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Krystal Brant

Teacher Performance Assessment


Fall Semester Student Teaching

Task One Planning for Instruction and Assessment


1. Central Focus
*a. Describe the central focus for the learning segment.
The central focus for this learning segment is constructing and using contractions in
writing. In this lesson students will discover what contractions are as they practice
identifying them in writing, creating contractions and playing a matching game.
Students will learn about the apostrophe and how it is used to combine the two words of
a contraction. Through this lesson the objective is that students will be knowledgeable
of what each contraction means and how to construct them along with the ability to use
them in writing correctly within a sentence.
b. Given the central focus, describe how the standards and learning objectives within
your learning segment promote childrens
active and multimodal nature of learning
In this lesson students were engaged through hands-on play with rich materials. At the
end of the lesson students played a matching game with partners. In this matching
game each players objective was to match the contraction with the two words that
make that contraction. We used a poem about contractions, that students enjoyed,
which was read by the whole class for practice in reading contractions fluently.
Students then used the same poem to identify the contractions that they read by
highlighting. Students also used the mimio board to match the contractions together as
a class activity. Students would be called up to the board to draw a line to the correct
matches. At the beginning of the lesson we sang a song about contractions to engage
students into the lesson. All of these strategies used were ways to engage all the
different learning styles and needs of my students. Research has shown through
blooms taxonomy that students each have a dominate way of learning that is
successful for them, and through using all these strategies I was able to reach out to all
needs in my classroom. There are many students who needs to get up and move so
their needs were met through the mimio activity when they came up and drew the line.
Some students are musically inclined which was met through the crocodile contraction
chomp song that was sung at the beginning of the lesson. In the game with partners we
were able to have a group activity for those intrapersonal students that like to work in
groups and they were also moving and out of their seats. The poem was a whole group
activity but students were able to find contractions on their own which was a great
interpersonal activity for those students. Many senses were used during this lesson
which will help each student to achieve and create a positive learning experience.
Language and literacy development in an interdisciplinary context
Students will be working with many language demands in this lesson. A
language demand involves vocabulary, language function and syntax. Firstly, the
vocabulary of this lesson is the sole importance of this lesson. As students are using
high frequency phrases and creating them into new words called contractions they are
acquiring a whole new set of vocabulary words. This will mean an understanding of the
definition of their new vocabulary words. They will also need to know how to write these
words correctly and in sentences according to their correct meaning to make sense.

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

This is where syntax is important in this lesson. Syntax is the conventions of organizing
sentences with symbols, words, and phrases into structures.
This lesson is within a unit of the Literacy by Design reading program at the
school. This particular lesson fit in with the unit by using the same theme. I tied in the
big book, Where is Kitty, by having students read from the book to find contraction. This
showed students that in books and various writings there are contractions. Students
learned that even though they do not need to be used in writing, they need to
understand each contraction meaning and know how to construct them. This is a major
part of their literacy development by taking what they know (a familiar book) and
applying the new information given to them (finding contractions). Student use
contractions in their verbal language so to have students understand how to put it into
writing will reinforce their communication.
For my English Language Learner, I emphasize greatly on explaining how to form
these contractions and why we use them in writing. This student is a very strong reader
with little difficulty during the school day with the English language, however at times he
needs more questions to be answered during instructions or individual work time. I will
prompt him with questions for statements that will allow him to think about what answers
should be. I also will have him read directions to me on work to be completed
individually so that he can formulate an idea of what he needs to accomplish. Like
stated earlier, there are no academic problems or concerns about this particular
students, I just will scaffold his learning.
c. Explain how your instructional plans build on each other to make connections
between the active and multimodal nature of young childrens learning and their
language and literacy development.
My strategies used for active and multimodal nature of young childrens learning
and their language and literacy development are connected to one another to support
student learning experiences. Students go back and forth between sitting at the carpet,
at their seats and in small groups at the reading table. Students are never sitting in one
place for too long to keep their attention span longer. We have a game on our mimio
board as a fun interactive game with the whole class which serves as a great visual for
students as we are learning about contractions. For my higher students who benefit
from organizers we made a T-chart on the board of contractions and their two high
frequency words. From these to activities here we have a part of the segment where
we only match contractions with the correct high frequency phrase, and then the next
activity builds upon that. In the poem activity with the T-chart students are only taking
the contraction and have to come up with the high frequency phrase without any
options, but only by looking at the contraction itself.
We lastly had a matching game where students were in small groups to play a
card game. Each card has a contraction or high frequency phrase on it. All cards were
laid face down and students took turns flipping cards over. If the contractions match
then the student kept their cards for that turn, if they did not then they had to lay them
back down. This is an extension from the previous activities because it takes both skills
worked on and puts it into one game.

