accentual featuresof the patternsas they are combined polyphonically.7. . although similarin contour to Ql and Q3 and use the same collection.the lowest pitch. The priorityof these pitch classes is also enhancedby their metricalregularity:one of them is attacked every quarternote due to the particularintervalof imitation between pianos 3 and 4.6. an informal examinationof Reich'stransitionalmusic of the early 1970's motivatesthe focus on Es at the registralextremesof the ensemble. harmonic. Although all parts draw their pitches from the same diatonic scale. the registrationand rhythm of the pitch classes up until R60 establishD as a tonic or.labeled Q1. Formalism is then developed to representhow accents combine.there is a modulationto E dorian. its combination with its T7 transpose. D3.9.and the pitch relationsamong their materialsare clear. and Q3 respectively. suggest the constant presence of a D majortriad. 2. Ql. Q3 doubles the highest three pitches of Q1 an octave lower. as the pianos engage in the imitation described above.and pitch-transpositional relations. Imitation is evident in two other parts."Excerpts from two of Reich'smatureworks from the 1980s will be analyzed to show how their patterncombinationsare designed to produce large-scale modulations of pitch-class and beatclass tonics. and 3 repeatdistinct eight-beat patterns.upper-caseT. Other analysts have noted similar metric fluctuations in other music by Reich. The changes are indicated by annotationson Example 1. where tn signifies "time transposition(delay) by n beats.mediatedby the unvariedQ2. at R60.both pitches are alwaysapproachedby leap. and thus to createmusicalform. Accordingly. (The fast tempo. The role of accent in large-scaleprocess is evident from even a cursory listening to Reich's transitionalpieces. F#5. following the conventionsof beat-class theory.4.Attending to the lowest notes in the texture. First.but a new tonalitybegins to be establishedby changes that shift emphasis to different pitch classes in the collection. all instrumentsare playing. giving them stress and therebysuggesting that they function as stable chord tones.Pianos can hear pairs of D3s repeatedin a rhythm of 5+3 eighths.) Similarly the pattern played by Piano 5 can be expressed as t6(Ql).9 Specifically.278 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003) attacked. quarter= 192. Then at R64 Pianos 1 and 3 begin patterns that.Piano 4 plays the same pattern as Piano 3 (Q3) but one eighth-note beat later. and the highest. that is. Nevertheless. yields the diatonic heptachord [1. Cohn (1992) remarks that the downbeat "floats"in some of the phase-shifting pieces. indeed. As the music continues.'l Two differentmetricalinterpretationsof the passage are analyzedin Example2. which shows the combinationof all voices at R59 and labels the eight eighth-note beats with integers from 0 to 7. Some metrical ambiguity is evident especially during R55-60. as a persistentchord root. some clear pitch processes emerge from these specific time. at R55. makes the second of each pair dif- and meter depend on pitch. and between pianos 1 and 5.8the dense imitation might seem to forestall the emergenceof any one of the pitch classes as a tonic. Example 1 shows a representative excerpt from Six Pianos (1973). on any given beat most membersof the collection are 8 Since Q2 is a 5-23[02357] diatonic pentachord. as the patternof Piano 1 delayedby 6 eighths.In terms of beat-classtheory.this canon can be symbolized as tl(Q3).B). defining the percepts of beat-class "tonic"and "mode. Q2. First.2."(This paperuses lower-caset to minimize confusion with pitch-class transposition.Q1 is an exact pitch transpositionup a perfect fifth of Q2. and Gretchen Horlacher (1994) has documented several intriguing instances of metrical ambiguity and process in Reich's later works. the low-register patterns that accented D3 fade out. g Io Reich names the tonalities analyzed here in his foreword to the score of Six Pianos (1977). The transitional Musicfor Pieces of Woodprovides another clear example of how Reich's interest changed from phasing to the build-up of canons involving ambiguities of downbeats.

But the sense of beat-class 4 as an alternativedownbeat returns soon after the modulation. X ------ _ . ficult to hear as a distinct event._-- - t Pitch-classemphasis. 44 * . in the D3 stream:- t EXAMPLE 2.R59. as shown in the latter half of Example 1.-beat class: 0 1 279 downbeat? -. and the first of each pair is introduced by leap. The downbeat ambiguityresolves abruptlyat R61. then faded and transferredto other voices. let us examine a more recent composition. (Reich'sscore is written in Bb.Although these ._ 3 4 5 J2 ---J. It begins with a single clarinet presenting.4. ---. ____-_. During R9-R19 two more patterns.with beat-class (bc) 0 as the first beat in each measure. .5.and to establish a basis for a more formal and precise model of accent. The passage shown in Example 3 occurs during the first movement of New YorkCounterpoint(1985). not as they sound.and competingdownbeats in Six Pianos. 6 7 0 1 2 --_ 45 3 6 7 leaps to registral-boundarypcs '_ 3 #v A registral-boundary v y 'v vCp v pc is attackedevery I quarternote Interonsetdurations J.9.--. pulse. making the onset of the first more marked.BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC Interonsetdurations in the F#5 stream: .without build-up. bar lines may be omitted for clarity in this and subsequentexamples.beat classes are labeled conventionallyby integers. where one could hear beat-class 4 as the downbeatsince the longer member of the repeated interonset-duration series 2+6 regularlybegins then.5.) The greater regular accent. This analysis suggests that the questions of rhythm and pitch surroundingReich'srecent music may be addressedby consideringthe function of accent in the repeatedpatterns.(Since the zeros indicate notated measure beginnings. 444: v t 7v 77v P P ] -J. but for convenienceI will referto the pitches as they are notated. even though the pattern when completed (in R74) turns out to be a beatclass-transpositionof piano 2 by one beat. Their build-ups are irregularand rapid. It proceeds in two stages. downbeat? _. when pianos 3 and 4 drop out. In R8-R33 a six-voice texture develops that is imitative but not exactly pitch-canonic.) As above. not four.11). not gradual and attack-by-attacklike those in Six Pianos.accruesto the onset of the longer of these two interonset durations. The second interpretation attends to the highest pitches. which I will call Q1.)Thus the repeatedpatternplaces attackson the set of beat classes [0. . a repeatedpattern lasting 12 eighth notes. The build-up in pianos 4 and 5 startingin R67 regularlyaccentsbeat-class4 as the beginning of a group of eighth notes.7. which always occurs on beat-class 0. are built up loudly.labeled Q2 and Q3. To focus the inquiry further. and so the sense of downbeat.

