Implementing Pb-Free Assembly at Your Factory

Ronald C. Lasky, Ph.D., PE Senior Technologist Indium Corp Visiting Professor, Dartmouth Timothy Jensen Indium Corp Feb 2004

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Agenda
• • • • • • • Pb-Free World Status Alloy Selection Getting Your Facility Ready: Best Practices PWB and Component Finishes Solder Paste Pre-Screening Overview of Motorola Implementation Large Board and Wave Soldering Issues All slides available at www.pb-free.com
Slide #1

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Dr. Ron Lasky
• • • • Native of Binghamton Graduate of BCC, Cornell, BU, Cornell
– PhD in materials science

• •

NYS Professional Engineer More than 20 years in electronic and optoelectronic packaging at IBM, Universal Instruments, Cookson (Alpha) Author of 5 books Currently a Senior Technologist for Indium and a Visiting Professor at Dartmouth College Pb-Free Workshop
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Slide #2

Electronics: Still the Largest Industry
• Holding at $1 trillion
– Bigger than automotive – But Food?
• $170/yr x 6 billion > $1 T

• Typical long term growth is 6-8% CAGR
– Vs 2-4 % for economies in good times – Early 2000s down slightly
Slide #3

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

The Electronic Industry: $1.1T
Military, $89 Computer, $429 Automotive, $52 Industrial and Medical, $113

Consumer, $123

Communications, $300

All assembled on 30-35K lines!
Source: Prismark

Slide #4

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Courtesy Prismark

Slide #5

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

System Cost: $1K PC
Discretes: 4% ICs: 27% Substrates: 4%

Connectors: 3%:
Source: Prismark

Assembly & Test: 14% SGA & Profit: 16% Distribution: 14% R&D: 2%

Solder: 0.05%!

Housing and I/O: 16%

Slide #6

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

What is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB)?
• Starts with a PWB • Solder Paste is printed • IC, passive, active components are placed • Reflow melts the solder • The finished PCB is tested • Thru hole assembly may also be performed

Source: The Internet

Slide #7

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Cross Section of a PQFP Component
Molding Compound Nitto Denko 8 cents Silicon Die Wire Bonded Tanaka 18 cents

Die Attach Adhesive Ablestik 0.4 cents Leadframe Shinko 91 cents 1.2 cents per lead

Courtesy: Prismark

The silicon die is the heart of electronics, it produces all of digital and analog functions. The material and leads that enclose the die are called the package. The resulting device called a component, a component package or a semiconductor package.
Slide #8

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

• The relentless size reduction of passives • Assembling the 0201 is one of the current process challenges • A trillion assembled each year Source: The Internet
Slide #9

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

PWB Assembly

Stencil Printer

Chip Shooter

Pick and Place

Reflow Oven

Hand Mount and Opto
Sources: DEK, UIC, Electrovert

Wave or Selective Solder

Inspection/Test

Slide #10

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-free Initiatives & Global Trends

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Current Pb-free Legislation
• WEEE/ROHS directives • Japanese Home Electronics Recycling Law • USA? Some state activity, nothing federal
– EPA: ‘Deal with Electronics or We Will’

Slide #12

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-free Legislation
• EU Ratifies WEEE / ROHS directive
– Dec 2002 EU parliament passed legislation to ban use of:
• Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr VI, PBB, PBDE

– Affects ALL products sold after July 2006.
• Exceptions
– Telecom equipment until 2010 – High lead solder applications (>85% lead alloy)

– Recycling program enforced June 2005.

Slide #13

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-free Legislation
• Japanese Pb-free Activity
– No direct ban on using Pb – MITI proposed recycling legislation in May 1998. – Japan home electronics recycling law requires OEMs to collect and recycle 4 major products since April 2001. – These measures, as well as marketing advantage, are pushing major Japanese companies to be more environmentally conscience

Slide #14

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Japanese Pb-free Products
• Matsushita / Panasonic announcement
– By March 2003 – Over 70 million PCBs (approximately 12,000 product models) will be built using a Pb-free solder.
• Products have been built in over 100 different factories

Slide #15

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Panasonic Pb-Free Examples

MJ70 Minidisc Player

MJ30 Minidisc Player

Slide #16

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Hitachi Pb-Free Examples

H845L Camcorder

PC Audio Board, Flora 220CX

Slide #17

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Is Pb-Free a good thing?

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

True or False
• Electronics is a major contributor to environmental lead. ⇒ FALSE
– – – – Batteries: 4,000,000 tons Bullets: 200,000 tons Electronics: 18,500 tons < 0.5% Not to mention tire balancing weights!
• About 100,000 tons/year

Slide #19

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

True or False
• The level of lead in the blood of US residents has increased since 1945 ⇒ FALSE • Paint and gasoline reductions have had a stunningly positive effect.

Slide #20

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Average US Lead Levels in Micrograms per Deciliter of Blood
30

25

20 Pb( µg/dl)

15

10

5

0 1940

1945

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

Year

Slide #21

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb does Leach
• Pb Leach Testing
– Use water with a pH of 7-7.05 – Pb will not leach very much at this pH

• In acid water, Pb does leach • After all, we banned Pb from plumbing for good reason • However, no measurable results in a “real life” experiment
Slide #22

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Solder Alloys
• Present alloys chosen to replace Sn/Pb are Sn/Ag/Cu alloys • Ag-containing Solders also Leach
– EPA Groundwater Leaching Tests
• ALL Pb-free silver-containing solders fail
– “Lead-free Solders: A Push in the Wrong Direction?” Ed Smith, K-Tec Inc. – “Reliability & Leachate Testing of Pb-free Solder Joints” – Thomas Woodrow, Boeing

Slide #23

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Solder Alloys
• Silver containing replacements
– Are we taking a wrong turn?
• Silver is toxic • Silver is a biocide • Silver is known to kill more than 650 different viral, bacterial and fungal organisms • Also, Silver will kill most marine life

Slide #24

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Initiative Summary
• Simply changing from SnPb to SnAgCu may not fix the problem • Recycling must be the long term answer • Expect more legislation and higher landfill costs in the years to come!

Despite the data, Pb-free solder in the Electronics Industry is going to happen…

Slide #25

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Alloy Selection

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Alloy Selection Overview
• Potential Alloy Overview • General Alloy Search • Sn/Ag/Cu in Depth

Slide #27

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Alloy Decision Process
• The melting point should be as close to Sn/Pb eutectic as possible • The alloy must be eutectic or very close to eutectic • It must contain no more than three elements • Use of existing patents should be avoided to ease implementation • Reliability should be equal or better than Edwin Bradley – NEMI chairperson, Motorola Sn/Pb
Slide #28

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Options
• Current Alloy List • Alloy properties • Pros & Cons of each

Slide #29

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Options: Current Alloy List
– Sn/Ag – Sn/Cu – Sn/Ag/Cu – Sn/Ag/Cu/Sb – Sn/Ag/Bi/X – Sn/Sb – Sn/Zn – Sn/Bi

Slide #30

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Options: Current Alloy List
– Sn/Ag – Sn/Cu – Sn/Ag/Cu – Sn/Ag/Cu/Sb – Sn/Ag/Bi/X – Sn/Sb – Sn/Zn – Sn/Bi

Slide #31

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Scientific Realities: 91Sn/9Zn
• Melting point = 199°C • Zinc reacts with both acids and bases • All flux/vehicles are mildly acidic at room temperature • Which means shelf-life is in the order of days, not months! • Also may need conformal coating once in place - Zn oxidizes very readily