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

d. Describe what was done (or could be done) to construct a physical learning
environment that supports the active and multimodal nature of young childrens
language and literacy development.
The physical environment in which these students learn supports an active and
multimodal nature of young childrens language and literacy. Students have so many
opportunities in the classroom to interact with reading a multitude of different texts and
at varying levels to meet all student needs and interests. We have two book shelves in
the classroom in which students can take books to read when done with work. Then
there is a designated reading area for students where they can sit on the carpet or in
chairs of their choice. If this was my own classroom I would do a type of author or topic
area study where students would have books available in a bin either written by the
same author or on a specific learning topic to be read in class.
For both math and reading lessons, we have games and interactive activities that
students can play together that increase their understanding of the new language being
learned. These games and activities will also support their literacy development on
creating these in the mind of a specific topic area that will increase literacy
development. I believe in a very active and hands-on learning environment where
students can engage with one another to keep learning and asking new questions to
discover new findings.
In our classroom we have many opportunities to learn through all senses. This is
a great way to make sure all students have the chance to learn by their own learning
style. Not every student learns the same or at the same pace, so giving each student
opportunities to learn differently will allow for them to fairly demonstrate their learning. I
do this by whole and small groups and individual work. Some students work best on
their own, but some work better with other either in a large or small group. I give the
opportunity for students to play hands on activities such as in this lesson a card
matching game. Then we also use songs and poems for those who benefit from rhythm
exchanges. We always have books with visuals for each lesson and there is a
recording of each book as well to listen to. WE offer a great amount of each learning
ability that will allow each student to learn at their own pace and ability.
2. Knowledge of Children to Inform Teaching
*For each of the prompts below (2ac), describe what you know about the children in
your class with respect to the central focus of the learning segment.
a. Childrens development related to the central focusWhat do you know about the
childrens
social and emotional development
cognitive and physical development
language development for communication
b. Prior learning and prerequisite skills related to language and literacy development
What do children know, what can they do, and what are they learning to do
related to language and literacy development?

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

On the day of this lesson, I had students complete a morning worksheet which
involved creating contractions and using them in a sentence. Each student was given a
worksheet where they were to write 5 sentences containing one contraction. I took what
prior knowledge they had about contractions from first grade to determine how I was
going to guide their instruction during their language arts lesson later that morning. I
learned from this morning worksheet that most students understood what a contraction
was and were able to put them into a complete sentence making sense. However,
there were a handful of students who did not use an apostrophe or left out the wrong
letters when making the contractions. There were also a few who used the same
contraction in five different sentences, so their contraction vocabulary lacked variety in
their writing.
It was evident in this worksheet that students knew their high frequency words
that are used to make contractions and what those words meant as they were put into
sentences that made sense and were understandable to read. This was an important
part of creating contractions because if students could not write or read their high
frequency words this task would have been difficult and not developmentally
appropriate. My students have the understanding of sentence structure and what
comprises a sentence such as punctuation, capital letters at the beginning, word choice
and comma usage.
There are four students who are in interventions and evaluated for reading
difficulties that have accommodations and modifications that have to be taken into
consideration while planning the lesson as well. These students know the basics for
creating a contraction, and will need more scaffolding. Scaffolding for these students
will mean a lot of modeling by creating contractions along with them as they follow my
steps. These students are working daily on reading sight words, such as the ones that
are used to make contractions. The ability to read and write these sight words is a huge
part of their prior knowledge that will make contractions a simpler skill. These students
will have accommodations such as writing fewer sentences or given a specific
contraction to write into a sentence rather than deciding on which to use.
*c. Personal/cultural/community assetsWhat do you know about your childrens
everyday experiences, cultural backgrounds and practices, and interests?
3. Supporting Childrens Development and Learning
Respond to prompts 3ac below. To support your explanations, refer to the instructional
materials and learning experience plans you have included as part of Task 1. In
addition, use principles from research and/or theory to support your explanations.
a. Explain how your understanding of the childrens development, prior learning, and
personal/cultural/community assets (from prompts 2ac above) guided your choice or
adaptation of learning experiences and materials.
From the students prior knowledge that I have documented above, I can create a
positive learning environment where students can actively engage in learning by using
what they already know to drive instruction. I believe that when a student is confident in
one area, as a teacher you can build on that strength to give a guided challenge rather

