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# Length and Time

## A physical quantity is a property of an object that can be measured with a

measuring instrument.

1N = 1kg x 1m/s^2
force = mass x acceleration (newton)
power= energy or work / time (watt)
energy or work = force x distance (joules)
(ampere) current = power/voltage
Length is the distance between two points in a space.
Reducing reading errors
1- Taking several readings of the subject to be measured can also help to reduce
reading errors
2- Avoid parallax error.

Measuring time
Very short times fractions of seconds can be calculated by measuring time for a
certain number of pulses, or movements, and then divide this time by the number
of pulses.
For measuring short intervals of time (when each period is the same), multiple
measurements can be taken and then averaged
e.g. Period of a pendulum = Time for 10 oscillations / 10
Measure the time needed for n complete swings in T seconds
Periodic time = T/n
Example- 30 swings in 60 seconds
Time of one swing=60 s/ 30 swings = 2 seconds.
Notes:
a) Time of one complete swing is measured when the string starts its motion
from one end and returns back to the same starting point.
b) Remember there is always a reaction time associated with using a clock or
stopwatch

## c) To obtain an accurate record (result) you have to repeat the experiment

several times and calculate the average value of your results.
d) If the length of the string is changed, the periodic time will be also changed,
as length of pendulum string increases, its periodic time increases.

Motion
Linear motion = uniform acceleration

## Speed is the rate of motion, or the rate of change of position. It is expressed

as distance moved (d) per unit of time(t). Speed is a scalar quantity with
dimensions distance/time. Speed is measured in the same physical units of
measurement as velocity, but does not contain an element of direction.

## Acceleration, (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change of velocity. It is thus a ve

Acceleration is measured in meters/second.
To accelerate an object is to change its velocity, alter either its speed or direction (
uniform circular motion) in relation to time. Acceleration can have positive and neg
Any time that the sign (+ or -) of the acceleration is the same as the sign of the vel
object will speed up. If the signs are opposite, the object will slow down. Accelerat
quantity.
To accelerate an object requires the application of a force.

Distance-Time Graph

Speed-Time Graph

## Distance in Speed-Time Graph =

area
When an object falls, its speed increases. When the speed increases,
the air resistance also increases. At a point, the weight of the object is
balanced by the air resistance. The object falls with a constant
velocity till it reaches the ground. This is called terminal velocity
The factors that affect terminal velocity are size, shape, weight and
nature of air (dry, humid)

A heavier object will accelerate for more distance than the lighter, the
heavier object will attain terminal velocity later than the lighter object
If an object is held stationary in a uniform gravitational field it will fall. It
will do so with uniform acceleration. This means that every second that the
object falls its velocity will increase by 9.8 ms-1. So after one second the
object has a velocity of 9.8 ms-1, after 5 seconds it will have a velocity of
47.5 ms-1, etc.
Since the objects velocity is increasing every second this naturally means
that the distance it is covering each second also increases.
What happens if an object is thrown up? The acceleration is still downward.
If an object is thrown up with an initial velocity of 30 ms-1, after one second
it will only be going 20 ms-1 up, after 2 seconds it will only be going 10 ms1
, after 3 seconds the object will have zero velocity!
Even if the objects velocity is zero the acceleration is not zero.
Air Resistance
air resistance is always in the opposite direction of the motion.
When the object is moving slowly the force of drag is proportional to
the speed of the object. As the objects speed increase the drag is
proportional to the square of the speed, which means that the drag
force becomes large very quickly. At some point the drag force will
increase to the size of the force of gravity on the object.
When the two forces are equal their will be no net force on the object
and it will no longer accelerate, i.e. it will now travel at a constant
velocity. This final maximum velocity is called the terminal velocity.

## Mass and Weight

Weight is the effect of a gravitational field on a mass. It is measured in
newtons, as it is an amount of force.
W = mg
Mass is the amount of particles in a substance. This is the same
regardless of how much gravitational pull is applied to the object
because the amount of particles of in an amount of substance.

## This is the concept of inertia. If a force is applied to an object, it will

not immediately reach a high speed because it requires time to
accelerate, as shown by the formula F=ma. If the force is constantly
applied then there is a constant acceleration. However if the force is
not constant and only applied in an instant then there will be an
instant of acceleration and then it will take time for the object to speed
up.

Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of
motion (this includes changes to its speed, direction or state of rest). It is the
tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at constant velocity.
Density
Density = Mass/Volume or D = m/v.
Experiment for the Density of a liquid or regular solid:
the mass by weighing the thing on a scale and then use a measuring
cylinder to find the volume. Then divide the mass by the volume to get
the density in (g/cm)
Irregular solid volume : overflow tank.

An object will sink if its density is greater than the density of the fluid
it is in; it will float if its density is less than the fluid it is in
Force

## a force may produce a change in size and shape of a body

F=ma,
Newtons second Law basically states that the Force of an object is
proportional to its acceleration. Increasing the force will increase the
acceleration of an object, and thus will have an effect on the motion of an
object.
F=mg
basically states that the force of an object equals the mass of the object
multiplied by the gravitational force. Lets ignore G-force and instead

compare the relationship between Force and Mass. As we can see from the
formula, increasing the force will increase the mass as G-force is usually a
constant, so the force on an object will definitely alter the size of an object.
limit of proportionally, if you extend the spring any further, Force will no
longer be proportional to extension, and on a graph, you will see just like
the one above, a curve indicating that the limit of proportionality has been
reached.
friction as the force between two surfaces which obstructs motion and
results in heating
Recognize air resistance as a form of friction
if there is no resultant force on a body it either remains at rest or
continues at constant speed in a straight line