Slide #32

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Scientific Realities: 96.5Sn/3.5Ag
• • • • Melting point = 221°C Years of experience Relatively poor wetting Poor thermal cycling (-40/+125)
Alloy Code A1 A11 A14 A21 A32 A62 A66 B63 Composition Sn 3.5Ag Sn 4Ag 1Cu Sn 4Ag 0.5Cu Sn 2.5Ag 0.8Cu 0.5Sb Sn 4.6Ag 1.6Cu 1Sb 1Bi Sn 3.4Ag 1Cu 3.3Bi Sn 3.5Ag 1.5In Sn/Pb Control # on Test 12 14 14 14 15 14 14 13 # Failed 12 14 14 14 15 14 14 13 1st Failure (cycle) 1282 2340 2108 2378 2161 1864 2387 1845 Last Failure (cycle) 1987 2552 2579 2378 2161 2527 2577 2607 Rank 8 3 5 2 4 6 1 7

Source: NCMS

Slide #33

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Scientific Realities: 58Sn/42Bi
• • • • • Melting point = 138 °C Years of experience Poor shock resistance 1% Ag addition strengthens this alloy Low MP eliminates temperature issues with components and board

Slide #34

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Scientific Realities: Sn/Ag/Cu
• Melting Point = 217°C • Cu improves wettability, creep, thermal fatigue • High solderability & reliability

Slide #35

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Scientific Realities: Sn/Ag/Cu/Sb
• Melting point = 215 – 217°C • 0.5% Sb may strengthen alloy • May be considered for wave soldering by effectively lowering Ag content • Patented composition may limit worldwide availability • Four part alloy makes manufacturing consistency less reliable.

Slide #36

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Scientific Realities: Sn/Ag/Bi
• Melting Point = 210 - 215 °C • Bi lowers melting point & improves wettability of SnAg alloys • Avoid using in presence of Pb:
• a 96°C ternary alloy(Sn/Pb/Bi) may form

Slide #37

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-free Alloy Investigation
• Phase 1: DOE to analyze 10 probable alloy solutions using Sn/Pb as Benchmark • Phase 2: Optimize flux chemistry

Slide #38

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Alloy Performance Investigation
Alloy 63Sn37Pb 96.5Sn3.5Ag 99.3Sn0.7Cu 95.5Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu 93.6Sn4.7Ag1.7Cu 96.2Sn2.5Ag0.8Cu0.5Sb 91.7Sn3.5Ag4.8Bi 90.5Sn7.5Bi2Ag 58Bi42Sn 95Sn5Sb 89Sn8Zn3Bi Solidus 182.1 219.7 225.7 216.3 215.9 216.9 202.1 190.6 136.3 238.3 190.6 Liquidus 183.0 220.8 227.0 217.5 217.1 218.2 215.1 214.7 138.5 240.3 195.4

Slide #39

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-free Alloy Investigation
• 5 Individual studies performed
– – – – – Wetting Shelf life Tack time Solder Ball Visual reflow inspection

• Performance ranked 0-10 for each category

Slide #40

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

R&D Test #1: Wetting
Cu pad Unwetted Cu

70% Print paste (offset) Reflow Solder bump spread

Slide #41

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Wetting Examples
4 5 7

40%

50%

70%

Slide #42

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

R&D Test #2: Shelf Life
Shelf life was based on the percentage change in viscosity over time. The length of the test was 30 days.
SLI 0 2 4 6 8 10
Slide #43

Description Overall instability > 25% Overall instability = 20-25% Overall instability = 15-20% Overall instability = 10-15% Overall instability = 5-10% Overall instability = 0-5%
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Workshop

R&D Test #3: Tack Stability
6 10 4
Tack

8

0
0 0
Slide #44

2

Time
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Workshop

R&D Test #4: Solder Balling
SBI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Slide #45

Number of solder balls Did not reflow > 501, with some reflow 401-500 301-400 201-300 151-200 101-150 51-100 21-50 11-20 0-10
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Workshop

Alloy Investigation- Results
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sn63/Pb37 Sn91.7/Bi4.8/Ag3.5 8. Sn90.5/Bi7.5/Ag2 9. Sn95.5/Ag3.8/Cu0.7 10. 11. Sn42/Bi58 Sn93.6/Ag4.7/Cu1.7 Sn99.3/Cu0.7 Sn96.2/Ag2.5/Cu0.8/Sb0.5 Sn95/Sb5 Sn96.5/Ag3.5 Sn89/Zn8/Bi3

Slide #46

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

R&D Test #5: Visual
BEST
10 6

2
Slide #47

BAD
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Workshop

Winner- Sn/Ag/Bi ???
• Bi addition lowers melting point & improves wetting • BUT……..Concerns with
• Fillet Lift • Low temperature ternary alloy formation with Pb contamination

Slide #48

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb Contamination Concerns
Why Bi alloys are not the short-term solution
250 225 0% Pb 3% Pb 6% Pb

Onset Temp, deg. C

200 175 150 125 100 75 50 Sn-3.8Ag0.7Cu Sn-2Ag-2Bi Sn-2Ag-4Bi Sn-2Ag-7.5Bi

Sn-Pb-Ag Eutectic Sn-Bi-Pb Peritectic Sn-Bi-Pb Eutectic
Sn-10.5Bi Sn-12Bi

Slide #49

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Sn/Ag/Bi on Sn/Pb Finish

Sn/Ag/Bi with Pb contamination after 1 reflow

Sn/Ag/Bi with Pb contamination after thermal cycling

Ref: Zequn Mei, Fay Hua, and Judy Glazer, “SN- B X I SOLDERS”, SMTA International, San Jose, CA, Sept. 13 1 1999. - 7,

Slide #50

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Sn/Ag/Bi Fillet Lift

Ref: “Lead-Free Solder Project Final Report”, NCMS Report 0401RE96 , August 1997.
Slide #51

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Bismuth Alloy Summary
• Sn-Ag-Bi alloys show formation of:
– Eutectic 96C phase at Bi > 10.5%Bi – Peritectic 135C phase Bi > 4%Bi

In the presence of Pb. • Sn-Ag-Cu alloys show formation of:
– Eutectic 179C phase.

• Wetting occurs at liquidus, so it is key melt temp variable. • PCB finish can affect wetting temperature due to base metal diffusion into solder.

Slide #52

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Conclusion Pb-free Paste - SnAgCu
• Challenges:
– higher processing temperatures – wettability – must wet to a variety of metallizations

Slide #53

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

NEMI Alloy Summary
• NEMI Chosen Alloy
– 95.5Sn/3.9Ag/0.6Cu – 217 C liquidus

• Pb-Free is now driven by both market factors and now legislation • SnAgCu preferred short/medium term solution
– NEMI, JEITA, IDEALS all agree on Sn/Ag/Cu

• When components become completely Pb-Free, SnAgBi may become preferred solution
– Lower process temp – Excellent wettability
Slide #54

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Eutectic of Sn-Ag-Cu solders
B. Boettinger, K. W. Moon of NIST performed studies to determine the true SnAg-Cu eutectic.
Estimation of Ternary Liquidus Surface, 10/23/99 Based on Marquette saturation data, with NWU and NIST thermal analysis.
8
270 C

7 6
250 C

Ag3Sn

wt%Ag

5 4 3 2
230 C
220 C

Cu6Sn5
230 C

Alloys in shaded area have freezing range <10°C.