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

than saying its mastered and move onto the next task. Everything needs to transition
together throughout lessons, chapters and units in order to build student knowledge and
for that information to be retained. This is a way scaffolding your instruction while you
are teaching a whole class. I will give them the information that is needed to
understand the material, but the students will need to think about how to answer
questions or come up to the board and work on an answer. I am there for guide and
support as students come up to match the correct contraction with phrases or when
students are writing contractions they found from the poem, but they are initially using
what I had given them to create an understanding of what to do. Then when there is not
a connection between the material and student, I will help with prompts and ideas to get
that student to find an answer.
In order to connect my students prior knowledge with the new information being
introduced on contractions I connected their ability to create sentences in with writing
contractions. The students were not only writing contractions and learning how they are
made, but applying their new knowledge with a skill that most already have mastered.
This is where students are creating sentences for each contraction to show an
understanding of its meaning. Everything here in this lesson is built to show a growth
over a period of time by the students. Students begin at the basics of how contractions
are put together, what they are, where an apostrophe goes and what words they derive
from. We complete these learning tasks through various learning activities, but each
one builds on a little more or works a new skill or concept that students must master.
b. Describe and justify why your instructional strategies and planned supports are
appropriate for the whole class, individuals, and/or groups of children with specific
learning needs.
I took my students prior knowledge of contractions to guide my instruction for the
lesson. When I saw the areas that my students struggled with I was able to better guide
their learning according to their specific needs both per student, small group or whole
class. In the pre assessing I conducted with the morning paper I was able to identify
strengths and weaknesses throughout my class that would be areas I needed to make
sure to cover during instruction time. I was then able to make sure that my whole class
instruction time was used as a way to reach to all areas that students were commonly
weak in. Once the whole class instruction was complete I continued my instruction
further through instruction in small groups of children with similar weaknesses. After
small groups I was able to create observable notes about individual student needs to
create individual instruction time. Following are the ways that I incorporated each
instructional strategy appropriate for the groups of students I worked with.
Whole class:
The area of common need for whole class instruction for this specific learning
segment was the proper construction and use of contractions. Since some students did
not write the contractions correctly on their morning worksheet, I had a song that we
used to help reinforce our understanding. The song is called the Crocodile Contraction
Crunch to the tune of the hokey pokey. This song creates a positive learning
experience because I am meeting the needs of those who are auditory and musically
inclined to learn. The song has a verse that sings /He puts two words in, he spits two

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

words out, he puts two words in and crunches them all about/ which helps those
students visualize two words letters being mixed together to create one word.
As a whole class we completed a matching game. This matching game was to
match the contraction with the two origin words. Each matching component was in its
own column and students had to draw a line to the matches. Students were able to
work together to come up with answers and visually see how each contraction was
made.
During this instruction time students listened to a poem, read it silently and then
chorally as a class. The poems title is Crocodile Pie which contains many contractions.
After reading the poem students were given the task to highlight all contractions found
in the poem. Once all contractions were highlighted, students were called to come up to
the board to fill in the T-chart labeled contraction and origin.
Small groups:
I put students into small groups to work on common weaknesses when
constructing and using contractions. There were three small groups consisting of four
to five students who needed specific assistance.
Group one- This group needed the most intervention among all students in the
classroom. These students sat with me as they reviewed their high frequency words.
Then on their white boards they write the words that I tell them. For example if I gave
them the words I have this phrase would be written by all students. Then I asked them
to cross out the letters that need to be deleted to create the contraction. In this particular
phrase students would cross out the h and a. Next I had students write the new word
by connecting the two origin words with an apostrophe. We did this with about five
words. Then the students were given the cards to play the matching game.
Group two- Group two needed some scaffolding before playing the matching game.
This group was orally given a phrase and had to write the correct contraction. Then I
orally gave students a contraction in which they were to write the phrase that makes the
contraction. After doing each strategy about three times the students were given cards
to play the contraction matching game together.
Group three- This group of students had difficulty matching up the contraction with the
two origin words, so this group played a matching game together. Cards were laid out
on the ground and the matches of the corresponding contractions need to be found.
Once students found a match they kept the cards and could try one last time to find a
match for their turn. Then it would be the next players turn.
Individual:
Individually I took students out depending on how well each one did on their
contraction assessment. We use the matching game as a way to work one on one with
the words by finding the correct matches. We already practice the high frequency
words together daily as an intervention, so this helps to build their knowledge on the
meanings of each contraction. The main area we work on is identifying what a
contraction is and what one looks like in writing. Using texts that are available in the
classroom I have students look for contractions on a given page. Then we will work with
these contractions together on how they were formed and the correct position of the
apostrophe.