(The few exceptions to this rule are necessitatedby the limited range of the clarinets. followed by lower pitches. since no event precedes order to understandtheir interactionsand contributionsto rhythmicprocess. In Example 5(a). if not in terms of aggregates? And since the imitative processes are not strictly canonic.R20-R33. are also important.1.12 Each is instanced in Example 5(a).what are appropriateways to characterizethe rhythmic form. meaning accents that arise within each individual voice in a texture (more complex types of the way.2. Lerdahl &Jackendoff 1983. their pitches vary in order and duration. Q5 builds up Q2's set. and yet also contribute significantly to largescale process.) Confronted with this evident compositional scheme. In the second stage of this excerpt. the pitch content of these later patterns is different and generally lower than that of the originals.for example.5. the same beat-class sets are built up in the same order.and texture. such as changesin registraldensity. is t5(Ql). However. we can focus the questionsraisedearlier. and in more complex musical processes of harmony. Example 4 defines "intrastream" cents. recent rhythmic theory providesa sound basis for such an investigation. it seems to me that all these questions can be answeredby attending. The combination of these transpositions.8}. Each patternrapidlyand irregularlybuilds up a beat-class set that is identical to a pattern in the first stage-Q4 builds up the same beat-class set as Q1.which resultfrom the interaction of all concurrentvoices. at a point in time. moreover. the first E&6does not take such an accent. loudness.These differencesarisefrom a specific relation among the patterns:each pattern-pitchin the second stage is a tenth below the pitch at the same beat class in the correspondingfirst-stage pattern. Kramer 1988. [0.for beat-class6 is never attacked. but it will be necessaryto define the various types of accent much more specifically. * An accent of climax appearsat the onset of an event whose pitch exceeds those of the preceding and subsequent events.and.Nevertheless their beat-class sets are transpositionally related: Q2.1l It defines accent as a perceivedemphasis. and Q6 Q3's.3. and by modeling them appropriately. that is.9. Q5. which analyzes the accentualstructureof Q1. in detail. duration.7. and Q3. is t8(Ql). So do all B%gs. So.labeled Q4. Some of these definitions formalize verbal descriptions such as those in Lerdahl &Jackendoff 1983.and in orderto distinguishaccentsthat are specific to Reich'smonophonic patterns from more general clarifying the nature and typology of accent. and Q6 on Example 3.10}.4. t3(Q2). {0.timbre.the beat-class aggregateis not attained at the end of the second stage either. while in Q2 it is short and followed by a long B65. 17. in Q1 the EL6is long and followed by a short G5. as in previousbeat-class-set theory. what design regulates or results from the specific ways that the patterns build up and vary their content and their time. to the accentualpropertiesof the patterns and of their combinations.This general conception suits Reich'smusic fairly well. .the model should incorporate the accentual distinctions that pitch and rhythm create among will be shown.280 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003) voices have the same pitch content.Rather than treating all attacks in a pattern as equally weighted. but all subsesince each is preceded and quent El6s do. three more patternsenter. acTo begin this task.5.and will be discussed below). does not create the beatclass aggregate. The definitions are expressed formally for precision.and pitch-transpositionalrelations? As was the case with Example 1. that may arise in at least three distinctways:from perceivedchangesin pitch. Although no previous research has attempted such a model specificallyfor Reich'smusic. 11 12 Berry 1976.and from the perceivedfunctionof the events at that timepoint in the structureof melodic and harmonic segments.Since the ending combination is not the aggregate.from expectationsof regularity such as meter.




13 13 The tenuto marks on the score are interpreted here simply as directing the performer to hold the note for its entire notated value. - 7 fXAML yt Y3. * An accent of nadirappearsat each onset of each event whose pitch is equal to or lower than the lowest pitch so far.V p Q6 = Q3 I Live -| -lb L<+ ? _.- __ Y mY r YY A r .3 (0 blib 9) ^ M* pV P1C -VP> V V F bc tonic 321 revertsto bc 0 ..THEORY MUSIC 284 Q5 = Q2 29h A Live I I30 FI4 1 ' 7 ~ ~ 25 (2003) 1 . such as at the onsets of Al5. or when the time to the next onset is much greaterthan the time since the last onset. Thus.~~~ . ' ' 1 Cl.-= Y^r __d_ PA_ bbW Cl. since it is the lowest pitch in the passage.^ ^ CI. 1.4 i7S r-_ . [continue] ~EXAMPLE EXAMPLE 3.A~/- f .and that is lower than the immediatelyprecedingand following events. SPECTRUM _m .- A-^ ^ 7. 5 Cf2. 5 build-upof Q6 (bc 8) 31 1 6V C1. At higher troughs in the contour. there is no such accent. 7 Y 4 I 7 mf A & -' I rv/ p1 Cl.f[cni 3. in Example 5(a) an accent of nadir appearsat each onset of F4. Any dynamic .CI. 2. [continued] * An accent of (interonset)durationappearsat the onset of an event that is much longer than the precedingevent. -^ -d^^f Cl. '*_ - l ^ Vrr / C rr r E331 A.

