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# Chapter 2

Basic Structure
Concepts
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2016

## 2.0 : BASIC STRUCTURE CONCEPT

2.1 Forces
2.2 Equilibrium and Reactions
2.3 Moments
2.4 Stress and Strain
2.5 Elastic and plastic range
2.6 Primary Loads & Secondary
Loads
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2.1 Forces
A force is that which tends to exert motion, tension or
compression on an object.
The loads acting on a structure have mass which is
usually measured in kilograms(kg).
The basic unit of force is the newton (N). The force
exerted on a structure by a static load is dependent upon
both its mass and the force of gravity.
The force exerted by a body as a result of gravity can be
described as its weight.
F =W= m x g
Therefore, the force exerted by a mass of 1 kg is:
F=mxg
= 1 x 9.81
=9.81 N @ 0.00981 kN
1 kN
= 1000
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2.1 Forces
Scalars and Vectors
Scalars
Examples:
Characteristics:

mass, volume

force, velocity

It has a magnitude

It has a magnitude

(positive or negative)
Addition rule:
Special Notation:

Vectors

Simple arithmetic
None

and direction
Parallelogram law
Bold font, a line, an
arrow or a carrot

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2.1 Forces
Application of Vector Addition
There are four
concurrent cable
forces acting on the
bracket.
How do you
determine the
resultant force acting
on the bracket ?

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2.1 Forces
Vector Operations

Scalar Multiplication
and Division

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2.1 Forces
Vector Addition Using Either the Parallelogram or
Triangle
Parallelogram Law:

## Triangle method (always

tip to tail):

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do you
subtract a vector? How can you add
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more than two concurrent vectors graphically ?

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2.1 Forces
Resolution of a vector
Resolution of a vector is breaking up a vector into components. It is kind of like
using the parallelogram law in reverse.

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2.1 Forces
Cartesian Vector Notation
We resolve vectors into components
using the x and y axes system
Each component of the vector is
shown as a magnitude and a
direction.
The directions are based on the x
and y axes. We use the unit vectors
i and j to designate the x and y axes.

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2.1 Forces

For example,
F = Fx i + Fy j

or

## The x and y axes are always perpendicular to each

other. Together, they can be directed at any
inclination.
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2.1 Forces
Addition of Several Vectors
Step 1 is to resolve each force into its
components
Step 2 is to add all the x components
together and add all the y components
together. These two totals become the
resultant vector.
Step

## 3 is to find the magnitude and

angle of the resultant vector.

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2.1 Forces

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2.1 Forces

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2.1 Forces
Example 1
The screw eye in Figure below is subjected to
forces F1 and F2. Determine the magnitude and
direction (measured from x-positive axis) of the
resultant force.
F2= 150 N

10o

F1= 100 N

15o

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2.1 Forces
Solution

=54.76o
F1 =

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nt
a
lt
u
s
e
R

100
N

15o

10o

F2 =

## Sin /150 = sin 115/212.55

Sin = (sin 115/212.55) x 150
= 39.76o

150
N

= 212.55 N

= 115o

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2.1 Forces

Example 2
Determine the magnitude of the
resultant force and its direction,
measured
clockwise from the
positive x-axis

Solution
a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.
b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.
c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.
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2.1 Forces
F1 = { 15 sin 40 i + 15 cos 40 j } kN
= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN
F2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN
= { -24 i + 10 j } kN
F3 = { 36 cos 30 i 36 sin 30 j } kN
= { 31.18 i 18 j } kN

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2.1 Forces
Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,
FR = { (9.642 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 18) j } kN
= { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN

## FR = ((16.82)2 + (3.49)2)1/2 = 17.2 kN

= tan-1(3.49/16.82) = 11.7

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2.1 Forces
Example 3
Determine the magnitude of
the resultant force and its
direction,
measured
counterclockwise from the
positive x axis

Solution
a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.
b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.
c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.
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2.1 Forces

## F1 = { (4/5) 850 i - (3/5) 850 j } N

= { 680 i - 510 j } N
F2 = { -625 sin(30) i - 625 cos(30) j } N
= { -312.5 i - 541.3 j } N
F3 = { -750 sin(45) i + 750 cos(45) j } N
{ -530.3 i + 530.3 j } N
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2.1 Forces
Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,
FR = { (680 312.5 530.3) i + (-510 541.3 + 530.3) j }N
= { - 162.8 i - 521 j } N

## FR = ((162.8)2 + (521)2) = 546 N

= tan1(521/162.8) = 72.64

or

## From Positive x axis

= 180 + 72.64 = 253

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EXERCISE 1
Question 1
Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a
beam. Determine the magnitude and direction of their
resultant.