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

*c. Describe common developmental approximations or misunderstandings that pertain


to the learning experiences you are planning for the children and how you plan to
address them.
4. Supporting Childrens Language Development
Respond to prompts 4ac below by referring to key vocabulary7 for the learning
segment.
a. Identify the vocabulary (i.e., developmentally appropriate sounds, words, phrases,
sentences, or paragraphs) that will support childrens learning in the planned learning
experiences.
The main student vocabulary words for this lesson are contraction and
apostrophe. Students will be able to understand that a contraction is the process of
making sentences smaller by combining two words. They will then learn that an
apostrophe is the punctuation that connects these two words together. Throughout the
lesson both words will be used for student familiarity with each.
In order for this lesson to be effective and for students to benefit, the
understanding of the following high frequency words must be mastered before
understanding contractions. Knowing the high frequency words that are listed will allow
students to better understand what the contractions mean. When students know that
can means to be able and not used in a negative clause, they are able to understand
that cannot means to be unable to.
High Frequency words:
She
He
Would
Should
Can
Not
I
Am
They
Will
Is
That
There
You
Are
We
What
Have

High Frequency
Phrases:
What is
You are
I will
They are
That is
There is
She is
I am
We are
He is
Can not
He would
You have
They will
Has not
Could have
You would
Who would

Contractions
Whats
Youre
Cant
Ill
Thats
Theyre
Shes
Hes
Im
Were
Hed
Shed
Theyll
Youve
Couldve
Shouldve
Has no
Who would

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

b. Identify a key learning experience from the learning segment plans that provides
children with opportunities to develop, practice, and/or use the vocabulary identified in
prompt 4a. (Identify the plan day/number.)
In this learning segment that I have planned for my students, they will each
interact in experiences that will develop their vocabulary as identified above. Students
will work with given high frequency phrases and contractions to find matches in a game.
This is a group interactive game with in reading groups students will place cards face
down on the ground. When someone is up for their turn, they will pick two cards trying
to match the card with a correct contraction or phrase.
Language Supports
Refer to your plans and instructional materials as needed in your response to the
prompt below.
Describe the instructional supports (during and/or prior to the learning experience) that
help children develop and use the vocabulary identified in prompt 4a.
5. Monitoring Childrens Learning
In response to the prompts below, refer to the assessments you will submit as part of
the materials for Task 1.
*a. Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct
evidence of multiple modalities to monitor childrens learning of language and literacy
throughout the learning segment.
Formal assessments
Informal assessments were used in this lesson as a way to guide further instruction and
see what information the children retained and understood. I first conducted a preassessment so that I could make a plan according to their current understanding of
contractions. This assessment was a morning worksheet where students were given
the instruction to write five sentences each containing a contraction. From this
assessment I gathered where my students were strong and weak with constructing
contractions and correct use in a sentence.
I was then able to make observational notes during the lesson to see which
students had an understanding through discussion and classwork. With these two
assessments I was able to make my small groups of students to conduct an intervention
plan on contractions. I took many observational notes in my small group settings. This
is where I worked with students who had similar difficulties. I was able to create a plan
for them as we met at the carpet and reviewed contractions before playing the matching
game as a group.
I saw many students who had difficulty on the pre assessment able understand
and create contractions on their own after the lesson. The next day I gave a contraction
assessment. On this assessment students had to circle the correct contraction for a
given phrase on the first part then circle the correct phrase for a given contraction on
the second part.