t2). and model pitch differences(intervals)as integers. duration. Quantify this durationas 1. and quantifythe ti and di accordinglyas integers. can be expressedas an integer multiple.3T Attack Pi exists [an event (not silence) is attackedat ti] Beginning of connected series B (local) EXAMPLE 4. Typesof intrastream accent in Reichs music. in William Benjamin's (1984) terms.T and an accent of one of the types defined above at t .. (Pn.. more than do leaps. d.dn.dl.Pi k I < 2 (semitones) and there is noj: i-k < j < i such that 0 < I Pik .ti There is an integer k < i such that 0 < Pi .._and Pi > pi+l Pi < Pi-1and Pi < Pi+land pi < pj for 1 < j .BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH'S MUSIC 285 Given a monophonic streamS presentinga series of n non-overlappingevents of the form (pitch.2T and at t. * Accents of subcollectionshift originate in the special pitch context of Reich's music: diatonic scales organized into rooted triads that are extended. .timepoint of attack): such that. . . At t.+d.the change from a given pitch to an adja- cent pitch in the diatonicscalemarksa changeof harmony. .d2. >> d or ti . =t. and there exists m > i such that for allj:i j < m. -T and at t. as in jazz. (p3.ti > t. ( ." In the patterns Reich composes from such collections. t. to constitute "images"whose "shift"create accent. which often simply extend the prevailing tertian sonority without changing the root.ti_ > 1. t+1 S = ((pl. increase the accent on the note's onset. there is an accent of symbolizedby Climax C Nadir N (Interonset)Duration D Subcollectionshift S iff Pi > Pi. of course.Pj I< 2 (semitones) Pulse ti . and durationd. by tertian "tension tones.14Example 5(b) illustratessuch a change within Ql: once the 14 emphasis added by the performer would. = 1 andt. Find a durationof which every timepoint t. The rooted subcollections I am positing to underlie Reich's music may thus be understood.t)) Quantifythe pitches Pi acordingto the integer model of pitch (Rahn 1980). for all i (1-i<n). or there is a pulse accent at t. -2T.i d. + 1 J+1 J There is an accent of one of the types defined above at t.d3t3).


51-2). When one attends to accent. Beat-class accentuation also varies over time: some beat classes in later repetitionsof Ql have different accents than the correspondingbeat classes in its first statement. 1 (since 9 and 11 are accented). promoting the perception of beat classes. for instance. and because some accents of a given type are stronger if. like climax and pulse. one hears hardly any exact repetition in this nominally music.because it does not weight the various types of has been done for Reich'sphase music. confirm the half note as a repeatedduration. it is preciselythe unusualfeaturesof his music-its repetitivenessand redundancy-that permits the listenerto focus on such accentualsubtletiesas nadir. however. but the accents needed to establisha continuousquarter-note streamare cruciallylacking at beat-classes5 and 7.When we evaluateaurallythe strengthof these accents. 4. 287 music."treated most thoroughly in Krebs 1999.beat-class0 clearlystands alone as most accented. and also for the evaluationof such descriptions.large-scale rhythmic processes.17 For instance.I do not intend their formality to suggest that all these accents are aurallysalient in all music.The formal definitions provide a basis for a precise description of rhythmic form. But in passages dominated by the build-up of patterns. since it is the highest and longest event. as suggestedin Example5(c). The analysisin Example 5 shows how the distributionof accent among the beat classes in Ql varies in both quality and quantity. according to the formal definition given in Table 1. then again on the following beat-class Ql. on the next beatclass 0. is somewhat better. and 3. Isolated pulse accents may also be produced. is similar. Under this definition an event does not take accent simply because it is notated on a strong beat. But even without such weighting the tally facilitates a description of the rhythm of Example 5(a): during that time span a distinctive series of accent types consistently repeats. which itself accents timepoints metrically. they involve greaterchange. The conception of durational "projection"is taken from Hasty 1999. the accents on beat-classes0 and 4 projecta half-note duration. although it is not usually construed as a source of metrical accent. Nadir accent.because some accents.19 Although many of these definitions are consistent with other theorists'treatmentof accent. the recurrencesof accent a half-note later.A tally of accenttypes on each beat class.The stream is symbolized in Example 5(a) as a horizontal line linking vertical strokes that denote when pulse accents occur. pulse accent appearson beatclasses 9. the accent one attributes to its attack varies considerablywith the degree of completeness of the pattern. this makes a very minor contribution. and 11. The concept of pulse "layers.a series of equal durationsin Q1 quicklyestablishes a half-note pulse. "repetitive" To express this diversity it is not sufficient to represent rhythmsimply as the collectionof all attackedbeat classes. More on the nature of pulse streams can be found in Roeder 1994. that is expected to be realized at beat-class 8. . under the given definition. as follows: First.starting from beat-class 4. but strongerthan others. without linking into continuous arguablynegligiblein the more usual styles of music that presents a given melody only once or twice.for example. at beat-classes 0. It does not account well for differencesin accentual quantity.Indeed. 11.and so createsa pulse stream.while consistentbut fewer types of accent appearat other beat classes. the most types of accent appear. This seems consistent with practice: performances of Reich's music supervised by the composer do not stress notated downbeats. although it is not part of his agenda to explain its connection to traditional notions of metrical accent. while beat-class 11 sounds weaker than beat-class 4 (and 0).Some beat classes take more types of accent than others. as demonstratedby the tally in Example 5(c). take time to establish.when a pattern is building up. Moreover.BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC * Regularlyrepeatingdurationsmarkedby accentinduce a pulse stream.18Although no event marksbeat-class 8. as we shall see. These accents can be heard in Reich's 17 I8 19 (1983.and then to considertheir participationin distinctive.