4.5 kN
25o
50o

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6 kN

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Question 2
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 60 kN and Q = 100 kN.
Determine the magnitude and direction of their
resultant.
(Ans: R = 150 kN, 76o towards x axis positive)

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P
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30o
Q

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Question 3
The cables AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that
the tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD. Determine the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
exerted by cables at A.
(Ans: R = 575 N, 113o towards x axis positive)

2.5 m

B
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2m

C
1.5 m

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Question 4
Determine the resultant and direction from x-axis positive
of the five forces shown in Figure below by the graphical
method.
(Ans: R = 32.5 kN, = 124o)
y

25 kN

9 kN

8 kN
15o
30o

60o
x

20o

4 kN

3 kN

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Question 5
Determine the magnitude and direction measured
counterclockwise from the positive x axis of the resultant
force of the three acting on the ring A. Take F1 = 500 N and
= 20o
(Ans: R = 1.03 kN, = 87.9o)
y

600 N

F1
400 N

3
4

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30o

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Question 6
Three forces are applied at the end of the boom O. Determine
the magnitude and orientation of the resultant force.
(Ans: FR= 485 N, = 37.7o)
y

F3 = 200N

F2= 250 N

45o
5

3
4

F1 = 400 N

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Question 7
Two cables are attached to the frame shown in
Figure below. Using trigonometry, determine :
(a)the required magnitude of the force P if the
resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to
be vertical.
(b)the corresponding magnitude of R.
A
(Ans: 489 N, 738 N)
A

35o

25o

360
N
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P
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## 2.2 Equilibrium and Reactions

Any structure subjected to loads must be
provided with supports to prevent it from
moving. The forces generated on the structure
by these supports are called reactions. If the
structure is in equilibrium (i.e. not moving)
then the net forces from the loads and
reactions must be zero in all directions.
Fx = 0
Fy = 0
M=0
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Example 1
Determine the magnitudes of F1 and F2 so that particle P is in equilibrium.
(Ans: F1 = 435 N, F2 = 171 N)

400 N
30o

P
60o

F2

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5
4

F1

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Solution

The two unknown magnitudes F1 and F2 can be obtained from the two
scalar equations of equilibrium, Fx=0 and Fy = 0. To apply these
equations, the x, y axes are established on the free body diagram and
forces must be resolved into its x and y components.
400 N

30o

F1 (3/5)

P
60o

F2

F2 sin 60o

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F1

F1 (4/5)
F2 cos 60o

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Solution
Fx =0 ;
Fy =0;

(1)

(2)

(3)

## -0.6 F1 0.5 F2 = -346.61

(4)

Simplify :

Solving Eqs. (3) & (4) by simultaneous equations to determine F1 & F2.

Ans :

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F1 = 435 N
F2 = 170.9 N

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in truss

## A truss is a structure composed

of slender
members
joined
together at their end points.

## The members commonly used in

construction consist of wooden
struts or
metal bars

## The joint connections are usually

formed by bolting or welding the
ends of the members to a common
plate, called a gusset plate,
as shown in Fig below.
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Timber Roof
Trusses

Steel Bridge
Trusses

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Planar Trusses
Planar trusses lie in a single plane
and are often used
to support roofs and
bridges.
Assumption for Design
To design both the members and the
connections
of a truss, it is first
necessary to determine the force
developed in each member when the
truss is subjected to a given loading.
Two important assumption will be
made :38
i) All loadings are applied at the
joints
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## Forces & Vector Components

If the force tends to elongate the member,
it is a
tensile force (T), whereas if it tends
to shorten the member, it is a compressive
force ( C)
T
C

T
C

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The method to determine the forces
in
the members is the method of joints.