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

b. Explain how the design or adaptation of your planned assessments allows children
with specific needs to demonstrate their learning.
The students in my class that are being evaluated for specific learning difficulties
are being given adapted assessments according to their IAT plans. There are four
students with the same accommodations to consider during testing. Each student must
have assessments and worksheets read to them. These tests should be read out of the
classroom in the hallway if possible where it is more quiet and away from distractions.
The tests must be read to them. All questions and possible answers will be read to
these students due to their reading difficulties. Without the assessment being read to
students they would not fairly be able to demonstrate their learning for appropriate
interventions to be put in place.
These are students who are being evaluated to determine what their specific
needs and learning goals are. None are identified yet with an IEP, but are being looked
at for reading difficulties. This makes taking a test difficult for each student because in
second grade each student reads their own tests. So when the tests are read to them
as a small group away from distractions they are able to understand what the questions
are asking and what directions are for specific work to be completed in class.
Task Two Instructing and Engaging Children in Learning
In Task 2: Instructing and Engaging Children in Learning, you will write a commentary,
responding to the prompts below. Your commentary should be no more than 6 single
spaced pages, including the prompts.
1. Which learning experience(s) are shown in the video clips? Identify the learning
experience(s) by plan/day number.
2. Promoting a Positive Learning Environment
a. In your response to the prompt, refer to scenes in the video clips where you provided
a positive learning environment.
*b. How did you demonstrate mutual respect for, rapport with, and responsiveness to
children with varied needs and backgrounds, and challenge children to engage in
learning?
When I had students in the classroom who have varied needs and backgrounds,
I helped their changes by engaging them in a positive learning experience. As seen in
the video of this learning segment, I helped the student () when she came up t the board
and had a difficult time deciding the correct answer.
2. Engaging Children in Learning
Refer to examples from the video clips in your responses to the prompts.
*a. Explain how your instruction engaged children in
Language and literacy development
The language and literacy development is evident in this lesson segment through
the different activities the students are engaged in. Each student had the opportunity to

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

show me whether in small group or whole group activities their understanding of the
new vocabulary words. In our first group activity the students match together phrases
and contractions by drawing a line to the matching on the board.
We began the lesson with an engaging song about contractions. The song was
the Contraction Crocodile Crunch, which was a great way to get students engaged right
away in the beginning of the lesson. In this song the students have a great example of
what a contraction is. The song tells us that a contraction is a word that is derived from
two words. The songs words are /he puts two words in/, /and crunches them all about/,
/he does the contraction crocodile crunch/, /and spits a contraction out/. This is the part
of the song that tells us that one new word is created from the high frequency phrase.
The students were also reading a poem for a literacy development activity. In
this poem students were able to read individually, listen to the poem being read and
choral read as a strategy for fluency. Not only were students working on fluency of
reading texts and a poem, but also their new vocabulary words. These vocabulary
words were the same contractions that were in the poem from our previous learning
activity to reinforce what we had just learned and discovered. After students read
silently and listen to the poem they were given the instructions to highlight all the
contractions found in the poem. After highlighting all contractions found, I had students
come to the board and fill in a T-chart labeled contractions and phrase. On the T-chart
students will put the contraction and the two word phrase under the correct part of the Tchart. This was an engaging way to get the students language and literacy
development. Students were able to take a text and find all of the new vocabulary
words we just discussed in class, contractions.
the active, multimodal nature of young childrens learning
The lesson segment here has many example of active and multimodal nature of
young childrens learning. In this lesson students were engaged through hands-on play
with rich materials. At the end of the lesson students played a matching game with
partners. In this matching game each players objective was to match the contraction
with the two words that make that contraction. This part of the lesson allowed students
to work together to come up with contraction matches. When students work in groups
with other classmates, students are able to guide one another and teach what they
know and then receive help from other classmates on the areas that they are weak in.
We used a poem about contractions, that students enjoyed, which was read by
the whole class for practice in reading contractions fluently. This part of the lesson
helped those who are rhythmically inclined and learn or read better though songs or
poems. Along with the poem, students also sang a contraction song which helped to
explain what a contraction is and how they are created. This was another way to reach
those who learn in different ways than others. Students then used the same poem to
identify the contractions that they read by highlighting. Students also used the mimio
board to match the contractions together as a class activity. Students would be called
up to the board to draw a line to the correct matches.
. All of these strategies used were ways to engage all the different learning
styles and needs of my students. Research has shown through blooms taxonomy that
students each have a dominate way of learning that is successful for them, and through
using all these strategies I was able to reach out to all needs in my classroom. There

