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Testing Relevance

in
Fabric Quality
Appraisal
(Chemical)
By
P. N. Jarag
Quality Assurance Officer
Textiles Committee, Mumbai

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Identification
of Fibres and Percentage
Composition

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Principles of
Color Fastness
Testing

Means Tendency of fabric to hold color


To determine the resistance of dyed /printed textiles to
various agencies to which textile may be exposed during
manufacturing and subsequent use.
Assessment of quality of color
Exporters requirement

General Principles
Specimen of textile to be tested is subjected to action of
agency
Assessment of change in color of specimen
Staining of adjacent fabric
Adjacent fabric should be scoured, mercerized and
bleached(std.IS3425/1986)
Rating is given on basis of gray scale

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Color Fastness of Textile

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to washing
Fastness to perspiration
Fastness to light
Fastness to rubbing
Fastness to hot pressing
Fastness to dry-cleaning /organic solvent
Fastness to bleaching
Fastness to water / sea water

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Different Fastness Tests

M/C: Launder-o-meter or wash wheel


Sample size- 10cmx4cm
Test specimen is sandwiched between the two adjacent
fabric pieces i.e.undyed cutting of the same material (in
case of blend piece should be of predominant
material)and another piece should be as specified in the
standard
If multi-fabric is used then only one adjacent fabric is
used
Adjacent fabric should be free from optical brightening
agent & finishes
Severity of test increase as the test no increases.

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Wash Fastness

Specimen
Cotton

First piece
Cotton

Second piece
Wool

Wool

Wool

Cotton

Linen

Linen

Viscose

Viscose

Wool

Acetate

Acetate

Viscose

Polyamide

Polyamide

Wool/viscose

Polyester

Polyester

Wool/cotton

Acrylic

Acrylic

Wool/cotton

Cotton/viscose

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Standard Adjacent Fabric

Test
method

Soap
(gpl)

Soda
ash
(gpl)

Temp Time MLR


(o
C) (min.)

No of
steel
balls

Test
Intensity

IS:687:
79

40

30

1:50

Very Mild

IS:3361
:79

50

45

1:50

Mild

IS:764:
79

60

30

1:50

Moderate

IS:765:
79

95

30

1:50

10

Strong

IS:3417
:79

95

4-hrs

1:50

10

Very
Strong

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to Washing

Fastness grade

Interpretation

Excellent

Very good

Good

Moderate

Poor

Assessment of wash fastness


Treated sample is dried below 600C after opening the stitches
Change in color (contrast) is assessed with help of gray scale(IS768:1982)
Staining of adjacent fabric(contrast) is assessed with help of gray scale
(IS769:1982)
Reporting is done as per change in color and staining to both adjacent
fabrics
The assessment should be done by at least three observer and overall
average rating should be reported.

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Grade with Significance

Significance:
As the cloth come in contact with human perspiration so fastness
to perspiration is important to all shirting and suiting
Sample preparation is same as washing fastness.
Human perspiration may be acidic or alkaline in nature
depending on metabolism

Perspiration Recipe
Liquor composition (gpl)

Alkaline

Acidic

L-histidine monohydrochloride
monohydrate

0.5

0.5

NaCl

5.0

5.0

Na2HPO4.12H2O

5.0

---

NaH2PO4.2H2O

---

2.2

pH(adjusted by NaOH/CH3COOH)

8.0

5.5

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to Perspiration (test method:IS971:1983)

Purpose:
Those cloth which comes in contact with sea water
Sample preparation is same as washing fastness.
Solution of 30 gpl of NaCl is used to replicate the conditions
M:L ratio of 1:50 is maintained and the sample is kept in this solution
for 30 min. with stirring after every 5 min.
Sample is then removed
Kept in between the plates for 4 hours with a load of 5 kg

Fastness to Water (test method:IS767:1983)


Purpose:
Sample preparation is same as washing fastness.
Water of grade 3 is taken for the purpose
M:L ratio of 1:50 is maintained and the sample is kept in water for
30 min. with stirring after every 5 min.
Sample is then removed
Kept in between the plates for 4 hours with a load of 5 kg

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to Sea water (test method:IS690:1988)

Sample preparation is same as washing fastness.