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Example
Determine the force in each member of the
Pratt bridge truss shown. State whether each
member is in tension or compression.
B

4m
A

3m

6 kN

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3m

6 kN

3m

H
3m

6 kN

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Solution

4m
A

3m
9 kN

6 kN

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3m

6 kN

3m
6 kN

H
3m
9 kN

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Solution
Joint A

B
x kN

4m
A

9 kN
3m

9 = x
4
3
x = 27/4
= 6.75 kN
Therefore AB = 92 +
6.752
= 11.25
kN (C)
HF = 11.25 (C)
AC = 6.75 kN (T)
HG = 6.75 kN (T)

9 kN

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Solution
Joint C
CA = GH = 6.75 kN (T)
CE = GE = 6.75 kN (T)
CB = GF = 6.0 kN (T)

3m
9 kN

E
3m

6 kN

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Solution
Joint B

6.75
3
6

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75
3.

11
5 .2

2.25

3 = x
4
3
x = 9/4
= 2.25 kN
Therefore BE = 32 +
2.252
= 3.75 kN
(T)
BC = 6 (T)
BA = 11.25 kN (C)
BD = 9 kN (C)

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Solution
Joint D
B

9
F

DB = DF = 9(C)
DE = 0

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Solution
Checking at joint E
B

D
3

7
3.

2.25

2.25
E
6 kN

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2.3 Moments
APPLICATION
What is the net effect of the two
forces on the wheel?

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APPLICATION
What is the effect of the 30 N force on
the lug nut?

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## The moment of a force about a point or axis provides a

measure of the tendency of the force to cause a body
to rotate about the point or axis.

## This tendency for rotation caused by force is sometimes

called a torque, but most often it is called the moment of
a force or simply the moment
The magnitude of a moment about a point is the value of
the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from
the line of action of the force to the point
M= T = F x d

## The unit is Nm or kNm

The typical sign convention for
moment is that counter-clockwise
is considered positive.

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Example 1
From Figure below, determine the moment of the
force about point O. If the moment is increased to
5 kNm, what is the maximum mass can be
supported by the diving board?
Mass = 250 kg

O
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1.5 m

50

Solution
F = mg
= 250 (9.81)= 2452.5 N = 2.45 kN
F
O

1.5 m
Mo = ( 2.45 x 1.5) = 3.68 kNm
If Mo = 5 kNm, then new load is
Mo = F x d
5 = F x 1.5
F = 3.33 kN = 3333.33 N
F=mxg
3333.33 = m x 9.81
m = 339.79 kg
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Example 2
For each case illustrated in Figure below, determine the
moment of the force about point O.
2m

0.75 m

5O kN
Solution
Mo = - (50 x 0.75) = - 37.5 kNm

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Example 3
For each case illustrated in Figure below, determine the
moment of the force about point O.

3m
O
1

Solution

45o

1 sin 45o

6O kN

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Example 4
A 400 N force is applied to the frame and = 20o. Find the
moment of the force at A.
Solution
MA = (400 sin 20ox 3) + (400 cos 20o x 2)
= 1162.18 Nm

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Example 5

Figure above shows a bridge deck, of weight 500 kN, supporting a heavy vehicle
weighing 300 kN. Find the value of the support reactions at A and B when the load
is in the position shown.
Ans: RA = 430 kN, RB = 370 kN
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Solution
5m

4m

RA

300 kN 500 kN

RB

MA =0 ;
RB (10) ( 300 x 4) (500 x 5) = 0
RB = 370 kN
Fy =0 ;
RA + RB 300 500 = 0
RA = 430 kN
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## 2.4 Stress and Strain

Stress
Concept of stress

## To obtain distribution of force acting over a sectioned area

Assumptions of material:
1.
It is continuous (uniform distribution of matter)
2.
It is cohesive (all portions are connected together)
Normal stress

z =
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lim
A 0

Fz
A
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## Tensile stress: normal force pulls or stretches the area element

A
Compressive stress: normal force pushes or compresses area
element A
Shear stress
Intensity of force, or force per unit area, acting tangent to A
Symbol used for normal stress is (tau)
zx =

lim
A 0

zy =

lim
A 0

Fx
A
Fy
A

## Units (SI system)

Newtons per square meter (N/m 2) or a pascal (1 Pa = 1 N/m2)
kPa = 103 N/m2 (kilo-pascal)
MPa = 106 N/m2 (mega-pascal)
GPa = 109 N/m2 (giga-pascal)
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Shear in Nature

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Example 1
The 80 kg lamp is supported by two rods AB and BC as shown in
Figure below. If AB has a diameter of 10 mm and BC has a diameter
of 8 mm, determine the average normal stress in each rod.