Sn
23 0 C

250 C

270 C

290

0
0 0.5 1

1.5

2

2.5

wt% Cu

310

C

1

NIST experimental work showed that the composition is approximately Sn3.5Ag 0.9Cu. (+/- 0.1%)
(In agreement with Loomis and Fine)

Slide #55

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

C

Relative Material Costs
• • • • • • • •
Slide #56

Sn Zn Cu Bi In Ag Sb Pb

$5.06/kg $1.06/kg $1.94/kg $5.63/kg $250.00/kg $180.00/kg $1.75/kg <$1.00/kg
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Workshop

Pb-Free Cost
• All the lead-free alloys are more expensive than the lead-containing alloys
– Raw material costs are higher – Currently there is no economy of scale – Minimal Production experience compared to Sn/Pb powder production

Slide #57

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Which SAC to Use?
• Melting Point Comparison • Wetting Comparison • Long Term Cost Comparison

Slide #58

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

DSC of Actual Samples from Solder Vendor A
96.5Sn/3.0Ag/ 0.5Cu 95.5Sn/4.0Ag/ 0.5Cu 95.5Sn/3.8Ag/ 0.7Cu

Sample 1 216.76 °C 216.89 °C 216.70 °C Sample 2 216. 49 °C 216.38 °C 216.56 °C Sample 3 216.71 °C 216.35 °C 216.75 °C Average 216.65 °C 216.54 °C 216.67 °C
Slide #59

Pb-Free Workshop

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IPC DSC Comparing SAC305 Suppliers
Supplier 1 Supplier 2 Supplier 3 Sample 1: 226.6 °C Sample 2: 220.3 °C 217.8 °C 216.7 °C 216.0 °C 216.0 °C

Average: 223.45 °C 217.25 °C 216.0 °C
Source: IPC-SPVC-WP-006

Slide #60

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Comparing the Wetting Forces

Difference in wetting per J-STD test procedure not statistically significant between SAC alloys.
Source: IPC-SPVC-WP-006

Slide #61

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

SAC Actual Wetting

Source: CEMCEX2003 Seelig et al

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Pb-Free Workshop

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Long Term Relative Costs
• • • • Sn/Pb = 1x SAC305 = 2.15x 95.5Sn/3.8Ag/0.7Cu = 2.3x SAC405 = 2.35x

Slide #63

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Alloy Summary
• Sn/Ag/Cu (SAC) is the best current option • Sn/Ag/Bi worth consideration is Pb contamination is not an issue. • Sn/Bi doped with 1% Ag could be a viable option for assemblies with tight temperature restrictions. • SAC305 ranks slightly higher than other SAC alloys due to cost and performance.

Slide #64

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Getting Your Facility Ready: Pb-Free Implementation Best Practices

Slide #65

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Best Practices
• Assess Yourself
– Crucial with Pb-free

• • • •

Throughput Maximization CIP Process Software to Help Use the Right Tools
– Statistical Thinking – DOE – SPC

Slide #66

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

An SMT Process
Equipment Product Requirements A Product

People

Activities

Procedures Meets Requirements •On time •Under cost

Materials

Slide #67

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Assessment Categories
• • • • • DFM, Process and Equipment Materials Supply and Validation DOE, SPC, CIP Training and Failure Analysis Developed from pooled information from industry experts

Slide #68

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

DFM, Process and Equipment
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

We have a documented and functioning DFM system that includes design ground rules (DGRs). Our entire organization is strongly committed to DFM. DFM is a way of life (this question counts 3 times): Our DGRs are established by using designed experiments and statistical process control: The process engineers know how to run all of the equipment: The engineer(s) responsible for stencil printing knows how to design a stencil The engineer(s) responsible for component placement knows how to balance and optimize the placement equipment. He assures that this operation is performed on all jobs: The engineer in charge of the reflow process assures that the reflow profile matches the solder paste specification: Our process engineers have a disciplined and proven strategy to improve productivity: Our process engineers have a disciplined and proven strategy to improve quality: Our process equipment is "qualified" with a test and evaluation procedure that is founded on DOE principles: There is a process engineer or team of engineers responsible for implementing new processes and technology:

10 8 3 9 9 9 9 9 3 9

Total Score out of 120
Ratings: World Class = > 95 Above Average = 75 - 94 Average = 55 - 74 Below Average < 55

98

Your score places you as "World Class" in DFM, Process and Equipment for SMT assembly. Your clearly recognize the importance of these topics in your assembly processes. This score still offers some opprotunity for improvement. Look at your results on each question and develop an action plan for improvement if appropriate.

Slide #69

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Materials Supply and Validation
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

We evaluate our solder pastes and/or materials with a systematic evaluation procedure, such as "The 12 Board Paste Evaluator" (shown below) or DOE to assure its performance (this question counts 3 times): My engineers have read and understand the solder paste and materials specs and assure they match our use conditions: The response to pause of my solder paste is adequate for my applications: The cost of my solder paste and/or materials is not the main criteria for its purchase: The printed volume consistency of my solder paste is best of breed: My materials supplier(s) understand(s) my process and business needs, we treat each other like partners: Few, if any end of line defects can be traced to inadequacies of my solder paste and/or materials: The type (i.e. 2, 3, 4, 5) of the solder paste we use matches the application requirement: Our organization has a systematic method to assure that the materials/components for future jobs are being prepared while current jobs are being run: Our organization has a systematic method to assure that we have an uninterrupted supply of materials from our vendors:

0 8 5 7 7 4 4 4 6 6 51

Total Score out of 120
Ratings: World Class = > 95 Above Average = 75 - 94 Average = 55 - 74 Below Average < 55

Your score places you below average among users of SMT materials. This position offers overwhelming opportunities for improvement. Look at your results on each question and develop an action plan for improvement. Your organization has an urgent need to recognize that evaluating your solder pastes and materials is a most important activity.

Slide #70

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DOE, SPC, CIP
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

We have a continuous improvement plan that is effective, uses metrics, and is recognized as valuable by the entire organization (this question counts 3 times): We measure our process uptime: We measure our unscheduled downtime: We measure our line efficiency: We measure our work in process time: We know our process's Cp and Cpk: We have a statistical process control program and use the resulting data effectively to monitor and improve our processes: Our process engineers use designed experiments to optimize our processes and evaluate equipment and materials: Quality is everyone's job: Productivity is everyone's job:

3 8 2 2 5 9 9 9 8 8

Total Score out of 120
Ratings: World Class = > 95 Above Average = 75 - 94 Average = 55 - 74 Below Average < 55

69

Your score places you as average in DOE, SPC and CIP for SMT assembly. This position offers significant opportunities for improvement. Look at your results on each question and develop an action plan for improvement. Having an effective CIP program is vital for success.

Slide #71

Pb-Free Workshop

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Training and Failure Analysis
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Our organization has a sophisticated training program for all levels of our staff (this question counts 3 times): Our engineers understand the difference between common cause and special cause failures and use this knowledge in process troubleshooting: Our engineers use sophisticated modeling tools, like StencilCoach, Reflow Coach and LineBalancer to help them model processes and perform "what if" analysis: Management uses costing tools like ProfitPro to perform financial "what if" analysis, before making financial investments in equipment etc: Our operators cannot change the process equipment's operating parameters: Our engineers know and use analytical problem solving and brainstorming techniques to perform failure analysis: There is a process line escalation policy that is understand by all (e.g. if the line is down and remains down this information gets escalated in a documented fashion): Our process engineer's yearly performance review is related to process improvement goals: We can perform failure analysis or vend this task out: Our staff has all ot the tools necessary to perform their jobs:

9 8 5 3 8 4 4 4 6 6

Total Score out of 120
Ratings: World Class = > 95 Above Average = 75 - 94 Average = 55 - 74 Below Average < 55

75

Your score places you as above average in Training and Failure Analysis for SMT assembly. This score still offers considerable opportunity for improvement. Look at your results on each question and develop an action plan for improvement, if appropriate.