0 is projectedas beat-class tonic by intrinsically rhythmicfeaturesof the pattern. Although the meaning of "beat-class tonic" thus overlaps with that of "downbeat. orienteddefinitionof moderescompositionally in musicpsychology. It avoids confusion with notated downbeats. but because a different pitch class is presented as the tonic. Although by R9 beat-classes 4 and 11 present as many accent types. The other most accented pitch classes sound like chord factorsof an F-rooted tertianharmony--ANis a minor third over the root. and it emphasizes similaritiesin the way that Reich changes beatclass tonics and pitch-class tonics through the use of pivot collections. which is the same. Butler& onateswithrecentresearch howtonality(thatis. called the tonic.which often have no audible status in Reich's performances.however. The conceptsof tonic and mode also seem appropriatefor expressingthe consistent structuraldistinctions that Reich's rhythms make among beat classes.together with informationabout the relativestructural importance of the non-tonic pitch classes. then the "mode"of a pattern is tantamountto its meter.288 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003) This description suggests a formal analogy between the accentualorganizationof rhythm and modal organizationof pitch. .acts as a referencefor the collection. even conflicting. If these modally significant beat classes create a pulse stream."I find the term "tonic"more apt. are accented differently-for example B is more prominent at R64 than at R55-the mode of these two sections is different. too.the tonic belongs to the beat-classset that characterizesthe mode.20For instance. and at its first two attacksit takes more types of accent than does any precedingtimepoint.It is the first accented beat class. such as it is (Example5[b]). and since they. Just as pitch-class mode is identified with reference to triadic or otherwise distinctive interval structures. The distributionof differentlyweighted accents provides a basis for characterizingwhat I call the "beat-classmode"of the passage. I define the "beat-class tonic"of a time span as the beat class that.intercognizedbylocating"rare" valsthatareunderstood to spanandtherefore to markspecificscale in a majororminorkey.It can be determinedby an analysislike that of Example 5. and of changes and 20 This prescriptive. in the sense that one perceives their temporal position in terms of the interonset durations from it to them. Music may be understood as "modal"to the extent that its pitches are heard as instances of pitch classes organized in a functional hierarchy. the beat-class mode is identified by matching the most accented beat classes with distinctive series of durations.which will be discussedbelow. which locates the most accented beat classestaking into accountboth the numberof differenttypes of accent on eachbeat classand the weight of each of those accents -and labels each of them by the number of beats from the tonic to it. Analogously.just as the tonic pitch class belongs to the tonic triad. The ensembleof these intervals. in that the other pitches are named as "scaledegrees"accordingto the intervalsthey form with the tonic.but in many cases they do not.The structurallymost importantpitch class. Since the other pitch classes form differentintervalswith E than they do with D. one that extends and enrichesthe analogyCohn made between beat-class sets and "atonal"pitch-class sets. acts as a referencefor the other accentedbeat classes. facilitates the description of competing. El a minor 7th. constitutes the mode.Usually. beatclass 0 still takes the greatest accent of climax and duration. F recursregularlyas the lowest pitch.the D-major section in Example 1 is distinguishedfrom the E-dorian section not by its pitchclass content. in a given context. Let us consider this analogy of rhythm and pitch more specifically in the context of New YorkCounterpoint. such as in the passage from The FourSectionsdiscussedbelow. acting as a pedal point.tonicandmode)maybe Brown1994demonstrate intervals withina givendiatonicset. Root movement.Example 3. Forinstance. degreesmembers ambiguities that the term "downbeat"may exclude. leads towardF.The intervalsthat all the pitch classes form with the tonic are consistentwith the distinctive structuresof the minor and dorianmodes. Rehearsals 8-9 project F as pitch-class tonic by pitch-specific features of the pattern evident in Example 5(a).

9}.But the specific way in which Reich builds up Q2-another crucial difference between it and Q--is decisive in establishingwhich of these two beat classes is the tonic. accent supportstwo half-note pulse streams. resembles my accounts of form in Reich's music. so at first glance it might seem that either of them could act referentially. This is analogous to the similaritywe intuit between two F-minor-seventh chords in which the chord factors are differentlyvoiced and doubled. constitutesthe beat-classmode. conforming to the time transposition. Recall that the complete Q2.This affects the beat-class mode: in Q2. and at its first three attacks there is more accent than at any preceding timepoint.The other accented beat classes relate to the tonic in a distinctive way. at R12. however.Bb5. In terms of pulses and accent of climax. and the other {1. Moreover.arisein patternswith differentbeat-class . beat-class 4 still takes the greatestaccentof climax.and it contributesto more pulse streams.4}. as a beat-class set.9} is weakerthan would be the case under exact transposition. The changes also affect the beat-class tonic. and placement of accent within a continuing collection.This distinctive ensemble of accents. Sameness of mode. In the complete Q2. strength. including the tonic.Contraryto what one might have expectedfrom the t5 relation of the beat-class sets.5. then. one containing beat-classes {8. is my focus on shifting beat-class tonics (which are not contemplated in Krebs's theory) and their correlation with changes of pitchclass-modality.and El6 in it are different.and their temporalrelationto the beatclass tonic. If Q2 presented exactly Ql's series of pitches and durations-as it would in Reich'sphase-shifting pieces -then the beat-class tonic would shift to beat-class 5. The coexistence of these two pulses can be characterized as the "displacement dissonance" D4+1 in terms of Krebs 1999. however. and both articulatea complete pulse stream. are not usually built up or phased.0. beginning at R9.3} that suggestsbut does not quite sustain another pulse stream. so stream [8. the order and durationof Ab5. 289 transpositionallycorrespondingbeat-class7 in Q1. like pitch transposition.changes tonic but not mode. Although by R12 beatclass 5 presents as many accent types. which narrates a succession of states of metrical consonance and dissonance. it is evident that both patternsplace their climax on their respective tonic. Q2 (at R12) and Q1 have the same mode.22Beat-class 0 in Q2 has more accent than does the 21 22 Beat-class mode resembles theoretical constructs of tala in North Indian classical music. Tala.Its mode (expressinghow its time span is dividedby pulse and other accents)would remain the same.4} is strongerand stream{1.5. (Generally. indeed Krebs'sanalysis of form in Schumann's music. the pitch reordering and the build-up of Q2 make beat-class4 referential. even though Q2 contains the same pitches as Ql. What especially distinguishes our approaches. See Clayton 2001. beat-class 4 takes as many types of accent as does beat-class 5. or from changes in the types. which are distinguished by length and by the beats that receive the most accent. Changes in tonic or mode-which I will call beatclass "modulation"-createlarge-scale contrast. exact time transposition.these two examples of beat-class modality illustrate a process that is essential to the form of Reich's music. Beatclasses 4 and 8 belong to a tonic-including pulse streamthat measures the time span of Q1 into three equal durations. and beatclass 9 in Q2 has less accent than does the transpositionally corresponding beat-class 4 in Q1. is t5(Ql).progression. that measurestheir time spans into three equal durations.BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC and it contributesto two pulse streams. Beat-class 4 is the first accented beat class.) However. Comparing the analyses of Ql and Q2 in Examples 4 and 5. which is essential to formal processesof closure.1. then. The beat class just preceding the tonic is strongly accented and belongs to a set of beat-classes{11.consider Example6. which analyzesaccent in the build-up of Q2. and so the distributionof accent in Q2 is different. These modulationsarisefrom changes in the membershipof the beat-class collection itself.0. analogous to processes of pitch-class tonality.21 As a further illustrationof beat-class modality. Such a description is certainly conceivable for minimal music. and return.