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

are many students whos needs to get up and move so their needs were met through
the mimio activity when they came up and drew the line. Some students are musically
inclined which was met through the crocodile contraction chomp song that was sung at
the beginning of the lesson. In the game with partners we were able to have a group
activity for those intrapersonal students that like to work in groups and they were also
moving and out of their seats. The poem was a whole group activity but students were
able to find contractions on their own which was a great interpersonal activity for those
students. Many senses were used during this lesson which will help each student to
achieve and create a positive learning experience.
*b. Describe how your instruction linked childrens development, prior learning, and
personal, cultural, and community assets with new learning.
On the day of this lesson, I had students complete a morning worksheet
which involved creating contractions and using them in a sentence. Each student was
given a worksheet where they were to write 5 sentences containing one contraction. I
took what prior knowledge they had about contractions from first grade to determine
how I was going to guide their instruction during their language arts lesson later that
morning. I learned from this morning worksheet that most students understood what a
contraction was and were able to put them into a complete sentence making sense.
However, there were a handful of students who did not use an apostrophe or left out the
wrong letters when making the contractions. There were also a few who used the same
contraction in five different sentences, so their contraction vocabulary lacked variety in
their writing.
It was evident in this worksheet that students knew their high frequency words
that are used to make contractions and what those words meant as they were put into
sentences that made sense and were understandable to read. This was an important
part of creating contractions because if students could not write or read their high
frequency words this task would have been difficult and not developmentally
appropriate. My students have the understanding of sentence structure and what
comprises a sentence such as punctuation, capital letters at the beginning, word choice
and comma usage.
There are four students who are in interventions and evaluated for reading
difficulties that have accommodations and modifications that have to be taken into
consideration while planning the lesson as well. These students know the basics for
creating a contraction, and will need more scaffolding. Scaffolding for these students
will mean a lot of modeling by creating contractions along with them as they follow my
steps. These students are working daily on reading sight words, such as the ones that
are used to make contractions. The ability to read and write these sight words is a huge
part of their prior knowledge that will make contractions a simpler skill. These students
will have accommodations such as writing fewer sentences or given a specific
contraction to write into a sentence rather than deciding on which to use.
4. Deepening Childrens Learning during Instruction
Refer to examples from the video clips in your explanations.

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

a. Explain how you elicited and built on childrens responses to promote childrens
language and literacy development and take into consideration the active and
multimodal nature of young childrens learning.
b. Explain how you made interdisciplinary connections through the learning
experience(s) to promote childrens development of language and literacy.
5. Analyzing Teaching
Refer to examples from the video clips in your responses to the prompts.
a. What changes would you make to your instructionfor the whole class and/or for
children who need greater support or challengeto better support developmentally
appropriate practices that promote language and literacy development and take into
consideration the active and multimodal nature of young childrens learning (e.g.,
missed opportunities)?
b. Why do you think these changes would improve childrens learning? Support your
explanation with evidence of childrens learning and principles from developmental
theory and/or research.
Task Three Assessing Childrens Learning
In Task 3: Assessing Childrens Learning, you will write a commentary, responding to the
prompts below. Your commentary should be no more than 10 single-spaced pages,
including the prompts.
1. Analyzing Childrens Learning
a. Identify the specific language and literacy standards/objectives measured by the
assessment you chose for analysis.
Standard:
Grade 2 Language: Conventions of Standard English, c. Use an apostrophe to form
contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
Objective:
Given a high frequency phrase, students will be able to use an apostrophe to create a
contraction with a mastery of 8 out of 10.
Both the state standard and objective was able to be measured through this
assessment. The
b. Provide the evaluation criteria you used to analyze the childrens language and
literacy development.
To analyze childrens language and literacy development, they each completed
assessments and I took observational notes to help understand where students learning
tasks needed further interventions. Students took a pre-assessment the morning of the
lesson. This pre-assessment was a worksheet where students were to write five
sentences with each containing a contraction. The assessment was not taken as a
grade, but rather how well they did to compare scores after the lesson. Students
received a point for having a contraction written correctly with the apostrophe placed in
the right spot. Another point was given for a complete sentence that made sense
according to the contraction used. This totaled two points for each sentence, and would
make the worksheet out of ten points in all.
The worksheet used for a morning work the next day was a cut and paste
worksheet where students had to cut out contractions and match them with the correct

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

high frequency phrase. This was an assessment scored out of eight points with a
mastery of 7/8. Students would glue the contraction piece next to the correct phrase for
a point. This served as an assessment to see if there were any other students after the
previous days lesson that needed further help before the actual assessing.
The last assessment for this lesson was the contraction test. This test was
graded on two parts. On the first part of this assessment students answered multiple
choice questions. First students were to circle the words that each contraction stands
for and then it asked to circle the correct contraction for two given words. The second
part of this assessment was a writing portion. First students had to write the correct
contraction for two given words and then write the two words for a given contraction.
For four of my students they did not have to complete the second part of the test, but
only the multiple choice questions. The written answers were not developmentally
appropriate for their learning abilities. They rather were graded out of ten points instead
of the twenty like the rest of the class.
c. Provide a graphic (table or chart) or narrative that summarizes childrens learning for
your whole class. Be sure to summarize childrens learning for all evaluation criteria
described above.
Pre assessment:
Write five sentences containing contractions
Score on Test
(mastery 8/10)
10/10
8/10
7/10
6/10
4/10