C
3

4
60

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Solution
A

F1

F2

F1sin 60o
60o

F1cos 60o

F2sin

F2cos

F = mg
= 80 x 9.81
= 784.8 N
= 0.78 kN
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Solution
Fx =0 ;
Fy =0;
Simplify :

(1)

## F1sin 60o+ F2(3/5) 0.78 =0

(2)

- 0.5 F1 + 0.8 F2 = 0

(3)

## 0.866 F1 + 0.6 F2 = 0.78

(4)

Solving Eqs. (3) & (4) by simultaneous equations to determine F1 & F2.
0.6 x Eqs (3)
0.8 x Eqs (4)

- 0.3 F1 + 0.48 F2 = 0
0.69 F1 + 0.48 F2 = 0.624
- 0.99 F1 = - 0.624
F1 = 0.63 kN

## Subs F1 into Eqs (3)

=0
- 0.5 F1 + 0.8 F2
- 0.5 x 0.63 + 0.8 F2 = 0
F2 = 0.315/0.8 = 0.39 kN
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Solution
1 = F1 / A1
= 0.63 /( x 0.0052)
= 8021.41 kN/m2
2 = F2 / A2
= 0.39/( x 0.0042)
= 7758.8 kN/m2

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Exercise 1
A 50 kN axial load is applied to a short wooden post which is supported
by a square concrete footing resting on distributed soil. Determine
(a) The maximum bearing stress on the concrete footing
(b) The size of the footing for which the average bearing stress on the
soil is 150 kPa.
(Ans: B = 4MPa, b= 577 mm)

50 kN
125 mm

Plan

100 mm

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Exercise 2
The column is subjected to an axial force of 8 kN at its top. If the cross
sectional area has the dimensions shown in the figure, determine the
average normal stress at section a-a.
(Ans: = 1.74 MPa)
8 kN

160 mm

10 mm

Front Elevation
10mm

10 mm

160 mm

Plan
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160 mm
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Problem 3
The 20 kg lamp is supported by two steel rods connected by a ring A.
Determine which rod is subjected to the greater average normal stress
and compute its value.
(Ans: = 2.33 N/mm2)
C
12 mm

10 mm

60o

45o
A

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Shear Stress

## Shear stress is the stress component that act in the

plane of the sectioned area.
Consider a force F acting to the bar
For rigid supports, and F is large enough, bar will
deform and fail along the planes identified by AB and
CD
Free-body diagram indicates that shear force, V = F/2 be
applied at both sections to ensure equilibrium

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section is:
avg =

avg =

P
A

## average shear stress at section, assumed to

be same at each pt on the section

## V = internal resultant shear force at section

determined from equations of equilibrium
A = area of section

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Example 1
The bar shown in Figure below has a square cross section for which
the depth and thickness are 40 mm. If an axial force of 800 N is applied
along the centroidal axis of the bars cross-sectional area, determine
average normal stress and average shear stress acting on the material
along section planes a-a.

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Internal loading
Based on free-body diagram, Resultant loading of axial
force, P = 800 N

## Average normal stress

= P/A = 800/(0.04)(0.04) = 500 kPa
Average shear stress
No shear stress exists on the section, since the shear force at the section is
zero.
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Example 2
Three plates are held together by two cyclindrical rivets. If a direct pull
of 5 kN is applied between one plate and the other two, estimate the
diameter of the rivets. The shear stress in the rivets is not to exceed
40 N/mm2.
5 kN

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Solution

P
A

40 = 5000
4(2/4)
= 6.3 mm

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Exercise 1
A square hole having 12 mm sides is to be punched out of a metal
plate 1.6 mm thick. The shear stress required to cause fracture is 350
N/mm2. What force must be applied to punch die? What would be the
compressive stress in the punch?
(Ans: 26.88 kN, 0.19 kN/mm2)

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ALLOWABLE STRESS
When designing a structural member or mechanical element, the
stress in it must be restricted to safe level
Choose an allowable load that is less than the load the member
can fully support
One method used is the factor of safety (F.S.)