Slide #72

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Line Level Metrics
Line Efficiency (%) Start 40 20 60 80 100 Goal 97 96 95 94 Start Line Uptime (%) WIP (hrs) First Pass Yield (%) 98 Goal 99 100

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Slide #73

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

But No Matter What You do, Have a CIP
• Assess yourself • Establish/Measure Metrics
– Paste Volume – Productivity Metrics – Pareto Defects

• Monitor Success/Develop Action Plan • Fix the Problems
Slide #74

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Software Tools to Help
• In addition to AuditCoach™ • Stencil Coach™
– Helps design stencils including PIP

• WaveCoach™ • LineSimulator™
– Simulates entire line, much easier than Arena®

• ReflowCoach™
Slide #75

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Stencil Design: StencilCoach™
Aspect Ratio
W Aperture Width > 4-5 particle diameters Aspect Ratio = W/t > 1.5 t

Area Ratio
D t Aopening= πD /4 Awall=πDt => ArR=D/4t
2

Circular Aperture Diameter > 8 particle diameters ArR = D/4t > 0.66

Calculations
Rectangular Aperatures

Recommendations:
Pitch (P - mils) 50 25 20 16 12 35

PW=1-3+ P/2
Pad Width (PW - mils) 26 15 12 10 8 19 PW OK? TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE

W = PW 2 to 3
Aperture (W -mils) 23 12 10 8 6 17 W OK? TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE Stencil Thickness (t - mils) 6 6 5 5 4 6

AR= W/t > 1.5
Aspect Ratio (AR) 3.833 2.000 2.000 1.600 1.500 2.833 AR OK? TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE

Solder Paste Type 3 3 3 4 4 3

Recommendations:
Circular Aperatures
Pitch (P - mils) 40

PW=0-2+ P/2
Pad Dia (PD - mils) 21 Pad Dia OK? TRUE

D = PW 2 to 3
Aperture Diameter (D-mils) 19 D OK? TRUE Stencil Thickness (t-mils) 5

ArR=D/4t >0.66
Area Ratio (ArR) 0.95 ArR OK? TRUE Solder Paste Type 3

Slide #76

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pin-in-Paste
Vsolder= 2Vf + Vh - Vp
Vf= Fillet Volume (Pappus-Gu
Vh Vf Vp

Vh= PWB Hole Volume Vp= Pin Volume

Inputs
Solder Pad Diameter (mils) Pin diameter mils PTH diameter mils PWB Barrel Length mils Paste Reduction Factor 76 18 30 58 0.52

Outputs V = 2Vf +Vh-Vp
Vf Vh Vp V Solder Paste Volume Needed

Cubic Mils 17585.147 40997.784 14759.202 61408.876 118093.992

Instructions: T stencil metrics component in Cells D32-33 a or stencil ape

If Pin is Square…...
Length - mils Width - mils Equivalent Pin Dia mils 18 22 22.454

Stencil Metrics
Stencil Thickness - mils Side: If Square Aperture - mils Radius: If Round Aperture - mils Rectangular? If First Side is (mils): Second Side should be (mils: 7 129.887 73.281 80 210.882

Slide #77

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

ReflowCoachTM
Time Temp 265 240

Temperature

217 C

Time
Time-s Temp-C
0 30 90 100 140 150 190 209 230 217 250 230 295 217 325 120

Thruput Calculator Tunnel Length cm Belt Speed cm/min Product Length cm Product Spacing cm

249 71 20 5

Thruput Bds/min Profile Time (min)

2.84 3.51

Obeys Lee Dwell Criteria?

Yes

Slide #78

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Ramp Up to 217 C
250

200

Temperature (C)

150
Lower Limit Upper Limit User Profile

100

50

0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Time (seconds)

Slide #79

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Time Above Liquidus
260 255 250

Temperature (C)

245 240 235 230 225 220 215 0 20 40 60 80 100

User Profile Hi Ramp Low Ramp Temp Max Temp Min Time Min Time Max

Time (seconds)

Slide #80

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Ramp Down
220 210 200

Temperature (C)

190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 290
Low Ramp Hi Ramp User Profile

295

300

305

310

315

320

325

330

Time (Seconds)
Slide #81

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

The Tools to Do the Job Right
• Statistical Thinking • DOE • SPC

Slide #82

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Statistical Thinking
Histograms Special Causes Common Causes Paretos

Control Charts

Process Variation

Ref: Sheri Flori
Slide #83

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Statistical Thinking… The Case of the Squirrel
• The greatest birder in MA was being harassed by squirrels • It was a crisis • Even squirrel proof feeders designed by NASA wouldn’t work • We needed to apply BMT!
Slide #84

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

So I Got Serious

A Crossman BB/Pellet Gun

Slide #85

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

The first shot with BBs. What should I do?

X X

Slide #86

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

The second shot.

X X X

Slide #87

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

The third shot and fourth.

X

X X X X

What is it telling me?
Slide #88

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

I try pellets.

X X X X X

What is this telling me?
Slide #89

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Accuracy and Precision
• Accuracy: How close to the measured. • Precision: How repeatable • Examples of:
– Poor accuracy and precision (BB’s) – Good precision, poor accuracy (pellets w/ bad sighting) Target Value Measured Value

Accuracy

Repeatability (Precision)

Slide #90

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Process Variation = Lost $
LSL USL

LSL

USL

LSL

USL

Ref: Sheri Flori
Slide #91

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Types of Variation

Common Cause • Natural, expected variation • Controllable • What are examples of CC in calibrating the pellet gun

Special Cause • Unnatural, not expected • Possible examples in pellet gun calibration

Knob twiddling can correct neither!
Slide #92

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

An SMT Electronic Assembly DOE Example

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Random Variation: Dr. Ron Golf Scores
Average = 82 Number of Rounds

Random Variation = Variance: Sr2

Score
Slide #94

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Variation from Factors: Tiger vs Dr. Ron
68 82 ∆= Difference in averages Number of Rounds
Implies that there is a greater difference between Tiger and Dr. Ron, than among them ∆2 >> Sr2

STiger

SDr. Ron

Tiger’s Scores
Slide #95

Dr. Ron

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

When Variation from Factor Change is Small…….
∆ Number of Rounds
For example: Phil Mickelson and David Toms. Then, ∆2 << Sr2

Sr

Score
Slide #96

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

DOE Uses ANOVA
• ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
– Compares S2 to ∆

• The F Statistic:

∆2 F∝ 2 Sr

• Large F => factors have a significant effect on result • “Large” varies with sample size, typically > 4 for 95% confidence
Slide #97

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

A Good Stencil Print

*Illustrations courtesy of MPM Corporation

Slide #98

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

High Speed UFP Printing
• The objective is to perform High Speed Ultra-Fine Pitch Stencil Printing. • Print speed, separation speed and wipe frequency need to be minimized to reach this goal. • Target is 8 second cycle time with current cycle time >20 seconds
Slide #99

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Cycle Time Breakdown
10

21.8 sec.

5

0
LOAD
• •

VISION

PRINT

SEPARATE UNLOAD

Wipe

10 inch wide board printed at 1 inch 2 s Load + 2 s Vision + 10 s Print + 5 s Separate + 1.8 s Unload + 1 s Wipe = 21.8 sec

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Cycle Time Breakdown
10 5

0
LOAD VISION PRINT SEP. UNLOAD Wipe

Objective: 1.8 s Load + 1.8 s Vision + Print + Separate + 1.5 s Unload + Wipe < 8sec

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Factors
• A: Print Speed: 1=4, 2=6, 3=8 inch/sec • B: Separation Speed: 1 = 1, 2 = 1.5 sec Number of Runs: 3x2x2x2x2=48 • C: Wipe Freq: 1= 1/8, 2= 1/12 Not that many! – 1/8 adds 0.875 sec, 1/12 adds 0.6 secs • • • • • • D: Stencil Type: 1= Efab, 2 = Laser E: Paste: Vendor A =1, Vendor B =2 Full Factorial Assume no interactions Aperture: W= 8, t= 5, L= 64 mils=>2560 mils3 Desire paste volume to be +/- 10% of aperture volume • Response: Solder Paste Volume
Slide #102

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

MiniTab Results
Source Print Sp Separati Paste Ty Stencil Wipe Fre Error Total DF 2 1 1 1 1 41 47 Seq SS 175117 104533 559008 274519 902008 1444731 3459917 Adj SS 175117 104533 559008 274519 902008 1444731 Adj MS 87558 104533 559008 274519 902008 35237 F 2.48 2.97 15.86 7.79 25.60 P 0.096 0.093 0.000 0.008 0.000

For stencil and paste, we can reject H0 with confidence. Hence, we can select the better choice for each of these factors and re-experiment to optimize total speed.
Slide #103

Minitab is available Free for 30 days at Minitab.com!