Number of Students
(22 total)
5
3
8
4
2

Contraction morning work:


Cut and paste contractions to match phrases (day after lesson)
Score
Number of Students
(Mastery 7/8)
(22 total)
8/8
22
Post assessment:
Contraction test
Score on Test
(mastery 16/20)
20/20
19/20
18/20
13/20
Score on Test

Number of Students
(2 total)
10
6
1
1
Number of Students

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

(mastery 7/10)
9/10
6/10

(4 total)
2
2

d. Use the whole class summary provided above and 3 sources of evidence for each
of the 2 focus children to analyze the patterns of learning for the whole class and
focus children relative to
Language and literacy development
Whole class:
When looking at the whole class, one can see what an improvement was made
from the pre-assessment to the post-assessment. In the pre-assessment, 14/22
students did not reach a mastery level. When looking at the data from the post
assessment one can read that on this assessment only three students were not at a
mastery level. This is a great difference because over half of the students who scored
lower on the pre-assessment were able to raise their scores to be at or above mastery
levels. This really showed that my students can now understand what a contraction is,
how to create them and can write the phrases that create a contraction.
The most common mistake on the assessment was the last section where
students were to write the contraction and the phrases. Most students would either put
the apostrophe in the wrong place or delete the wrong letters from the high frequency
word phrases. The most interesting comparison between the two assessments was
that students had multiple ways to show what they understand and learned from our
lesson. They were able to use sentences, written answer and multiple choice to show
me what they now know and understand.
In the morning paper work that the students completed the day after, there
were no problems or concerns apparent. The morning paper scores were all 8/8. This
meant that every student is able to match a small amount of contractions and phrases
at one time. On the post-assessment the same ability was shown because that was the
area with the least amount of problems. Most students were able to get at least a 9/10
on the first part of the test. This here shows that students understand that contractions
are made from two high frequency words put together by an apostrophe.
Focus students:
My two focus students are being evaluated as struggling readers. The attempt of
evaluation, documentation of data and Intervention Assistance Team (IAT) is to observe
and come up with interventions that will help our struggling learners in weak areas to
help them to learn by finding the best way to help them achieve. These two that I chose
of are part of a group of four students being evaluated. We give the test to these
students by orally reading to them and modifying tests to be developmentally
appropriate for each of our students to make it a fairly shown what each can do. I
decided to delete the second part of this assessment from their tests because it was not
appropriate for their learning ability. They were not able to show me their understanding
in writing, but rather could answer when given a choice of correct answers in a multiple
choice question.

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

In this assessment I found that these two students understand what a contraction
is and what they are made of. In the pre-assessment each were able to write a
sentence with a contraction in it. The contractions were not spelled correctly not had the
apostrophe in the correct place. When I asked to have the sentence read to me orally
the contraction made sense in the context of the sentence. So I knew that both
students had an idea of what each contractions meanings were but were unable to
write them correctly. This is why I deleted the second part of their test. It was
unnecessary to have them write the contraction when I know they are not
developmentally able to at this point yet, but I do know that they are able to match
contractions with the appropriate phrases, and the phrases with the correct
contractions.
Their scores on the post assessment were both a 9/10 which showed great
growth from the pre-assessment. They showed great understanding that the
apostrophe connects the two high frequency phrases into one new word. They also
show the understanding that some of the letters are deleted from the second word to
make the new word shorter.
Student As wrong answer
1. whats
a. what was
b. whats it
c. what is (correct)
From this wrong answer I can see that the student is able to know that the
contraction is made from a phrase that is combined together. He clearly knows that the
one correct word in the phrase is what, but has gotten the second word wrong. I can
see that he may have seen the s at the end of was and thought that would be the
correct word. He was able to correctly identify contractions in the rest of the questions
though. This was the only one that there was difficulty with.
Student Bs wrong answer
7. she is
a. sheis
b. shez
c. shes (correct)
From this wrong answer I can see that the student understands that a contraction
has an apostrophe that connects two words together. The only thing that this students
incorrectly did was not delete the i from the word is. This was the only word he was
unable to correctly delete letters from to make the correct contraction, so he has a good
background knowledge and can apply it to most words.
2. Feedback to Guide Further Learning
Refer to specific evidence of submitted feedback to support your explanations.
a. In what form did you submit your evidence of feedback for the 2 focus children?
Written directly on work samples or in a separate document
The feedback from work samples of this learning segment are directly on the
graded papers.