when Q1 and Q2 are equallyloud. With this model. However. * * * * * When patternscombine polyphonically. the accentualstructureanalyzed in Example 6 dominates the texture. 1I IJ N 0 1 2 4 - V -1 V I I o. when it is loud. so one becomes more aware of its interactionswith Q1. in Q_ the Bb5at beat-class 9 took a pitch-contour accent because it was preceded and followed by lower pitches.Yet the correspondenceruns much deeper that has been previouslydiscussed. ^ 7 ' N 0 1 2 9 10 not quite a J stream J streams B 1 C S B B r_ I I - 456 89 i 7 - 10 -------------I L1 I . its prominence diminishes. But since the pulse stream characterizingthe mode of Q2.0. sets and tonics. Q2 has a differenttonic. only if it is played in isolation from its true context.during the build- up of we shall see. so I do not claim that the "distinctive"structuresthat characterizepitch-class modes (triads. [8. i21 - 6 6%. Accent in the build-up ofQ2. as Q2 fades. but interferenceamong the streamsaffects their salience.9b V THEORY + 1 :11 V *i- I-1 4 2 S B ^ A IfI 4 5 I .consequently. stream I EXAMPLE6. their combination.The variationsin Reich'spatterns exemplify these theoreticalsituations. as analyzedin Example 6. Modality is perceived differently in these two domains. which are symmetrical subsets of the beat-class aggregate). becauseit no longer follows a lower note. and since beat-class 0 is accented in Q2 nearly as much as beat-class 4.4).I am not suggesting anything more than a formal correspondencebetween rhythm and pitch. the Bb5at beat-class 9 no longer has pitch-contour accent.MUSIC 290 bc: f 2 25 (2003) tonic I D C S s B 10 0) SPECTRUM D D C A %.which are asymmetrical subsetsof the total chromatic)areperceptuallyequivalent to those that characterizebeat-class modes (usually pulse streams. denies accent of contour and durationto some beat classes that are accentedwhen either is played alone. The pitches added by Q2 to Q1 also change the moments where we sense shifts of subcollection:for example. the Bb5at beat-class 5 in Q2 has a such a long durationthat it covers the F4 in Q1 when the patternsare combined. To a certain extent the modality of a particularpolyphonic passage depends upon both the relativeprominence of the voices and the context that precedesit. At R13. Intrastreamaccents still may be heard. stressing beat-class 4.At R14. as long as the most accentedbeat classes relate to their respectivetonics in the same modally characteristic way.their accents interactrichly to affect beat-classtonic and mode. which . For example. analyzed in Example 7(a). beat-classes 2 and 5. the combination of Q2 with Q_ does not change the tonic or mode establishedby Q_. and I will show that such a "modal"conception of rhythm is essential to understanding metrical and other large-scale processes in Reich's postphase music. F4 and A15. For example. is beat-class-identicalwith the modal pulse stream of Ql. however.