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

SPC and Variables Data
• Data relating to a specific process step • Quantitative • Can be used to monitor and improve process performance • Example: Solder Paste Volume • Variables data are crucial for an effective SPC Plan
Slide #104

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Process Data: Attribute Data
• • Data that relates to the performance of the product Examples:
– Shorts – Opens – Missing Component
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Shorts Opens Missing Solder Balls Compnent

Important, but cannot be measured to improve process performance Any plan should strive to relate attribute data to variables data and develop a CIP around this relationship Pb-Free Workshop

Pareto Attribute Data

Slide #105

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Variables Data Example
Shorts Opens

Upper Spec Limit

Lower Spec Limit

Solder Paste Volume = Average

Solder Paste Volume

Slide #106

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Variables Data: Solder Paste Volume
Process Occurrences

LCL

UCL

LSL

USL

Solder Paste Volume

Slide #107

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Control Chart for SPC
USL UCL Sigma 3 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma 2 Sigma 3 LCL LSL Centerline

Slide #108

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Solder Paste A Solder Paste B

Slide #109

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste B
1900

Process Capability Sixpack for Print Volume
Xbar and R Chart
5 1 UCL=1898

Capability Histogram

Mean

1800 Mean=1750 1700 5 1600 Subgr 600 UCL=541.0 400 R=255.9 200 0 2 2 LCL=0 1500 1750 2000 0 100 200 LCL=1602
1200 1700 2200

Normal Prob Plot

Range

Last 25 Subgroups
1950

Values

1800 1650 1500 180 190 200

Within StDev: 110 Cp: 1.06 Cpk: 1.06 Overall StDev: 111.634 Pp: 1.05 Ppk: 1.05

Capability Plot
I I I

Process Tolerance Within
I I

I I I

Overall Specifications

1400

2100

Subgroup Number

Slide #110

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste A
2050 1

Process Capability Sixpack for Print Volume
Xbar and R Chart
8 1 1 1 8 1 5 UCL=1898 Mean=1750 2 2 22 2 6 6 6 6 662 6 5 2 5 22 1 6 5 26 6 2 5 5 56 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 11 11 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 200 LCL=1602

Capability Histogram

Mean

1800 1550 1300 Subgr 1500 0 1 2 6 22 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 2 22 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 22 2 2 6 51 5 5 2 2 1 11 11 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1

500

1500

2500

100 1 1

Normal Prob Plot

Range

1000 500 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 11 11 1 11 1 11 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 11 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 111 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 11 111 2 2 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 22 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 22 2 2 2 222 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 2 2 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

UCL=541.0 R=255.9 LCL=0 600 1600 2600

2500 2000 1500 1000 180

Last 25 Subgroups

Values

Within StDev: 110 Cp: 1.06 Cpk: 1.06 Overall StDev: 273.152 Pp: 0.43 Ppk: 0.43
I

Capability Plot
Process Tolerance Within
I I I I

Overall Specifications
I I

I

1400

2100

190

200

Subgroup Number

Slide #111

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Best Practices Summary
• • • • • Assess Yourself Use Metrics Develop and Implement Action Plan Monitor Success Continuously Improve

Slide #112

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Board/Component Finishes
Board Finishes
– Immersion Ag – OSP – Electroless Ni/Immersion Au – Immersion Sn

Component Finishes
– – – – – – – Sn/Pb 100% Sn Pd/Ag Ni/Pd Ni/Sn Ni/Au Ni/Pd/AU

Pb Contamination and ability to withstand the higher reflow temperatures are the main concerns.
Slide #113

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Component Finishes: Pure Sn
• Easiest and most obvious choice • Sn Whiskers still a major concern • So TI recommends Ni/Pd/Au

Slide #114

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Structure of Pb-Free Preplated Finishes
NiPd finish: Past
PALLADIUM: MINIMUM OF 3u”

NiPdAu finish: Present
GOLD: 30-150 ANGSTROMS

PALLADIUM: 0.2-6.0 u”

NICKEL: 40 - 60 u”

NICKEL: 20 - 80 u”

Pd / Ni STRIKE: < 5 u” Ni STRIKE: < 5 u”
COPPER BASE METAL COPPER BASE METAL

• NiPdAu structure shown has been in use since early 1990s. • Enhanced wetting performance with NiPdAu finish seen in solderability tests. • See TI Application Note SZZA026 for complete evaluation of NiPdAu finish.
Courtesy: James Huckabee, TI

Slide #115

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

NiPdAu (SOP) Board Mount: Visual Appearance

Typical wetting NiPdAu finished SOP components with SnPbAg solder, NiAu PWB finish.

Typical wetting NiPdAu finished SOP components with SnAgCu solder, NiAu PWB finish.

Visual Appearance Results: All solder joints exhibited a heel fillet height at least one times the lead thickness and evidence of wetting to the sides of the leads. This performance would be considered acceptable for all 3 classes of products identified in IPC-A-610C (general electronic products, dedicated service electronic products, and high performance electronic products.

Courtesy: James Huckabee, TI Slide #116

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

PWB Surface Finish Summary
HASL ENIG OSP
Thickness (microinches) Fine pitch quality Contact Connections Wire Bonding Cost (To HASL) Availability Hazard to Manufacture 100 – 1000 Poor Fair Not Recommended 1X High High Au: 3 - 8 Ni 50 - 150 Excellent Good Limited 2X Moderate Moderate 8 - 20 Excellent Not Recommended Not Recommended 0.3X High Low

ImSn ImAg
40 – 60 Excellent Good Not Recommended 1X Very Limited High 3 - 12 Excellent Good Limited 1X Limited Low

Slide #117

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

2006 Finish Estimations

Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com
Slide #118

Projections courtesy of Enthone, Cookson Electronics

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Immersion Ag
• Low Cost • Planar Surface • Compatible with touchpads / solderless connections (if thicker Ag is used) • 2 – 10 microinches typical thickness
Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com
Slide #119

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

ImAg Issue #1: Tarnish
• Just like Ag silverware, this finish will yellow over time
– Will occur during assembly – Often, purely cosmetic

• Solderless connections appear very tolerant of tarnish • Thicker Ag less prone to tarnish
Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com
Slide #120

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

ImAg Issue #2: Migration
• The presence of moisture and current can cause the migration of Ag ions • Migrate from cathode to anode forming dendrites that reduce resistance…may eventually form a short
Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com
Slide #121

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

ImAg Issue #2: Migration

NO SIGN OF DENDRITIC GROWTH
*graph from www.alphametals.com

Slide #122

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

ImAg Issue #3: Premature Intermetallic Failure

Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com
Slide #123

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

ImAg Issue #3: Premature Intermetallic Failure
• Thick Ag finishes tarnish less and are more compatible with solderless connections, but…
– Thick Ag means more organic co-deposit – Organic co-deposit must be forced out of molten solder – Non-expulsion of organics can result in microvoids along board/solder intermetallic
Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com
Slide #124

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Solder Paste Evaluation: Pre-Screening
Since there are 10-20 solder paste suppliers, it is essential to narrow down the Pb-free candidates prior to actual physical evaluation

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Lot-to-Lot Viscosity Stability

Slide #126

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Typical Pb Contamination

Pb Content Must be less than 0.05%
Slide #127

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Reliability
• Surface Insulation Resistance
– Test procedure in J-STD-004 – 7-day test to determine if flux residue with affect electrical reliability

• Electromigration
– Test procedure in Telcordia GR-78 – 21-day test for electrochemical migration

Slide #128

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Supplier Support
• Assess your company needs against supplier capabilities.
– Are they available globally? – Are they available locally? – Can they accommodate changing requirements?