For NaOCl bleaching, sample is kept in 2 gpl active content
solution with pH of 11 + 0.2 for 1 hr. in dark
M:L ratio of 1:50 is maintained
Sample is the removed, washed and assessed for change in color
For H2O2 bleach, 5gpl sol., 5 gpl Na. Silicate, Mg. Chloride is used

Fastness to Organic solvent / Dry cleaning


(test method:IS688:1983 & 4802:1988 resp.)
As those cloth which are either delicate or requires special washing
Sample is prepared and put in cotton bag with twill construction and
12 metal washers taken and the bag stitched.
Organic solvent or perchloroethylene
M:L ratio of 1:40 is maintained and the sample is kept in this
solution for 30 min. with stirring after every 2 min.
Sample is the removed and dried below 80 C
Sample is then assessed for change in shade

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to Bleaching
(test method:IS762:1988, NaOCl & 763:1988 for H2O2)

It is resistance of dyed/printed
material toward the day light.As the
day light changes from time to time
and altitude to altitude & the exposure
to day light will take a lot of time and
reproducibility
is
not
there.so
artificial light source are used
XENON arc or CARBON arc lamp is
used
Specimen size is 1cmx4.5cm (mounted
on card board)
8-Blue Woolen standards are provided
by SDC they are also exposed to light
along with samples(686:1985)

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to Light IS:2454:1985

It is resistance of
dyed/printed material
for rubbing.
Surface dye of the
specimen is removed
due to this test.
The
specimen
is
subjected to dry and
wet rubbing for the
staining on undyed
cloth both in warp
and weft direction.
Standard test method
is IS766:1988

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to Rubbing

Procedure
M/C
Pressure
No of strokes
Strokes length
Sample in warp
Sample in weft

:
:
:
:
:
:

Sample dimension same


Crock meter Three specimen are tak
damp and wet & pressur
900gm(9N)
Hot pressing temperatur
10
Staining of white sample
10cm
2(wet&dry) Change in color of spec
assessed
2(wet&dry)

Assessment of Rubbing Fastness

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Fastness to Hot Pre

Two samples both in warp and weft direction each , one is dry
rubbing other is wet rubbing.
Staining of white sample is reported on the basis of gray scale
It is critical for azoic color and printed(khadi printing) material
It is important to check rubbing fastness to all printed material.

Inclined (45 Flammability Test Method)


test method (IS:11871)
Class of Flammability

Interpretation

Textiles having no usual burning


characteristic, Normal flammability

Intermediate flammability

Rapid or intense burning

Vertical Flammability Tester test method (IS:11871)


To be tested in warp direction
11 cm x 31 cm strip is taken
Dry and again bring the moisture content to 65%
Impinge the sample with flame for 3 sec.
Accepted if the char length of five specimens does not exceed 7
and no specimen should burn fully

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Flammability of Textiles

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Dimensional Stability
of
Fabric

Measure of the extent to which the fabric keeps / maintain


its original dimensions subsequent to its manufacture.
Types of Dimensional Changes generally recognized are:
Relaxation shrinkage
Progressive shrinkage
Thermal shrinkage
Growth

Factors Affecting Dimensional Stability


Weave
Type of fibre
Type of finish
Tension during weaving
Type of test method adopted

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Dimensional Stability

60 cm x 60 cm specimen
Condition the specimen for 24 to 48 hours
Mark the specimen (50 cm) in conditioned state
Sample kept in tray containing water at 25 to 35C for 2
hrs.
Remove excess water by using towel in flat condition
Dry the sample in flat condition at room temperature
Condition the sample and then measure the dimensions
Calculate the change in dimension in percentage

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Dimensional Change of Fabric on Soaking

Simulates home laundering and drying conditions


Automatic washing machine
Automatic tumble dryer
AATCC reference detergent
Marking done with the template (min. of 25 cm.)
Detergent and sample loaded in to the machine and
wash
Dry the sample as per the test required by the customer
Repeat the selected washing and drying cycles
Condition the samples
Measure the dimensions and calculate the dimensional
stability

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Dimensional Change by AATCC - 135 Method

Description

Wash Temp

Rinse Temp.

Very cold
Cold
Warm
Hot
Very Hot

16 + 3C
27 + 3C
41 + 3C
49 + 3C
60 + 3C

< 18C
< 29C
< 29C
< 29C
< 29C

AATCC Washer and Dryer Condition


Setting Washer Normal
Delicate
Agitator (spm)
179 + 2
119 + 2
Wash Time (Min) 12
08
Spin Speed (rpm)
645 + 15
645 + 15
Final Spin time (min.)
6
6

Permanent Press
119 + 2
10
430 + 15
4

Dryers
Exhaust Temp.(C)
Cool Down Time (min.)

67 + 6
10

< 62
10

67 + 6
10

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

AATCC standardized Washing Temperatures

Textiles Committee (Government of India, Ministry of Textiles), Mumbai

Thank You