Beat-class 0 is accentedstronglyand in nearlyevery possible way.0. first beat-class 4 then beat-class 8 become more prominent.beat-class 8 of the pulse stream [8. the build-up of Q3 emphasizes. To summarize:duringthe first stage of New YorkCounterpoint.But the mode is now colored by another and weaker pulse stream that arises from multiple accents on beat-classes5 and 9.Just as the build-up of Q2 emphasizedbeat-class4. its particularpitch series and build-up have a very different rhythmic impact.Moreover. Since each pitch in Q4 is a tenth below the corresponding pitch in Q1. in which the new tonic is a member of the modedefining tonic triadof the originalkey. insinuates itself as the new referentialpitch class. and although other pulse streamscan be discerned. beat-class 0 has been established as tonic.but is subjectto changes of mode and tonic. As three voices now accent beatclass 4 the same way. and to many of Reich's recent pieces. Across the other beat classes.renderingthe tonic and mode susceptibleto furtheralteration. At R19. it clarifies the triple-meter mode by denying the simplestalternative. this lack of emphasisis designed to negate utterly the possibility of duple meter-that is. continuing to measurethe pattern's time span in the previously established manner.Thus the resulting ensemble does not remainconstant. Specifically.the one that includes beat-classes [8. Meanwhile. The modulation of beat-class tonics has its own immanent logic quite distinct from that of the pitch-class-modulatory processesit resemblesformally. To understandthis logic. Coincidentally. the accentual focus caused by the build-ups and by the interaction of repeated patterns shifts from beat class to beat class. and that beat-class 4 has also gained variety.4}. This analysisrevealsa rhythmicprocess essential to this movement. and it contains the same pitches as Q1 but in a slightly differentorder. In this passage.0. The pitch-class collection also undergoesformally similarbut not exactlycoordinatedmodulation. At R21 it marksbeat-class4 with an accent of beginning.4} is supported best by the most number of accent-types. Q4's pitches at beat-classes 4 and 5 are lower than any precedingpitch. as Q3 is built up and combined with Q1 and during the first stage. Changing the tonic this way while maintainingthe mode is analogous to changing the key from F minor to.exceptthose that define the mode and tonic. let us returnto Example 3 and examine its second stage. analogous to changes of pitch-class tonic in a tonal composition.we see that beat-class0 still has the greatest variety of accent. distractingattention from the still referentialbeat-class0.accent is spreadfairlyevenly.while still omitting beat-class 0. As will be demonstratedbelow. the accentualprofile adjusts again in an apparentlycalculatedmanner. although pattern Q4 builds up the same beat-class set as the original pattern interacts with the established patterns. Q3 as a beat-class set is a transpositionof Q1. Ab minor. a change that . The lowest.As each patternmatures and then fades into the accompanimentaltexture. Ab. By R19 a texture is achieved in which nearly everybeat class is similarlyaccented. as beat classes and accents multiply in the build-up of new voices.292 MUSIC THEOR Y SPECTRUM 25 (2003) beginning of the excerpt. that beat class suddenlyand decisively assumes the role of tonic.and beat-classes0 and 4 together reinforce the beat-class mode characterizedby the {8.the same new pitches that cause the beatclass modulation also restructurethe ongoing pitch-class collection. It begins in R20 by loudly stressing beat-classes 9 and 11.Beat-class 6 stands as the notable exception: it is not even accented by pulse. say.Like Q2. even shifting the accentualfocus of the entire ensemble.0. the accents still sustain the pulse stream{8. the accent structureagain adjusts. Interpretedin context of the model of beat-class modality.4} establishedby Q1. the loud build-up of each patternadjuststhe types and weights of accenton each beat class.4} pulse stream. as Q3 fades to the loudness of Q1 and analyzedin Example 8. Accents of subcollection shift within Q3 strengthenthe beat classes of this mode. Then. by means of durationaland metrical accents.beat-class 0 still predominatesin the strength of its accents.0. In the following music.

taking advantage of the modes shared by the pattern combinations. at R28. The theory of beat-class mode thus enables one to describerhythmicdirectionand goals.r mfV T N bc: 0 1 v 7 2 . However. Dk.which cannotbe addressedby an "atonal" theory of beat-class sets. then.23Thus the beginning of the second stage establishes both a new beat-class tonic and a new pitch-class tonic via structurallysimilarmodulations.(One might characterizethis as a "doublebeat-classtonic complex".The build-up of the next pattern. V N 3 D C D D C S B -s S:T* la Lr1 al 4 :. At the end of the passage. is solidified as a modulation at R22 by the introduction of a new pitch class. successivelypresents bbm7. 7 7 T I f7v 7 r ' ~y T 5 I N 7 8 9 10 11 / T N 0 1 I I C S B S -1 - 7 I J streams I 293 v v D C S B ft : 'A_ 7 7 I 7 7 T 2 N 3 4 5 I I :i D N 7 8 I :I I EXAMPLE8.BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC E19 D C S a20 C S B S mf ffI II-' j Y ~Lb.Accordingly. The resulting stress on beat-class 4 functions now to confirm its role as tonic. introducesthe same beat classes in the same orderas did Q2 in R9-R12. Q2.)The final build-up in this section (of Q6) begins by stressing beat-class 8. changes the beat-class tonic. andeachlastingseveraliterations of the repeated patterns. so delaying its entranceprolongs the previouspitch-class 23 Similarchangesof tonicoccurjust afterthe build-upshownin ExA twice-repeated seriesof pulsingchords. R28-R31 project rhythmic ambiguity. reinforced by a grouping parallelism with R21 and by the multiplicityof coincident accentsin the other voices.drawn ample3 is complete. DbM7. As the new lowest pitch. Reich'sspecificchoices of patternand build-up in the following music can be similarly explained.) The build-up of Q5 (still mimicking that of 02) is designed to hold off its lowest pitch.the beat-classtonic stays on 4. formal closure is achieved as both the pitchclass and the beat-classmodes returnto their originalstates.The seriesanimates the unchanging pitchclasses- relanotablyEb andA--in the patternsby varyingtheirintervallic tionsto thechanging roots. and Fm(add6) chords. Once F3 enters. as did its beat-class-set homonym Q3. the F will change the pitch-class tonic and reemphasizebeat-class two different beat classes sound equally accented and providesa means of answeringthe questions about Reich'spost-phase music. and beat-class tonics as long as possible.but to createa progressionof beat-class tonics across large spans of time. Q5. fromthe openingof the movement. and Q1.raisedabove. until the very end. Accent in the equal-loudnesscombination of Q3. F3. Through it we understandthat the purpose of combining beat-class sets is not to achieve the beat-class aggregate. (See the annotations to R24-R27 in Example3. however. Because the F4 attackedthen is not strongly accented.with reference to beat-class modality.The notion of rhythmicclosuretakes on the precisesense of a returnto the .at R32 a beginning accent on beat-class 0.