F.S. =

Ffail
Fallow

## If load applied is linearly related to stress developed within

member, then F.S. can also be expressed as:
fail
fail
F.S. =
F.S. =
allow
allow
In all the equations, F.S. is chosen to be greater than 1, to avoid
potential for failure
Specific values will depend on types of material used76 and its
intended purpose

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Strain

## Loads cause bodies to deform, thus points in the body

will undergo displacements or changes in position
Normal strain ( ) is a measure of elongation or
contraction of small line segment in the body
Normal Strain () = Change in length = L
Original length
L
Has no unit
Shear strain () is a measure of the change in angle
that occurs between two small line segments that are
originally perpendicular to each other.
Shear Strain () = x
L
x

L
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## Conventional stress-strain diagram

Figure shows the characteristic stress-strain diagram for

## steel, a commonly used material for structural members

and mechanical elements

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Elastic behavior.
A straight line
Stress is proportional to strain, i.e., linearly elastic
Upper stress limit, or proportional limit; pl
If load is removed upon reaching
elastic limit, specimen will return to its
original shape

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Yielding.
Material deforms permanently;
yielding; plastic deformation
Yield stress, Y
Once yield point reached, specimen
continues to elongate (strain) without any
increase in load
Note figure not drawn to scale, otherwise
induced strains is 10-40 times larger than
in elastic limit
Material is referred to as being perfectly
plastic

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Strain hardening.
Ultimate stress, u
While specimen is elongating, its xsectional area will decrease
Decrease in area is fairly uniform over entire
gauge length

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Necking.
At ultimate stress, x-sectional area
begins to decrease in a localized
region
As a result, a constriction or neck tends
to form in this region as specimen
elongates further
Specimen finally breaks at fracture stress, f

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Hookes Law
When a material is worked within its elastic limit, the extension is
proportional to the force.
Strain Stress
Stress = Constant (E)
Strain
This constant is known as the modulus of elasticity or Youngs
Modulus

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Example 1
A tie-bar in a steel structure is of rectangular section 30
mm x 50 mm. The extension measured in a 250 mm
length of the tie bar when load is applied to the structure is
0.1 mm. Find :i) The tensile stress in the bar
ii) The tensile force
iii) The factor of safety used
Take E = 205 kN/mm2 and Ultimate stress = 460 N/mm2

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Solution
i)
The tensile stress in the bar
E = stress/strain
Strain () = L/L
= 0.1/250
= 4 x 10-4
E = stress/strain
205 = / 4 x 10-4
= 205 x 4 x 10-4 = 0.082 kN/mm2 = 82 N/mm2
ii)
The tensile force
= F/A
82 = F/(30 x 50)
F = 82 x (30 x 50) = 123,000 = 123 kN
iiii)

## The factor of safety used

F.S. = Ultimate stress/ Tensile stress
= 460 /82
= 5.6

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Example 2
The ultimate stress for a steel is 450 N/mm 2. What is the maximum load
which a rod 50 mm diameter can carry with a factor of safety of 5? If the rod
is 1.5 m long, determine the extension under this loading.( E = 200
kN/mm2.)

Solution
The factor of safety
F.S. = Ultimate stress/ Tensile stress
5 = 450 / tensile stress
Tensile stress = 450/5 = 90 N/mm2
= F/A
90 = F/( r2)
F = 90 x ( x 252) = 176,714.59 N = 176.71 kN
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Solution
The tensile stress in the bar
E = stress/strain
200 x 103 = 90/
= 90/ 200 x 103
= 4.5 x 10-4
Strain () = L/L
4.5 x 10-4 = L/1500
L = 0.675 mm

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Exercise 1
A flat steel tie-bar 4.5 m long, is found to be 2.4mm short. It is
sprung into place by means of drafts driven into holes in the end
of the bar. Determine:
(a) the stress in the bar
(b) the factor of safety if the material of the tie-bar has an
ultimate
stress of 450 N/mm2. Take E for the material as
205 kN/mm2.
( Ans: 109.3 N/mm2, 4.117)