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

In audio files; or
In video clips from the instruction task (provide a time-stamp reference)
*b. Explain how feedback provided to the 2 focus children addresses their individual and
developmental strengths and needs relative to language and literacy development.
c. How will you support children to apply the feedback to guide improvement, either
within the learning segment or at a later time?
I will support all of my students as I give them feedback by guiding them to
improve in the areas that are their weak points in the specific topic area. I will use the
feedback as a way to create interventions both during the learning segment and at a
later time. During the learning segment I will have students I observed having difficulty
during the lesson come back in small groups for an intervention before playing the
matching activity. Then I will also create intervention groups or have individuals receive
one on one instruction with me to improve their understanding of contractions. Lastly,
any student who missed one or more questions on their assessments will correct their
test as a way to help them learn from their mistakes.
3. Evidence of Language Understanding and Use
You may provide evidence of childrens language use from ONE, TWO OR
ALL THREE of the following sources:
1. Use video clips from Task 2 and provide time-stamp references for language use.
2. Submit an additional video file named Language Use of no more than 5 minutes in
length and provide time-stamp references for childrens language use (this can be
footage of one or more childrens language use). See the
Task 3 specifications in the Early Childhood Evidence Chart for acceptable file types.
Submit the video clip in Part C of Task 3.
3. Use the childrens work samples analyzed in Task 3 and cite language use.
When responding to the prompt below, use concrete examples from the video clips
(using time-stamp references) and/or childrens work samples as evidence. Evidence
from the video clips may focus on one or more children.

* Explain the extent to which children were able to use vocabulary10 to develop
content understandings.
As seen in the video segment named language use, students are using their
vocabulary to
4. Using Assessment to Inform Instruction
a. Based on your analysis of childrens learning presented in prompts 1cd, describe
next steps for instruction
For the whole class
For the whole class we will continue to work with contractions as practice to
reinforce the new writing strategy. I will be looking for students who use contraction in
their writing journals and any writing they may create in class. We will continue to look

Krystal Brant
Teacher Performance Assessment
Fall Semester Student Teaching

through texts that we read in class for contractions. To differentiate instruction, we will
begin to look for high frequency words that can be created into contractions rather than
beginning with the contraction itself. This will be another form of applying the new
knowledge of creating contractions in a different form of a question.
for the 2 focus children and other individuals/groups with specific needs
*b. Explain how these next steps follow from your analysis of childrens learning.
Support your explanation with principles from research and/or developmental theory.
My two focus students and two others who have a difficulty in reading
instructions will continue to meet for interventions with their high frequency words, word
phrases and now we will add an intervention for contractions. We will need to continue
to create a strong background of reading high frequency words fluently and have an
understanding of what each word means when we use it in a sentence either written or
orally. Once this skill is mastered we will be able to continue to use the understanding
of high frequency words to branch off into other areas of literacy and language.
My two focus students did well on their contraction assessment, however they
will need to continue to work on writing contractions. We will use materials such as
white boards, flashcards, and interactive games to engage them in learning through a
positive environment in the classroom. I have been asking them to write a word phrase
for me, such as I will and they will then be told to write the contraction underneath that
matches. Once all students have the contraction written we will discuss how we
changed the two words into one. An example for I will would be that we deleted the w
and i from will and using an apostrophe combine I and ll together to create the
contraction Ill. We will use the card matching game also with a small group of all four
intervention students to allow a fun and engaging learning experience as they practice
finding contraction matches.
Other than my two focus students, we have two lower students than them.
These two students scored a 6/10 on their contraction assessment where a mastery of
8/10 was the objective. These two students are being monitored more closely for
evaluation by Intervention Assistance Team to be placed on an IEP for reading
difficulties and/or other issues depending of observational notes. However, we are
making modifications to assessments, instructional materials and worksheets for these
students along with my two focus students. Even with the modifications these two
students still did not reach a mastery level by two points. These to me means that we
need to create more interventions and continue to help them with the understanding of
their sight words. When looking at their answers it is very clear that they do not
understand the concept of contractions and how they are created. I will continue to
work with these two students the same way I am using intervention time with my two
focus children. I will expand their interventions by focusing more on the basic skills that
they will need to know for literacy development and language. So this would mean that
they will work of reading individual words, phrases and these words and phrases read in
developmentally appropriate books.