92 0 I S 14 15 16 10 4 5 6 (measures24 beats into four equal durations) D D D C 0 l B B D C 22 23 S S SS 20 C D C D C C I I(meas 24 b s s io t e eal (measures24 beats into threeequal durations) pstreams I Itonicl Iton EXAMPLE 9. contour and pulse).The metrical ambiguity created by the pattern'sartful accentual design deepens as the movement develops. the opening of the second movement of the same work.while introducinga lower register in which accents can act to change both pitch-class and beat-classtonics. The modulations are most striking in the excerpt shown in Example 10. which repeats a pattern lasting 24 sixteenth notes.Example 9 analyzesaccent and pulse streams in the passage.Indeed. However.0. when combinations of exact beatclass transpositionsdo not provide the clarity of mode and tonic requiredfor these large formalprocesses. Accent andpulse streams at R44 ofNew YorkCounterpoint.So are the irregularbuild-ups.confrontsthe listener immediatelywith a very dynamicmodality. Variationsin patterns themselves are understood as part of the modulatoryprocess. as at a tonal cadence. accented intensely by duration. for example. The brackets above and below the score show that two pulse streamswith differentdurationsare articulated concurrentlyby regularaccent. respectively.I MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003) 294 bc: 0 4 5 6 10 14 15 16 20 22 23 I J = ca. original beat-class tonic and mode. however.the composer does not alwayspreferto maintain a constant meter. Its largest-scale consequences are not manifested. when both pitch-class and beat-class modes and tonics undergo gradual asynchronouschanges. At R70 . while accents of durationand beginning (supportedby slurs) coordinate to produce the half-note pulse stream. A remarkablefeature of the densely imitative web that Reich weaves in this movement is the persistent clarity of the {8. until the last movement of New YorkCounterpoint.The dotted-quarter pulse stream arises principallyfrom accents of subcollection shift. Neither of these streamsincludes the tonic (0.the choice of pitch-transpositionof a tenth from earlierto later patterns can be explained as the best one to minimize interferencewith the establishmentof subcollection-shiftaccents. but they are synchronized so that they measurethe pattern'stime span into equal durations both triply and quadruply.New YorkCounterpoint. Q5 and Q6 are built up in the same way as Q2 and Q3 because they play similarroles in shifting emphasis from beat-class 0 to beat-classes 4 and 8.Finally.4} pulse streamand of the tripartitemode in which it measuresthe patterns'time spans.

a dux trio of clarinets (notated on the top staff) is chased in canon by a comes trio (notated on the second staff) at the quarter-note unison.b i4f f f 9 e K' b' y9- 1 L h> i ^^^y ' 10 i^ T' 1 J stream I Ni T T r- 1 I o.9} [8. casting the segment in the mode of an Eb7 chord with a raised fifth and eleventh.B. The table above the score lists the pitch-class content of each canonically related pair of instruments.l0 J(.4} f8.6} [6. inets synchronize their changes of pitch class but are nevertheless also in rhythmic canon.7. Pc contentofcanonicvoicepairsat R70 [soundingBb= 0] at R71 live and 4: [8. H.3. .1.MODULATION BEAT-CLASS IN STEVE REICH 295 S MUSIC Pitch-class collection 1 Pitch-class collection 9. Y. I.. combined: 10 pivot. collections hold [8.j J= ca. k r.9. stream f ' h *'XI l L-''F I I ^^y^jp T T ii It HT T I :III:Y' > rrB YX1 ^.8}{3.1..7.^ T NI T T T T 2f 1 AH T I Beat-classmode1 EXAMPLE IO.9. i l 2bl ^f.8} [B.1.B.3} 2 and 5: 3 and 6: 9 and 10: {B.1} 'n -------------------. .. . Y.1. I. At . D.4.^^:| 'ri fVlyvy^.B. The low El in clarinet 10 acts as the pitch-class tonic. 184 C S (rx~-na) . Y.- l iJ -i ..3. two bass clar24 A few addednoteslend someflairto the live clarinetpart.5.1. 1*!/ /.1. as will be shown below.x3 I k live 2 3 4 5 6 ^.24 On the lower staves.but this augmentationof the beat-classcollectiondoesnot affectthe modeor tonic.B.5.3} and [9} in common iOf.1.... Pitch-class and beat-class modulations in the third movement ofNew YorkCounterpoint.3.3} [8.B.K D C S ^ L -..


201 Y.203 t3A 23 t3B toB toB n t3B = 10.6. to keep the tonic clear.23} t2A triple meter toA toA U (6. which shows that the intersection of the beat-class sets of bass clarinets 9 and 10-the low-register no longer be generated accents of textural density-can 4. 9 adds an extra beat-class interval (Clarinet cyclically by attack to its pattern. and is also evident in Example This modal uncertainty proves transitory. and only the temporal imitation between the bass clarinets shifts.15.23} t2A t2B U to} toB toB n (t2B U o}) = {0.10. transition toA toA U {1. again by simply changing the interval of imitation. at beat-class 0. At R73. continue to present the same rhythms . 10 continue those of R71. How transposition of subsetscreatesthe beat-class modulation in R71-73. when the pitch-class content reverts to that of R70. clarinets 2/3 and 10. the beat-class accentuation changes directly to another mode. This is symbolized by the dashed brackets under R72 in Example 10.21} quadruple meter (3-cyclic) EXAMPLE II. thus matching the time delay in the upper-voice canon.18.203 (4-cyclic) 22 23 20 2021 1718 18 I 23 toA toA U t6. from t8 to t2. The outer voices.3. But this slight change affects the beat-class mode by breaking up the preceding half-note pulse stream.BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC 71 x t2(x) I I 7 45 4 5 6 7 4 67 9 9 9 I 0 2/3 live 4/5/6 0 0 0 2 2 2 9 10 0 0 2 i I 45 3 4 8 8 9 6 I I I i 1112 12 14 9 10 73 2/3 live 4/5/6 9 10 0 2 7 45 0 2 45 0 2 4 0 0 2 67 5 6 6 34 3 0 3 I I 1 9 11 6 7 9 1112 I I I I 19 19 18 19 14 12 21 22 21 2223 23 21 20 20 21 i 1617 13 14 1011 8 89 i 6I t12(Y) 16 17 12 1112 7 11 12 9 7 8 9 101112 7 8 10 12 0 45 2 0 1 2 3 45 0 1 5 3 0 9 9 7 I I 16 17 1516 18 I I I 19 16 17 16 17 18 19 18 19 11 12 1112 11 13 14 Y 2/3 live 4/5/6 297 1516 I 21 2 21 22 21 23 19 21 22 19 2021 22 22 19 20 16 17 1617 14 15 15 119 21 I I I t8B toB toB n tgB = {0.