Slide #129

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Solder Paste Evaluation: Printing through Reflow

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Approximate Distribution of Process Related Defects
Component Placement 15% Reflow 15%

Incoming Components 6%

Solder Paste Screen Printer 64%

Slide #131

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Evaluating the Pb-Free Print Process: Four Main Paste Variables
• Viscosity Relative to Production Temperature • Stencil Life • Response to Pause • Resistance to Excessive Shear Thinning

Slide #132

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Effects of Viscosity
Too High • • • • Poor rolling Blade Hang-up Aperture clogging Insufficients • • • • • Too Low Excessive deposit Solder balling Solder beading Slumping Bridging

Slide #133

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Viscosity Vs. Temperature

Slide #134

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Solder Paste Stencil Life
Tack Life
4 3

Delta Tack Force (grams/mm2)

2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Brand X Good Paste

Time (hrs)

Inspired by: MPM

Slide #135

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Effects of Short Stencil Life
• Variability in solder paste deposits • Loss of “up time” • Wasted paste, wasted money

Slide #136

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Solder Paste Response to Pause
One Hour Pause
Response to Pause
50 45

Volume of Print (cubic mils)

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Brand X Good Paste

Print Number

Inspired by: MPM

Slide #137

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Effects of Poor Response to Pause
• Loss of up time • Paste deposition variability • Higher cost of “time for assists”

Slide #138

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

The Twelve Board Paste Evaluator
1. 2. Start with enough paste for 12 prints Print 4 boards (no kneading)
Metrics to Measure:
• Print Volume • Print Definition • Volume and Definition after Idle • Release from Aperture • Squeegee Hang up • Tack • Solder Joint Quality

Two hour sit, place, measure tack

Six hour sit, place, measure tack

For Final Candidates 1 Board, 1 hr sit then reflow 1 Board, 3 hr sit then reflow Repeat
•Coalescence •Reflow Window •J Standards

3. 4.

Pause one hour, no kneading, print 4 more boards, repeat tests in 2 Pause one hour, no kneading, print 4 more boards, repeat tests in 2

The above is good, but should also test for shear thinning!
Slide #139

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Solder Paste Resistance To Shear Thinning
50 40

Acceptable

Tack (grams)

30

20

Unacceptable

10

0 0 60 120 180 240

Time (minutes)

Slide #140

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Effects of Excessive Shear Thinning
• • • • Excessive deposit volume Slumping Bridging Balling/Beading

Slide #141

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Measuring Shear Thinning Effect
• Often overlooked in solder paste evaluations. • Discovered once a solder paste is implemented into production (too late). • Requires many print strokes, thus many boards to discover. • One suggested technique:
• • • • • • • •
Slide #142

1. Place fresh paste onto stencil (Repeat for all pastes being evaluated) 2. Set printer to run 30 knead strokes, wipe the underside of the stencil. 3. Print one board 4. Set printer to run 50 knead strokes, wipe the underside of the stencil. 5. Print one board 6. Set printer to run 100 knead strokes, wipe the underside of the stencil. 7. Print one board 8. Measure response variables on each printed board

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Placement Capabilities: The Solder Paste Tack
• • Should not be much different than standard Sn/Pb solder pastes Suggested evaluation technique:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Using fresh paste, print three boards After 8 hours, place components onto one board After 24 hours, place components onto the second board After 48 hours, place components onto the third board Compare the results and determine which solder paste lost more components, during the placement process, at each time interval

Slide #143

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Evaluating Pb-Free Reflow
• Most analyzed aspect of transition to pbfree. • Primary Pb-free reflow response variables:
– – – – – Wetting Appearance Voiding Solder Balling Tombstoning

• Critical Evaluation Criteria:
– Time above liquidus (TAL) – Peak temperature – Soak time
Slide #144

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Profile Variables
Reflow Profile for Indalloy #241
95.5Sn/3.8Ag/0.7Cu
300

250

PEAK
MP = ~217 C

Temperature (C)

200

150

100

Soak Zone

TAL

50

0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (Min)

Slide #145

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reflow DOE
Low Soak Time TAL Peak Temp. 1 minute 40 Sec. 230 °C Middle 2 minutes 60 Sec. 240 °C High 3 minutes 80 Sec. 250 °C

Are 27 profiles realistic with multiple solder pastes?
Slide #146

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Categorizing the Response Variables
• Potential defects need to be ranked according to each individual process.
– Which is more critical to the process?
• Probe testability • Residue color and quantity • Etc.

– Which is more detrimental to the product?
• • • • Voiding Tombstoning Bridging Etc.

Slide #147

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Analyzing the Overall Results
• 60 – 70% of all defects are attributed to the stencil printing process.
– Should be considered the most important for overall process consideration

• Reflow is a new crucial variable for Pb-Free
– Not necessarily an issue for paste – Critical for components and boards
Slide #148

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste Evaluation Summary
• Pb-free transition requires a knowledge of statistics and DOE to have a successful implementation. • Pre-screening of solder pastes necessary to make evaluation practical in size. • Printing and reflow require careful analysis to adequately distinguish between solder pastes.

Slide #149

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Motorola Pb-Free Cellphone Assembly
Courtesy: Vahid Goudarzi, Motorola

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Motorola’s Process Criteria
• Paste must have good response to pause, tack, slump and other printing metrics • The process/paste must show good coalescence and solder joint quality in a broad reflow process window • The reliability of the finished product must be as good or better than the standard Pb solder • The process must be simple and robust so that it can be transferred to other locations world wide
Slide #151

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste Evaluation/Manufacturing Process Development
• • • • Screen Printing Evaluation Reflow Profile Development Tackiness Measurement Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) Evaluation

Slide #152

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-free Solder Paste Evaluation
Paste evaluation & selection strategy:
Work with 8 preferred paste suppliers to develop a lead-free solder paste that meets Motorola’s manufacturing quality & product reliability requirements

The Finalists:

Flux Vehicles
Phase # 1 Phase # 2 Phase # 3

A Paste B Suppliers C

A1 B1 C1

A2 B2 C2

A3 B3

Lead-free solder paste suppliers & materials

These studies were completed using Sn/Ag/Cu, Entek finish boards, & air atmosphere
Slide #153

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Stencil Printing Evaluation
• Objective: To ensure Pb-free paste performs consistently as a function of time • Variables:
– Abandon time @ t=0, t=1, & t=4 hours – Solder paste (A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3)

• Output:
– Volume measurement using laser system – Visually inspect for smearing and selected apertures for clogs.
Optimum Print Speed, Squeegee Pressure, & Snap Off was set per paste supplier recommendation and validated Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

OSP Finish Test Vehicle for Paste Evaluation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 171 8 1 9 2 0 2122 23 24

R S C A B C D E F C S R
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 171 81 9 20 21 22 2 24 3

Selected Inspection Sites Based on gage R&R results

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Solder Paste Volumetric Measurement or 12 mils SMD pads @ t=0 h
400

Volume

300

200

Paste C1

Paste C2

Paste B3

Paste B1

Control

Paste A1

All Pairs Tukey K ramer 0.05

Pb-free Solder pastes performed well @ abandon time = 0h

Slide #156

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Solder Paste Volumetric Measurement for 12 mils SMD pads @ t=1 h
400

300

Volume

200

100

Paste C1 Paste C2

Paste B3

Paste B1

Control

Paste A1

All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05

Paste C2 failed @ abandon time=1h
Slide #157

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reflow Profile Development
• Objective: To determine reflow process window & identify a Pb- free paste which requires MINIMUM peak temp. • Variables:
– Peak temperature – Time above liquidus – Solder Paste (A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3)

• Output:
– Coalescent performance – Solder joint quality

Slide #158

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reflow Profile Matrix
Pb-free 2X3 Full Factorial Reflow DOE
• Minimize peak temp. to reduce thermal stress on Components • Interaction between peak temp. & time above liquidus Time Above Liquidus