Prepared by ZMR

## Jan- May 2016

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Exercise 2
A metal tube of outside diameter 75 mm and length 1.65 m is to
carry a compressive load of 60 kN. If the allowable axial stress is
75 N/mm2 , calculate the inside diameter of the tube. If E of the
material is 90 kN/mm2., by how much will the tube shorten under
this load?
Ans: 67.87 mm, 1.375 mm)

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## 2.5 Primary Loads & Secondary Loads

Primary Loads are divided into three broad categories
according to the way in which they act upon the structure or
structural element. These are DEAD LOADS, LIVE
LOADS(IMPOSED LOADS) and WIND LOADS
DEADLOADS
Dead Loads are those loads which are considered
to act permanently; they are "dead," stationary, and
unable to be removed. The self-weight of the
structural members normally provides the largest
portion of the dead load of a building. This will
clearly vary with the actual materials chosen.
Permanent non-structural elements such as roofing,
concrete, flooring, pipes, ducts, interior partition
walls, Environmental Control Systems machinery,
elevator machinery and all other construction
systems within a building must also be included in
the calculation of the total dead load. These loads
are represented by the red arrow in the illustration.
Prepared by ZMR

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## 2.5 Primary Loads

Unit weights of various building materials (kN/m3)
Materials

Unit Weight

Aluminium

24

Bricks

22*

Concrete

24

Concrete blocks
(lightweight)

12*

22*

18

Steel

70

Timber

6*

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Jan- May 2016

## 2.5 Primary Loads

Unit weights of various sheet materials (kN/m2)
Sheet materials

kN/m2

0.1

0.45

0.04

0.1

0.3

Plasterboard

0.15

0.14

0.6

Slates

0.6

## Steel roof sheeting

0.15

Timber floorboards

0.15

Prepared Tiles
by ZMR
Vinyl

0.05

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92

The dead load of a floor or a roof is generally evaluated for one square meter of floor or
roof area

LIVE LOADS
Live Loads are not permanent and can
change in magnitude. They include
items found within a building such as
furniture, pianos, safes, people, books,
cars, computers, machinery, or stored
materials, as well as environmental
effects such as loads due to the sun,
earth or weather.
WIND LOADS
Wind and earthquakes loads are put
into the special category of lateral live
loads due to the severity of their action
upon a building and their potential to
cause failure.

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Secondary loads
Structures can be subjected to secondary loads from
temperature changes, shrinkage of members and settlement of
supports.

Prepared by ZMR

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Example 1
Figure shows a precast concrete
Beam which is 10.5 m long.
a) Calculate the weight of the
beam per unit length in kN/m
b) Calculate the total weight of
the beam

Prepared by ZMR

## Jan- May 2016

95

Solution
a) Cross sectional area of the
beam
= (0.6 x 0.25) (0.4 x 0.15)
= 0.09 m2
Unit weight of concrete = 24 kN/m3
Weight per unit length = 0.09 x 24
= 2.16 kN/m
b) Total weight of the beam
= 2.16 x 10.5 = 22.68 kN
Prepared by ZMR

## Jan- May 2016

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Example 2
The floor in a multi-storey office. Building consists of the
following:
Vinyl tiles
40 mm sand/cement screed
125 mm reinforced concrete
slab
Acoustic tile suspended ceiling
Determine the dead load in kN/m2

Prepared by ZMR

## Jan- May 2016

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Solution
From the table given
Vinyl tiles
= 0.05
40 mm sand/cement screed = 0.6 x (40/25) = 0.96
125 mm reinforced concrete = 0.125 x 24
= 3.00
slab
Acoustic tile suspended ceiling = 0.10
The dead load = 4.11 kN/m2

Prepared by ZMR

## Jan- May 2016

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Exercise 1
Figure shows the outer wall of a multi-storey
building which is supported on a beam at
each floor level. The wall consist of a 1.2 m
height of cavity wall supporting 1.3 m high
double glazing. The cavity wall construction
is 102.5 mm of brickwork, a 75 mm cavity
and 100 mm of plastered lightweight concrete
blockwork.
Determine the dead load on one beam
in kN/m of beam.
(Ans: 4.77 kN/m)

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