5. then a half-note which slight but structurallytelling changes to patternsand their imitative relationscreate formallysignificant modulations of pitch.At R113 the first trumpet'sattacks measurethe 20 eighths into two equal durations. The build-up starting at Rill. and 8 project a series of half-note durations.without ex- plicitly stating it. the duration of most of the patterns).3.10. It is mediated by the set of beat classes at R72 that the two modes have in common. fully completed at R122.completedat R124. Example 12 displays their completed forms and analyzes their beat-class-combinational structure. has two principalformal functions.9}.298 MUSIC THEOR Y SPECTRUM 25 (2003) as they have done since R70.Second. The audibleresultis a new dotted-quarter-note pulse stream.durationalcontent.noncanonic pattern.beat-class mode and tonic fluctuatein a controlled and progressive manner. there follows a quarter rest.yet also suggestsan exactpitch and beat-classcanon. middle register strings and mallet instrumentsbuild up a predominantlyeighth-note rhythminto a two-line beat-class canon. exactly analogous to the common-tone modulation between the pitchclass collections in the passage. whose intersectionwas a 4-cycle at R71 and a symmetricalbut noncyclicbeat-class set at R72.suggesting a regular five-quarter pulse stream. symbolized by the bracket under R73 in Example 10. accents on beat-classes 16. asynchronousaggregation of discrete patterns. .register. Other recent compositionsby Reich contain many similar passages. the beat-class set of clarinets4. that creates a 12/8 meter. Initially. it clearly establishes the beat-class tonic: beat-class0 takes the most accent. each of which is distinguishedby instrumentation. As in New YorkCounterpoint. intersectin a 3cycle at R73.this resolvesinto a t10 canon at R125. They are most impressivein his works for large ensemble thatjuggle several different patterns at once. and attack density.16}-not a regular pulse.and low instruments at R115 a build-up begins of a different.At R115 (Example 13[b]) clusters in the pianos and trombones strongly 25 To see the canon.However. Consider. Finally. In each part. All three of these patternsare20 eighth notes long. as a final example. which suggest a dotted-quarterpulse stream incommensuratewith both the half notes and the 20-eighth durationof the patterns.6.brass.and beat-class. At different paces and times during this introductionfour differentpatternsare built up.Thus the beat-class modulation from R71 to R73 is achieved with the utmost minimum of means. and the beat-class set of clarinet9 also changes from t2 to t3 of the clarinet 10-that is the comesvoices increase their delay by one beat. at R114 the next stage in the string-vibraphonebuild-up establishes consistent accent on beat-classes {0. in which one voice lags three eighth-notes behind the other. then eighth-notes C# and F#. However. the opening of the last movement of The Four Sections(for orchestra.which features a variety of durations. Now the beat-class sets of the bass clarinets. 4. but only after raising several mutually incompatiblepossibilities. this potential half-note pulse stream is vitiated at R112 by the shifting of accent to beat-classes {0. Lastly. but still distinctive and persistent enough to serve as the beat-classmode. R118 the high stringsand winds build up a patterntwice as long-40 eighth notes-featuring very long durations. analyzed in Example 13(a). First.beat-class modulation begins as soon as mode and tonic are secured. separated by an eighth rest. this passagealso establishes a distinctive beat-class mode.25In the percussion. From R113-R120 trumpets 1 and 3 build up an apparently unrelatedpattern. and 6 changesfrom t2 to t3 of clarinets2 and 3. 1987).6. compare the two trumpet parts starting at the repeated. Within this complex. accented eighth-note Es. likewise incompatible with the previouslysuggested possibilities. Starting at Rill.and 0 is the firstbeat class to mark a regularlyrecurringduration(20 eighths.

the high instruments place contour accents on two different points of the 40-eighth-note spans. and since the mode is transpositionallyinvariant at tlo.m.10.9. Vn. 2 {0.30} = Y Tpt.30.2.4} u {6.10. .} 24 Brass.5. After this new beat-class tonic is established. 299 . the tonicity of beat-class 0 begins to falter.4. {0.10.38} = to0(Y) EXAMPLE 12.14. . even though it is notated on a different beat than the beginning of the pattern in Rl11.1. Timp. making the modulation definite.18} =X ' .19} Tpt.28.12.20. the entrance of the high strings in R118 sounds metricallystrong.10.11.* 1no. Patternsin the openingof thefourthmovementof TheFourSections.16} 7 Tpt.6. The low instrumentsalso accentboth of these beat classes.BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH'S MUSIC Vib i . Vib. accent beat-class|. # --if : ___ v f - ~ {0.7. the completion of the build-ups in R120-R124 and the pitch variations in the highest parts provide new accents.18. but up until R125 (see the upper system in Example 13[c]). these always . 1 {0.14. 1 r Z f 1 t6 f t8 1 {8. The completed canon in the middle strings and mallet instruments emphasizes both beat-classes 0 and 10.3 { however.11. By R117 the furtherbuild-ups of the patterns cooperateto accent beat-class 10 far more than beat-class 0.18. As this beat class belongs to the established mode.17.13. Startingat R120.20.15.5. {2. Thus.10} u {} = tl3(X) 120a HXv 3 Tpt.



Tbn. Vn... Hn.THEORY SPECTRUM 25 302 ~~~~~~~~~MUSIC 302 (2003) Bc 1) persists as 124 D . w. Pno. C T C T 19 Vn. [continued] .w.2.1. Vib. Hn.w. L7 I Pno. (c) Modulation backto beat class 0. EXAMPLE 13.2 Tpt.. Va... Tbn. Tpt. D D D D N N Accent on bcs 0 and 10 equalizes 4 t-I- Vn... w.