60Sec. 70Sec.
Peak Temperature

80Sec.
Peak temp

229C 237C

P1 P2 P3

P4 P5 P6

P7 P8

Ramp rate

Time above liquidus

245C

P9

Lead-free reflow profile

Selected paste MUST perform equally well @ P1 through P9 in air atmosphere
Slide #159

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reflow Profile Development Cont.
Inspection criterion:
Coalescent performance @ P1,P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8 &P9

Poor Coalescent Good Coalescent Poor coalescent is attributed to powder oxidation during reflow process in air atmosphere
Slide #160

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reflow Profile Development Cont.
Inspection criterion:
Wetting performance @ P1,P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8 &P9

Insufficient toe fillet

Poor Solder Joint

Good Solder Joint

Insufficient toe fillet results in field reliability issues
Slide #161

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Flux Tackiness Measurement
• Objective: To ensure flux provides sufficient tackiness to hold components in place during manufacturing processes • Variables:
– Paste life @ t=0;t=1h t=2h; t=4h; t=8h – Pb-free solder pastes

• Output:
– IPC-TM- 650 Test Procedure: Measure the force required to Separate a 5mm diameter probe from paste – Shake Test -Automated vision inspection after placement
Pb-Free Workshop
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Flux Tackiness Measurement Cont.
IPC650 Tack Test - Tack test evaluation result
Tack Test
2.5
2.5

Tack Test

Tack (g/mm2)

2
2 T c ( /m 2 a k g m)

Control Indium 51A
Indium 92J Control 1

#1 #2

1.51.5 1
0.5 0 0 1 2 Time (Hrs) 4 8

Indium 232-99-2 Indium SMQ 230

B1

B3

0.5 0

0

1

2 Time (Hrs)

4

8

Slide #163

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Flux Tackiness Measurement Cont.
To ensure flux provides sufficient tackiness to hold components in place during assembly process
1) Populated PCBs after 0, 4, and 8 hours 2) Image components to determine X, Y, and Theta offsets. 3) Place PCBs on XY table of Chip Shooter & shake PCBs for 120 Sec. 4) Image components to determine X, Y, and Theta offsets 5) Determine delta for before & after shake process
Slide #164
Component placement offset after 120 second of shaking by chip shooter

resistor

-3

1

2

3.2x1.6

-1

0 -1

caps

0 1

3

tantalum

1

2

1

switch

-1

2

0

caps -4 -2

1 0 0

1 2 4 6

X-Offset

Y-Offset

Theta

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Surface Insulation Resistance
Motorola SIR Test Boards = B25 Test Board + Solder mask
Supplier B Surface Insulation Resistance Test

109

Ohms

Channel 1 Channel 11 Channel 21 Channel 153

107

Channel 163

24

72

120 168 216 264 312 360 408 456 Hours

SIR requirements is minimum of 10 8 Ohms
Slide #165

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste Final Evaluation Results
Phase 1
Paste B1 Visual Inspection Paste A1 Paste C1 Paste B2

Phase 2
Paste A2 Paste C2

Phase 3
Paste B3 Paste A3

Printing Paste
Volumetric data
P1,P5,P9

NT

NT

NT

Reflow

P1,P2,P3,P4,P5, P6,P7,P8,&P9

Tackiness

Instron IPC650 Shake Test Solder Joint

NT

NT NT

NT

NT NT NT

NT NT NT NT NT NT

NT NT NT NT NT NT

Quality
ALT J-STD B25

NT NT

NT NT NT

NT NT

SIR
Motorola

NT Failed NT

NT

Passed

Not tested Paste B3 met all requirements
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Slide #166

Pb-Free Workshop

Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont.
Solder Coalescent Comparison @ P1, P5, & P9
Supplier A Paste Supplier B paste

A1 @ P1

A1 @ P5

B3 B3 @ @ P1 P1

B3 B3

B3 @

@@ P5
P5

A1 @ P9

B3 B3

@ P9

Poor Coalescent

Paste A1 does not fully coalesce and result in grainy joint due to powder oxidation in air atmosphere
Slide #167

Good Coalescent

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont.
Solder Joint Evaluation @ P1, P5, & P9

Lead-free @ P1(229;60)

Lead-free @ P5(237;70)

Lead-free@ P9(245;80)

Leaded @ 210 C

No significant difference in solder joint fillet @ P1, P5, & P9 using B3 solder paste
Slide #168

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont.
Solder Joint Evaluation @ P1, P5, & P9

B3 @ P1

B3 @ P5
Insufficient toe fillet

B3 @ P9

Sn/Pb
Paste A1

No significant difference in solder joint fillet @ P1, P5, & P9 using B3 solder paste
Slide #169

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont. Intermetallic formation
P9
0.0025 mm

P1
0.0023 mm 0.0025 mm

P5

Slide #170

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Recommened Recommended235C profile for B3 Profile 300 250 200 Temp/C 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 Time/min 5 6 7 8 Ramp 0.7 deg/sec Time above 217C: 70s Peak 235C

Peak Temp. = 235 C +/- 5C; Time Above Liquidus = 70Sec +/ 10Sec

Slide #171

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reliability Evaluation
Product Level & Solder Joint Reliability Evaluation • Drop Test • Shear Test • Liquid-to-Liquid Thermal Shock • ALT for different Products Pb free solder joints MUST perform equal or better than leaded solder joints
Slide #172

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Drop Test
% of crack 1) Dropping products from 5 feet 2) Vert. & horiz.vibration for 2 hrs 3) Thermal shock for 48 hrs 4) Repeated step 1 thru. 3 X times 5) Measure % joint cracks on shields
25 20 15 10 5 0

Leaded radios

e2

1

4

3

5

ie ld

ie ld

ie ld

ie ld

ie ld

Sh

Sh

25 20 15 10 5 0

Sh

Sh

Pb-free radios

1

4

Sh

Sh

Shield solder joint cracking is significantly reduced using B3
Slide #173

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Sh

Sh

Sh

ie ld Sh 6 ie ld 7

3

2

ie ld

ie ld

ie ld

ie ld

Sh

Sh

ie ld

5

Sh

Sh

ie ld

ie ld

6

7

% of crack

Drop test vehicle

Shields

Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Solder Joint Reliability Evaluation Test Vehicle SOIC
0.5mm QFP 0.5mm CSP CSP20X40 Cap. 0.8mm CSP 0.5mm Conn. BGA 0.75mm CSP
0.5 mm CSP

• 6X6 mm Package size • 0.5 mm pitch partial array • 0.3 mm solder balls size

DIME

Slide #174

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Shear Test
•10 •9 •8 •SnPb •SnAgCu

•Shear at failure (kg)

•[after thermal shock]

•7 •6 •5 •4 •3 •2 •1 •0 •Ceramic •Inductors •Tantalum •Capacitors •Small •Capacitors •Ferrite Bead •Mid-size •capacitors

No significant difference in shear force after LLTS.
Slide #175

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Liquid-to-Liquid thermal shock evaluation (-55 °C to +125 °C)
Variables:
- Solder Paste (Paste B3 & Pb Paste) - Component Type ( 0402, 0603, 0805, BGAs, CSPs, VCO, Transformer)

Output:
- Electrical test at every 75 cycles for 450 cycles - Red dye analysis at 150, 300, and 450 cycles

Slide #176

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Liquid-to-Liquid thermal shock results after 450 cycles
Joint crack data for different components
125 100 Crack area, % 75 50 25 0 -25 Pb-free Solder Sn-Pb

Passed Joint

Failed Joint

Failed Joint
All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05

Red dye evaluation result

No significant difference in cracked area in leaded and Pb-free joints

Slide #177

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Products Built with Pb-free Paste

* Concorde iDEN

* i700 iDEN

* i1000 iDEN

* i1000 Charger Products built with Pb-free solder paste and passed ALT
Slide #178

* i85 iDEN

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues
• Tombstone Failures • Air Voids on CSPs • Logistics: Have a Plan to Avoid mixing SnPb and Pb-free Assembly

Slide #179

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues Cont.
20X40 Tombstone Failures
Lead-free Solder paste is more prone to tombstone failures due to higher coalescent force.
T1 T3 T2 T3 T4 T5

Before Reflow

After Reflow

T1 & T2 : Tack Force T3 : Weight T4 : Surface Tension (outside) T5 : Surface Tension (underneath)

T4 is significantly higher using lead-free solder paste
Slide #180

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues Cont.
20X40 Tombstone Failures
Tombstone failures are attributed to lead-free solder paste & blind vias

Blind Via

Pads without blind vias did NOT show tombstone failures
Slide #181

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues Cont.
20X40 Pad Design for Conventional PCB Evaluated Circle, ½ Circle, Rectangular (vertical & horizontal), Oblong, square stencil, etc.
0402 Stencil Aperture Openings
.015" .011" .018" .007" C .022" A* .041" .008"

Stencil design to minimize tombstone failures on pads with blind vias

.047"

Slide #182

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Tombstone / floating Failures

Paste volume was reduced to eliminate tombstone failures on large discrete inductors
Slide #183

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Air voids on CSPs

Manufacturing Issues Cont. Voids

• 6X6 mm Package size • 0.5 mm pitch partial array • 0.3 mm solder balls size

0.5 mm CSP

DIME
Slide #184

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Voids Mechanism in CSPs
1) Solder bump oxidation 2) Flux out gassing

Slide #185

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Air voids on CSPs
BGA/CSPs are more prone to voids mainly due to leaded bumps on package & increased oxidation of powder due to higher reflow temp. Solder Pastes
Paste B3 Paste #15 Paste #16

Variables:
- Ramp Rate - Solder Paste Ramp Rate (Deg./Sec.)

0.5

CSPs CSPs CSPs

CSPs CSPs CSPs CSPs CSPs CSPs

Outputs:
- Number of voids - Void size

0.8 1.5

Slide #186

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Air Voids in CSPs joints
Void Quantity VS. Ramp Rate
30

Void Size VS. Ramp Rate
25 20

Average Void Size (% of joint)

25

15

20

10

15

10 All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05

5 All Pairs Tukey-Kramer 0.05

0.5 Deg/Sec

0.8 Deg/Sec Ramp Rate

1.5 Deg/Sec

0.5 Deg/sec

0.8 Deg/sec _ID_

1.5 Deg/sec

• Quantity of voids are not significantly affected by ramp rate • B3 shows significant reduction in void size as ramp rate increases

Slide #187

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-free Joint&Component Appearance
4) Joint & Component Appearance
Coalescent Performance Comparison
Pb Paste After Reflow Pb Paste Before Reflow Pb free Paste Before Reflow Pb free Paste After

Pb paste fused onto Cu coupon Pb Before Reflow Pb paste printed onto Cu coupon

Pb free paste fused onto Cu coupon Pb free paste printedonto Cu coupon

Pb-free Paste has a significantly higher Coalescent force
Slide #188

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Solder Joint Comparison

PasteB3
Slide #189

Control(Pb)
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Pb-Free Workshop

Pb-free Joint &Component Appearance Cont. Shield Discoloration
SnO & SnO2 is formed after lead-free reflow process.

Leaded reflow profile

Lead-free reflow profile

Oxidation does not affect electrical performance
Slide #190

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Motorola Pb-Free Implementation Summary
Solder Paste Selection - Evaluated 19 different Pb-free solder pastes
and selected B3 based on manufacturing and product level reliability requirements.

Manufacturing processes - Reflow profile, screen printing operation,
tackiness evaluation, etc. completed

Reliability Evaluation - Pb-free solder joint reliability evaluation has
shown equal or better performance compared to current materials

Components - 100% of the components Pb-free qualified Electrical & Mechanical - 100% completed with NO issues Quality - No manufacturing/product quality issues; DPHU goal were met
Slide #191

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Motorola Pb-Free Summary
•Production since 09/04/01 •Many site implementation •More than 1M cell phones have been shipped to the field • No field reliability issues have been encountered

Slide #192

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Wave Soldering and Large Board Issues

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Lead-free Complex Board
• Functional units were assembled using current materials, equipment set and a no clean Pb-free solder paste

mid-range server board
• materials
– surface finish: Ni/Au – board resin: hi Tg FR-4 resin – current component technologies
Slide #194

Pb-free thermal profile
• linear heating ramp – 0.9 °C/s • average peak temperature - 247 °C • dwell time – 75s above 217 °C • Courtesy: Eddie Hernandez, HP

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Large Board Summary
• Higher delta T on board => higher peak T = 245oC
– Reflow profiling and control much more important

• DOE needed for Process Optimization • NiAu and OSP were successful • Similar manufacturing issues to Motorola
Slide #195

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Wave Soldering
• Must use SAC, not SnCu
– SnCu does not process well and can cause Tin Pest

• Process Control is crucial

Slide #196

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Transformation of Beta-Tin into Alpha-Tin in Sn-0.5Cu at T <10oC

Ref: Y. Karlya, C. Gagg, and W.J. Plumbridge, “Tin pest in lead free solders”, Soldering and Surface Mount Technology, 13/1 [2000] 39-40

Slide #197

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Wave Soldering Overview
Preheating (IR) Conveyor Exhaust

Cooling Fan Fluxer Preheating (CVX) Chip Wave
© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Air Knife Laminar Wave

Inspired by Steve Breed, Speedline

Pb-Free Workshop

The Process
• Angle of Conveyor: Typically fixed at 6o • Conveyor Speed:
– Thermal Mass Dependent – 150 cm/min typical

• Wave Form
– Don’t use chip wave if you don’t have chips!

• • • Flux: According to Specs! • • Preheat parameters:
– Too hot =>drives off flux – Too cool => no activation – Temp Rqmts depends on flux type

Depth of Immersion: 50% Solder Purity: Monitor Monthly Solder Temperature: 260oC

Slide #199

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Adequate Fluxing is Crucial
• Follow the flux and sprayer specifications to assure coverage with in spec • Measure coverage with a fluxometer
http://www.ecd.com/emfg/instruments/fluxometer/index.asp

Slide #200

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

“KIC”: PWB Temp Profile
Board Bottom
183 C

∆T<140oC
Temperature

Board Top

Ramp Rate: 2-4oC/s

Entrance of Wave: >100oC Alcohol Flux >120oC Water Flux

Wave

Time

Slide #201

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

WaveCoach™ can Help
Board Bottom

Temperature

183 C

Board Top

Time
Time (sec) Temp Top -C Temp Bottom
0 30 90 70 150 90 120 235 160 170 200

Conveyour Speed (m/min) Length of Waves (cm)

Results
Time in Wave (s) Within Spec?
3.86 PWB Bottom ∆T FALSE 115.00 Cool Down Rate (C/s) FALSE 2.50 PWB Bottom T at Wave TRUE 120.00 PWB Top T at Wave TRUE

Slide #202

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

The Contour Wave Form
PWB pulls solder over exit

Courtesy: Electrovert
Slide #203

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Calculating: The Dwell Time
• Dwell time (DT) related to conveyor speed (CS) and “length” of wave (LW).
– DT = LW/CS

• LW = 3 “, CS= 5’/min
– What is DT?

• Use LevCheck™
– Glass with grid
Slide #204

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Optimizing the Process
1. Setup the Fluxer 4. Set depth of immersion at 50% 2. Establish pre-heat profile 5. Monitor solder purity monthly 3. Set the contour • Alpha “Pot Rite” wave to just pull program solder over the 6. Set Solder exit wing Temperature • Only use chip wave if you have chips 7. Set Dwell Time

Slide #205

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

Thanks for Coming!

Pb-Free Workshop

© Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003

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